Spoken English - 2005 - October by venkatesh618

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									I                                                                                                                                 -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                           -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 2 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Ram:  Hi Shyam and Prem, well met
                                                                      at: 'at'   Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬--©’ -Éç-ûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ î√™« ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
                               You are talking
                (éπ©’Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç ¨¡Ÿ¶µºç).
          about the college day perhaps.
                                                                            èπ◊-Ø√oç-í∫ü∆. É°æ¤p-úÕC îª÷ü∆lç.
                                                                      Sekhar: How good are you at Telugu?
                 College Day
                (O’®Ω’                 †’ í∫’-Jç-* ´÷ö«x-
                         - well met
                úø’-ûª’-†o-ô’d-Ø√o®Ω’?         = éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-                          (O’èπ◊ ûÁ©’í∫’ áçûª -¶«í¬ ´îª’a?)
                                                                      Sanjeev: Just give me some time. I will be
                              conversation
                ´-úøç ´’ç*-ü¿-®·çC.                     ™                     as good at it as you are.            (Ø√é¬\Ææh
          practise           îËߪ’çúÕ)                                         time         É´¤y. ؈’ èπÿú≈ F Åçûª ¶«í¬
    Shyam: Yea, about the item we want to
           present.
                                                                                       ´÷ö«x-úø-û√†’)
                                                                      Sekhar:         I am poor at Hindi (Ø√èπ◊ £œ«çC ®√ü¿’)
                (Å´¤†’. Ç®ÓV ¢Ë’ç v°æü¿-Jzç-îª-¶ßË’                  Sanjeev: I am quick at picking up languages
                Å稡ç í∫’Jç*)                                                  (¶µ«≠æ-©’ Ø√èπ◊ ûªy®Ωí¬ ´≤ƒh®·)
    Ram:        And what's that going to be? (àç
                                                                      ´’†ç ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ îª÷¨»ç-éπü∆.
                v°æü¿-Jzç-îª-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’?)                                                                                                                                                                      the temple supervising some repairs.
                                                                      a) He is good at giving such talks.                                 Sushma: Doesn't matter.          conversa-
                                                                                                                                                                        (ÉD O’
    Prem: We are yet to take a decision about                                                                                                                                                                     (¢√úø’ í∫’úÕ-éÀ -¢Á-∞«}-úø’. Ñ ®ÓV ¨¡Ÿvéπ-¢√®Ωç
                                                                      b) Our Principal is good at picking such                                    tions                      I am at
                                                                                                                                                             ™ ¢√úø’-ûª÷ç-úøçúÕ-)
          it.      (ü∆E í∫’-Jç-* Éçé¬ E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’éÓ-                                                                                                                                                            éπü∆. v°æA ¨¡Ÿvéπ-¢√®Ωç ¢Á∞«húø’. ¢√∞¡x
                                                                         experts.                                                                 leisure. (at leisure –      pronun-
                                                                                                                                                                              ë«-S;
                ¢√Lq ÖçC)                                                                                                                                                                                         Engineer friend èπÿú≈ Åéπ\úË ÖØ√oúø’.)
                                                                      good at –       àüÁjØ√ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ¶«í¬ ûÁL-ߪ’-úøç.                        ciation:           measure
                                                                                                                                                              -™„ï. ï –             ™ ™«í¬,
    Ram:        OK. O, that reminds me. There will                                                                                                                                                     Dad: Your mother needs some medicines.
                                                                      Poor at Maths – Maths         ®√ü¿’.                                        pleasure               What do you
                                                                                                                                                                 ™ ™«í¬).
                be a talk on 'Decision Making' by                                                                                                                                                           Perhaps the shop is open now.
                                                                      Quick at understanding                                                      want?
                Prof. Nischai tomorrow at 6 at col-                                                                                                                                                                                Shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Å´’tèπ◊ ´’çü¿’©’ 鬢√L.                          ûÁJîË
                                                                      ûªy®Ωí¬ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©í∫-úøç. É™«çöÀ îÓôxçû√ Ç                 Sumana: You are good at English, Please
                lege. Are you coming?         (Ç, Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ìh-                                                                                                                                                   Öçô’ç-üË¢Á÷?)
                *açC. –  reminds me =          í∫’®Ìh*a ´÷ö«x-        í∫’ù«©’, Ωu© ûª®√yûª 'at' ¢√úøû√ç.                                       explain this lesson.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Amar: That shop is my friend’s. He opens
                                                                      a) Åûª-úø’ °æ†’-©’-îËÊÆ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ñ«°æuç îË≤ƒhúø’                  Sushma: I am good at English, but I am not
                úË-ô°æ¤p-úø’ -Åç-ô’ç-ö«ç-éπü∆ – 'ņoô’d í∫’®Ìh-                                                                                                                                              shop quite early. I think it is open
                                                                           He is slow at doing things.                                            so good at explaining.
                *açC—, ÅE – ü∆E-éÀC English. O’ con-
                versation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ. Í®°æ¤ ÇJç-öÀéÀ 'E®Ωg-




                                                                                  talking about..
                ߪ’-véπ´’ç— Å稡ç í∫’-Jç-* Prof. E¨¡a-ß˝’-
                ´÷ö«x-úø-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ college ™. -O’®Ω’-
                ´Ææ’h-Ø√o®√?)
    Shyam and
    Prem:    Oh, sure. No missing it. Prof.
             Nischai is very good at giving
                                                                                                                                          Sumana: I am a little
             such talks. We will certainly                                                                                                                                                                        now.     (Ç shop ´÷ friend C. ¢√úø’
                                                                                                                                                   slow at under-
             make it.         miss
                                 (ÅüÁ™«        Å´¤û√ç.                                                                                                                                                            ûªy®Ωí¬-ØË B≤ƒhúø’. É°æ¤púø’ ûÁJîË Öçô’ç-
                                                                                                                                                   standing

                                                                                                         -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 54
                      Åô’-´çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ’ç-O’ü¿ î√™« ¶«í¬                                                                                             things.       Our
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«)
                      ´÷ö«x-úøû√úø’)                                                                                                               teacher is fast.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ´’†ç í∫´’-Eç-*çC– äÍé ´÷ô
    Ram:  Just as our Principal is good at pick-                                                                                                                                                       ´·çü¿’, äéπ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ 'the' ¢√úø-úøç, ÉçéÓ
                                                                                                                                                   Many of my
          ing such experts.         (Å™«çöÀ E°æ¤-ù’-©†’                                                                                            classmates
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ 'the' ¢√úø-éπ-§Ú-´-úøç. Ñ °æJ-ÆœnA
                                 Principal
                áç°œéπ îËߪ’-úøç™ ´’†            -™«í∫)              b)       Maths
                                                                           Åûª-úø’           èπ◊ ÅÆæ©’ °æE-éÀ-®√úø’                                                                                    ´·êuçí¬ v°æüË-¨»© ´·çü¿’ ´Ææ’hçC.
                                                                         He is hopeless at Maths.                                                  are quick at
    Shyam: That's true.                                                                                                                                                 M. SURESAN                         éÌEo v°æüË-¨»©’ v°æûËu-éπçí¬ éÌEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-©Íé
                                                                      c)        grammar                                                            learning.
    Prem: You are right.                                                   Åûª-úÕéÀ              ®√ü¿’
                                                                                                                                          Sushma: OK I'll try. Let us see how good I
                                                                                                                                                                                                       °æJ-N’-ûªçí¬ Öçö«®·. School, college, institu-
                    prepositions– about, on, at                          He is bad at grammar.                                                                                                         tion ™«çöÀN Nü∆u-¶µ«u-≤ƒ-EéÀ, Nü∆u ¶üµ¿-†èπ◊
       °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™                                                                                                                           am at it.
                                                                      d)   Ç¢Á’ §ƒô™ ´÷ Åç-ü¿-J™ Côd                                                                                                 (learning and teaching) °æJ-N’ûªç, v°æûËuéπç.
    í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆. ´’†™ î√-™«´’ç-CéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’,                                                                                       b) Pavan: What do you know about the
    about Åçõ‰ í∫’Jç* ÅE. About the book = Ç                             She is the best of all of us at singing.                                                                                      Å™«Íí hospital, clinic, nursing home ™«çöÀN
                                                                                                                                                    movie?
                                                                      Now practise the following aloud in                                                                                              ¢Ájü¿uç §Òçü¿-ú≈EéÀ, ¢Ájü¿uç îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ v°æûËuéπç. Ééπ
    °æ¤Ææh-é¬Eo í∫’Jç*.                                                                                                                   Prakash: What movie are you talking
    a) ¢Ë’ç E†o Åûª-úÕ í∫’-Jç-* paper ™ îªC¢√ç                       English:                                                                                                                         temples, churches, mosques (masjids)
                                                                                                                                                    about?
                                                                      Sushma: Hi, Sumana,                                                                                                              ™«çöÀN °æ‹ï-©èπÿ, Ç®√-üµ¿-†èπ◊, v§ƒ®Ωn-†-©èπ◊ v°æûËuéπ
       We read about him in the paper.
                                                                                                  àçöÀ™« ´î√a´¤?                          Pavan:    The one showing at Navrang.
                                                                      Sumana:            busy                                                                                                          v°æüË-¨»©’. Ñ v°æüË-¨»©/ Ææn™«© v°æûËuéπ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’
    b)           school days
         ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¢√-∞¡x                        í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’                 †’¢Áyçûª            í¬ ÖØ√o-N-°æ¤púø’?                               (Showing –             The movie is
                                                                                                                                                                      Çúø-úøç.
         -èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’                                                  Sushma:  °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’. -ë«S-í¬ØË ÖØ√o, àç 鬢√L                               now showing at the theatre.            äéπ         v°æ≤ƒh-N-Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ 'the' ®√ü¿’.
                                                                               îÁ°æ¤p?                                                                                                                 I        A                                  B
         They talked about their school days.                                                                                                        ÆœE´÷ Çúø-úøç     'run'         ÅE èπÿú≈
                                                                      Sumana: Fèπ◊ English ¶«í¬-´îª’a éπü∆. Ñ les-                                                                                         Students/              go to         school, college,
    c)   ü∆E í∫’-J-ç-* Ø√Íéç í∫’®Ω’h-™‰ü¿’                                                                                                           Åçö«ç.   The movie ran for a hun-
                                                                               son é¬Ææh explain -îË®·.                                                                                                    lecturers/             are at        university etc.
      I do not remember any thing about it.                                                                                                         dred days)
                                                                      Sushma: Ø√èπ◊ English ¶«í¬ØË -´-a. é¬-E                                                                                           professors...
    on:                                                                                                                                   Prakash: I think it’s (it is) a movie about
                                                                                                                                                                                                       A éÀçü¿ îÁ°œp† ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ B éÀçü¿ îÁ°œp† îÓôxèπ◊
          éÌçîÁç °ü¿l, ´·êu N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ í∫’-J-ç-*                             Explain îËߪ’-úøç-™  ؈çûª íÌ°æp-é¬ü¿’.
                  on
          ÅØË-ô°æ¤p-úø’ ¢√úøû√ç.                                                                                                                    corruption in politics.
                                                                      Sumana: Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ--´-úøç-™  ؈’ é¬Ææh slow.                  Pavan:    Yes, that reminds me. I read an
                                                                                                                                                                                                       ¢√öÀ v°æûËuéπ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç éÓÆæç ¢Á∞«h®Ω’ 鬕öÀd,
        He is going to talk on decision making                                                                                                                                                         school, college, etc ´·çü¿’ 'the' ®√ü¿’. N’í∫-û√-
                                                                               ´÷ teacher î√-™« fast í¬ îÁ°æ¤hçC.                                   article in the paper on the same
          E®Ωgߪ’ v°ævéÀߪ’ í∫’-J-ç-*.                                         ´÷ classmates î√-™«-´’çC ûªy®Ωí¬                                     topic yesterday.             maga-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       ¢√∞¡Ÿx, Åçõ‰ schools, colleges, etc Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫çûÓ
    a)   ´’† v°æñ«-≤ƒy--´÷u-Eo í∫’-J-ç-* ®√Æœ† ¢√uÆæç ÅC                                                                                                           (°ævA-éπ-©™,                       Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰E¢√∞¡Ÿx, go to/ are at the school/
         It is essay on our democracy.
                                                                               ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-í∫-©®Ω’.                                                   zines    ™ ¢√u≤ƒ-©†’       articles
                                                                                                                                                                                                       college etc.
                                                                      Sushma: OK. ؈’ v°æߪ’-Ao≤ƒh. îª÷ü∆lç ØËØÁçûª                                 Åçö«®Ω’)   There were some lines
    b)   È®jûª’© Çûªt-£æ«-ûªu-© í∫’-J-ç-* E¢Ë-Céπ ÅC                                                                                                                                                   A student goes to college/ their parents go
                                                                               ¶«í¬ îËߪ’-í∫-©ØÓ.                                                   in it about this movie.
         It is a report on farmers suicides.                                                                                                                                                           to the college.
                                                                      b) Pavan: Ç ´‚O í∫’-Jç-* FÍéç ûÁ©’Ææ’?                              Prakash: I read it too. The writer is very
                                                                                                                                                                                                       (to meet the principal, pay the fees, etc)
                                                                       Prakash: à movie í∫’-Jç-* †’´yúø-í∫-úøç?                                     clever at this kind of analysis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       II        (devotees),
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ¶µºèπ◊h©’                  °æ‹ñ«-®Ω’©’ -v§ƒ®Ωn-† Ææ-n™«-©èπ◊
                                                                       Pavan: †´-®Ωç-í˚™  É°æ¤p-úø’ -Ç-úø’-ûª’†o movie                   Pavan:    Talking about articles,            (N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-                  They go to temple/ to church/ to
                                                                                                                                                                                                           -¢Á-∞¡-û√®Ω’.
                                                                                                                                                     éÌÊÆh –talking about/ coming to) all
                                                                                í∫’Jç*                                                                                                                    mosque, etc.
                                                                       Prakash: ÅC ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷-©™ ÅN-F-AE í∫’Jç*                                    the centre page articles in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the engineer is at the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Éçü∆-éπöÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™,
                                                                                                                                                    paper are good. The trouble is, all
                                                                                ņ’-èπ◊çö«.                                                                                                            temple to supervise some repairs            .-Å-Ø√oç
                                                                                                                                                    of them are on politics.
                                                                       Pavan: Ç É°æ¤púø’ í∫’®Ìh-*açC. E†o paper ™                                                                                     (-Åéπ\úø Çߪ’† °æ‹ïéÓÆæç ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆)
    -v°æ-¨¡o: Direct †’ç-* Indirect speech     ™éÀ ´÷Í®a-                      Ñ Å稻Eo í∫’-J-ç-* ØËØÓ Â°ü¿l ¢√uÆæç
                                                                                îªC¢√. Åçü¿’™ éÌEo lines Ñ                               Amar: Dad, I am starting for college. When
                                                                                                                                                                                                       III Doctors, nurses, patients go to hospital.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       O∞¡xç-ü¿-JéÀhospital                    hospital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ûÓ °æE 鬕öÀd,
            ô°æ¤púø’ Interoggative sentence        if
                                                   -©-™                                                                                        will you be there?                                     ´·çü¿’  'the'                            Amar's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ®√ü¿’. Éçü∆-éπöÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™
                                                                                *vû√Eo            í∫’-J-ç-* èπÿú≈ -Ö-Ø√o®·.
            ™‰ü∆   whether                   if
                                 ´Ææ’hçC. é¬E á°æ¤púø’                                                                                                college                                          father, after returning from the hospital
                                                                       Prakash: ؈÷ îªC¢√ Ç ¢√uÆæç. ü∆E ®Ωîª-®·ûª                               (؈’            éÀ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o. O’È®-°æ¤p-úø’ç-ö«®Ω’
            ¢√ú≈L?    whether      á°æ¤púø’ ¢√ú≈-™ ûÁL-ߪ’                                                                                      Åéπ\úø?)                                              ÅØ√oúø’ éπü∆. Åçõ‰ Çߪ’† Åéπ\-úÕéÀ  patient                  í¬ØÓ,
                                                                                Éô’-´çöÀ N¨Ïx-≠æ-ù™ î√-™« ûÁL-N-í∫-©-                                                                                 doctor
                         Synthesis of sentences (so-                                                                                      Dad: You mean, at the college?              (†’´y-†-úøç,            í¬ØÓ ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç-™‰-ü¿’ ÅE éπü∆.
            -ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.                                                    ¢√úø’. (N¨Ïx-≠æù – analysis)                                    college           You know, mother is                  A patient is at hospital. Their friends and rel-
            that/ neither nor, not only but also)              Ö°æ-    Pavan: ¢√u≤ƒ© N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-éÌÊÆh, Ç °ævAéπ cen-
                                                                                                                                                            ™Ø√?)
                                                                                                                                                going to hospital. I am taking her                     atives go to the hospital to see.
           ßÁ÷-Tç-îË °æ-ü¿l¥-ûª’-©’ -N-´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.                         tre page articles ÅFo ¶«í¬ØË                                                                                                     business persons                 open
                                                                                                                                                there; after coming back from the                          -É™«Íí                              -N-≠æ-ߪ’ç-™
                                           – ᙸ.-ü¿’-®√_-v°æ-≤ƒü˛,             Öçö«®·. Å®·ûË ÅFo ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷-©-†’-                              hospital I will see you at the college.                shop, close shop, are at shop.             go to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Éûª-®Ω’-™„j-ûË
                                                        Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø             í∫’-Jç-îË Öçö«®·.                                                (Å´’t hospital      èπ◊      -¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûÓç-C éπü∆.      the shop, are at the shop.

    -ï-¢√-•’: Direct †’ç* Indirect speech ™éÀ                        Answers
                                                                      Sushma: Hi Sumana, What brings you
                                                                                                                                                                        Hospital
                                                                                                                                                 ؈’ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o†’.
                                                                                                                                                 ´*a-† ûª®√yûª     college
                                                                                                                                                                                            †’ç*
                                                                                                                                                                                      èπ◊-´≤ƒh†’.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Karun: What's your brother, Kesav?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      brother
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (O’              àç îËÆæ’hç-ö«úø’ Íé-¨¡-¢˛?)
              ´÷Ja-†-°æ¤púø’, (Interrogative sentences                        here?   conversational expres-
                                                                                             (ÉC                                                Where is Arun?        (Å®Ω’ù˝ áéπ\úø?)                 Keshav: He goes to college.
              ™) if Å®·Ø√, whether Å®·Ø√ äéπõ‰.                              sion.        conversation
                                                                                             ÉC O’                          ™            Amar: He has gone to temple. You know                                                   college student
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Åçõ‰– Åûª-úø’                                ņo-
              Synthesis of sentences í∫ ’-Jç-*                                                                                                                                                                                   'He goes to college'
                                                                                      ¢√úøçúÕ)                                                  today is friday. Every friday he goes                                 ´÷ô. D-E-ØË
              N´-J≤ƒhç.                                               Sumana: How busy are you now?                                             to temple. His engineer friend is at                                  -Å-E ÉçéÓ Nüµ¿çí¬ îÁ°æp-úøç).
I                                                                                                                        -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                               -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 4 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Aravind: When are you starting for college?                  Praphul: Too many visitors for you
             (College          èπ◊ -á°æ¤p-úø’ •ßª’-™‰l®Ω’-                 (FéÓÆæç ´îËa-¢√∞¡Ÿx ´’K -áèπ◊\-´)
                 ûª’-Ø√o´¤?)                                  3) For •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç, ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç, ûªßª÷-®Ω-´-úøç (pre-
    Bhanu: Why, as usual at 9.                                   pare), ûªßª÷-®Ω’í¬ Öçúø-úøç (ready) ™«çöÀ
                 (àç? ´÷´‚-©’í¬ØË ûÌN’t-Cç-öÀéÀ)                 ¢√öÀE ûÁ-LÊ° verbs °æéπ\† ´Ææ’hçC. °j Ææ綵«-
    Aravind: But yesterday you left even at 8.                   ≠æ-ù™–
                 (é¬E E†o †’´¤y áE-N’-CçöÀÍé •ßª’-™‰l-         a) start for, leave for, set out for (ÅEo-öÀéÃ
                 ®√´¤ éπü∆. Even at 8= at 8 itself =              Å®Ωnç •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç Å-ØË)
                 áE-N’-Cç-öÀÍé)                                   Delhi éÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç / -¢Á-∞¡xúøç
    Bhanu: No, I started at 8, but it was not for                 leave for Delhi (setout for Delhi)
           college. I went to Suman's and                      b) prepare for the match; be ready for the
           from there, we two set out for col-                     match; practise for the match                                 b) The names of things unique of their kind
                                                                                                                                                                                         b)   A†o-éÌDl ™«¢Á-èπ◊\û√ç =    The more we eat,
           lege at 8.45.                                                                                                             (Unique =
                                                              4) Famous, well known, known,          (Ê°®Ω’-§Òç-C†/                               àÈéj-éπ – äéπ ñ«AéÀ îÁçC† ´Ææ’h´¤           the fatter we become.
                 (áE-N’-Cç-öÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-JçC, college éÀ         v°æÆœ-Cl¥-îÁç-C†, etc) ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ 'for' -´Ææ’hç-C.               äéπõ‰ äéπ-ô-®·ûË)                                   c)   †úÕ-*-†-éÌDl ®Ω’í¬_ Öçö«´¤ =   The more you
                 é¬ü¿’. Ææ’´’Ø˛ ÉçöÀéÀ. Åéπ\-úÕoç* éπLÆœ         Notorious for.                                                  c) The names of rivers, seas, oceans,
                 college éÀ •ßª’-™‰l®√ç)                                                                                                                                                      walk, the more active you are.
                                                              Practise the following:                                                ranges of mountains, groups of islands,
                 set out= •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç– conversation                                                                                                                                  d)   áûª’h áéÀ\-†-éÌDl îªL áèπ◊\´ =      The higher
                                                              Subha: (over phone) Hi Sobha,           î√-™« thanks                   countries formed by groups of states.
                 ™ ¢√úøçúÕ.                                                                                                                                                                  you climb, the colder it.
                                                              Sobha: áçü¿’èπ◊ (for ¢√úøçúÕ)                                          [Imp: No 'the' before the name of a single
    Aravind: Have you sent for Bharat yet?                                                                                                                                               No.2:   ´uèπ◊h© Ê°®Ωx ´·çü¿’, °∂晫-Ø√ ´Ææ’h´¤, °∂晫Ø√
                                                              Subha: †’´¤y ´÷N’úÕ °æç-úø’x °æç°œ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊.                          mountain/ single island]
                     (¶µº®Ωû˝ éÓÆæç/ ¶µº®Ωû˝èπ◊ éπ•’®Ω’              áéπ\-úÕ-†’ç* ÅN?                                            d) Designations and offices (No 'the' before
                                                                                                                                                                                         îÓô, Ê°®Ωx (proper nouns) ´·çü¿’, the ®√ü¿’.
                     °ö«d¢√?)                                                                                                                                                           Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø The Amitab, The Sharook Khan
                                                                                                                                                                                         áçü¿’-éπØ√oç – ¢√∞¡x-™E ´·êu-¢Á’i† í∫’ù«©’ ÉçéÌ-éπ-


                                       What for?..
                                                                                                                                                                                         J™ Öçõ‰, ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Ç Ê°Jx*a, ü∆E ´·çü¿’ 'the'
                                                                                                                                                                                         °úøû√ç.
                                                                                                                                                                                         1) Ñߪ’† 21´ ¨¡û√-•l°æ¤ í¬çDµ –
                                                                                                                                                                                              He is the Gandhi of the 20th C.
                                                                                                                                                                                           (Åçõ‰ í¬çDµ-í¬J í∫’ù«™x Ñߪ’-†èπ◊ î√™«
    Bhanu : What for?          (áçü¿’èπ◊?– ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬                                                                                designations          and                             ÖØ√o®·. í¬çDµE ûª©-°œç-°æ-ñ‰-≤ƒh-úø’ ÅE)
              for what       ÅE ņ®Ω’)                                                                                               offices if you mention                              2) He is the Bhima of class - ¢√úø’ -Ç class
                                                                                                                                     thereafter the name
                                                                                             -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 55
    Aravind : Have you forgotten? We have got                                                                                                                                               Hµ´·úø’.
              to practise for the match next                                                                                         of the person)                                      Now Practise the Following:
              week.                                                                                                              e) before a countable
                            (´’-®Ω-*-§Ú-ߪ÷-¢√? ´îËa-¢√®Ωç                                                                                                                               a) Krishna: Hi Kumar     É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊áéπ\úø’Ø√o´¤?
              Match practise                                  Sobha:                                                                 singular, to talk of the
                           éÀ            îËÆæ’éÓ-¢√L éπü∆?)             Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø †’ç*. Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø v°æÆœ-Cl¥-éπü∆                                                                     Kumar:   ¶µ«®Ω-û˝èπ◊ Hollywood ™«çöÀ-îÓô.
    Bhanu : He is in Chennai for his cousin's                                                                                        whole class
                                                                        ®Ω≤ƒ©÷, •çT-†-°æLx ®Ωé¬-©èπ◊ (®Ω鬩’ –
                                                                                                                                 f) the superlative degree
                                                                                                                                                                   M. SURESAN            Krishna: Åçõ‰ Mumbai ™Ø√?
              wedding. I'll (I will) call him today                     varieties)                                                                                                       Kumar: Å´¤†’. Åéπ\úø Ö-†oéÌ--Dl Éçé¬ Öçú≈-©-
              and tell him that we should pre-                Subha:                                                                 of the adjective,
              pare for the match.
                                                                     Å®·ûË Â£j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛èπ◊ -á-°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-
                                                                                                                                 g) the comparative degree, when it is not fol-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  E-°œç-*çC. áçûª ¶«í∫’çüÓ Mumbai.
                                                                     ®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? (Start ¢√úøçúÕ.)                                                                                     Krishna: v°æéπ%A ≤˘çü¿®Ωuç (Beauty of Nature)
                  (¢√∞¡x cousin °R}éÀ îÁØÁj o -¢Á-∞«}úø’.    Sobha: £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛? áçü¿’èπ◊?                                       lowed by 'then'.
                  Ñ¢√∞¡ phone îËÆœ match éÀ ready             Subha: Ø√ûÓ È®çvúÓ-V-©’ç-úø-ú≈EéÀ.                                 É°æ¤púø’ îª÷úøç-úÕ:                                              鬢√-©çõ‰ é¬QtÍ®. ÅC ¶µ«®Ω-û˝èπ◊
                                                                                                                                 Manohar: Good morning Mahesh, why are                            Switzerland ™«çöÀC. Åéπ\úø Dal Ææ®Ω-
                  Å¢√Lq Öçü¿E îÁ§ƒh)                          Sobha: ´÷Ø√†o Ñ ®√vA ´·ç•®· ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o®Ω’.
    Aravind: Tell him to start early. He is known                                                                                              you up so early? (àçôçûª ûªy®Ωí¬                   Ææ’q™ Boat trip î√™« ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC.
                                                                     Çߪ’† AJ-íÌ-*aç-ûª-®√yûË Â£j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛
             for his game but notorious for his                                                                                                Evü¿ ™‰î√´¤? Up Ééπ\úø Evü¿-™‰-´-úøç.              Åéπ\úø èπÿú≈ áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ¤Ø√o Éçé¬ -Öç-ú≈-
                                                                     Ææçí∫A Ç™-*-≤ƒh†’. (Leave ¢√úøçúÕ).
             lack of time sense.                                                                                                               îª÷úøçúÕ áçûª simpleí¬ ÖçüÓ.                       ©-E°œ-Ææ’hçC.
                                                                     Å´’t äçô-Jí¬ Öçô’çC éπü∆.
                 (ûªy®Ωí¬ ®Ω´’t†’. Game ¶«í¬ Ç-úø-            Subha: †’´¤y í∫†éπ ´ÊÆh éπFÆæç ¢√®Ωç ®ÓV-©’ -                                    Conversation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ).                 b) Prabhat: Hi Prakash, àçöÀ Å™« Cí∫’-©’í¬
                 û√úøE Ê°®Ω’çC. -Å-™«Íí Time sense =                 Öç-ú≈-©E Ø√ éÓJéπ.                                          Mahesh: I get up (am up) by this time                                ÖØ√o´¤?
                 punctuality = Ææ´ ’-ߪ ’-§ƒ-©† ™‰ü¿F                                                                                          every day. I go for a morning walk        Prakash: ´÷ ´÷´’ߪ’u ´î√aúø’. ´÷ fami-
                                                              Sobha: OK.
                 Ê°®Ω’çC.)                                                                                                                     (ØËØÁ-°æ¤púø’ Ñ timeÍé ™‰* †úø’-≤ƒh†’).             ly™ Çߪ’† ¨¡èπ◊E ™«çöÀ-¢√úø’.
              Notorious=ØÌ-öÔJ-ߪ’Æˇ– öÔ ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©-é¬L       Answer:
                                                                                                                                 Manohar: Walking is good. The longer you                Prabhat: àç Åçûª ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_ú≈?
                                                              Shubha: (over phone) Hi Sobha, Thanks a
                                                                                                                                               walk the stronger you are.
              = îÁ-úø’ °æ†xèπ◊, îÁúø’ í∫’ù«-©èπ◊ Ê°®Ω’                                                                                                                         (áçûª     Prakash: Å™«çöÀ ¢√∞¡x†’ í∫’-Jç-* áçûª -ûªèπ◊\´
              §Òçü¿-úøç. a notorious murderer= Ê°®Ω’                      lot.
                                                              Sobha: What for?
                                                                                                                                               ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕÊÆh Åçûª •©ç)                             ´÷ö«x-úÕûË Åçûª ´’ç*C.
              §ÒçC† £æ«çûª-èπ◊úø’. Famous actor =                                                                                Mahesh: That's true. But my classmate                   ANSWERS:
              v°æÆœ-ü¿l¥ †ô’úø’)                              Shubha: For sending me mangoes. Where
                                                                                                                                               Sudheer walks 6 kms every morn-           a) krishna: Hi Kumar, Where have you
       °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ for ¢√úøéπç îª÷úøçúÕ.                            are they from?
                                                                                                                                               ing. And really he is the Amitab of                       been?
    1) Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ îª÷¨»ç– äéπ ´u´Cµ (period of            Sobha: From           Vijayawada.       You      know
                                                                                                                                                           ´÷ classmate
                                                                                                                                               our College. (                            Kumar: I was in the Hollywood of india
        time) ´·çü¿’ for ´Ææ’hçC– for 10 minutes                          Vijayawada is famous for the two
                                                                                                                                          Sudheer ®ÓW 6 Kms †úø’-≤ƒhúø’.                 Krishna: You mean Mumbai?
        (10 E-N’-≥ƒ©’í¬), for an hour (í∫çôí¬), for 3                     varieties.          Rasaalu            and
        years (´‚úË-∞¡Ÿxí¬) etc.
                                                                                                                                          Åûªúø’ ´÷ College ÅN’-û√¶¸)                    Kumar: Yes, the more I stayed there, the
                                                                          Banginapalli.
                                                                                                                                 Manohar: Why so? (áçü¿’-éπE?)
    2) 'for' ´·êuçí¬ ¢√-úø-úøç– éÓÆæç, ÖüËl-Pç-*† ÅØË         Shubha: Then when are you starting for                                                                                                  more/ the longer I wanted to stay.
                                                                                                                                 Mahesh: He is as tall as Amitab (ÅN’-û√¶¸
        Å®√n-©ûÓ.                                                         Hyderabad?                                                                                                                  How beautiful Mumbai is.
                                                                                                                                          Åçûª §Òúø’í∫’)                                 Krishna: If you talk of the beauty of nature,
    °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™                                         Sobha: Hyderabad, what for?
    a) Send for Bharat = ¶µº®Ω-û˝-èπ◊ /-¶µº-®Ωû˝ éÓÆæç                                                                           Manohar: And who is the Sharook Khan of
                                                              Subha: To spend a few days with me/                                                                                                     nothing to beat Kashmir (Kashmir
    b) what for? = áçü¿’-èπ◊ /- áç-ü¿’éÓÆæç                                                                                                    your class?
                                                                          for spending a few days with me.                                                                                            †’ éÌöÀdçC ™‰ü¿’.    Nothing to beat
    c) for the match = match éÓÆæç/match éÀ                                                                                                    (O’     class Sharook Khan   á´®Ω’?)
                                                              Sobha: Dad is leaving for Mumbai tonight.                                                                                               Kashmir). That is the Switzerland
                                                                                                                                 Mahesh: I haven't (have not) thought of it
       (ÖüËl¨¡ç)                                                          Only after he returns, do I think of                                                                                        of India. The boat trip in the Dal
    d) for his cousin's marriage = cousin                                                                                                    (ü∆E í∫’-Jç-* -ØËØ√-™-*ç-îª-™‰ü¿’)
                                                                          Hyderabad.                                                                                                                  lake is very pleasant. There too
       °Rx-éÓ-Ææç/- °-RxéÀ                                                                                                     Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æù™ éÌ-Eo-îÓôx 'The' ¢√ú≈ç éπü∆!
                                                              Subha: If you come I want you to be here                                                                                                the more you stay, the more you
    e) ´÷ Ø√†o Ñ vúÁÆˇ Ø√èπ◊     Delhi      ™ éÌØ√o®Ω’ =                                                                        The longer you walk, The stronger you are.
                                                                          for a week.                                                                                                                 want to stay.
          Dad bought this dress for me in Delhi.      (Ø√                                                                        The Amitab of the College; The Sharook
                                                              Sobha: Ok.                                                                                                                 b) Prabhat: Hi Prakash, you look sad
         éÓÆæç/ -Ø√èπ◊ ÖüËl-Pç-*†)                                                                                               Khan.
                                                                                                                                                                                         Prakash:        My Uncle has come he is the
    f)   Ñ °æ¤Ææhéπç ®Ω¢Ë’-≠ˇèπ◊ =    This book is for                                                                           No. 1:  áçûª îËÊÆh Åçûª ´’ç*C. É™«çöÀ ûÁ©’í∫’
         Ramesh.                                              -É°æp-öÀ-´®Ωèπ◊ éÌEo lessons ™ 'the' ¢√úøéπç                                                                                              Sakuni of our Family
                                                                                                                                 ¢√é¬u-©†’ English ™ îÁÊ°p-°æ¤púø’ Comparatives
    g) Praphul: some one has come for you.                    í∫’-Jç-* ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊†o N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Ææçví∫-£æ«çí¬:                     ¢√úøû√ç. -¢√-öÀ -´·ç-ü¿’ 'the' ûª°æpéπ ®√¢√L.           Prabhat:        Is he so bad?
                      (-F -éÓÆæç á´®Ó ´î√a®Ω’.)               We use ‘the’ before                                                a) Ç ÆœE´÷ -Fèπ◊ îª÷Æœ† éÌDl îª÷ú≈-©-E-°œ-Ææ’hçC.       Prakash:        The less we talk about such
         Prasanth: for me? at this hour?                      a) The names of great and holy books (The                              The more you see it, the more you wish to                           people, the better for us.
                        (Ø√éÓ-Ææ´÷? Ñ -õ„iç™Ø√?)                Ramayanam, etc.)                                                    see it.
I                                                                                                                                      -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                        -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 9 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Charan: Hi Chandra, how are you?
                                                                     a)   F´¤ ´’ç* ´÷®Ω’\©’ ûÁa-èπ◊†oçü¿’èπ◊ ÅGµ-†ç-ü¿-
    Chandra: Fine Thanks, how are you?                                    †©’ = congratulations/ congrats on your
    Charan: Same here. Thanks. Congrats.                               good marks.
             (Congrats = Congratulations              éπç-ví¬-       Congratulations =         á´-È®jØ√ -à-üÁj-Ø√ ≤ƒ-Cµç-*-†°æ¤p-úø’
             ô’u-™„-ß˝’-≠æ-Ø˛q – -™„-ß˝’ -ØÌéÀ\ °æ-©éπç-úÕ =         -îÁÊ°p-C. -ü∆-EéÀ -•-ü¿’-©’í¬ thanks îÁ§ƒhç.
             -Å-Gµ-†ç-ü¿-†-©’)                                       b) †’´¤y áEo-Èéj-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Congrats
    Chandra: What on? (áçü¿’èπ◊?)                                       Congrats on your election.
    Charan: On your fine performance in the                          c)                         congrats
                                                                          î√™« ¶«í¬ †öÀç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊
            play yesterday.                                             Congrats on your excellent action/ per-
                                                                        formance.
                  (†’´¤y E†o Ø√ô-éπç™ î√™« ¶«í¬ îËÆœ-               d) Congress                            con-
                                                                                         î√™« ¶«í¬ ÈíL*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊
                  †ç-ü¿’èπ◊     –       †öÀç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊)               grats. Congrats to congress on its excel-
                  Performance - °æ-§∂ƒ-´’-Ø˛q – -§∂ƒ ØÌéÀ\-             lent performance in the elections.
                                                                                                                                               a)   ¢√úø’ v°æA-ü∆-Eéà ¢√∞¡x Åéπ\ O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-û√úø’     Mohan:   ´÷´‚-©’í¬ Çúø-¢√∞¡Ÿx •ôd© O’ü¿ áèπ◊\´
                  °æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç = à °æØÁjØ√, ´·êuçí¬                     (Performance          ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ)                                                                                                   úø•’s, Éçé¬ áèπ◊\´ time ´%ü∑∆ îËÆæ’hç-
                                                                                                                                                    He depends on his sister for every thing.
                  éÌçîÁç ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo îËߪ’-úøç              2) Comment on: Comment                   Åçõ‰ ¢√uêu©’                                                                                             ö«®Ω’. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ time Å©ç-éπ-®Ω-
                                                                                                                                               b)   °æçô©’ ´®√{Eo •öÀd Öçö«®·
                  Performance in a play/ movie/                                                        Comment
                                                                          îËߪ’-úøç/-Å-Gµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷©’ ¢ÁL-•’-îªa-úøç.
                                                                                     'on'.                                                          Crops depend on rains.                                             ù™.
                  game/ as a leader =   Ø√ô-éπç™/ ÆœE-                   ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈                                                                                                                       Girija and
                                                                     a)                                                                        c)   ÅFo úø•’s†’-•-õ‰d éπü∆?
                                        perform-
                  ´÷™/ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕí¬ äéπJ                               á°æ¤púø÷ Éûª-®Ω’-©-†’ í∫’-Jç-* àüÓ äéπöÀ Åçô’ç-                                                                                     Sailaja: †’´¤y ´÷ O’ü¿ comments îËÆæ’h-†oô’d.
                                                                               He always on comments on others.                                     Everything depends on money.
                  ance                     play=
                         ¢√J E®Ωy-£æ«ù/ °æE-B®Ω’.                         ö«úø’=                                                                                                                              b) Lakshman:    á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’ü∆ç?
                                                                        make comments/ pass comments                                           d)   Nïߪ’ç v¨¡´’†’ •öÀd -Öç-ô’ç-C
                  °xß˝’ = Çúø-úøç ´÷-´‚-©’í¬; Ø√ôéπç                                                                  ÅE                                                                                     Madhu:       Åçû√ F O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ -ÖçC.
                                                                          èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç ¢√uêu©’ îËߪ’-úøç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.                              Success depends on hard work.                                          †’¢Áy-°æ¤púø’ ready Å®·ûË Å°æ¤púË.
                  ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿ-ú≈ ÖçC.
    Chandra: Thank you.




                                                                                   on the campus..
    Charan: Every one was commenting on
             your action only. They were all
             praise for you
    Chandra: Oh, that's (that was nothing).
             Thanks any way. How's your
             practice of cricket going? Hope
             you will be on the college team for
                                                                                                                                               5) Spend on:                                                   Lakshman: éÌçûª late Å®·Ø√ °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. ´’†
             the finals. (          -Åç-ûËç-™‰-ü¿’-™‰.   é¬E                                                                                                        ÉC î√™«
             thanks.       cricket practice
                                                                                                                                                    ´·êuç.                                                              Ê°®Ω’x ñ«G-û√™ *´®Ω éπü∆ ÖØ√o®·.
                                                                                                        -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 56
                             F                           ᙫ
                  ÖçC? College finals team                ™                                                                                        Spend =  ê®Ω’a-°-ôd-úøç.                                           ´’† Ê°®Ω’x °œL-îË-ô°æp-öÀéÀ ´’†ç îË®Ω’-
                  †’´¤yç--ö«-´E ÇP-Ææ’hØ√o)                                                                                                       í∫úø-°æ-úøç (®ÓV©÷,                                                   èπ◊çö«ç.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Madhu:     ´’†ç é¬éπ Éçé¬ öÃç™ îË®Ω-ú≈-EéÀ
    Charan: Not so bad. Every thing depends                          b)   -Å-ûª-ØÁ-°æ¤p-úø÷ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ í∫’-Jç-* ¢√uë«u-Eç-îª-úø’
                                                                                                                                               Æ洒ߪ’ç Å®·ûË)
             on my game in the first two                                                                                                       a) ¢√ú≈ ÉçöÀ-O’ü¿ î√™«                                                    á´-®Ì-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’?
                                                                        He never comments/ makes comments/                                                                                                    Lakshman: F áç°œéπ -éπ*aûªç. ü∆EéÀ congrats.
             matches.                                                   passes comments on others.
                                                                                                                                                  ê®Ω’a °ö«dúø’                     M. SURESAN
    Chandra: And what are you going to do dur-                       c)        performance
                                                                          Éûª-®Ω’©                  í∫’-Jç-* ¢√uêu©’ îËߪ’-                         He has spent a lot                                                  ´’J -Ø√ Ææçí∫Açé¬ ûÁMü¿’.
                                                                                                                                                    (of money) on the house.                                  Lakshmi: Ñ selections áéπ\úø ï®Ω-í∫-† ’-
             ing the vacation?                                            úøç Ææ’©-¶µº¢Ë’. é¬-E ÅüË ´’†ç -Ç °æ-E áçûª-
                                                                                                                                               b)
                                                                          ´-®Ωèπ◊ îË≤ƒhç ÅØË-C v°æ¨¡o.                                              ؈’ ®ÓW È®çúø’í∫çô©’ ¢√uߪ÷´’ç îË≤ƒh†’                             Ø√o®·?
                  (ÂÆ©-´¤™x àç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?)                                                                                                                                                          Lakshman: ´÷ College campus ™ØË.
    Charan: (I am going to) spend some time                             It's (It is) easy to comment/ pass com-                                     I spend two hours (every day) on exercise.
                                                                        ments/ make comments on others' per-                                                                                                  Answers:
            on bowling practice. (I) need to                                                                                                   c)   §Ú®·†¢√®Ωç Åçû√           practice    ™ØË í∫úÕ-§ƒúø’
                                                                        formance but how well we do a thing is the                                                                                            a) Girija: How much did you spend on the
            improve my bowling.        bowl-                                                                                                        He spent the whole of last week on prac-
                                                 (éÌçûª                 question.                                                                                                                                        dress?
            ing practice             bowling                                                                                                        tice.
                                         îËߪ÷L. Ø√                  3) On the team. team         ™. Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’-                                                                                   Sailaja: I spent Rs. 2500/- on it. Isn't (is not)
                                                                                                                                               d)   ÅE™¸ á°æ¤púø÷ •ôd-©èπ◊ áèπ◊\´ ê®Ω’a °úø-û√úø’
                  ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-®Ω-éÓ-¢√Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçC)                                        (in
                                                                          Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ '™—     Å®ΩnçûÓ) ¢√úË                                                                                               it worth so much?
    Chandra: Ok, then. Good luck, bye.                                                                                                              Anil spends a lot (of money) on clothes.
                                                                          î√™«-îÓ-ôxEnglish    on
                                                                                                ™ ´Ææ’hçC. ñ«G-û√™                                                                                               (worth =   N©’´; is worth = N©’´ Öçúø-úøç
                  (ÆæÍ®, F Åü¿%≠ædç ¶«í∫’ç-ú≈-©E éÓJéπ,                   = on the list;                on the rolls,
                                                                                          £æ…ï®˝ °æöÃd™ =                                     Spend      ûª®√yûª    on    ™«í¬ØË,   waste    ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈        ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Åçûª N©’´ îËߪ’-úøç / -îË-ߪ’-éπ-
                                                                                     on the premises;                                          on.
                  ´≤ƒh-´’J)                                               Ç´-®Ω-ù™=                       Nü∆u-©ßª’ Ç´-                                                                                           §Ú-´úøç = Worth/ not worth. The movie
    Charan: Bye                                                           ®Ω-ù™ = on the campus, etc.                                         e) TV    îª÷Ææ÷h     time   ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒhúø’                          is not worth half the price of the ticket =
       °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ preposition– 'on' ¢√úøéπç                   a)   E†’o  team   ™ îË®Ω’aéÓç                                                 He wastes time on the TV/watching the TV.                      Ç ÆœE´÷ ticket èπ◊ °öÀd† úø•’s-™ Ææí∫-´’çûª
    í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.                                                      We do not take you on the team.                                        f)   î√™«-ÊÆ°æ¤   friends    ûÓ   time   ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒhúø’             èπÿú≈ îËߪ’ü¿’. Waste.
    1) Ωù˝        Congratulations  îÁ°œp-†-°æ¤púø’,               b)   ñ«G-û√™ -Å-ûªúÕ Ê°®Ω’ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC                                          He wastes time/ a lot of time on friends.                 Girija: I think you wasted at least Rs. 400.
        îªçvü¿: What on?                                                His name is first on the list.                                         Now practise the following in English:                                  I won't (will not) spend more than
                                                                     c)   Ø√ Ç´-®Ω-ù™ ØËE-™«ç-öÀN Ææ´’t-Aç-’                               a) Girija:            dress áçûª °öÀd éÌØ√o¢˛?
       Ωù˝: On your fine performance.                                I do not allow such things on my premises.
                                                                                                                                                             †’´¤y Ç                                                   Rs. 2000/- on it.
    2) commenting on                                                                                                                                         (Spend¢√úøçúÕ)                                   Sailaja: I spent at least two hours on that
                                                                     d)   ÅC  College      Ç´-®Ωù™ ï®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’
    3) on the college team                                                                                                                     Sailaja: 2500 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’. Åü¿çûª îËÆæ’hçC éπü∆?                        selection.
                                                                        It did not happen on the campus.
    4) depends on                                                                                                                              Girija: éπFÆæç 400 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ ü∆E O’ü¿ ´%ü∑∆                  Mohan: Generally women waste a lot (of
                                                                     4) Depend on =         ÉC î√™«   common.         î√™«-
    5) spend time on                                                      ´’çCéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’ depend =   Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-úøç. ûÁ©’-                            ņ’-èπ◊çö«. ؈-®·ûË 2000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©-                         money), a lot more of time, on
    ÉO  preposition 'on'   ¢√úË éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’.                        í∫’™ èπÿú≈ äéπü∆E/ äéπJO’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-úøç                                éπçõ‰ °ôd†’.                                                  dresses, and still more on make up
    1) Congratulations (Congrats         ÅE èπÿú≈                         Åçö«ç éπü∆. English ™†÷ ÅçûË. Depend                                Sailaja: éπFÆæç È®çúø’ í∫çô©’ °æöÀdçC selec-                            (still =Éçé¬).
                            On.
         Åçö«®Ω’) ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷                                        ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ 'on'.                                                        tion èπ◊. (spend, I ûÓ ¢√úøçúÕ)                       Girija and
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sailaja: Just as you are commenting on us.
     -v°æ-¨¡o: Home, House, Residence - Ñ ´‚úø’ Home, house -                                                -à-N’-öÀ ûË-ú≈?                     She has two houses in Hyderabad, and one                     b) Lakshman: When shall we start?
               °æü∆© Å®√n™x ¶µ‰ü∆-™‰-N’öÀ? OöÀE á°æ¤p-úÁ-                                                                                    in Vijayawada =  Ç¢Á’èπ◊ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ È®çúÕ∞¡⁄x, Nï-       Madhu:        (Everything) depends on you,
             °æ¤púø’ ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.                                                                                    ߪ’-¢√-úø™ äéπ É©÷x -ÖØ√o®·. But She lives in                                whenever you are ready.
                                – -¢√C Ææ’v•-£æ«tùuç,            á´J ÉçöÀE í∫’-Jç-* ´÷ö«xúø’ûª’-Ø√o¢Á÷ ¢√∞¡x É©’x,                         Guntur. Her home there is very close to the sta-                Lakshman: Doesn't matter if we are late.
                                                                    home.                                                                     tion =                    Guntur                                    Doesn't (does not) matter =
                            -ï-¢√--•’: I. Home- ´’†ç,
                                             ´’*-M-°æôoç                                                                                              Ç¢Á’ ÖçúËC ´÷vûªç            ™. Ç¢Á’ É©’x                                                    °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’.
                                                                      Home       Åçõ‰ ÆæyÆæn©ç ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿ-ú≈ ÖçC.                                            House
                                                                                                                                              (E¢√Ææç) í∫’çô÷®Óx.           business house,
                                                                                                                                                                            †’,                                    Conversation   ™   practise   îËߪ’çúÕ.
                         ´’† èπ◊ô’ç•Æ涵º’u-©ûÓ E´-                   My home is Nellore.       ´÷ ÆæyÆæn©ç ØÁ©÷x®Ω’.                         The House of Tatas-       ™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√u§ƒ®Ω                         Our names are the last on the
                         ÆœçîË É©’x home. á´-È®jØ√                    He left his books at home
                                                                                                                                              E©ßª’ç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.                                                   list. We shall be able to reach by
                         ¢√J ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©ûÓ, ņo-ü¿-´·t-           ¢√úø’ ¢√úÕ books     †’ (¢√úÕ) -Éçöx ´C-™‰-¨»úø’.                         III. Residence: ÉC éÌç-îÁç formal. Phone                                   the time our turn comes.
                         ©ûÓ, Åéπ\-îÁ-™„x-∞¡xûÓ ÖçúËC–                3) Home =         His home is England.
                                                                                    ü˨¡ç.
                                                                                                                                              numbers, address ©’ ´’† ÉçöÀN îÁÊ°p--ô°æ¤púø’                   Madhu:        Who else              is coming to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (ÉçÈé-´®Ω’)
                         home. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ home                        4) Home =          Minister for home affairs.
                                                                                    üËQߪ’.
                                                                                                                                              ¢√úøû√ç. Residence phone no; Residential                                      be on the team?
                         ´·çü¿’ î√-™« Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x my,                   (üËQߪ’– Åçûª-®Ω_ûª ´u´-£æ…®√© ´’çvA)
                         your, his, her, etc. ¢√úø-†-éπ\-®Ω-          5) at home and abroad = ÆæyüË-¨¡ç™, NüË-¨»™x.                         address (office phone no; office address èπ◊                    Lakshman: Your selection is definite
                         ™‰ü¿’.                                       6) Old age Home, Home for the blind- É™«çöÀ                             Gµ†oçí¬). Ééπ\úøèπÿ-ú≈ home phone no.,/ address                              (éπ*aûªç).    Congrats on that. I
     I am going home                                                      îÓôx 'Çv¨¡ßª’ç—.                                                    ņ-´îª’a.                                                                      don't know about my position
                  (to my home
     ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’.                 ņç)                         II. House = à Éç-öÀØÁjØ√ house Åçö«ç.                                      éÌçîÁç £æ«Ùü∆-í∫© ´uèπ◊h© E¢√-≤ƒ-©ØË Residence                              (position =  °æJ-Æœn-A/ -Ææç-í∫A)
     He went home an hour ago                                              He bought a house last year                                        ņúøç Ææ••’– The Prime Minister's residence,                    Lakshmi: Where are the selections?
                          (His home
     í∫çô véÀûªç ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞«xúø’.                 Å-†éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’)          í∫ûª Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç É©’x éÌØ√oúø’.                                    The governor's residence, etc.                                  Lakshman: On our college campus.
I                                                                                                                            -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                     -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 11 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Sheriff: Peter, Who are you waiting for?                            His parents are waiting for their daugh-
               á´J éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?                                 ter's marriage. Once that is over, they will
    Peter: For sagar. I've (I have) asked him                           marry him off.
           for some information and a few                          d)   Ø√èπ◊ Çéπ-™‰-≤ÚhçC. ÉçÈéçûªÊÆ§Ú ¶µï-Ø√-EéÀ wait
           books.
                                                                        îËߪ’-™‰†’.
               ≤ƒí∫®˝ éÓÆæç. ¢√úÕo ؈’ àüÓ Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç,                 I'm (I am) very hungry. I am not able to
               éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ ÅúÕ-í¬†’.
                                                                        wait for the meal any more.
    Sheriff: You have waited for an hour now.
             He hasn't even phoned you.                                 Wait for = await.    Å®·ûË await éÌçîÁç
               †’´¤y ÅûªE éÓÆæç í∫çôí¬ îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤                  ví¬çC∑éπç. conversation ™ wait for ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’.
               éπü∆. Fèπ◊ Phone èπÿú≈ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’ ´’J.             2) Ask for: á´-J-ØÁjØ√ àüÁjØ√ Åúø-í∫úøç
                                                                                                                                     a) I am looking for a good book on Spoken
    Peter: I am sure he will come. Any way,                                                                                                                                                       Samrat:   ®Ωîª-®·ûª á´®Ω’?
                                                                   a) ¢√úÕo Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç ÅúÕ-í¬†’. ¢√úø’ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
                                                                                                                                          English
           let's hope for the best. I need the
                                                                        I asked (him) for his help. But he did not
                                                                                                                                                                                                            (®Ωîª-®·ûª = author/ writer)
           books badly.                                                                                                                   Spoken English O’ü¿ ´’ç* °æ¤Ææhéπç éÓÆæç                Sarat:    Åûª-úø’ èπÿú≈ ã ÂÆjE-èπ◊úË. Åûª-úÕ Ê°®Ω’
                                                                        help me.
               ¢√úø’ ´≤ƒh-úøØË Ø√ †´’téπç. àüË-¢Á’iØ√                                                                                     îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. ¢Áü¿’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o†’.                               John stall.
                                                                   b)   ÅûªúÕo Ç¢Á’ éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ ÅúÕ-TçC
               ´’çîË ÇPü∆lç. Ø√é¬ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ î√™«                                                                                   b) What are you looking for?                                 Samrat: Eïçí¬ Åçûª íÌ°æp °æ¤Ææhéπ´÷?
               Å´-Ææ®Ωç.                                                She asked him for some books.                                                                                             Sarat: FéπC îªC-N-†-éÌDl îªü¿-¢√-©-E-°œ-Ææ’hçC.
                                                                                                                                        üËE-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o¢˛/ ¢Áü¿’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o¢˛?
               (need badly = î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç)                                                                                          c) Åûª-úÕ-éÓÆæç Ééπ\úø îª÷úøúøç E®Ω’°æßÁ÷í∫ç. ÉC                      ü∆Eo îªü¿-´-úøç -ã Å®Ω’-üÁj† ņ’-¶µº´ç
    Sheriff: How long more are you going to                                                                                                                                                                (Å®Ω’-üÁj† = rare)
             wait? It's already time for dinner.
                                                                                                                                        Åûªúø’ College èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ï} time
                                                                                                                                                                                                  b) Chakri: F ü¿í∫_®Ω pen Öçü∆?
               ÉçÈéç-ûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ îª÷≤ƒh´¤? É°æp-öÀÍé ¶µï†                                            -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 57                     No use looking for him here. It's the time
                                                                                                                                          for his college.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Charan: ÖçC. Fèπ◊ 鬢√™«?
               Æ洒ߪ’ç Å®·çC éπü∆?                                                                                                                                                               Chakri: Ø√         pen refill Å®·-§Ú-®·çC.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Assignment complete îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’ ؈’.




               Have you a pen?                                                                                                                                                                    Charan: Assignment?
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chakri:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Charan:
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Å´¤†’. Physics ™ ã chapter O’ü¿.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ø√èπÿ\ú≈ pen Å´-Ææ®Ωç. Ééπ\úø à shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ™ ØÁjØ√ refill ûÁa-éÓ-´-a/ -üÌ-®Ω’-èπ◊-
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ûª’çC.
                                                                                                                                     Practise the following:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chakri:   Ç Ææ©-£æ…èπ◊ thanks.
    Peter: I told him to be here for dinner. So                    Å®·ûË v°æ¨¡o©’ Åúø-í∫úøç                                          Suman:  á´-J-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?
               I'm sure he will come in a few min-                                                                                                                                                Answers:
                                                                   ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, äéπ °æE îËߪ’-                                       Suresh: College bus éÓÆæç.
               utes. Ah, look, here he comes. Hi,                  ´’ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ask ûª®√yûª                                                                                                       a) Sarat: Have you read the book on the
                                                                                                                                     Suman: ؈’ N≠æflg éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. Åûªúø’
               Sagar, why the delay?                               for ®√ü¿’.                                                                ††’oéÌçûª úø•’s ÅúÕ-í¬úø’.                                      table?
               ¶µï-Ø√-EéÀ ®Ω´’t-Ø√o†’ ¢√úÕE. 鬕öÀd é¬ÊÆq-        -Ö-ü∆: I asked him a few                                          Suresh: ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø Öçú≈-Lq† time Å®·çC.                      Samrat: What's the book on?
               °æ-öÀ™ ´îËa-≤ƒh-úøØË †´’téπç Ø√èπ◊çC.                      questions                                                         ´≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊.                 Sarat:    It's (It is) on an important event/
               ÅCíÓ ´÷ô-™xØË ´îËa-¨»úø’. àçöÀ ≤ƒí∫®˝,             éÌEo v°æ¨¡o©’ ÅúÕ-í¬†’.               M. SURESAN                  Suman: ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ®ÓV™x °æçÊ°                            episode in World War II. This is one
               áçü¿’-é¬-©Ææuç?                                     She asked her friend to                                                   úø•’s éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. (Wait                              of the best books on the subject.
    Sagar: Looking for an auto took all my time.                   wait                                                                      ¢√úøçúÕ)                                             Samrat: Who is the Writer?
                                                                   é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçúø-´’E ÅúÕ-TçC.                                         Suresh: ¢√úËüÓ job èπ◊ apply îËÆ œ-†-ô’d-Ø√oúø’.             Sarat:    He was also a soldier. Name, John
               Çö éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-†oç-ü¿’-´©x Ç©-Ææu-¢Á’içC.                                                                                  Next week orders ´≤ƒh-ߪ’E ÇP-Ææ’h-
                                                                   They asked me why I was there                                                                                                            stall.
        °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ preposition 'for' ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-                                                                                    Ø√oúø’.
    Eç-îªçúÕ.1) Waiting for 2) asked for 3) hope for               ؈-éπ\úø áçü¿’-èπ◊-Ø√o-†E ¢√∞¡Ÿx ††o-úÕ-í¬®Ω’.                                                                                Samrat: Is it such a great book?
                                                                                                                                     Answer:
    4) time for 5) look for. -É-C-´®Ω-™  for èπ◊ -Ö†o             °j Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ask ûª®√yûª for ®√ü¿’.                                                                                       Sarat:    The more you read it, the more you
                                                                                                                                     Suman: Who are you waiting for?
    Å®√n©÷, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©÷ éÌEo îª÷¨»ç.                              3) hope for: üËE-ØÁj-Ø√ ÇPç-îª-úøç. hope ûª®√yûª                                                                                         feel like reading it. Reading it is a
                                                                       for Å´-Ææ®Ωç.                                                 Suresh: For the college bus.
        English áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøéπç Ö†o prepositions ™                                                                                                                                                          rare experience.
                                                                                                                                     Suman: I am waiting for Vishnu. He has
                                                                   a) ´’ç* ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿ØË ÇPü∆lç. let's (let us)
    for äéπöÀ. Åçü¿’-éπE ü∆E Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ ÆæJí¬ ûÁ©’-                                                                                       asked me for some money.                              b) Chakri: Have you a pen?
                                                                        hope for the best.
    Ææ’-èπ◊E conversation ™ ¢√úÕûË ´’† conversa-                                                                                    Suresh: (It is) time for him to be here.                     Charan: I have. Do you want it?
                                                                   b) They hope for an early appointment.
    tion effective í¬ Öçô’çC.                                                                                                                Perhaps he will be here in a few                     Chakri: My refill is/ has gone dry (has run
    1. Wait for: äéπJ éÓÆæç, äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤, Ææç°∂æ’-ô†
                                                                     ûªy®Ω™ ã ÖüÓuí∫ç ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.                            minutes.                                                       out of ink - is dry/ has gone dry -
        éÓÆæç ¢Ë* îª÷úøúøç.                                          Å®·ûË hope ûª®√yûª 'that' ûÓ begin ÅßË’u                        Suman: He is waiting for the money his dad                             ü∆ØÓx    ink   Å®·-§Ú-®·çC =     run out of
         Wait for me, please
                                                                   ´÷ô©’ ´ÊÆh for ®√ü¿’.                                                    will send him in two or three days.                             ink). I have not (haven't) completed
                                                                   c) He hopes that he will get the job                              Suresh: He has applied for a job. He hopes
      é¬Ææh Ø√éÓÆæç îª÷úø¢√?                                                                                                                                                                                my assignment.
                                                                   4) time for:       üËE-ÈéjØ√   time´îËa-ÆœçC/Å®·çC                        for the orders next week.
    a) Train éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç                                                                                                                                                                    Charan: Assignment?
                                                                        ņ--ú≈-EéÀ   time for      Åçö«ç. ÉC î√™«                    2) Ñ éÀçCN a/ an, the éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N.
         We are waiting for the train                                   Common.                                                                                                                   Chakri: Yes. It's on a chapter in Physics.
                                                                                                                                        Practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
    b) Exams                                                       a) It's time for dinner (Dinner time                                                                                           Charan: I need the pen too. You get a refill
                  Å®·§ÚßË’ ´®Ωèπ◊ îª÷ü∆lç                                                                           Å®·çC)           a) Sarat: Ç table O’ü¿ Ö†o °æ¤Ææhéπç îªC-¢√¢√?
         Let's wait for the exams to be over                       b) Time has come for us to leave                                                                                                         in any of the shops here. (Refills
                                                                                                                                     Samrat: üËEéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† °æ¤Ææhéπç ÅC?
         (Let's wait till the exams are over)                         ´’†ç •ßª’-™‰l-®√-Lq† time Å®·çC                                                                                                       are available in any of the shops
                                                                                                                                     Sarat: È®çúÓ v°æ°æçîª ßª·ü¿l¥ç-™ E ã ´·êu-¢Á’i†
                                                                                                                                                                                                            here.)
    c)   ¢√úÕ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ ¢√∞¡x-´÷t®· °Rx éÓÆæç é¬îª’-           Å™«Íí time for breakfast, for dinner, etc.                               Ææç°∂æ’-ô† í∫’Jç*. Ç Å稡ç O’ü¿ °æ¤Ææh-
         éÌE ÖØ√o®Ω’. Å®·-§ÚûË ¢√úÕéà îËÊÆ-≤ƒh®Ω’.                 5) Look for: ¢Áü¿-éπ-úøç                                                    é¬-©™ ÉC best.                                    Chakri: Thank you for the advice.



                                               -v°æ-¨¡o: Below, beneath © ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Å®√n-©†’ ûÁL°œ,
                                                        ¢√öÀE ¢√úË Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©†’; -Å-™«Íí Famous,                     Famous.. Popular..                                   -Åç-õ‰?             A popular movie star- v°æñ«-Gµ-´÷†ç §ÒçC† û√®Ω–
                                                                                                                                                                                             ÆœE-´÷-©†’ í∫’-Jç-* ûÁL-Æœ-†-¢√∞¡⁄x, ÆœE-´÷©’ ¶«í¬ îª÷ÊÆ-
                                                        Popular © ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Å®√n-©†’ ûÁL°œ, ¢√öÀE ¢√úË                                                                                       ¢√∞¡Ÿx É≠æd-°æúË û√®Ω©’.
                                                        Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©†’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.                                           popular Åçõ‰ v°æñ«-Gµ-´÷†ç éπ© ÅE. famous ņo-                       ã cinema star, famous, popular È®çúø÷ 鬴a.
                                                                                                                        °æ¤púø’ ûÁLÆœ, NE Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ v§ƒüµ∆†uç ûªèπ◊\´. 'popu-              °æ®Ω-¶µ«≥ƒ *vû√© íÌ°æp actor ©†’ í∫’-Jç-* ´’†èπ◊ ûÁLÊÆh
                                               -ï-¢√-•’: Below, beneath © ûËú≈ -ûªy®Ω-™ N´-J≤ƒhç.
                                                                     – Èé.´ç-Q-éπ%≠æg, °æ®Ω-鬩, ´®Ωç-í∫™¸ ->-™«x
                                                                                                                        lar' ™ äéπ ®Ωçí∫ç™ ®√ùÀç-*-†-¢√-JE Ç ´®√_-EéÀ Ææç•ç-               ¢√∞¡Ÿx famous. ´’† ¶µ«≥ƒ *vû√© íÌ°æp-û√-®Ω©’, ´’†ç
                                                  Famous Åçõ‰ v°æÆ œ-Cl¥-Èé-éÀ\†, v°æë«uA îÁçC†. Åçõ‰                   Cµç-*† v°æï©’ ÅGµ-´÷-Eç-îª-úøç, É≠æd-°æ-úø-úøç. v°æÆœ-Cl-Èé-éÀ\-†-   ÅGµ-´÷-Eç-îË-¢√∞¡Ÿx popular stars.
                                               v°æñ«-F-éπç™ î√-™«´’çCéÀ ûÁL-Æœ†, î√-™«-´’çC NE Ö†o                     ¢√∞¡x/ ¢√öÀ °æôx ´’†èπ◊ É≥ƒd-E-éπçõ‰, ¢Á’°æ¤p, íı®Ω´ç                A famous song - Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á’a-éÌØË §ƒô.
                                               ÅE.                                                                      áèπ◊\´. Popular Å®·† ´uèπ◊h-©†’ ´’†ç É≠æd-°æ-úøû√ç,                  A popular song- Åçü¿®Ω÷ ÅGµ-´÷-EçîË, Åçõ‰ éÌClí¬
                                                 Abdul Kalam is a famous scientist = Çߪ’† v°æÆ œCl¥                    ¢√∞¡x-†’ í∫’-Jç-* Éûª®Ω ®Ωçí¬© ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a–         'mass' song ÅE.
                                               îÁçC† ¨»ÆæY-¢Ëûªh – î√-™«´’ç-CéÀ, ¨»ÆæYçûÓ Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰E                   A famous movie star - v°æÆ œ-Cl¥-Èé-éÀ\† ÆœE-´÷-û√®Ω– ÆœE-        Tendulkar is a famous cricketer- Ééπ\úø popular
                                               ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ èπÿ-ú≈ -Ç-ߪ’-†- í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’Ææ’– Çߪ’† í∫’-Jç-* NE            ´÷-©-†’ í∫’-Jç-* Åçûªí¬ ûÁL-ߪ’E/ interest ™‰E ¢√∞¡xèπ◊              ņç éπü∆.
                                               ÖØ√o®Ω’ ÅE.                                                              Åûª-úÕ/- Ç-¢Á’ í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’Ææ’.
I                                                                                                                        -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                         -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 16 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Anil:     Hi, Trishal, where were you last
                                                                 Éçé¬ îª÷úøçúÕ:
              evening?
                                                                 b) By the time I reached the station, the train
              (E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç áéπ\-úø’-Ø√o´¤?)                      had left.      station
                                                                                 ؈’               train
                                                                                                   îËÍ®-Ææ-JéÀ, ¢ÁR}§Ú-
    Trishal: Most of the time at home.
                                                                      ®·çC. Train                           sta-
                                                                                      ¢Á-R}-§Ú-´-úøç ´·çü¿÷, ؈’
              (E†o áèπ◊\´ÊÆ°æ¤ ÉçöxØË ÖØ√o)                        tion                     the train had left.
                                                                          îË®Ω-úøç ûª®√yûª, 鬕öÀd
              Why, what's the matter?
                                                                 c) My uncle too had waited for me for ten
              (àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç?)                                       minutes -  Ø√ éÓÆæç 10 EN’-≥ƒ©’ îª÷Æœ, ûª®√yûª
    Anil:        But Sunil told me he had seen you
                                                                    ÉçöÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®√úø’, had waited - had + pp
                 going somewhere
                                                                 d) Seeing that I had not come– ؈’ ®√™‰-ü¿E
              (Å®·ûË        †’-¢Áy-éπ\-úÕéÓ    ¢Á∞¡Ÿhç-úø-úøç-      îª÷Æœ, he started for home. ؈’ ®√éπ-§Ú-´-úøç,
              îª÷¨»†E    Sunil  îÁ§ƒpúø’)                           earlier past action, 鬕öÀd had come - had
    Trishal: He seen me on my way to the sta-                                                                                                                                                    Lakshmi:
                                                                      + past participle.                                             Ñ éÀçC È®çúø÷ §Ú©açúÕ:                                                Éçé¬ éÌEo ÖØ√o®·. ´’†ç ¢Á-R}
             tion to receive my uncle. But by the                                                                                    a) The Moghuls had ruled India before the
                                                                 e) I had kept it for two days... when I                                                                                                   îª÷ü∆lç °æü¿.
             time I reached the station the train                                                                                       British ruled it (British                                b) Pratap: Hi Pramod, †’´¤y bike éÌØ√o-´E
                                                                    returned it to the library.       had
                                                                                                     Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈                                                    ¢√-Jéπç-õ„ -´·ç-ü¿’
             had left. My uncle too had waited for                                                                                                                      had ruled,
                                                                                                                                       -¢Á·í∫-©’-©’ ¶µ«®Ω-û˝†’ §ƒLç-î√®Ω’.                                  Prasanth îÁ§ƒpúø’ Ø√ûÓ, ¢Á·†o-†’-
                                                                    kept – had + past participle (pp)             ´·çü¿®Ω
             me for 10 minutes. Seeing that I                                                                                           ruled).
                                                                      ïJ-T†past action        †’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-≤Úhç-C éπü∆.-                                                                                  èπ◊çö«.
             had not come, he started for home                                                                                       b) India had been under Moghul rule before                  Pramod: Éçé¬ é̆-™‰ü¿’. éÌØ√-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.
                                                                      Ééπ\-úø ´’†ç ûÁ©’Ææ’-èπ◊†o ´·êu N≠æߪ’ç:                          it was under British rule (British
             on his own.                                                                                                                                                   §ƒ©-†™               Pratap: O’ cousin bike éÌçô’-Ø√o¢√?
                                                                 had + past participle always expresses the                                           Moghul
              (؈’ ´÷ uncle éÓÆæç station èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-                                                                                  ÖçúË ´·çü¿’,            §ƒ©-†™ ÖçúËC).                  Pramod: ™‰ü¿’.       E†oØË ûÁL-Æ œçC, ¢√úøC
                                                                 earlier of two past actions.                                           Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ, Ñ lesson  ™ ´’†ç ûÁ©’Ææ’èπ◊†o
              †o-°æ¤púø’ îª÷¨»úø’. Å®·ûË Øˆ’ station                                                                                                                                                     Ţ˒t-¨»-úøE.
              èπ◊ -¢Á-∞Ï}Ææ-JÍé train -´-*a -¢Á-R}-§Ú®·ç-C.


                                                                              He had been an actor
              ´÷ uncle èπÿú≈ Ø√ éÓÆæç 10 EN’-≥ƒ©’
              îª÷Æœ ÉçöÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®√úø’)
              But why did you want to see me?
              (Å®·ûË †’´¤y †ØÁoç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-
              Ø√o´¤?)
    Anil:     I wanted that book on computers                                                                                        verbs: had been (be                                         Pratap:     á´-JéÀ?
              from you.                                                                                                              form -     í∫ûªç™ Ö†o                                      Pramod:     ¢√úÕ §ƒûª     bike †’ éÌûªh bike ûÓ
              (F ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* Ç         computer book
                                                                                                 -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 58
                                                                                                                                     È®çúø’       N≠æ-ߪ÷-©™                                                exchange     îËÆæ’èπ◊Ø√o-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’.
              BÆæ’éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊Ø√o)                                                                                                 ´·çü¿®Ω Ö†o N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo                                       Answers:
    Trishal: I am sorry, I don't have it. I had kept                                                                                 îÁ°æ¤ hçC), had + pp
             it for only two days till the day                                                                                       (action - í∫ûªç™ ïJ-                                       a) Lakshmi: Hi Ajitha, when did you return?
             before when I returned it to the                    a)   ¢√úø’   pass   Åߪ÷u-úøE Ø√ûÓ îÁ§ƒpúø’.                                                                                                When I phoned yesterday your
                                                                                                                                     T† È®çúø’ °æ†’™x
             library.                                                 He told me that he had passed. (pass                           ¢Á·ü¿öÀ °æEE ûÁ-LÊ°ç- M. SURESAN                                        mother told me you had not
                (Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰C-°æ¤púø’, È®çvúÓ-V©’ Öç-            Å´-úøç ´·çü¿÷, îÁ°æp-úøç ûª®√yûª éπü∆. 鬕öÀd                  ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç)                                                         returned yet.
                èπ◊E ¢Á·†oØË library ™ -ÉîËa¨».)                     ´·çü¿J past action, had + passed (had +                        a) ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îË-´·çü¿’ Çߪ’† teacher í¬           Ajitha:  That's right. I arrived half an hour
        °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E verbs: had seen, had left,                pp)                                                               ÖçúË-¢√úø’ = He had been a teacher before                         after you had phone. What's the
    had waited, had come, had kept É´Fo èπÿú≈                    b)   Ç¢Á’ °R}éÀ ´·çü¿’       teacher   í¬ °æE-îË-ÆœçC.                he started business.                                              matter?
                                                                      She had worked as teacher before she                           b) Lawyer  í¬   practice                   rail-
                                                                                                                                                             v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îË -´·çü¿’               Lakshmi: Leela told me yesterday she had
    had + past participle form ™ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆.
                                                                                                                                        ways  ™ °æEî˨»®Ω’ =   He had worked/ He                         brought some sarees from
    Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ñ form of verb †’ ´’†ç Ñ les-                        got married.
                                                                                                                                        had been   (ÖØ√o®Ω’)  in the railways before                      Mumbai. How about seeing
    sons ™ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’. Ñ verb form: had + past                 had + pp     éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† 'be' form had been.                       he started practising as a lawyer.                                them?
    participle. DØËo past perfect tense Åçö«®Ω’.                 ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆, 'be' form á°æ¤púø÷ Öçúø-ú≈-Eo                 c)       sisters                     unmarried
                                                                                                                                       ¢√∞¡x       °R} ÅßË’uç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊                        Ajitha:  She told me the day before she
    DE Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫ç- îª÷ü∆lç:                                     ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çC.                                                        í¬ØË ÖØ√oúø’ =      He had been unmarried
                                                                                                                                                                                                          had given away most of them.
    a) Sunil told me he had seen you. Ééπ\úø two                 Ñ éÀçC È®ç-úø÷ §Ú©açúÕ:                                                until his sisters got married.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Lakshmi: Still some more are there. Let's go
       past actions (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ†’--©’–              a) NTR had acted in movies before he                                Now practise the following in English.                               and see.
       äéπöÀ Sunil E†’o îª÷úø-úøç, Ç N≠æߪ’ç Ø√ûÓ                     entered politics (politics    -™  v°æ¢Ë-PçîË                  a) Lakshmi: Hi Ajitha á°æ¤púø’ AJ-íÌ-î√a´¤? O’              b) Pratap: Prasanth told me that you had
       îÁ°æp-úøç) ÖØ√o®·. Ççü¿’™ äéπöÀ ´·çü¿’,                       ´·çü¿’, ÆœE-´÷™x †öÀç-î√úø’. †öÀç-îª-úøç – -ÉC                            ÉçöÀéÀ ؈’ E†o phone îËÊÆh O’                             bought a bike. I think, the day
       ÉçéÓöÀ ûª®√yûªéπü∆. Sunil, Trishal †’ îª÷-úø-úøç               action (Ωu). ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† past action                                   Å´’t †’Nyçé¬ ®√™‰-ü¿E îÁ°œpçC.                             before (yesterday).
       ´·çü¿’, Ç N≠æߪ’ç Anil ûÓ îÁ°æpúøç ûª®√yûª                     鬕öÀd, had acted - had + past participle)                     Ajitha:  Å´¤†’. †’´¤y phone îËÆœ† Å®Ω-í∫çô                  Pramod: Not yet. I think of buying one.
       éπü∆. Ééπ\úø ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† °æE Sunil,                      b) NTR had been an actor before he was a                                     ûª®√yûª ؈’ ÉçöÀéÀ îË®√†’. àçöÀ                   Pratap: (Are you) buying your cousin's
       Trishal †’ îª÷úø-úøç, had seen – had + past                    CM (CM   í¬ ÖçúË ´·çü¿’, actor í¬ ÖØ√oúø’).                             N≠æߪ’ç?                                                    bike?
       participle form ™ Öçúø-úøç í∫´’-Eç-î √L                     Ééπ\-úø verbs – had been, was. Ñ È®çúø÷                          Lakshmi: M© ´·ç¶„j †’ç* éÌEo <®Ω©’ ûÁî √a-                  Pramod: No. Only yesterday I came to know
       ´’†ç. Åçõ‰ È®çúø’ past actions ™ äéπöÀ                   èπÿú≈ 'be' forms ü∆. Åçü¿’-éπØË, he was a CM -                               †E îÁ°œpçC E†o. ´’†ç ¢ÁRx                                   he had sold it off.
       ´·çü¿’, ÉçéÓöÀ ûª®√yûª ïJ-TûË, ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T†               (äéπ-°æ¤púø’) CM í¬ ÖçúË¢√®Ω’ (É°æ¤púø’ -™‰®Ω’).                             îª÷ü∆l´÷?                                          Pratap: Who to?
       past action á°æ¤púø÷ had + past participle                Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ actor - 鬕öÀd had been an                          Ajitha:  É°æp-öÀÍé î√-™« ÉîËa-¨»-†E ¢Á·†oØË                 Pramod: He told me he had exchanged his
       form ™ Öçô’çC.                                           actor.                                                                       îÁ°œpçC Ø√ûÓ.                                               old bike for a new one.


     -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) Would you come please?                                                                                                                                    -v°æ-¨¡o: English Newspapers ™ Headlines Å-Fo simple present
                 Could you come please?                                                                                                                                              tense  ™ ®√≤ƒhÈ®çü¿’-éπE?Å-´-Fo ïJ-T-§Ú-®·† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ éπü∆!
                 Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀéÀ ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? would - past tense of will                                                                                                                2) Could     éÀ would éÀ difference -à-N’-öÀ? -¢√-öÀ-E -à-ßË’
                 éπ-ü∆. Ééπ\úø would, could áçü¿’èπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√®Ω’?                                                                                                                  Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x use îËߪ’-´îª’a?
     2) Sell this vehicle off (Active Voice),
                                                                                                                                                                            -ï-¢√-•’:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               – °œ.í∫-ù‰-¨¸, é¬éÀ-Ø√-úø.
       What does she want (Active Voice).     -O-öÀE Passive Voice ™                       please   ? ÅØËC more formal (áèπ◊\´ ™«ç-†-v§ƒßª’ç,
       à N-üµ¿çí¬ ®√ߪ÷™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.                                                                                                                                 1)   î√-™« -´’ç-* question. English èπ◊ -Ö†o v°æûËuéπ ©éπ~ùç, historic
                                                                                            could éπçõ‰). Åçõ‰ ´’†-éπç-ûªí¬ °æJ-îªßª’ç ™‰E, ´’†ç íı®Ω-NçîË
     3) The function went off well Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰Ææ÷h, went off                                                                                                           present. Åçõ‰ í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T-†-¢√-öÀéÀ èπÿú≈ present tense (sim-
                                                                                            ´uèπ◊h-©†’ îËÊÆ request.                                                             ple) ¢√úø-úøç. ÉC newspaper headlines ™ áèπ◊\´.
        ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀéÀ Å®√n©’ áéπ\úø, ᙫçöÀ °æ¤Ææh-é¬--™-x -Öç-ö«-ßÁ÷ ûÁL-ߪ’-           2) sell this vehicle off. DEéÀ passive voice – Let this vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                              Prime Minister Inaugurates the conference.
        ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.                                                                    be sold off.
                                                  – ÅçûªöÀ °çîª-©ßª’u,                    What does she want           èπ◊ passive – what is wanted by her.                  Ééπ\úø Inaugurates Åçõ‰ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-®ΩF é¬ü¿÷, îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o-®ΩF
                                                                                            éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥-™x-ØË ûª°æp Éô’-´çöÀ sentences active ™ Öçõ‰ØË                  é¬ü¿’. îËÊÆ-¨»-®ΩE. ÉC English ™ ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’.
     -ï-¢√-•’:
                                                                   ®√ïç-Ê°ô.
                                                                                            natural í¬ Öçô’çC.                                                                Here was I already late to the station. Just then my brother

     1) would, should, could í∫’-Jç-* ûªy®Ω™ -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. could                 3) went off well - Åçõ‰ ¶«í¬ ïJ-TçC ÅE. Éô’-´çöÀ phrases èπ◊                         comes with the news that I have forgotten my ticket.                Ééπ\úø
        you come please?   ÅØËC, 'would you come please' éπØ√o                              Å®Ωnç oxford/ longman's ™«çöÀ ´’ç* dictionaries ™, 'go' éÀçü¿                    comes  ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’. effect éÓÆæç ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
        áèπ◊\´ ´’®√uü¿ Ææ÷*çîË request. Å®·ûË would you come,                               îª÷úøçúÕ.                                                                       2) could, would í∫’-Jç-* ÆæN-´-®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
I                                                                                                                          -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                 -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 18 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Sivaram: Hi Unni, what's new?                               c) His mother told me that some one had
                 (°æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ ´÷ô -É-C.      Practice it in       stolen them.
                 your conversation)                                üÌçT-Lç-îª-úøç ´·çü¿’, îÁ°æp-úøç ûª®√yûª– 鬕öÀd
    Unni:        Have you seen Kiran of late?                      had stolen (had + pp)
                 éÀ®Ω-ù˝†’ Ñ ´’üµ¿u à´’Ø√o îª÷¨»¢√?             d) She was sure that they had gone for
                 (of late = lately = Ñ ´’üµ¿u)                     good.
    Sivaram: No, yesterday I did go to Kiran's.                    ÅN §Ú´--úø-¢Ë’í¬-F -Éçéπ -üÌ®Ωéπ-úø-´’ç-ô÷ -Öç--úø-ü¿-E
             But by the time I reached there, he                   Ç¢Á’ †´’t-éπçí¬ ÖçC. §Ú´-úøç ´·çü¿’, 鬕öÀd
             had gone out. I missed him by                         had gone (had + pp)
             minutes.                                                                                                                                                                         Krishna: That means you applied for it last
                                                                   had + pp  N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ í∫´’-Eç-î√-Lq† ´·ê-u¢Á’i†                      Gopal:   á´y®Ω÷ ™‰®Ω’. Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çüË
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Saturday
                 ™‰ü¿’. E†o ¢√R}ç-öÀÍé ¢Á∞«}†’. é¬F             N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ È®çúø’-Ø√o®·.
                 ؈’ ¢Á∞Ï}-ô°æp-öÀéÀ Åûª-úø’ •ßª’-öÀéÀ                                                                                         Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á-R}-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’.
                                                                                                                                                                                              b) Sarat: Who are the police searching for?
                 ¢ÁR}§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. Åûª-úÕ-E éÌ-Eo -E-N’-≥ƒ-© -                                                                            Krishna: Åéπ\úø watchman ™‰ú≈?
                                                                                                                                                                                                           (Police ¢√∞¡Ÿx (Plural). äéπ Police = a
                 ûË-ú≈-ûÓ miss Åߪ÷u†’.                                                                                                Gopal: Åûª-úË îÁ§ƒpúø’ Principal ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Police man. Plural     í¬ Policemen/
    Unni:       Why did you want to see him?                                                                                                    classes ÅFo cancel î˨»-®ΩF, Åçü¿’-
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Police persons èπÿú≈ ¢√úÌa.)
                áçü¿’-Èé-∞«}´¤ ¢√-R}ç-öÀéÀ?
    Sivaram: He had promised to lend me the
                                                                                              -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 59                                éπØË Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢ÁR}§Ú-ߪ÷-®ΩE.                  Karim: For the chitfund company director
                                                                                                                                       Krishna: †’´¤y TC (Transfer certificate) éÀ            Sarat: What happened?
             CDs of some latest movies. So I
                                                                                                                                                apply îËÆ œç-üÁ-°æ¤púø’?                      Karim: He had collected money from all and
             went to him to get them.                              a) had + pp  ¢√úË Å´-鬨¡ç, Å´-Ææ®Ωç – í∫ûªç™
                                                                                                                                       Gopal: Apply îËߪ ’-´ ’E †’´¤y îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ                      disappeared/ left town
                 Ø√éÌ\Eo ÆœE-´÷© CDs É≤ƒh-†-Ø√oúø’.                   È®çúø’ °æ†’©’ ïJT, ¢√öÀ™x äéπöÀ ´·çü¿’,
                 ÅN ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ü∆-´’E ¢Á∞«x†’.                       ÉçéÓöÀ ûª®√yûª ïJ-T-†-°æ¤púø’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’.                                   ´·çüË î˨»†’.                                 Sarat: When did people know he had dis-
                                                                   b) í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† äÍé °æEE v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îË-ô-°æ¤púø’                    Krishna: Åçõ‰ †’´¤y last saturday ØË apply                       appeared?
    Unni:       Let's go now and get them now.
                É°æ¤p-úÁR} ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ü∆´÷ ¢√öÀE?                    had + pp Å´-Ææ®Ωç Öçúøü¿’.                                                î˨»-´-†o-´÷ô.                                Karim: Just Yesterday. He had run the com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        pany for two years when he ran
                                                                                                                                                                                                        away. He had collected by then



                            They had gone for..                                                                                                                                                         Rs. 2 crore.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Sarat: When do people learn? A number of
                                                                                                                                                                                                        chitfund companies had closed
                                                                                                                                                                                                        shops even before this (happened).
                                                                                                                                                                                              Practise the following also:
    Sivaram: No chance. His mom told me yes-                    Anil: I saw the movie, 'Nenodda Neeku?' on                             b) Sarat:á´JéÓÆæç ¢Áü¿’èπ◊ûª’Ø√o®Ω’ police
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prasad:
             terday that some one had stolen                           the TV last night.    (E†o ®√vA             TV   ™,                     ¢√∞¡Ÿx?                                               É°æ¤pú≈ •çúÕ áéπ\-úø’çC?
             the suit case with the CDs in it. It                      'ØËØÌü∆l Fèπ◊?— ÆœE´÷ îª÷¨»)                                    Karim: Chit Company director éÓÆæç.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      (•çúÕ= Vehicle)
             was to the police that he had gone                                                                                                                                               Kumar: éÀ®Ωù˝ ü∆Eo ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞«}úø’.
                                                                Krishna: I have seen it too. What a bore!                              Sarat: àç ïJ-TçC?
             when I went there. He wanted to                                                                                                                                                  Prasad: Mechanic - ü∆-Eo- á°æ¤p-úø’ °æ‹Jhí¬
                                                                            (؈÷ îª÷¨»ØËx. áçûª NÆæ’íÓ!)                              Karim: Åçü¿J ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s BÆæ’-éÌE §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’
             report it to the police.                                       I saw it last Saturday, I think.                                                                                          repair î˨»úø’?
                                                                                                                                              (§ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’= disappeared/ left
                                    CDs     suit                   Anil Ç                                                                                                                     Kumar: E†o repairs °æ‹Jh î˨»úø’. É°æ¤púø’
                Ç Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’. Ç            Ö†o                               ÆœE´÷                                                          town)
            case        á´®Ó üÌçT-Lç-î √-®ΩE E†o                îª÷¨»úø’ E†o-®√vA – ÉC                                                 Sarat:  Åûª-úø’ §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷-úøE á°æ¤púø’ ûÁLÆœçC?               ´’ç* condition ™ØË ÖçC.
                ¢√∞¡x´’t Ø√ûÓ îÁ°œpçC. ØËEo†o Åéπ\-             past action, time                                                                                                             Prasad: á´®Ω’ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ ü∆Eo-°æ¤púø’?
                                                                                                                                       Karim: E†oØË. §ƒJ-§Ú-ßË’-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ company
                úÕéÀ ¢ÁR}-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úø’ ¢ÁR}çC police         known -          saw
                                                                           Åçü¿’-éπE                                                           È®çúË∞¡Ÿx †úÕ-§ƒúø’. Å°æp-öÀÍé È®çúø’ éÓôx     Kumar: éÀ®Ωù˝ ¢√∞¡x†o. Åûª-úÕéÀ ¢Á·†oØË sales-
                report É´y--ú≈EÍé.                              (past doing word)                                                                                                                     man í¬ ÖüÓuí∫ç ´*açC.
    Unni:       Does he hope to get them back?
                                                                                                                                               ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ collect î˨»úø’.
                                                                  Krishna    èπÿú≈ Ç                                                          (Collect= ´Ææ÷©’)                               Prasad: Çߪ’† Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ àç îËÊÆ-¢√úø’?
                 ÅN üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√-ߪ’ØË Ç¨¡ Éçé¬ Öçü∆            ÆœE´÷ îª÷¨»--†Ø√oúø’ –                                                 Sarat: á°æ¤púø’ í∫’ù-§ƒ®∏Ωç ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’ ï†ç?     Kumar: Student. Åûª-úÕéÀ job ´îËa time èπ◊
                 Åûª-úÕéÀ?                                      ÉC past action, time                                                          DEéÀ ´·çü¿’ î√™« Chit Fund                              îªü¿’´¤ °æ‹®Ωh-´-™‰ü¿’.
    Sivaram: I don't know. His mother was how-                  not known - Åçü¿’-éπE      M. SURESAN                                                                                         Answer:
                                                                                                                                              Companies ´‚ûª-°æ-ú≈f®· éπü∆.
                 ever sure that they had gone for               Ééπ\úø have + pp. ´’S}                                                                                                        Prasad: Where is the vehicle (now)?
                                                                last Saturday ÅE time îÁ°æ¤ h-Ø√oúø’ 鬕öÀd saw.                       ANSWERS:
                 good.                                                                                                                                                                        Kumar: Kiran has taken it home.
                à¢Á÷ ´’J. ¢√∞¡x´’t ´÷vûªç Éçéπ üÌ®Ω-            îª÷úøçúÕ– Ñ independent, single past actions                           a) Krishna: Was there any one/ Was any
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prasad: When did the mechanic complete
                éπ-ü¿ØË †´’t-éπç™ ÖçC.                         èπ◊ ¢ËöÀE èπÿú≈, had+pp ™ îÁ°æp-úøç ™‰ü¿’. õ„jç                                     one there when you went there?
                                                                                                                                                                                                         the repairs?
                (For good = permanently = °æ‹Jhí¬/              ûÁL-Æœ† past actions - past doing word; time                           Gopal:      None. People (Every one) had left
                                                                                                                                                                                              Kumar: Yesterday. It is now in good condi-
                ¨»¨¡y-ûªçí¬. Practise it in your con-           îÁ°æpE past action have+ pp/ has + pp.                                             the place.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         tion.
                versation)
                                                                   Å®·ûË Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd È®çúø’ related past                         Krishna: Wasn't (was not) the watchman
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prasad: Who is using it now?
                                                                actions, È®çúø’ NúÕ sentences ™ îÁÊ°h Å°æ¤púø’                                    there?
    Unni:       Really unfortunate.                                                                                                                                                           Kumar: Kiran's elder brother. He got the job
                                                                had + pp ¢√úø-´îª’a.                                                   Gopal:      He told me that the principal had
              Eïçí¬ ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-éπ®Ωç.
                                 æ                              I went there at 4 PM. He had already gone.                                                                                               of a salesman just the day before
                                                                                                                                                   cancelled all afternoon classes.
       °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-*† verbs sets               ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ≤ƒ-ߪ’ç-vûªç -Ø√-©’í∫’ í∫ç-ô-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞«}†’.                                                                                  (yesterday).
                                                                                                                                                   That was why all of them had gone
    îª÷úøçúÕ: a) reached- had gone out; b) had                  Å°æp-öÀÍé Åûª-úø’ ¢ÁR}-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.                                                                                             Prasad: What was he before that?
                                                                                                                                                   away.
    promised- went; c) told- had stolen; d) had                                                                                                                                               Kumar: He was a student. But he had not
                                                                Practise the following aloud in English:                               Krishna: When did you apply for the TC?
    gone, went; d) was- had gone.                                                                                                                                                                        completed his studies when he got
                                                                a) Krishna:     E†o †’´y-éπ\-úÕéÀ           ¢Á-∞Ï}-ô°æp-öÀÍé           Gopal:      I had applied for it before you told
      °j verbs v°æA ïçô™ éÀçü¿öÀ lesson™                                                                                                                                                              the job.
                                                                                á´È®jØ√ ÖØ√o®√?                                                    me to.
    ´’†ç îª÷Æœ† had + participle form ™ Ö†o
    verbs ÖØ√o®· éπü∆. a) had gone out, b) had                 -v°æ-¨¡o: "General" - DE pronunciation -ï†-®Ω™¸ Dictionary™ É*a† Phonetic symbols †’ •öÀd,                                        ®√ùÀç-îªôç – make a mark / distinguish
    promised, c) had stolen, d) had gone.                                éπü∆! ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬ "G" ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª "e" ÅØË Åéπ~®Ωç TV English News Caste †’ îª÷Æœ, NE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-                       (oneself).
       ´’†ç éÀçü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆– had + past                         ´ÊÆh ü∆EE ' ñ„— í¬-ØË °æ©-é¬-©çö«®Ω’. -´’-J ´-©-ÆœçüË.                                                         -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) She goes to her friend's on sundays
    participle (PP) form      ™ Ö†o verb á°æ¤púø÷, the                  "Get" pronunciation -†’ -Å-™«í¬éπ ' Èíö¸—— -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) "Would" †’ Present ™, Past ™                                    2) She goes her friends on sundays.
                                                                         Åçö«®Ω’ áçü¿’èπ◊?                                                Future ™†÷ ¢√úø-û√-®Ωô éπü∆. Ñ ´‚úø’
    earlier of two past actions (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T†                                                                                                                                               - Ñ È®ç-úÕç-öÀ-™ -à-C ÆæÈ®j-†-C?
    È®ç-úø’ °æ-†’-™x ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† ü∆Eo) îÁ°æ¤hç-ü¿E.                       – °œ. Ææ’üµ∆-éπ®˝, *†o-´’-™«x-È®úÕf, £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛          鬙«-©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç* usage †’ °æ‹Jhí¬                    -v°æ-¨¡o-© Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x -When, Why, What,
                                                                                        -ï-¢√-•’:                                         ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.                                         How ©-†’ -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-úø-¢Á’-™«?
       É°æ¤púø’ °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ´’J-éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’:                              'g' ûª®√yûª 'e' ´ÊÆh 'ï—í¬ °æ©-é¬-©E     2) ǧƒu-ߪ’ûª, ņ’-®√í∫ç, ņ’-•çüµ¿ç– Ñ ´‚úø’                                                     – -´’-ØÓ-ñ¸, ´÷Ωx
    a) By the time I reached his place he had                                           rule àO’         ™‰ü¿’. English               °æü∆-©†’ Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -à-´’ç-ö«®Ω’? ' ®√ùÀç-îªôç——      ï-¢√-•’:
       gone out.                                                                        Pronunciation ™              á°æ¤púø÷        ÅØË °æü∆-EéÀ ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Éç-Tx-≠ˇ °æü¿ç àC?                  Ñ È®ç--úø’ -¢√é¬u-™x 1) Correct; 2) Wrong.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -
       ؈’ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ îËÍ®-Ææ-JéÀ Åûª-úø’ -¢Á-R}-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.                             §ƒöÀç-îª-í∫© rules î√™« ûªèπ◊\´.                              – Èé.Ææ’v•-´’ùuç, ´·†-í¬©§ƒúø’         English™ È®çúø’®Ω鬩Questions: i) 'Wh' words
    b) He had promised the CDs and I went                                               G ûª®√yûª e ´ÊÆh 'ï— í¬ °æ©-鬙«,        ï-¢√-•’:                                                    (What, When, Where, etc.,)ûÓ ¢Á·ü¿-©ßË’u
       there to get them.                                                               'í∫— í¬ °æ©-鬙« ÅØËC, Ç ´÷ô à           1) Would Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ûªy®Ω-™ ØË -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.        v°æ¨¡o©÷, ii) ÅN ™‰E v°æ¨¡o©’. 'Wh' ûÓ ¢Á·ü¿-©ßË’u
       CD©’ É≤ƒh-†-†-úøç ´·çü¿’, ؈’ ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç                                        ¶µ«≠æ-†’ç* English™éÀ ´*aç-ü¿-ØË-       2) ǧƒu-ߪ’ûª – Warmth/ affection;                          v°æ¨¡o™x 'Wh' word ´·ç-ü¿’ ®√¢√L.
       ûª®√yûª– 鬕öÀd had promised.                                                    ü∆Eo          •öÀd         Öçô’çC.          ņ’-®√í∫ç– affection; ņ’-•çüµ¿ç– attachment.
I                                                                                                                         -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                     í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 20 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Pavan: How long can we be here?                                 Mohan: He says you will soon be a minister
               ´’†ç áçûª-ÊÆ-°œ-éπ\úø Öçúø-í∫©ç?                     Ravi:  I, A minister!! It's sheer nonsense.
    Ravi:      Why? There's no hurry. We can be                            How can I be a Minister
               here as long as we like. What's the                             ؈’ ´’çvAØ√!! Åçûª-éπçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ™‰E
               matter?                                                         N≠æߪ’ç ÉçéÓöÀ Öçúøü¿’.
               àç? ´’†ç áçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ é¬¢√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰                 °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ look at the expressions- can
               Åçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçúø-í∫©ç. àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç?                  be, can understand, can read, can't (Cannot)
    Pavan: Then let's listen to this man. He is                     speak, cannot follow, can translate etc.
           saying some thing in Tamil. Can you                      É´Fo èπÿú≈  can ûÓ èπÿúÕ† verbs  éπü∆. ÉN two
           understand what he says?                                 forms(È®çúø’ ®Ω÷§ƒ-©)™ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆?
               Å®·ûË Éûª†’ îÁ°æ¤h-†oC Nçü∆ç. ûªN’-                  1) can be-ÉC   be form - Öçúø-ú≈Eo ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’çC.
               ∞¡ç™ àüÓ îÁ°æ¤h-Ø√oúø’. Åûª†’ îÁÊ°pC                2) can understand, can read, can speak, etc.
               †’´¤y Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©¢√?                              É´Focan + 1st Regular Doing Word (1st
                                                                                                                                                                                               Prabha:    Come, Prasanthi, how can you
    Ravi:      I can, but only a little. He says he is a               RDW) form.                                                     e)   Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\úÕéÀ°æ¤púø’ ®√™‰ü¿’
                                                                                                                                           She can't (cannot) come here now.                              be so harsh/ unkind to me?
               palmist. He can read our palms and                   ÉN °æ†’-©†’ (Actions)    Ææ÷*-≤ƒh®·.
               tell us of our future.                               1. Can:                  (ability)
                                                                             -É-C ≤ƒ´’-®√n uEo               verb.
                                                                                                         ûÁLÊ°                        f)   Éçûª *†o N≠æߪ’ç Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰¢√?                Prasanthi: How can you talk so much non-
               àüÓ éÌçûª (Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-í∫-©†’). Åûª†’                       v°æÆæ’hûªç(present)   ™ é¬F, ¶µºN-≠æuû˝                   Can't you (can you not) understand this                           sense?
               Palmist - £æ«Ææh-≤ƒ-´·-vCéπç-– îË®· îª÷Æœ                     (Future)   ™ é¬F Öçúø-í∫-©í∫úøç, îËߪ’-í∫-                simple thing?                                          Ñ éÀçC  day to day situations       ™ ¢√úË vocab-
                                                                             ©í∫úøç ÅE îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊can   ¢√úøû√ç.                    Practise the following in English:                       ulary/ expressions practise         îËߪ’çúÕ: (Prn:
                                                                    a) He can be here in ten minutes.                                 Prabha: ؈’   CM                  (become
                                                                                                                                                          †’ é¬í∫-L-T-ûË...-                   Pronunciation)
                                                                           Åûª†’ 10 EN’-≥ƒ--™x Ééπ\úø Öçúø-í∫-©úø’.                          ¢√úøçúÕ)
                                                                                                                                                                                               1. get up -
                                      -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 60
                                                                          (can be - be form éπü∆ – Öçúø-í∫-©-í∫úøç -ûÁ-©’°æ¤-         Prasanthi: Çí¬í∫’. †’´¤y CM ᙫ Å´-í∫-©´¤?                             Evü¿-™‰-´-úøç
                                                                          ûª’ç-C)                                                     Prabha:    ؈’ Å´-™‰-†Ø√ F †´’téπç?                        (wakeup    ÅØÌa – é¬F ÅC é¬Ææh §ƒçúÕûªuç)
                                                                                                                                                                                               2. have/ take a bath -      ≤ƒo†ç îËߪ’úøç.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (bathe -  ≤ƒo†ç îËߪ’úøç, Ææ´·vü¿ ≤ƒo†ç – Ñ


                               I can speak..
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ´÷ô Ö†o-°æp-öÀéà DØÁo-´®Ω÷ É°æ¤púø’ ¢√úøúøç ™‰ü¿’.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  §ƒûª-•-úÕ† ¢√úø’éπ – Ææ´·-vü¿-≤ƒo†ç – a swim in
                                                                                                                                                                                                  the sea)
                                                                                                                                                                                               3. have/ take breakfast (Prn:      -v¶„é˙-°∂æÆˇd) – §Òü¿’-löÀ
                                                                                                                                                                                                  °∂æ-™«-£æ…®Ωç.
                                                                                                                                                                                               4. boil: (prn: ¶«ß˝’™¸) ´’J-Tç-îª-úøç/-´’-®Ω-í∫úøç
               ñÆæuç îÁÊ°p-¢√úø’. ´’† £æ«Ææhͮ꩒ îª÷Æœ            b)   FÈéç-ûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ é¬¢√-©çõ‰ Åçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ ØËE-éπ\úø Öçúø-           Prasanthi:       †’´¤y CM
                                                                                                                                                       é¬í∫-©¢Ó,                               5. fry: ¢Ë®·ç-îªúøç, ¢Ë°æ¤úø’ èπÿ®Ω
               ´’† ¶µºN-≠æuû˝ îÁ°æp-í∫-©-†çô’-Ø√o--úø’.                  í∫-©†’
               (Read the palm – ͮ꩒ îª÷úøôç–                           I can be here as long as you like/ want.                                      ™‰üÓ é¬F,                               6. bake: (prn:      ¶„ß˝’é˙) †÷ØÁ-™«ç-öÀN ™‰èπ◊çú≈
               £æ«Ææh-Í®-ê©’)                                       c)   ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø í∫çô-éπçõ‰ Öçúø-™‰úø’                                              nonsense                                   E°æ¤p© O’ü¿ 鬩aúøç. Bread Å™«Íí îË≤ƒh®Ω’
    Pavan: But how can we understand him? He                           He cannot be (can't be) here for more than                                ´÷vûªç                                           鬕öÀd Bread îËÊÆ îÓô’: Bakery (¶„ß˝’-éπ-J)
           can't (can not) speak Telugu and we                         an hour.                                                                  î√™« ´÷ö«x-                                     Snacks/ refreshments/ eats - ´’†ç
           can't follow his Tamil.                                  d)                        President
                                                                         ¶µ«®Ω-Bߪ’ §˘®Ω’úÁ´-®Ω-®·Ø√               í¬ Öçúø-                      úø-í∫-©´¤.                                      ´÷´‚-©’í¬ -Å-ØË öÀ°∂œ-Ø˛èπ◊ correct English
               Åûª-úÕ -´÷-ô-©’ ᙫ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’èπ◊-ØË-C? Åûª-             í∫-©úø’                                                      Prabha:    †’´¤y Ø√ M. SURESAN                             ´÷ô©’. öÀ°∂œØ˛ English ´÷ô é¬ü¿’.
               úËË¢Á÷ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´÷ö«x-úø-™‰úø’. ´’†ç ÅûªE               Any Indian citizen can be the president.                                N≠æ-ߪ’ç™                                    7. pastime: 鬩-Íé ~-§ƒ-EéÀ NØÓü¿ç.
               Tamil Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰ç. ᙫí¬?                           (ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Å®Ω’|úø’)                                                 Åçûª éπJ∏-                                    8. lunch: °æí∫-öÀ/ -´’-üµ∆u£æ«oç ¶µï†ç.
    Ravi:      Ah, here comes Mohan. He can                         e)   F ï†t™ †’´¤y CMí¬ Öçúø-™‰´¤                                            †çí¬ á™« Öçúø-í∫-©¢Ë? (harsh/
                                                                                                                                                 unkind - éπJ∏-†-¢Á’i†)                        9. Dinner: (´’†èπ◊) ®√vA ¶µï†ç. (prn: úÕ†– 'úÕ—
               speak Tamil.                                              You cannot (can't) be a CM for your life
               Mohan             Tamil
                           ´Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. Åûª-úø’     ´÷ö«x-úø-      É´Fo èπÿú≈ (can be) be forms- Öçúø-í∫-©í∫ú≈Eo -                   Prasanthi: Å®·ûË †’´yçûª nonsense ᙫ                       E ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç.) äéπ ®ÓV™ ´’†ç îËÊÆ
               í∫-©úø’.                                             ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰≤ƒh®·.                                                            ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©¢˛?                                 ´·êu-¢Á’i† ¶µï†ç. ´’† ü˨¡ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™
    Mohan: What's going on?              (àç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûÓçC?)        2. can + 1st RDW - action.                                        Answer:                                                     Dinner ®√vA ¶µï-†¢Ë’ Å´¤-ûª’çC. îªL-üË-¨»™x
                                                                                                                                      Prabha: If I can become the C.M..
    Ravi:  Here's a Tamil Palmist. Can you                          a)   ؈’ £œ«çC ¶«í¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©†’                                                                                          ´’üµ∆u£æ«o ¶µï†ç 鬴a.
                                                                                                                                      Prasanthi: Wait. How can you become the                  10. Supper: (prn: Ææ°æ– Ææ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) –
           translate his tamil for us?                                 I can speak Hindi well.
                                                                                                                                                 CM?
                 Tamil palmist.
               Éûª†’                   Tamil
                                      -Ñ-ߪ’-†       ™             b)   Åûª†’Tendulkar       ™« Çúø-í∫-©ú≈?                                                                                        ®ÓV™ *´J ¶µï†ç – v°æA-®ÓW Öçú≈-©E
                                                                                                                                      Prabha:    Are you sure (that) I can't (can-
               îÁÊ°pC ´÷èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ îÁ°æp-í∫-©¢√?                   Can he play like Tendulkar?                                                                                                  ™‰ü¿’. Åçûª ´·êuç é¬ü¿’.
                                                                                                                                                 not) be the CM?
    Mohan: That's OK. Go on then.                                   c)      subjects
                                                                         O’Í®             ¶Cµç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’?                                                                                          breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper - ´’†ç
                                                                                                                                      Prasanthi: I don't (do not) know if you can
           (The Palmist studies Ravi's palm                            What subjects can you teach?
                                                                                                                                                 become the CM or not; but you                       ®ÓW îËÊÆ¢ÁjûË OöÀ ´·çü¿’, A/ An, The ®√´¤.
           and says some thing in Tamil -              Åûª†’        d)              English
                                                                         O’È®çûª ¶«í¬              ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©®Ω’?                             can certainly talk a lot of non-
           Tamil          ™ àüÓ îÁ§ƒhúø’)                             How well can you speak English?
                                                                                                                                                 sense.

    -v°æ-¨¡o: Infinitive ûÓ,  modal verbs ûÓ éÌEo ®Ω鬩 ¢√é¬u©’ Aéπ-´’éπ                   3 a) Book, Madras      èπ◊ °æç°œç-î√-Lqç-üË.                                    -v°æ-¨¡o: Éç-Tx-≠ˇ™ commands, orders ûÁ©-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ (™‰ü∆) Conditions
            °úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®·. -Ñ -¢√é¬u-™x -ûË-ú≈-©’ -N-´-Jç--îªí∫-©®Ω’.                        (é¬F °æç°œç-î√®Ó ™‰üÓ-ûÁLߪ’ü¿’)                                                 NCµç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ Should ™‰ü∆ must ©†’ ¢√úøû√ç éπü∆. é¬F ØËØÌéπ
            1) a) They have to have gone there                                                  ÉC clear í¬ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’ Ñ sentence ™.                                          text book ™ îª÷ÊÆh be forms Å®·† is, are ©†’ ¢√ú≈®Ω’.
               b) They should have gone there                                                b) -™  should been sent •ü¿’©’, should have been sent                              áçü¿’-éπ™«?
            2) a) They have to have been there                                                  Å®·-ûËØË correct. Å°æ¤púø’ Å®Ωnç. °æ¤Ææhéπç °æç°æ-•-ú≈-LqçüË é¬F           1) äéπ Çü∆ߪ’ç ´u´-≤ƒßª’ Çü∆ߪ’ç. ÅC ¶µº÷N’ †’ç* -Öçú≈L – ÅØË
               b) They should have been there                                                   °æç°æ-•-úø-™‰ü¿’.
            3) a) The book was to have been sent to Madras                                 4 a) O’ car †’ green í¬ paint îË®·ç* Öçú≈-LqçC.
                                                                                                                                                                              ≠æ®Ω-ûª’-©†’ text book ™ To be an agricultural income... The
                                                                                                                                                                              revenue is derived from land ÅE ≠æ®Ω-ûª’í¬ Ê°®Ì\-Ø√o®Ω’. Å™«-é¬éπ
               b) The book should been sent to Madras                                           (Å™« îË®·ç-î√®Ó ™‰üÓ, Ñ sentence clear í¬ ûÁ-©°æü¿’)
                                                                                                                                                                              The revenue should be derived.. ÅE ¢√úÌa éπü∆.
            4) a) You have to have your car painted green                                    b) O’ car †’ green í¬ paint îËÆ œ Öçú≈-LqçC.
               b) You should have painted your car green                                        (Å™« îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’, O’®Ω’. ÉçéÓ colour ûÓ paint î˨»®Ω’)                     2) Å™«Íí äéπ vôÆæ’d Çü∆ߪ’ç °æ†’o †’ç-* N’†-£æ…-®·ç°æ¤ §Òçü∆-©çõ‰
            5) a) She was to have taken that bus                                                                                                                              ÅC ÉØ˛-éπç-ö«èπ◊q éπ-N’≠æ-†®˝îË †¢Á÷üÁj -Öçú≈L ÅØË ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’; äéπ text
               b) She must/ should have taken that bus               .                                                                                                        book ™ The trust should be registered with the commis-
                                                                                                                                                                              sioner of I.T ÅE ¢√úøí¬, ´’®Ìéπ text ™ The trust is registered
    -ï-¢√-•’:
                                                      – áÆˇ.-®√-ï-¨Ï-ê®˝, éπ®Ω÷o©’
                                                                                                                                                                              with commissioner of I.T as per the provision of 12A ÅE -
    1 a) They have to have gone there                                                                                                                                         ÖçC. ´’J Ééπ\-úø is registered éÀ should be registered éÀ ´’üµ¿u
            ¢√∞¡xéπ\úÕéÀ ¢ÁR} Öçú≈-LqçC, ¢Á∞«}®Ó ™‰üÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’.                                                                                                            í∫© ûËú≈ àçöÀ? È®çúÕç-öÀ™ à ¢√éπuç áô’-´çöÀ Å®√nEo ÉÆæ’hçC?
      b) They should have gone there
                                                                                                                                                                              ™‰ü∆ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u©’ äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
         ¢√∞¡x-éπ\-úÕéÀ -¢Á-∞«}-LqçC, é¬F ¢Á∞¡}-™‰ü¿’.
                                                                                                                                                                           -ï-¢√-•’:
    Sentence 1) a              construction
                          Åçûª ´’ç*               have to have
                                                          é¬ü¿’.                                                                                                                                           –Ê≠é˙ Å°∂æb™¸ ë«Ø˛, ´·çîÁ´·†-í¬©§ƒúø’
    gone   ™«çöÀexpressions, usage              ™ î√™« Å®Ω’ü¿’. ü∆E •ü¿’©’                5 a)   Ç¢Á’ Ç bus áéÀ\ Öçú≈-LqçC.
                                                                                                                                                                           1) 'The revenue should be derived'            Åçõ‰-ØË correct,
    They had to go there      simple
                                   Åçõ‰           í¬ ÅüË Å®Ωnç-ûÓ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.                   (áéÀ\çüÓ ™‰üÓ, Ñ sentence ´©x            clear   í¬ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’)
    2 a)     1a)                                      sentence
         DEéà Ææ-´÷-üµ∆-†-¢Ë’ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ Ñ                                   b) She must have taken that bus.                                                 O’®Ωç-ô’-†oô’x.
               They had to be there,
         •ü¿’-©’                            simpler    direct
                                                    Åçõ‰          í¬           í¬                              bus
                                                                                                  Ç¢Á’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ Ç       ØË áéÀ\ Öçô’çC.                                  2) ÉC èπÿú≈, The trust should be registered Åçõ‰ØË correct.
         Öçô’çC. Ñ   sentence            Å®Ωnç ¢√Rx-éπ\úø Öçú≈-LqçC (í∫ûªç™).                    (ÆæçüË£æ«ç ™‰ü¿’, áéÀ\çC)                                                O’®Ω’ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-†o-ô’xí¬, is derived, is registered Åçõ‰
         (é¬F ÖØ√o®Ó ™‰üÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’). DEo Ñ sentence clear                   í¬                 She should have taken that bus.                                          ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ïJ-ÍíC ÉüË ÅE. Å™« é¬èπ◊çú≈ äéπ rule í¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰
         îÁ°æpü¿’.                                                                                 Ç¢Á’ Çbus    áé¬\Lq ÖçúÕçC, é¬F áéπ\-™‰ü¿’.                             should be derived, should be registered ÅØË¢Ë correct.
      b) -D-†®Ωnç: ¢√Rx-éπ\úø Öçú≈-LqçC, é¬F ™‰®Ω’.                                                      bus
                                                                                                  (ÉçÍé-üÓ      áéÀ\çC).
I                                                                                                                              -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                       -Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 23 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Mahesh: Hi Ramesh, you can sing, can't you?
                                                              àçöÀ problem?
                                                                     Kishore:
                 ®Ω-¢Ë’-¨¸, †’´¤y §ƒúø-í∫-©´¤ éπü∆?            ´÷ cousins Ñ weekend Ééπ\úø
                                                                     Kumar:
    Ramesh: Of course I can. Why, what's the mat-              Öçö«®Ω’.
            ter?                                     Kishore: ¢√∞¡x†’ èπÿú≈ ´’†ûÓ ®Ω´’t†’.
            Å´¤†’. áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?       Kumar: ¢√∞¡Ÿx ®√™‰®Ω’. ¢√Rx-éπ\-úÕéÀ -ã interview -éÓÆæç
    Mahesh: You can participate in the singing                 -´Ææ’hØ√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡x-é¬-¢Ë∞¡ interview ÖçC.
            competition at college next week.        Kishore: -†’-´¤y -™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ -ØË-Ø√ picnic enjoy -îË-ߪ’-
            ´îËa-¢√®Ωç §ƒô-© -§Ú-öÙ §ƒ™Ô_-†-´îª’a.          ™‰-†’. -†’-¢Áy-™«Èíj-Ø√ ®√-´-ú≈-EéÀ -v°æ-ߪ’-Aoç-.
    Ramesh: Oh, no. I can sing but not in a com- Kumar: ´÷ cousins Ééπ\-úø’-†o-°æ¤púø’ ᙫ ®√í∫-
            petition.                                          ©†’? îª÷ü∆lç. ¢√∞¡Ÿx Í®§Ú, á©’xçúÓ
            Åçûª ™‰ü¿’. àüÓ §ƒúø-í∫-©†’ é¬F §ÚöÙx            phone îË≤ƒh®Ω’. correctí¬ á°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒh®Ó?
            ´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’.                                      ü∆Eo-•öÀd Fèπ◊ îÁ§ƒh†’.                                               Answers:                                                        b) Bhavan: Hi Bhaskar, Congrats.
    Mahesh: O come Ramesh. Tell yourself you Kishore: †’´¤y ††’o E®√-¨¡-°æ-®Ω-îª-´ØË (disappoint)                                    a) Kumar: Hi Kishore, What news?                                Bhaskar: What on?
            can, and you will.                                ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. †’´¤y ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰ ûª°æpéπ                            Kishore: How about coming for a picnic / join-
                                                              ®√í∫-©´¤. ´’†-Ææ’çõ‰ ´÷®Ω_ç Öçô’çC éπü∆.                                                                                               Bhavan: Sekhar told me yesterday (that) you
            ®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ, Ø√ ´÷ô N†’. †’´¤y §ƒúø-í∫-©-´E
                                                     Kumar: §ÚF picnic postpone                     îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰-¢√?                            ing a picnic this weekend? will you                             had got/ won a prize.
            Fèπ◊ †’¢Ëy îÁ°æ¤péÓ, §ƒúË-ߪ’-í∫-©´¤.
                                                               Picnic miss Å´-úøç Ø√éπ-Ææ©’ É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’.                                      come for/ will you join a picnic this                  Bhaskar: O, That's nothing. I got that prize for
    Ramesh: I am not so sure. (Åçûª- †-´’téπç Ø√èπ◊                                                                                           weekend? Ten of us are going.                                   the best essay in the essay writing
            ™‰ü¿’)                                                                                                                   Kumar: This weekend? I'm (I am) afraid I can't                           competition.
    Mahesh: You can try at least, Keep telling your-                                                                                          (cannot) come.                                         Bhavan: I Know you can write very well/ I know
            self you can, and you will be able to                                                                                    Kishore: What's (What is) the problem?                                   you are very / quiet good at writing.
                                                                                                      -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 61
            do it.                                                                                                                   Kumar: My cousins will be here this weekend.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              But I didn't know that you had got/
                 ؈’ §ƒúø-í∫-©†’, §ƒúø-í∫-©†’, ÅE îÁ°æ¤p-                                                                           Kishore: Ask them to join us too.
                 èπ◊çô÷ (ņ’-èπ◊çô÷) Öçúø’. †’´¤y §ƒúø-                                                                                                                                                       won the prize until sekhar told me. let
                 í∫-©’í∫’-û√´¤.


                                                                                          How can we..
                 (keep telling - îÁ°æ‹h-Öç--úø-úøç – continue
                 telling. keep doing something / contin-
                 ue to do some thing -             äéπ °æE îËÆæ÷h
                 Öçúøôç)
    Ramesh: Ok, I'll try.      v°æߪ’-Ao-≤ƒh†’.
                        can
       °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ûÓ Ö†o      verbs        †’ í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’                                                                                                                                             me tell you. I can't (cannot) write so
                                                                                                                                     Kumar: They can't (can
       éπü∆. ´’†ç éÀçü¿öÀ  lesson     ™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’èπ◊†o Å®ΩnçûÓØË     Kishore: Å-Eo -à®√p-ô’x -îËÊÆ-¨»ç. -Éçéπ -á-™« post-                                                                                      well as you. congrats again.
                                                                              pone -îË-ߪ’-´’ç-ö«--´¤?                                        not). They are
       Ééπ\úøcan      †’ ¢√ú≈ç. Åçõ‰ 'í∫©— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ –                                                                                                                                             Bhaskar: O, You're praising me too much/
                                                                     Kumar: Ok. äéπ\-®ÓV Çí∫’. Í®°æ¤ îÁ§ƒh à N≠æߪ’ç.                         coming here
       ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç(ability)                  can
                             ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ®Ω-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊       ¢√ú≈ç.                                                                                                                                              that's praising too much. How is your
                                                                     Kishore: †’´¤y ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ´Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤.                                 for an inter-
       Ñ  response (reply)                 Ramesh: Of
                                   îª÷úøçúÕ.                                                                                                                                                                   cricket practice?/ How is your cricket
                                                                     b) Bhavan: Hi, congrats Bhaskar.                                         view.      They
      course, I can. conversation           can you do
                                               ™                                                                                                                                                              practice going on?
                                                                     Bhaskar:                                                                 have an inter-
      something?        Å-ØËquestion        èπ◊ îËߪ’-í∫-©†’ ÅØË               üËEéÀ?                                                                                                                          (That's praising too much- spoken
                                                                     Bhavan:         prize                                                    view that day.
                              I can do it,                                    FÍéüÓ             ´*aç-ü¿E ¨Ïê®˝ E†o Ø√ûÓ
                                                                                                                                                                                                               English
       Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç É´y--ú≈-EéÀ                    ÅE °æ‹Jhí¬ Å†-
       èπ◊çú≈,I can                                   I
                         Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. îËߪ’-™‰-éπ-§ÚûË                  ÅØ√oúø’.                                               Kishore: I can't (can not) M. SURESAN                                                ™ áèπ◊\´)
                                                                     Bhaskar: Åü∆. ÅüË-´’çûª °ü¿l N≠æߪ’ç é¬ü¿’. ´÷                          enjoy the picnic                                       Bhavan: We have been practising for the past
      can't (cannot)      Åçö«ç. °æ‹Jh sentence           ņç.
                                                                               college §ÚöÙ x Åûª ’u-ûªh´ ’ ¢√u≤ƒ-EéÀ                       without you. Do try to come/ try to                              one week. only four days are left
    Bhaskar: I can play cricket very well. In fact I
                                                                               prize ´*açC.                                                   come. (Do try -         í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ Å-™«                 (N’TL ÖØ√o®·)      for the tournament.
               can play better than some of the
                                                                     Bhavan: †’´yçûª ¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-í∫-©-´E Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬                                                                                             My Fielding needs some improve-
               players in the Indian team.
                                                                                                                                                Åçö«ç)
                                                                              ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å®·ûË Fèπ◊ prize ´*a† N≠æߪ’ç                 Kumar: How can I come when my cousins are                                 ment. I am sure our team will make it/
    Bhavan: Oh, can you?           (Å™«í¬?)                                   -¨Ï-ê®˝ îÁÊ°p-´-®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’™‰ü¿’. îÁ°æ¤hØ√o éπü∆.            here? Let's (let us) see. They will                              reach the finals.
    Bhaskar: You think I can't (cannot) ?
    Bhavan: (Do) You mean the selectors don't
                                                                              ؈’ F Åçûª ¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-™‰†’. ´’®Ó≤ƒ-J                           phone/ call / ring me tomorrow or the                           (make it -    (àüÁjØ√) îËߪ’-í∫-©í∫-úøç)
                                                                              ÅGµ-†ç-ü¿-†©’.                                                  day after, when they will be/ will come                Bhaskar: Isn't' (Is not) the tourney (tournament
               know your greatness?                                  Bhaskar: †’´¤y ††’o ´’K §ÒT-úË-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. Thank
              selectors                                                                                                                       here exactly. Depending on that I'll (I                           èπ◊ ÉçéÓ-´÷ô)     in Hyderabad?/ the
         Åçõ‰               èπ◊ F íÌ°æp-ûª†ç ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿ç-ö«¢√?                you. F cricket practice ᙫ ÖçC?
    Bhaskar: They can't. Moreover, I can, but I                                                                                               will) let you know.                                              tourney is in hyderabad, isn't it? when
                                                                     Bhavan: í∫ûª ¢√®Ωç ®ÓV-©’í¬ practice îËÆæ’hØ√oç.
               don't play.                                                    Ééπ tournaments èπ◊ Ø√-©’í∫’ -®Ó-V™‰í¬                 Kishore: I'm (I am) sure you will not disappoint                          will you be there for the first match?
                  ¢√∞¡x®Ωnç îË≤ÚéÓ-™‰ü¿’. ؈’ Çúø-í∫-©†’, é¬E                ÖçC. Ø√ fielding éÌçûª ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-ú≈-Lq†                     me. If you want you can come. Where                    Bhavan: On the 22nd. Our first match is with
                  Çúø†’.                                                      Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçC. ´÷ team finals ü∆é¬ ®√í∫-                         there is a will there is a way, you                             the khammam team/ the team from
       îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆? Spoken English ™ can, can't                            ©-ü¿ØË †´’téπç Ø√èπ◊çC.                                         know. (you know -         éπü∆-)                                khammam.
       (can not) -ûÓ äéπJ ability (≤ƒ´’-®Ωn uç) í∫’-Jç-*             Bhaskar: £j«vü∆-¶«-ü˛™  éπü∆ Ñ tournaments.                   Kumar: Why don't you postpone your picnic?                      Bhaskar: Ok It's time for me to leave. All the
       áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ-®·Ø√ Ææ綵«-≠æù ï®Ω-°æ-´îª’a.                                O’È®-°æ¤púø’çö«®Ω’ Åéπ\úø 1st matchéÀ?                Kishore: We have made all arrangements.                                   best.
    Now, Practise the following aloud in English.                    Bhavan: 22´ û√K-ê’†. ´÷ 1st match ê´’tç                                  How can we postpone it?                                Bhavan: Thank you.
    a) Kumar: Hi Kishore,                                                     team ûÓ.                                               Kumar: Wait for a day I'll let you know tomor-
                             àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’?                                                                                                                                                          Vocabulary / Expressions:
                                                                     Bhaskar: OK. ´’J Ø√èπ◊ time Å®·çC. -¢Á-∞«}-L.                            row.
    Kishore:     Ñ ¢√®√çûªçpicnic     èπ◊ ´≤ƒh¢√? Ñ                                                                                                                                                  (Prn- Pronunciation)
                                                                             All the best.                                           Kishore: You are coming definitely.
             weekend      ã °æC-´’ç-CN’ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√oç.                                                                                                                                                  1. Attend (Prn:
                                                                     Bhavan: Thank you.                                                                                                                              Åõ„çú˛– õ„ç ØÌ-éÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç) -– £æ…ï-
    Kumar:       Ñ ¢√®√ç-ûª´÷? ®√™‰-ØË¢Á÷.                                                                                                     (Definitely) certainly -      éπ*a-ûªçí¬).           ®Ω-´-úøç–  attend/ school/ college/ place of work

                                    -v°æ-¨¡o:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    (´’†ç ´%Ah/ NCµ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË îÓôxèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡}-úøç/
                                                1) Rajani has to work along with Ravi                     We have to start now to meet him - Åûª-úÕ-E éπ-©’Ææ’éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ ´’†ç É°æ¤púø’             £æ…ï-®Ω-´-úø-ç)/ Marriage/ meeting/ dinner/ party/
                                                   Rajani is to work along with Ravi                      •ßª’-©’-üË-®√L– ÉC ´’† Å´-Ææ-®√Eo/ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© -äAh-úÕE Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC.                     celebrations etc. Oô-Eo-öÀéÀ èπÿú≈ £æ…ï-®Ω-´-úøç,
                                                2) They have to hold the programme                        She has to stay at office from 10 to 4.                                                   ®√´-úøç, ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç ÅØË Å®√n-©ûÓ come, go, be
                                                   They are to hold the programme                         Ç¢Á’ Office ™ 10 †’ç* 4 ´®Ωèπ◊ Öçú≈L– NCµ.                                               present •ü¿’©’ attend áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøû√ç.
                                                3) The SP, Naveen Chand who was to                        She has to take care of her child, so she is unable to come.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 a) E†o-¢√úø’ School èπ◊ ®√-™‰ü¿’.
                                                   attend as a chief guest in this pro-                   Ç¢Á’ °æJ-ÆœnA (Gúøf†’ îª÷Ææ’éÓ-´-úøç) Ç¢Á’†’ ®√E-´y-ü¿’.-                                 He didn't (did not) attend school yesterday.
                                                   gramme was not / had not/ did not come                 You have to be here at 10 – O’J-éπ\úø 10éÀ Öçú≈L– ÉC Çïc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 b) O’®Ω’ °-R}-Èéç-ü¿’èπ◊ ®√™‰ü¿’?
                                                   yesterday.                                          2) Rajani is to work along with Ravi – Rajani Ravi ûÓ éπ-LÆœ °æE-îË-ߪ÷-L/
                                                        is/ has to, how to/ are to, was/ had              -îË-ߪ’-¶-ûª’ç-C/ -îË-Ææ’hçC– Ééπ\úø ÉC ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ßË’-ü∆Eo í∫’-Jç-* -îÁ-•’-ûª’ç-C. ÉC Why didn't you (did you not) attend the mar-
                                                                                                          ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ü∆ü∆°æ¤ éπ*aûªç. Åçõ‰ Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ îËÆæ’èπ◊†o à®√p-ô’-´©xé¬F, riage?
                                    °j ¢√é¬u-™xE
                                    not
                                                                                                          Ç Rajani, Ravi ©èπ◊ ´*a† Çïc´©xé¬E ¢√∞¡Ÿx -éπ-LÆœ °æEîËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’/ îË≤ƒh®Ω’ c) Æ涵ºèπ◊ î√-™«-´’çC ´î√a®Ω’.
                                        -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ éπÈ®Íéd-Ø√?-N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
                                                          – Å•’l™¸ ´·Ø√°∂ˇ, †çC-éÌ-ô÷\®Ω’                 ÅE. have to/ has to Åçõ‰ îËߪ÷L– îË≤ƒh®Ó, ™‰üÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. am to/ is to/ A large number (of people) attended the
     -ï-¢√-•’:                                                                                            are to/ was to/ were to N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Å®·ûË îËߪ÷L, îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç î√™«
                                                                                                                                                                                                    meeting.
        1) Rajani has to work along with Ravi          Åçõ‰ – ®ΩïE ®ΩNûÓ °æE-îË-ߪ÷-L/-°æE                áèπ◊\´, îËߪ’-úøç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC.                                                      d) Í®°æ¤ dinner éÌÆæ’h-Ø√o®√?
           îËߪ÷Lq Öçô’çC. Ééπ\úø Rajani has to –            °æE îËߪ÷L. á´-JûÓ?– Ç¢Á’-éÀ-             3) ´·êu-Å-AC∑ †O-Ø˛-îªçü˛ ®√´-©-Æ œçC/ ®√-¢√-Lq-†-¢√úø’, é¬F Çߪ’† ®√™‰ü¿’, ÅE DE            Will you/ are you going to, attend the dinner
           *a† Çïc-´©x/ Ç¢Á’-èπ◊†o Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-´©x/ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© v§Úü¿s-©ç-´©x– Ñ é¬®Ω-ù«-©™               ¶µ«´ç. Ñ Å®Ωnç correct í¬ ´îËa-ôô’x îÁÊ°p sentence- The SP, Navin tomorrow? / Are you attending the dinner
           üËE-´-©x-ØÁjØ√ Ç¢Á’ ®ΩNûÓ °æE-îË-ߪ÷-L/ -îË-ߪ÷Lq ´Ææ’hçC ÅE. has to †’ he,                    Chand who was to have attended as the chief guest did not come yes-                          tomorrow?
           she, it ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. have to †’ I, We, You and they ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.                                 terday. was not come-     English
                                                                                                                                       ÆæÈ®j†    had not come
                                                                                                                                                      é¬ü¿’.                     Ééπ\úø ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
I                                                                                                                               -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                            í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 27 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Sridhar: Hi Neeraj, just how busy are you?
                           busy
                -F®Ω-ñ ¸, †’´¤y            busy
                                       Ø√?/ áçûª             í¬         Ééπ\-úø can -†’ question form ™, permission
                ÖØ√o´¤?                                                 Åúø-í∫-ú≈-EéÀ (ņ’-´’-A- §Òç-ü¿-ú≈-EéÀ) ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç.
                                                                        a) ´’-S} á°æ¤púø’ éπ©-´-´’ç-ö«®Ω’ N’´’tLo?
                 (Ééπ\úø just = ÅÆæ©’. conversation ™                       When can I see you again?
                 ûÁ©’-í∫’™ '´’J— -™«í¬ just ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.)              (asking for permission)
    Tarun:      Not at all. What's the matter?                          b)   ØËEéπ ¢Á∞¡xØ√?
                -Å-üËç -™‰-ü¿’. àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç?                              Can I go now? (asking for permission)
    Sridhar: I am in a hurry to get home. Can you                       c) Can I use your pen?
             drive me home on your bike?                                     pen
                                                                             O’              (permission)
                                                                                   ¢√úø’-éÓØ√?
                                    bike
                ÉçöÀéÀ ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞«xL. F               O’ü¿ †-†’o -   3. Question form      ™ permission             Åúø-í∫-ú≈-EéÀ
                Éç-öÀéÀ -BÆæ’Èé-∞¡-û√-¢√?                                       can
                                                                        ¢√úÕ-†õ‰x, †’  statement form     permission
                                                                                                                 ™
    Tarun:      Drive you home? O no. You can take                      É´y-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
                my bike if you want. I am tired of driv-                 a) You can keep the bike till 5'o clock.                                                                                        Answer:
                                                                                                                                      b) Question form        ™     I/ we   ûÓ   permission   Åúø-í∫-
                ing for the day.                                             †’´¤y  bike      †’ Å®·-Cç-öÀ-ü∆é¬ Öç-éÓ-´îª’a.                                                                          Kareem: Can I see you/ speak to you for a few
                                                                                                                                            ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.                                                        minutes?
                EEoç-öÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-úø-´÷? Ø√´©x -é¬ü¿’. Å©-               (giving permission)                                       c) Statement form         ™    request, permission       É´y-
                                                                                                                                                                                                         kasyap: What about?
                Æœ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. 鬢√-©ç-õ‰ Ø√ bike BÆæ’éÓ-.                 b) You can take my bike.                                           ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
                                                                                                                                      d) Statement form            ™ possibility éÀ (≤ƒüµ¿u¢Ë’ Å´¤-     Kareem: It's a bit important.
                                                                             Ø√ bike    BÆæ’éÓ´-a/ -BÆæ’éÓ.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         kasyap: You can talk now. I am at leisure.
                                                                             (giving permission)                                            ûª’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊†o -N-≠æ-ߪ÷-EéÀ) ¢√úøû√ç.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kareem: There are a few vacancies for typists
                                                                         c)  †’Nyéπ ¢Á-∞Ô}a. -                                     Practise the following aloud in English:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   jobs in your friend's company. I've
                                                                             You can go now. (giving permission)                      Kareem: ؈’ O’ûÓ é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ (a few minutes) ´÷ö«x-
                                         -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 62              d)  †’´¤y ´çü¿-®Ω÷-§ƒ-ߪ’-©-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ê®Ω’a °ôd-ú≈-
                                                                             EéÀ -O-™‰x-ü¿’.
                                                                                                                                              úø-´î√a? (see/ speak ¢√úøçúÕ)
                                                                                                                                      Kasyap: üËE N≠æߪ’ç?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (have) applied for one of them. Can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   you help me to get the job? My father
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   told me to talk to you.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kasyap: Who is your father?




                  You can talk now
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kareem: Syed Mustafa.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         kasyap: O, I know him well. Your father knows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   my friend too. Your father can talk to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   him.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kareem: You can influence him better.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kasyap: Can you come here tomorrow?
    Sridhar: How long can I have it?                                          you cannot spend more than Rs. 100/-.                   Kareem:
                                                                                                                                         é¬Ææh ´·êu-¢Á’i†                                                Kareem: Certainly- when shall I come?
                áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ¤ç--éÓ†’?                                        (you can spend = you have permission to                    N≠æߪ’ç.                                                        Kasyap: (At) this time tomorrow.
    Tarun:      Will three hours do?                                          spend upto Rs. 100/-)                              Kasyap: É°æ¤púø’      ´÷ö«x-                                            Vocabulary/ Expressions
                ´‚úø’ í∫çô©ÊÆ°æ¤ î√™«?                                4. Ææ’Dµ®˝:                                                        úøçúÕ. ؈’ BJ-                                                 (prn=pronunciation)
                (will do =î√©’.    An income of Rs                       a) Driving in such traffic can be dangerous.                    í¬_ØË ÖØ√o†’.                                                   tnap =   é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Evü¿/ Evü¿-§Ú-´-úøç; ´·êuçí¬ ´’üµ∆u£æ«o
                10000/- a day will do for me. I don't                        É™«çöÀ traffic ™ drive îËߪ’-úøç v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ®Ωç Kareem: O’ friend com-                                                              ¶µï†ç ûª®√yûª (After lunch, he usually
                want more.  ®ÓVèπ◊ °æC-¢Ë© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©                        鬴a/ í¬ Öçô’çC.                                         pany ™ typist                                                          has a nap)
                Çü∆ߪ’ç î√©’ Ø√èπ◊. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ´ü¿’l)                       Ééπ\úø can, possibility (≤ƒüµ¿u-¢Ë’¢Á÷ ņ’-èπ◊-ØË-           jobs          ë«Sí¬ M. SURESAN                                  tCut it out =      Ééπ Ç°æ¤. Åü¿çû√ éπöÀd-°ô’d
    Sridhar: O that's fine. Thank you.                                      ü∆-E-E) ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’çC éπü∆. ÅC can èπ◊ ÉçéÓ                   ÖØ√o®·. ؈’                                                                (á´-È®jØ√ ņ-´-Ææ®Ω N≠æ-ߪ÷-©-ûÓ NÆœ-TÊÆh
    Tarun: You can keep the bike till 5 o'clock. Go                         Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç.                                                  èπÿú≈ apply î˨»†’. ´÷ Ø√†o-í¬®Ω’ O’ûÓ                                      cut it out, come to the point Åçö«ç)
             by the other road. The traffic along this                  b) <éπöx ¢Á∞ Ô}ü¿’l. §ƒ´·-©’ç-ö«®·.                                                                                             tClass áíÌ_-ôdúøç = bunk;
                                                                            Don't go out in the dark. There can be
                                                                                                                                         ´÷ö«x-úø-´’-Ø√o®Ω’. Ø√é¬ job ´îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ O’®Ω’                 tï•’s †öÀç*, class, °æE áíÌ_-ôdúøç = malinger
             road at this hour can be heavy. Driving
             in such traffic can be dangerous.                              snakes. (possibility)
                                                                                                                                         ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-û√®√?                                                  (prn: ´’Lçí∫; 'Lç— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç),
                                                                                                                                 Kasyap: O’ Ø√†o-í¬-È®-´®Ω’?
               鬢√-©çõ‰ 5 í∫çô© ü∆é¬ -ÖçéÓ. Ç ®Ó-úø’f               c) Ç v°æߪ÷ùç î√™« Å©-Ææ-ô éπ-L-Tç-îª-´-a.                                                                                       •úÕ üÌçí∫ = malingerer.
                                                                                                                                 Kareem: Syed Mustafa.                                                   tÇö/ Jé~¬/ ö«éÃq ™«çöÀN îËÆæ’éÓ-´úøç (-áéπ\-úøç,
               í∫’ç-ú≈ ¢Á-∞¡Ÿ}. Ñ road ´ü¿’l. Ñ time ™                     (Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC)
               Ñ road ™ traffic ®ΩDl áèπ◊\-´í¬                             The journey can be very tiresome/ tiring.            Kasyap: Ø√é¬-ߪ’† ¶«í¬ûÁ©’Ææ’. Ø√ friend O’ Ø√†o-                        -¢Á-∞¡}-úøç) = take an auto/ rickshaw/ taxi, etc.
               ÖçúÌa. Driving Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ éÌçîÁç                   d) He can give you trouble. Be careful.                          í¬-JéÀ èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Çߪ’ØË ´÷ö«x-úø-´îª’a                      You take bus no.7 to go to the station.
               v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ω¢Ë’ Ŵa.                                    ñ«ví∫ûªh. ¢√úø’ Fèπ◊ trouble É≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷/ É´y-í∫-©úø’         éπü∆.                                                             (7 number bus
                                                                                                                                                                                                             ´                áéπ\çúÕ)
       °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ can ûÓ Ö†o verbs îª÷úøçúÕ.                         (possibility / ability).                             Kareem: O’®Ω-®·ûË áèπ◊\´ influence îËߪ’-í∫-©-®ΩE.                      t´·JéÀ •ôd©’ = soiled clothes
    1) Can you drive me home?                                            ÉO can èπ◊ -Ö†o Éûª®Ω uses. Ææçví∫-£æ«çí¬ 'can' †’– Kasyap: Í®°æ¤ †’Ny-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√í∫-©¢√?                                                                His clothes are soiled.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ÅûªE •ôd©’ ´·J-éπ-ߪ÷u®·–
       ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-í∫-©¢√?                                      a) Question form ™ ´·êuçí¬, I/ we ûÓ Kareem: ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈. ͮ°-°æ¤púø’ ®√†’?                                                     trags =        The beggar is in rags
                                                                                                                                                                                                                °‘L-éπ©’.
    2) You can take my bike –            Ø√   bike   BÆæ’Èé-∞¡Ÿ}.        REQUESTS èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç.                                   Kasyap: ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ñ õ„jçèπ◊ ®√.                                         Ç ´·≠œd-¢√úø’ *J-T† í∫’úøf™x ÖØ√oúø’.
    3) How long can I have it?
       áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ¤ç--éÓ-´’ç-ö«´¤?                                                                v°æ¨¡o: O’®Ω’ Spoken English QJ{-éπ™ ' ¢√é¬u-©†’ Practice               -ï-¢√-•’: 1) What about you? ÅØËC ü∆ü∆°æ¤ How about you? ûÓ Ææ´÷-†¢Ë’.
    4) You can keep the bike till 5'o clock.                                                            îËߪ’çúÕ—— ÅE noun form ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.                                          °ü¿l ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’. àC ¢√ú≈L ÅØËC á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd O’Íé
    5) The traffic at this hour can be heavy.                                                           Å™«é¬èπ◊çú≈ ' practise îËߪ’çúÕ— ÅE verb form -                                    ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.
    6) Driving in such traffic can be dangerous.                                                        Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îªúøç ÆæÈ®j-†-C éπü∆!                                            2) I haven't money ÅE ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ Å†ç. I haven't any money
       can                                       can                                                                                                                                   ÅEí¬F, I haven't the money ÅE-í¬E Åçö«ç. I have no money
                                                                                                  -ï-¢√-•’: Practice, Practise èπ◊ -ÖçúË ûËú≈ advice èπ◊,
             í∫’Jç* ´’†ç Éçûª´®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oN:                                                      – §Úûª’© XE-¢√Ææ’, ¢Ëí¬-ߪ’´’tÊ°ô, ûª÷.íÓ.->™«x
       ability  (≤ƒ´’-®√n uEo) ûÁ-©’°æ¤-ûª’ç-ü¿E éπü∆. Åçõ‰–                                                                                                                           éÀ éπÈ®-é˙dí¬ Ææ´÷-†-¢Á’i-†C I haven't any money.
       'í∫©— – Öçúø-í∫-©í∫-úøç, îËߪ’-í∫-©í∫-úøç ™«çöÀ Å®√n-©ûÓ.                                            advise èπ◊ -ÖçúË ûËú≈ äéπõ‰. Practice Ŷµ«uÆæç;                            I haven't the money éÀ Å®Ωnç, ü∆EéÀ (àüÓ °∂晫--Ø√-ü∆-EéÀ) 鬴-©-Æ œ†
       Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ can èπ◊ -Ö†o ´’J-éÌEo Å®√n©’,                                                        practise- Ŷµºu-Æ œç-îª-úøç.                                               úø•’s Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰ü¿’ ÅE.
       Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ îª÷ü∆lç:                                                                                a) I have the practice - Ø√èπ◊ Ŷµ«u-Ææç/-                                 'Are you buying a car?/ Why don't you buy a car?'
    1. Can you drive me home? Ééπ\úø can drive,                                                                Å-©-¢√ô’ ÖçC. Practice makes us                                         'I'd like to, but I haven't the money/ but I don't have the
       ability é¬ü¿’ í∫ü∆! Ééπ\úø Tarun †’ request                                                             perfect - Ŷµ«uÆæç ´©x °æJ-°æ‹-®Ωgûª ´Ææ’hçC.                           money.' (the money = car
                                                                                                                                                                             v°æ¨¡o: May èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ can ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. May I help you éÀ •ü¿’-©’í¬ can I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        éÌØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ úø•’s)
       îËߪ’ú≈-EéÀ Sudheer can ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ éπü∆                                  b) We practise the game everyday - ¢Ë’ç ®ÓW Çô†’
       (ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞Ï}-ü∆?ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ). Åçõ‰ can †’                                   Ŷµºu-Æœ≤ƒhç (Çúøû√ç). Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úø practise Ŷµ«uÆæç îËߪ’çúÕ                         help you    ÅE ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. Can ÅØËC Natural ability éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-ç-
       request (Nïc°œh) îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úø-´îª’a, question                                ÅØË Å®Ωnç ®√¢√-©çõ‰ practice îËߪ’çúÕ ÅØ√L éπü∆.                                                 may      •ü¿’©’ can áçü¿’èπ◊ use îËߪ÷L? can E Natural ability
                                                                         v°æ¨¡o: 1) Seventh class English Reader (Mother tongue) page No 52
                                                                                                                                                                                   ü¿®·-ûË
       form ™.                                                                                                                                                                    ™ é¬èπ◊çú≈ Éçé¬ áEo Nüµ∆-©’í¬ use îËߪ’-´îª’a.
       1) é¬Ææh -F pen -É≤ƒh-¢√?                                                    'Trees' Poem    When evening changes into night, and when
                                                                                                                                                                             -ï-¢√-•’: Can, natural ability E ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-Ææ’hçC, correct í¬ 'í∫©— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
                                                                                                       ™                                                                                                                                 – °œ.-í∫-ù‰-¨¸, é¬éÀ-Ø√-úø
            Can you give me your pen? / Can I have                                  a moon floats on the sky. They hum a drowsy lullaby.   theÉéπ\úø
            your pen?                                                               moon               a moon
                                                                                              Öç-ú≈-L éπ-ü∆.
                                                                                                           áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√-ú≈®Ó ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.                                    He can do it, Åçõ‰ ¢√úø’ ÅC îËߪ’-í∫-©úø’. Å®·ûË can èπ◊ -Ö-†o
       2)   O’ûÓ È®çúø’ EN’-≥ƒ©’ ´÷ö«x-úø-´î√a?                                   2) Are you studying in Seventh Class? DEéÀ ï¢√-¶„-™« -îÁ°æp-´-a?                                  ´’J-éÌEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-©™ offer äéπöÀ. Åçõ‰ ÉçéÌ-éπ®Ω’ Åúø-èπ◊\çú≈ ´’†ç
         Can I speak to you/ see you for a few min-                                                                                                                                    ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ àüÁjØ√ É´y--úøç/-îË-ߪ’-úøç. ü∆EéÀ can question form ™
                                                                         -ï-¢√-•’: 1) 'a moon' Ñ line ™ Åa ûª°æ¤p (printer's error). The moon
                                                                                                                        –í∫’-v®Ωç -¨¡çéπ®˝, Íé-¨¡-´°æ-ôoç
         utes?                                                                                                                                                                         ¢√úøû√ç, may ™«í¬.
       3) Can you lend me some money?                                                 ÅØË îªü¿’-´¤-éÓ-¢√L.                                                                             May I help you? = O’èπ◊ Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç 鬢√-™«?/- ØË-ØË-´’Ø√o O’èπ◊
           é¬Ææh Å°œp-≤ƒh®√?                                                         2) Yes, I am.                                                                                     ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-í∫-©-Ø√? – ÉC offer. Å®·ûË ÉC éÌçîÁç formal - Åçõ‰ Åçûª
        -Ééπ\-úø can †’ question form ™ requests èπ◊ -
       Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-*-†-ô’x -ûÁ-©’-≤Úhç-C éπ-ü∆! Åçõ‰ can †’
                                                                         v°æ¨¡o: How about you? What about you Ñ È®çúÕçöÀ Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰ Å®·ûË Ñ                                          °æJ-îªßª’ç ™‰E ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ´’† offer.
                                                                                                                                                                                       Can I help you? D†®Ωnç èπÿú≈ O’èπ◊/ -Fèπ◊ Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç 鬢√-™«?/
                                                                                  È®çúø÷ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-úøç™ ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? ´’†ç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’
       question form ™ ´·êuçí¬ you ûÓ, I/ we ûÓ                                  Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àüÁjØ√ ¢√úø-´î√a? ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. I haven't                                -O’-èπ◊/ -Fèπ◊ ØËØË Nüµ¿çí¬ Å®·Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫-©Ø√? ÅE informal
       requests èπ◊ ¢√úø-´îª’a.                                                   money / I have no money Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√, é¬-†-ôx®·-ûË ¢√öÀE ᙫ                                       í¬, Åçõ‰ ´’†èπ◊ ¶«í¬ °æJ-îªßª’ç Ö†o ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ îËÊÆ offer. May I help
    2. How long can I have it?                                                    Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L? ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.                                                                      you? - formal offer. Can I help you? - less formal/ informal
                      bike
       áçûªÊÆ°æ¤ -؈’ F           Öç-éÓ-´îª’a?                                                                                 – ´çQ, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛                                offer.
I                                                                                                                                 -Ñ-Ø√-úø’                                                                                             -≤Ú-´’-¢√®Ωç 31 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
    Pooja: Hi Raasi, what a surprise! you, here!
              àçöÀ ®√Q, †’-Ny-éπ\úø! àçöà Nçûª?                           °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ í∫´’-EçîË Öçö«®Ω’, canûÓ ´îËa
                                                                       verbs  Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç-îª÷-Æœ-†¢Ë éπü∆.
    Raasi: I am on my way to the spoken English
           Institution near here. You know it. The                     1. You can't (cannot) find the time
           4th building from your place.                                   F´¤ BJ-éπ- -îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ -Ö-Ø√o-´¤.   (ability)
                        spoken English Institution
              Ééπ\úø ü¿í∫_®Óx                             èπ◊          2. Can you do me a favour?
              ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’. Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’í¬. O’ ÉçöÀ-†’ç*                  ã ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫-©¢√?       (Can - request)
              Ø√-©’íÓ building.                                        3. Can you let me spend...
              (I am on my way to – ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o†’.
                                                                           O’ Éçöx ؈’ç-úøØ√?       (Permission/ request)
              On the way – ü∆J™)
    Pooja: Come, Raasi, you go there everyday,                         4. I can neither go home...
           and you can't find the time to drop in at         ØËEç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡x†÷ ™‰†’, Öçúø†÷ ™‰†’ (ability)
           my place.                                                   5. You can, by all means–
                                                                                         †’´¤yçúÌa, ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈                      Bhavani:        ûª°æp-èπ◊ç-ú≈®√.                                c) Manoj: üË-E í∫’-Jç-* îªJa-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ O’®Ω’?
           ®ÓW Åéπ\úÕ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o´¤, ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√´--ú≈-EéÀ    (can – permission/ request)
           ´÷vûªç -B-Jéπ îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰éπ§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o´¤ éπü∆!                                                                                  b) Prakash: Sekhar †’ í∫’-Jç-* F ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç                    Rajeev: ®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ ´’†èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’°æúø-í∫-©ú≈, ™‰-ú≈ ÅE.
                                                          6. I can't (cannot) give – É´y-™‰†’. (ability)
    Raasi: I joined there only a week ago. I had                                                                                                         àN’öÀ?                                                  (Whether -ûÓ begin îËߪ’çúÕ)
              been thinking of seeing you and we met.                                                                                                                                                    Manoj: àçô-Ææ©’ N≠æߪ’ç?
                                                                                                                                         Vinai: áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
              Can you do me a favour?
                                                                                                                                         Prakash: Åûª†’ ´’ç* player Å®·ûË ´’† team                       Raghav: £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™  Cricket Match éÀ tickets

                                                                                                         -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 63
             ؈-éπ\úø îËJ ¢√®Ω-¢Ë’ -Å-®·çC. O’ ÉçöÀéÀ
             ®√¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’, ´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. ã                                                                                     ™éÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ü∆-´’E.                                         鬢√L ´÷èπ◊. ®Ω¢Ë’-≠ˇèπ◊ cricket board ™
             *†o ≤ƒ-ߪ’ç îËÆœ-°-ôd-í∫-©-¢√ Ø√èπ◊?
             (Do a favour – ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-úøç)


                                                                                                 I can't give..
    Pooja: Doing you a favour! That will be a real
           pleasure for me. What's it?
             Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-úøç Ø√èπ◊ Eïçí¬ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ¢Ë’.
             àçöÀ îÁ°æ¤p.
    Raasi: Can you let me spend the lunch break in
           your home? We have two sessions with
           a break of an hour in between.                                                                                                Vinai: Åûª†’ î√™« ¶«í¬                                                   Éü¿l®Ω’ ´·í∫’_®Ω’ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Åçü¿’-éπE Åûª-ØË-
                                                                       7. You can have–  Öçô’çC. Possibility– Å´-鬨¡ç.
           I can neither go home nor stay at the                                                                                                Çúø-í∫-©úø’. E©-éπ-úøí¬                                           ´’Ø√o ûÁ°œpç-îª-í∫-©-úË-¢Á÷-†E.
           institution.
                                                                          É´Foèπÿú≈ É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊-†o 'can'
                                                                                                                                                Concentration ûÓ -                                       Manoj: ¢√úø’ îËߪ’-í∫-©úø’ é¬F îËߪ’úø’. Åûª-ØÁ°æ¤púø÷
             ؈’ lunch break    O’ Éçöx í∫úø-§Òî√a.                     Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’.
                   classes                  break
                                                                                                                                                Çúø-û√úø’.                                                      á´-JéÀ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’úø’. Ø√éÀç-ûª-´-®Ωèπÿ à
             ´÷èπ◊         ´’üµ¿u™ ã í∫çô                             Now Practise the following aloud in English.
             Öçô’çC. ÉçöÀéà ¢Á∞¡x†÷ ™‰†’, Åçûª-ÊÆ-°æ-éπ\úø                                                                               Prakash: Å®·ûË          ´’†ç                                           Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç èπÿú≈ îËߪ’-™‰-ü¿-ûª†’.
                                                                       (Use all that you have learnt so far)
             Öçúø-†÷ ™‰†’.                                                                                                                           ÅûªEo                                               Rajeev: ÉC î√™« E®√--¨¡ éπ-L-Tç-îË -N-≠æ-ߪ’ç.
    Pooja: You can, by all means. Only I can't be                      a) Bhavani: Í®°æ¤ Ø√ birthday. O’J-ü¿l®Ω÷ ûª°æpéπ                             BÆæ’éӴa éπü∆. M. SURESAN                        Raghav: àç worry Å´èπ◊. -ØË-†’ ûÁ°œpç-îª-í∫-©-†’-™‰
           there at the time. I am sorry I can't give                              ´≤ƒh®Ω’ éπü∆?                                         Vinai: Å®·ûË ØË-†’ Åûª-Eéà                                               ᙫíÓ äéπ™«.
           you company. I go for my dance classes                      Sucharitha: O’
           at the time. Don't worry. You can have
                                                                                             Éçöx á°æ¤púø’çúø´’ç-ö«´¤                          N≠æߪ’ç îÁ-°æpØ√? ´’† match á°æpúø’ éπÈ®-                d) Nagaraj: †’Ny-°æp-öÀÍé Ø√ time î√™« waste
                                                                                    ´’´’tLo?                                                    é˙dí¬?
           my sister Pallavi's company.                                                                                                                                                                               î˨»´¤ ††’o ¢Á∞¡}F.
                                                                       Chandra:     Cake á°æ¤púø’ éÓ≤ƒh´¤?                               Prakash: Fèπ◊ ûÁMü∆. ´îËa Sunday ØË éπü∆?
             ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈, Å®·ûË, Çtime         ™ Ø√éÀçöx                                                                                                                                              Prahlad: ´’S} ØËØÁ-°æ¤púø’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ†’. E†’o?
                                  company                              Bhavani:    Correct í¬ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç 5.30éÀ.                                     Å´-ûªL team ™ î√-™«´’ç* players
             Öçúø-úøç èπ◊ü¿-®Ωü¿’. Fèπ◊               É´y-™‰†’.                                                                                                                                          Nagaraj: Í®°æ¤ à time ™-ØÁj-Ø√.
               time          dance                                     Sucharitha: àç °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’,. âCç-öÀÍé ؈-éπ\úø
             ÅüË          ™ ؈’       é¬xÆæ’-©-Èé-∞«h†’.°∂æ®Ω-¢√-                                                                                  ÖØ√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω’ ¶«í¬ Çúø-í∫-L-T† ¢√∞Ïx.       Prahlad: Í®°æ¤ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰†’. Ø√èπ◊ examÖçC. Ç
             ™‰-ü¿’™‰. ´÷ îÁLx °æ©xN Fèπ◊ ûÓúø’ç-úø-í∫-©ü¿’.                        Öçö«.                                                Vinai: Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ ¢√∞¡xûÓ È®çúø’                      N≠æߪ’ç Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆.
             F鬢Á’ company Öçô’çC.                                    Chandra:     Ø√èπ◊ Í®°æ¤ 5 ´®Ωèπ◊ class ÖçC. 5.30éÀ                      matches Çú≈ç. äéπöÀ ´’†ç, ÉçéÓöÀ ¢√∞¡⁄x
             (By all means – ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈, ÅEoNüµ∆™«)                                                                                                                                                    Nagaraj: á©’xçúÕ ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√í∫-©¢√?
                                                                                    ØË®√-™‰†’. äéπ Å®Ω-í∫çô late í¬ ´≤ƒh.                       Èí-L-î√®Ω’.                                              Prahlad: ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈.
    Raasi: Thank you.


    -v°æ-¨¡o: ' Ç <®Ω î√™« ¶«í∫’çC éπü∆?—— ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo O’®Ω’ Éç-Tx-≠ˇ™ ''Isn't                                                                                                    -v°æ-¨¡o: I saw a devil, I happend to see a devil – Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’
             that sari nice/ beautiful"?         ÅØ√o®Ω’. ûÁ©’í∫’¢√éπuç™ ØÁí∫-öÀ¢˛ÂÆØ˛q                                                                                                     Å®Ωnç, ü¿ßª÷uEo îª÷¨»†’. é¬E verbs ™ Ç ´÷®Ω’p áçü¿’èπ◊ ´*açC.
              ™‰ü¿’ é¬E Éç-Tx-≠ˇ ´îËaÆæJéÀ ØÁí∫-öÀ-¢˛ÂÆØ˛q™ ÖçC. Ç ûÁ©’í∫’ ¢√é¬uEo                                                                                                           Model auxiliary verbs °æéπ\† have been ´ÊÆh ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç
              ''Is that sari nice/ beautiful?" ņ-èπÿ-úøü∆?                                                                                                                                   à´’E ´Ææ’hçC?Å™«Íí could be E áEo ®Ω鬩 Å®√n-©’ ´îËa-ôô’x
    -ï-¢√-•’: A very good question. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ negative sense ûÁ-LÊ°
                                                    – -Ê≠é˙ -†-@®Ω’-Fo≤ƒ, -Å-´’%-ûª-©÷®Ω’                                                                                                     Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´îª’a. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
                                                                                                                                                                                   -ï-¢√-•’: I saw a devil- ؈’ devil †’ îª÷¨»†’/devil éπ†-•-úÕçC.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               – XE-¢√-Ææ-®√´¤, ´÷®Ω÷d®Ω’
                   ´÷ô ™‰èπ◊-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, 'éπü∆— ÅØË ´÷ô™ negative tone ´Ææ’hçC
                   éπü∆. Is that sari beautiful Åçõ‰ Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ? Ç <®Ω                         ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™  x, y                              Will be
                                                                                                                                   éÀ É´y-†’-Ø√o-®ΩE Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.                                I happend to see a devil- ؈’ devil †’ îª÷úøôç ûªô-Æ œnç-
                   ¶«í∫’çü∆? ÅE éπü∆. 'Ç <®Ω ¶«í∫’çü∆?— Å-†-ú≈-EéÀ, 'Ç <®Ω                        given                                     Man of the match
                                                                                                          ÅE èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË ¢√úø’-éπ™                                                      *çC/ devil Ø√èπ◊ éπ†-°æ-úøôç ûªô-Æœnç-*çC. I happened to -
                   ¶«í∫’çC éπü∆?— ņ-ú≈-EéÀ ûËú≈ English ™ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰, 'Isn't                    award to be given        áèπ◊\´.                                                                 ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈/ áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-úøE Ææç°∂æ’-ô-††’ í∫’-Jç-* É™« îÁ§ƒhç.
                   that sari beautiful?' ÅE-é¬F, 'That sari is beautiful, isn't                   (wedding) to be solemnized by x            ņ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ °æNvûª                      I bought it in that shop – ؈C Ç shop ™ éÌØ√o†’.
                   it?' ÅE-é¬F Åçõ‰ ûª°æp, ûÁ©’-í∫’-™ E ¶«í∫’çC éπü∆? ÅØË Å®Ωnç                                             (by somebody),
                                                                                                  鬮Ωuç E®Ωy-£œ«ç-°æ-•-úø-¶-ûª’-†oC                      Åçõ‰ -´÷´‚©’                            I happened to buy it in that shop – ؈C Ç shop ™
                                                                                                           somebody (x), to solemnize the wedding
    -v°æ-¨¡o: Ñ -´‚-úø’ -¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ English Translation îÁ°æpí∫-©®Ω’.
                   ®√ü¿’. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.                                                          ûÁ©’-í∫’™                                                       (Ñ °æNvûª                       é̆ôç ïJ-TçC (Ç shop -™ éÌçö«-†E ņ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’ é¬F
                                                                                                                                 To be solemnized correct
                                                                                                  鬮√uEo E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îª-†’-Ø√o®Ω’ ÅE).                                     í¬
                                                                                                                                                                                   -v°æ-¨¡o: àéπ-é¬-©ç™ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o È®çúø’ Ωu-©†’ É™« îÁ§Òpî√a? He is think-
                                                                                                  Å®·ûË is to be solemnized            is, omit
                                                                                                                                       ÅE ÅØ√L.     to be sol-
                                                                                                                                                             îËÆœ                                  Åéπ\úË éÌØ√o†’).
              1. ؈’ Í®°æ¤ áéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«h-†E O’®Ω’ ņ’-éÌç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’?
              2. Ç¢Á’ Ø√ í∫’Jç* à´’†’éÌçöç-ü¿E O’®Ω’ ņ’-éÌç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’?                          emnized     ÅØËC ¢√úø’éπ. Will be solemnized                    ÅE èπÿú≈                   ing by walking (-†-úø’Ææ÷h -Ç-™-*Ææ’h-Ø√-o-úø’). Gita is singing by
              3. Åûª†’ ††’o NÆæ’-èπ◊\ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.                                                 Å-†´îª’a ¢√éπu E®√t-ù«Eo •öÀd.                                                             working (§ƒúø’ûª÷ °æE-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊ç--öçC).
                                                                                                  b) To be + past participle ´·êuçí¬ passive construction. He is
    -ï-¢√-•’:
                                                                   – -vQ-E-¢√Æˇ, -A®Ω’°æ-A
                                                                                                                                                                                   -ï-¢√-•’: O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ† È®çúø÷ ÆæÈ®j-†-N é¬-´¤. Ist sentence: D-E-™ È®çúø÷
                   1. Where, do you think, I am going/ I will go tomorrow?                          to do it (active) - It is to be done by him.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  – §Úûª’© XE-¢√Ææ’, ¢Ëí¬-ߪ’-´’t-Ê°ô, ûª÷.íÓ.->™«x.
                   2. What do you think she thinks of me?                                            (îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆- to be done - to be + pp)
                   3. He feels vexed with me.                                                      I am to take them home (active) - They are to be taken (to                                      àéπ-鬩 Ωu-©’– É°æ¤púø’ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’-†o-´-†’éÓç-úÕ. Å°æ¤púø’ (is
    -v°æ-¨¡o: 1. véÀÈé-ö¸™Man of the match                ''to be given''
                                                ÉîËa-ô-°æ¤púø’                        ÅE           be + pp) home by me.                                                                            thinking correct é¬ü¿’). He thinks as he is walking/ He
                                                                                                                                                                                                   thinks and is walking at the same time, ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË
                                              ''to be solemnised by (some
                 Åçö«®Ω’. Å™«Íí °R} 鬮Ω’f-©™                                               2) I could have found the way all right -            ؈’ ü∆J ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-í∫-LÍí
                                                                                                                               - Past tense.                                                       Ñ È®çúø’ èπÿú≈ é¬Ææh ᶄs-ô’dí¬ éπEp-Ææ’hØ√o®· 鬕öÀd, He
                                                                                              -v°æ-¨¡o:
                 body)'' ÅE ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. Ø√ ÆæçüË£æ«ç– to be          will be
                                                               •ü¿’©’                 ÅE           ¢√úÕØË (é¬E, ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’)
                                                                                                    Parts of speech          Preposition                 The                                       thinks as he walks ņ-úøç better. äéÓ\-≤ƒ-J I/ II regular
                 ¢√úÌa éπü∆!To be + PP    á°æ¤púø’ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’?                                                           ™                †’ áéπ\úø ᙫ ¢√ú≈™,
            2.   ''I could have found the way all right''.                                                                                           Tenses,
                                                                                                        †’ èπÿú≈ áéπ\úø ¢√ú≈™ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’çúÕ. OöÀûÓ§ƒô’                                        doing word †’ É°æp¤úø’ ïJÍí °æ†’-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç 鬕öÀd.
              Ñ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? ÉC à õ„Ø˛q™ Öç-C?                                              direct & indirect speech       í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.                                     He thinks as he walks ÅØË sentence èπ◊ ¢√-úÁ°æ¤p-úø÷ îËÊÆ


                                                                                              -ï-¢√-•’: Parts of speech ™ prepositions †’ í∫’-Jç-* lessons ™
                                                                                                                                                                                                   °æE ÅC (¢√-úÁ°æ¤p-úø÷ †úø’Ææ÷h Ç™-*-≤ƒhúø’/ Ç™-*ç-îË-ô°æ¤p-úø’
    -ï-¢√-•’: To be given, to be seen ™«çöÀN passive infinitives.
                                                       – -áÆˇ.-ñ-≠œ, -äçíÓ-©’                                                                – -öÀ.Ææç-ûÓ-≠ˇ π◊-´÷®˝, -ߪ÷®√-úø
                                                                                                                                                                                                   †úø’-≤ƒhúø’) ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçC.
    1) To be given Åçõ‰ É´y-•-úø-ôç/ -É-´y-•-úø-ö«-EéÀ/ É´y-•-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊–                                  N´-JÆæ’h-Ø√oç. Å™«Íí tenses í∫’Jç* -Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ N´-                              2nd sentence: Gita is singing and working at the same
       ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®·ûË É´y-úøç, É´y--ú≈-EéÀ, ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åçö«ç                                    Jçî√ç, Å®·ûË tenses Ê°®Ω’x îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈. English ¶«í¬                                time  Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC éπü∆ (Ç¢Á’ Ç °æ†’©’ îËÆæ’h-†oC É°æ¤p-
       éπü∆. Man of the match award to be given to Åçõ‰ Man of the                                         ´÷ö«x-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ tenses + Ê°®Ω’x ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’.                 úø-®·ûË). Ç¢Á’ °æE îËÊÆ--ô°æ¤p-úøçû√ §ƒúø’-ûª’çC ÅØ√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰
       match °æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\®Ωç x îËûª y éÀ É´y-•-úø-¶-ûª’çC ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC;                                 verb form ´·êuç– ÅC N´-Jçî√ç. §ƒûª papers îª÷úøçúÕ.                                  Gita sings as/while she works ņ-´îª’a éπü∆.

								
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