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APPRAISAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

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APPRAISAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN LAGOS METROPOLIS Powered By Docstoc
					              Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011            ISSN: 2251 - 0508
              © Wilolud Journals, 2011                                          http://www.wiloludjournal.com
                                           Printed in Nigeria


        APPRAISAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

                              Oyelola, O. T1, Babatunde, A. I2, And Abiodun, A.A1
        1
            Chemical Science Department, School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos,
                 2
                   Chemistry Department, School of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos

    ABSTRACT
    The management of urban solid waste is one of the most immediate and serious environmental
    problems facing governments in African cities. The conventional municipal solid waste management
    approach (based on collection and disposal) has failed to provide effective services to all urban
    residents. The environment steadily degrades due to waste which is not managed effectively. The
    overall goal of solid waste management is to collect and dispose of solid wastes generated by
    population groups in an environmentally and satisfactory manner. As cities grow economically,
    business activity and consumption patterns drive up solid waste quantities. The purpose of this study
    was to appraise the average collection and disposal of solid wastes and the hindrances to the
    effectiveness of collection agents in Lagos metropolis. Waste collected and disposed of at the Olusosun
    dumpsite from four local government areas in the metropolis of Lagos State were weighed daily for a
    period of twenty-four months. The monthly total mean of waste (tonnes) collected are 658.44tonnes,
    653.39tonnes, 538.28tonnes and 2151.62tonnes for Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta, Gbagada and Mushin,
    respectively. The seasonal collection showed an increase during the dry season compared to the wet
    season. The weekly collection at the end of each month is comparatively higher in view of the
    compulsory monthly environmental sanitation in the state.

    KEYWORDS: Waste collection, Olusosun dumpsite, Waste disposal, Urban Solid waste, Local
    Government, Lagos Metropolis, Waste collection agents

INTRODUCTION
Waste products arise from our ways of life and it is generated at every stage of process of production and
development. It spans all stages of human activities, from manufacturing to consumption.. It is especially a
serious problem in developing countries where generation of waste per unit of output is much higher than that in
the developed countries because of inefficiency in manufacturing processes (Cointreau-Levin, 1997). According
to Lombardi (2001) waste is as a result of bad design, and ultimately, the result of bad decision-making. The
“waste problem” is in reality a resource management problem (Sheehan and Knapp, 2000).

Waste management has been a great problem to the government of Lagos State. In most parts of the city, streets
are partially or wholly blocked by solid waste, similarly, open spaces, market places are littered with solid
waste. Shortly, after Nigeria’s independence, the metamorphic stage of Lagos from a clean and tidy city to a
crowded, dirty and smelly city, went almost unmentioned until in the 70’s when Lagos was tagged the dirtiest
city in the world (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989).

As time went by, the volume and nature of waste generated in the State continued to rise geometrically until it
became conspicuously embarrassing. The then Lagos State government came up with various strategies aimed at
combating the growing menace. One of such strategies adopted was the establishment of the Lagos State Refuse
Disposal Board (LSRDB) vide Edit No 9 of 1977 (Oresanya, 1998). In 1991, LSWDB was renamed Lagos State
Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) by virtue of Edit No 55 of Lagos State, this time as a commercialized
autonomous authority with statutory duties of collection and disposal of municipal and industrial waste in the
Metropolis and to provide commercial services to the State and Local Governments. It was also mandated to
collect and transport commercial and industrial waste to designated landfill sites as well as manage the landfills
(Akinmuleya, 2006). In 1997, Private Sector Participation (PSP) scheme was introduced to complement the
efforts of LAWMA. According to Popoola (2001), there has been no time in the past ten years when the Waste
Management Agencies in Lagos catered for more than 70% of the waste generated. While the population of the
city was increasing at an estimated annual rate of at least 6%, the municipal authority in charge of waste was
collecting, on the average, almost 10% less refuse per capita every year (Onibokun et al., 2000). The method of

                                                       48
             Oyelola, O. T et al.,: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011


disposal in use in Lagos is the operation of open dumpsites. Although, some residents discharge their waste
indiscriminately in unauthorized places e.g. open spaces, gutters and streams, and some burn theirs openly
(Popoola, 2001).

This paper aimed at appraising the factors affecting the rate of collection and disposal of municipal solid waste
by the different waste disposal agents in Lagos metropolis with a view of proffering strategies for handling the
menace of waste in the state.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Data Collection
The study area covers four (4) local government areas (LGAs) of the state. These settlements are classified
according to the category of the inhabitants and their population densities.

The settlements are: Ikoyi in Eti-Osa local government area; this is a planned low density settlement which is
predominantly inhabited by a mixture of the capitalist class and the bourgeoisie (middle class).

Ebute-Metta in Lagos Mainland local government area; this is a planned high density settlement, occupied
mainly by a mixture of the bourgeoisie (middle class) and the proletariat (lowest class).

Ifako-Gbagada in Kosofe local government area this is an unplanned low density settlement, populated largely
by the bourgeoisie (middle class). The settlement developed rapidly within ‘70s and ‘80s.

Mushin in Mushin local government area; this is one of the unplanned densely populated areas of Lagos. It is
predominately inhabited by the proletariat (lowest class) mixed with the bourgeoisie (middle class).

Waste data were collected at the Olusosun dumpsite for a period of twenty- four (24) months between March
2006 and February 2008. The dumpsite is the disposal point for the selected study area.

The dumpsite is located at Ojota, in Kosofe local government area of Lagos State. It is about 18 metres deep and
covers an area of close to 42 hectres of land. It is the largest dumpsite in Lagos State (LAWMA, 2004).

Quantity of waste in dump trucks is determined in-situ at the dumpsite with the use of Weight Bridge.
The collection agents in Lagos state are:

Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA)
Private Sector Participants (PSP)
Highway managers Limited (HWM) and
Local Government (L/GOVT)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The average monthly weights (tonnes) of municipal solid waste dumped at the Olusosun dumpsite from Ikoyi,
Ebute-Metta, Gbagada and Mushin for 24 months between March 2006 and February 2008 are presented in
Table 1. The average waste (tonnes) collected per month from the four Local Government Areas are
658.44tonnes, 653.39tonnes, 538.28tonnes and 2151.62tonnes for Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta, Gbagada and Mushin,
respectively, and are significantly different (p < 0.05). The collection rate per month for Ikoyi ranges from
350.00tonnes to 1057.50tonnes. The monthly waste collection for Ebute-Metta ranges from 126.25tonnes to
1536.25tonnes. Gbagada monthly collection of waste ranges from 262.50tonnes to 770.00tonnes. While that of
Mushin ranges from 656.25tonnes to 3835.00tonnes.

The mean variability in the municipal solid waste collected from Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta, Gbagada and Mushin is
confirmed with one way analysis of variance. There is significant (p < 0.01) for waste collected in March 2006
to September 2006 with the exception of that collected in April and July 2006 and also from October 2006 to
February 2008, which is significant at 95%. The Duncan Multiple Range Tests further categorized the mean
values of waste collected from March to September 2006 into 2 homogeneous groups while that from October
2006 to February 2008 is categorized into one with very low level of significance.




                                                       49
             Oyelola, O. T et al.,: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011


Table 1: Average Monthly Weight (tonnes) of Municipal Solid Waste Collected from Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta,
Gbagada and Mushin
                                                                                          Std
 Month           Ikoyi          Ebute-Metta        Gbagada       Mushin           *Mean   Error  F
 Mar 2006        350.00a        126.25a            420.00ab      656.25b          388.13  63.65  5.71**
 Apr             512.50a        533.75a            532.50a       1060.00b         659.69  92.29  2.88*
 May             492.50a        392.50a            622.50a       1367.50b         718.75  125.73 6.52**
 Jun             985.00a        735.00a            663.75a       1646.25b         1007.50 132.69 5.28**
                        a              a                  a
 Jul             656.25         786.25             618.75        1391.25b         863.13  114.00 3.95*
 Aug             552.50a        593.75a            618.75a       1685.00b         862.50  147.82 8.89**
                        a              a                  a               b
 Sep             626.25         590.00             770.00        1766.25          938.13  159.72 6.24**
 Oct             1057.50a       1536.25a           458.75a       2008.75a         1265.31 546.86 0.32*
 Nov             997.50a        1330.00a           440.00a       1937.50a         1176.25 541.92 0.29*
                          a            a                  a
 Dec             1047.50        938.75             430.00        2020.00a         1109.06 556.65 0.31*
 Jan 2007        735.00a        595.00a            381.25a       1608.75a         830.00  381.70 0.44*
 Feb             727.50a        528.70a            262.50a       1873.75a         848.13  450.75 0.57*
                        a              a                  a               a
 Mar             855.00         743.75             292.50        1930.00          955.31  461.01 0.51*
 Apr             672.50a        870.00a            332.50a       1617.50a         873.13  390.51 0.43*
 May             490.00a        312.50a            415.00a       1922.50a         785.00  404.08 0.86*
 Jun             885.00a        815.00a            675.00a       3835.00a         1552.50 666.55 1.42*
 Jul             655.00a        612.50a            530.00a       3062.50a         1215.00 519.44 1.57*
                        a              a                  a               a
 Aug             655.00         677.50             710.00        3497.50          1385.00 602.01 1.51*
 Sep             502.50a        526.25a            597.50a       2952.50a         1144.69 498.01 1.66*
 Oct             447.50a        460.00a            540.00a       3060.00a         1126.88 518.36 1.79*
 Nov             532.50a        565.00a            692.50a       3432.50a         1305.63 583.01 1.69*
 Dec             437.50a        440.00a            572.50a       2482.50a         983.13  406.49 1.74*
 Jan 2008        387.50a        420.00a            605.00a       2097.50a         877.50  341.53 1.61*
 Feb             542.50a        552.50a            737.50a       2727.50a         1140.00 437.59 1.67*
 Mean            658.44         653.39             538.28        2151.62          1000.43 50.09
*Mean of 480 samples. ** = Significant at 99%, * = Significant at 95%
Values with the same letter across rows are not significantly different at p0.05.

The total mean waste collected in Mushin is much greater than the other settlements due largely to the fact that
it is the most densely populated settlement in the study area. Whereas, the mean collections recorded for Ebute-
Metta is slightly the same when compared to Ikoyi of less dense area. Likewise, Ikoyi is inhabited by high
income groups which generate more waste than the low income earners (Cointreau – Levin, 1997). The results
for Gbagada and Ebute-Metta could be attributable to the illegal dumpsites within the settlements which were
observed in the course of the study.

This shows that the rate of collection depends on the rate of generation of waste, which also depends on the
population of a particular settlement (Odunaiya, 2002). The report by the UDBN (1997) also showed the same
pattern of waste collection.

The comparative average weights (tonnes) collection of municipal solid waste by the agents from Ikoyi, Ebute-
Metta, Gbagada and Mushin are presented in Table 2. The average waste collected from Ikoyi ranges from
295.83tonnes by L/GOVT to 1431.88tonnes by PSP. Average waste collected from Ebute-Metta ranges from
330.42tonnes by L/GOVT to 1313.96tonnes by PSP. Average waste collected from Gbagada ranges from
318.96tonnes by L/GOVT to 926.46tonnes by PSP and that of Mushin ranges from 370.21tonnes by HWM to
5916.67tonnes by LAWMA.




                                                       50
                               Oyelola, O. T et al.,: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011


Table 2: Comparative Collection of Municipal Solid Waste (tonnes) by the Agents from Ikoyi, Ebute- Metta,
Gbagada and Mushin

                              Local
                              Government
                              Areas                     LAWMA                L/GOVT                  HWM                PSP                   Mean                 Std Error
                              Ikoyi                     586.25               295.83                  319.79             1431.88               658.44               266.08
                              Ebute-Metta               589.79               330.42                  379.38             1313.96               653.39               227.26
                              Gbagada                   558.33               318.96                  349.00             926.46                538.28               139.94
                              Mushin                    5916.67              374.17                  370.21             1945.42               2151.62              1308.65
            Mean             1912.76                                         329.84                  354.69             1404.43               1000.43              393.94
 Between Local Govt.      F = 39.89*
 Between Agents           F = 38.71*                                                * = significant at 95%
 LSD at 0.05 alpha level = 245.04

Municipal Solid Waste collected by Agents from Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta, Gbagada and Mushin (Table 2) showed
that LAWMA had the highest collection of waste from Mushin only, while the PSP has the highest in Ikoyi,
Ebute-Metta and Gbagada respectively. The reason is that the Lagos State Government introduced a pilot
scheme in October 2006 which gave a mandate to the PSPs to operate fully in some local government areas that
included Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta and Gbagada. LAWMA operated fully in Mushin because of its large population
and the problems of indiscriminate dumping of waste as well as the congested markets in the area. Similar
scheme was introduced in 1996 (UDBN, 1997).

The seasonal variation of mean weights of waste collected by LAWMA, L/GOVT, HWM and PSP are presented
in Figure 1. The mean weight collected during the dry season ranges from 148.50tonnes by HWM from Mushin
to 6482.50tonnes by LAWMA from Mushin. While that of the rainy season ranges from 299.64tonnes by
L/GOVT from Gbagada to 5512.50tonnes by LAWMA from Mushin.

                            7000

                                                                                                                                              6482.5

                            6000

                                                                                                                                              5512.5
    A e g W ig t / to n s




                            5000
                     ne




                            4000
     v ra e e h




                                                                                                                                                                               Dry
                                                                                                                                                                               Rainy
                            3000


                                                            1818.5                                                                                                  2262.5
                            2000
                                                                                                     1584                                                           1501.5
                                    731.79                         1155.71                           1121.07                        935
                            1000
                                       342.14                               748.57                             668.93          920.36
                                   382.5                                                     441.79                                                         528.57
                                                            396.07                                                           421.07
                                                            213    367.5                 292          403.5                  249
                                              231                                                                                                           148.5
                              0
                                               L OT




                                                                             L OT




                                                                                                                L OT




                                                                                                                                               L OT
                                                      H M




                                                                                       H M




                                                                                                                       H M




                                                                                                                                                      H M
                                                             P P




                                                                                               P P




                                                                                                                              P P




                                                                                                                                                             P P
                                      L W A




                                                                    L W A




                                                                                                       L W A




                                                                                                                                      L W A
                                                G V




                                                                              G V




                                                                                                                 G V




                                                                                                                                                G V
                                       A M




                                                                     A M




                                                                                                        A M




                                                                                                                                       A M
                                                              S




                                                                                                S




                                                                                                                               S




                                                                                                                                                              S
                                                       W




                                                                                        W




                                                                                                                        W




                                                                                                                                                       W




                                                                                             Agents

Dry Season                         n = 10 Samples, Rainy Season n = 14month Samples, n = Number of Samples analyzed

Figure 1: Seasonal Variation of Mean Weight (tonnes) of Municipal Solid Waste Collected by LAWMA,
L/GOVT, HWN and PSP

                                                                                                         51
                                 Oyelola, O. T et al.,: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011


A comparative review of the rainy and dry seasons’ collections showed a more collection during the dry season
(Fig 1). This is so because usually during the rainy season most of the wastes dumped along the streets are
washed away by flood, some are intentionally dumped in surface run-offs which result in blockage of drainages.
Because the roads are generally bad during the rainy season, most of the dump trucks are off the road; even
some PSPs who make effort to collect waste through the cart pushers do dump them indiscriminately into
marshy swamps thereby compounding the problem.

Furthermore, access to the dumpsite is completely impossible during the rainy season which results in
uncontrollable long queue of trucks waiting to offload.

The average weights (tonnes) of waste collected per week from the four LGAs are 151.95tonnes, 150.78tonnes,
124.00tonnes and 496.53tonnes for Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta, Gbagada and Mushin, respectively. The average weight
of waste (tonnes) collected and deposited at Olusosun dumpsite per week from planned areas ranges from
5.00tonnes to 552.50tonnes. Waste collection from unplanned areas ranges from 42.50tonnes to 1120.00tonnes.
The analysis of variance confirmed that there is no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the average weight of
wastes collected per week.



                                                                                                                               Ikoyi
                                                                                                                               Ebute-Metta
                                                                                                                               Gbagada
                                                                                                                               Mushin

                              1200
                                                                                     1120

                                                                                                        1008
                              1000
    Average Weight / tonnes




                                                                                    958
                                                                                               910                 870 875
                                                                                                     887.5
                                                                                         873                 858
                                                                                                 805                 810
                              800                   737.5                                  770
                                                              686.25                                  713
                                               678.75                      656.25
                                                        631.25                             730       677.5
                                           610                  592.5          607.5
                              600                                       591.25                 633           600
                                                                                   575
                                         501.25
                                                                                                               488
                              400                                                                                        425
                                                                                                                   383
                                                                                         310           235 258
                                                                                                235 228      223 230
                              200                                          194



                                0
                                     1     8      15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85 92                                99

                                                                        Weeks

Figure 2: Weekly Collection of Municipal Solid Waste from the Four Local Government Areas

The weekly collection and disposal records at the Olusosun dumpsite (Fig.2) indicate that larger volume of
waste are deposited at the dumpsite in the last week of each month by the agents. This is essentially so because
the last Saturday of every month is the compulsory environmental sanitation day in Lagos State.

The relationship between the percentage waste collected per day and the uncollected waste from the four Local
Government Areas is presented in Figure 3. The percentage of waste collected per day from Eti-osa, Mainland,
Kosofe and Mushin Local Government Areas is 88.61%, 83.90%, 58.80% and 92.85% respectively. While the
percentage of uncollected waste is 11.39%, 16.10%, 41.20% and 7.15% for Eti-Osa, Mainland, Kosofe and
Mushin Local Government Areas, respectively.



                                                                                  52
                 Oyelola, O. T et al.,: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011



                                  100                                                   92.85

                                  90
                                        78.32
                                  80
             P r e t g Wig t/ %


                                                        72.49

                                  70
              e c na e e h




                                                                        57.89
                                  60
                                                                                                       Collected Waste
                                  50                                            42.11                  Uncollected Waste
                                  40
                                                                27.51
                                  30
                                                21.68

                                  20
                                                                                                7.15
                                  10

                                    0
                                        Eti-Osa         Mainland        Kosofe          Mushin
                                                 Local Government Areas

Figure 3: Relationship between Percentage Waste Collected and uncollected Waste in the Four Local
Government Areas

The rate of waste generation is higher than the rate of waste collection in the four Local Government Areas as is
the case in most African countries (Onibokun et al., 2000). Comparatively, the percentage weight of uncollected
waste is highest for Kosofe Local Government Area followed by Mainland, while the least is for Mushin Local
Government Area. The rate of collection obtained in this study is lower than the corresponding result reported
by UDBN (1997) for Eti-Osa (80%) and Mainland (85%). The only exception is Mushin (50%) which is much
lower than the study result. There is an improvement in the rate of collection for Mushin LGAs. However, the
decrease in rate of collection for Mainland and Kosofe may be due to the operation of illegal dumpsites which is
especially prevalent in the two areas. Generally, a high percentage of inhabitants find it difficult to understand
the need for them to pay for collection of waste. Subsequently, when the Lagos State House of Assembly
passed a law making payment for waste collection mandatory, people devised other means to circumvent the
law. For example, at Mushin, Gbagada and Ebute-Metta it was discovered that wastes are dumped
indiscriminately at night along highways, market places and open spaces. The law is only effective in Ikoyi
because of its setting as most of the inhabitants belong to the high and medium income groups who have their
individual waste bins within or outside their premises.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The four local government areas have uncollected waste due to illegal dumping of waste, the generation of
municipal waste is increasing rapidly as a result of urbanization. This development poses a serious challenge,
which should be of great concern to the government especially when the impact on the existing infrastructures
and the limitations of the public sector in terms of fund are considered. Solid waste management authority in
Lagos Metropolis faces a lot of problems of lack of functioning infrastructures (equipment, trucks, road and
accessories). It is either they are not available or the existing ones are not being maintained. Lagos state
government can promote educational campaigns for public support of waste reduction and recycling. Public
participation is essential for “bring and collect” systems which rely on the sorting of waste by household
(Akanmu, 2000). This can change the attitude of the people who don’t want to pay for waste generated and can
be achieved also through public campaign system to sensitize the people.

The access road to the dumpsite needs complete overhauling. At the same time, increased traffic congestion
which adversely affects the productivity of collection agents should be looked into.

When all these measures are taken, collection will increase, more PSPs will be encouraged to participate,
inhabitants in the medium and high density areas will be stimulated to partake in the scheme, and there will be
employment generation and all these will lead to cleaner Lagos metropolis.

Additionally, government and stakeholders should develop modalities for incorporating scavengers and informal
waste pickers into the formal sector for waste collection and management.


                                                                        53
             Oyelola, O. T et al.,: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (2): 48 – 54, 2011


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Mr. O. Oresanya, General Manager, Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) for his
advice and for making available to us valuable documents and also for granting us official permission to work at
the Olusosun Dumpsite. Furthermore, our gratitude goes to Mr. Mike, Mr. Fadipe and Mr. Lanre Sonibare of the
Olusosun Dumpsite for their co-operation and assistance.

REFERENCES
Adedibu, A. A. and Okekunle, A. A. (1989). Issues on the Environmental Sanitation of Lagos Mainland,
Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 9 (2): 91 – 100

Akanmu, J. O. (2000). Integrated Waste Management: A Tool for Poverty Alleviation. Proceeding of the
National Engineering Conference and Annual General Meeting. On Engineering Strategies for Poverty
Alleviation. Abuja. 20 – 24 Nov. 2000. 43-50

Akinmuleya, O. (2006). Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). Alausa Alert. Magazine section.
2 (22): 19. April 2006

Cointreau - Levin, S. (1997). Occupational and Environmental Health Issues of Solid Waste Management:
Special Emphasis on Middle and Lower – Income                 Countries.     (Draft).  World Bank Report.
1-25. [Online] Available: http://www.ilsr.org/recycling/other/dctransfer/ochealth.pdf (last accessed May 30,
2009).

Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). (2004). Landfill Gate Records. Ijora Head Office, Ijora,
Lagos

Lombardi, E. (2001). Beyond Recycling! Zero Waste --- Or Darn Near. Eco-Cycle, Inc. Boulder Country’s
Recycling Professionals, GrassRoot Recycling Network 1996 - 2003, USA, 1- 4

Odunaiya, C.O (2002). Repositioning Solid Waste Management Practices in Cosmopolitan Lagos. Lagos State
Polytechnic Inaugural Lecture Series No. 6 (26th June, 2002). 1-65

Onibokun A. G, Adedipe N. O. and Sridlier M .K. C. (2000). Affordable Technology And Strategies for Waste
Management In: Africa. Lessons And Experience: Center for African Settlement Studies and
Development CASSAD Series No 13. 1-134

Oresanya, O. (1998). Waste Control Measures and Responsibility of a Waste Manager within the Framework of
Recent Management Methods and Development in Municipal and Industrial Wastes. Ministry Of
Environment, Lagos.

Popoola, S. (2001). Waste Management in Lagos State Myths and Reality-A Seminar delivered at the Inaugural
ceremony of the Lagos State Chapter of the Nigerian Environmental Society, Ikeja, Lagos.

Sheehan, B and Knapp, D. (2000). Zeroing in, on Zero Waste. Green Roots Recycling Network 1996-2003,
Georgia, USA. 1- 4

Urban Development Bank of Nigeria. (1997). Solid Waste Sector Appraisal Report UDBD Field Survey. April,
1997

Received for Publication: 29/10/11
Accepted for Publication: 20/12/11

Corresponding author
Oyelola, O. T
Chemical Science Department, School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos,
Email: kemsol56@yahoo.com




                                                       54

				
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