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information tech guide

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 119

world leaing billing software exam physic

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									       jftYk; njhlu;ghly;
        njhopEl;gtpaYk;




                juk; 13


 Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;b
(2010 Mk; Mz;bypUe;J eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk;)




     njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gj; jpizf;fsk;
         fiyj;jpl;l mgptpUj;jpg; gPlk;
              Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;
                    kfufk


                      I
© Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;
  Kjyhk; gjpg;G - 2010




njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gj; jpizf;fsk;
fiyj;jpl;l mgptpUj;jpg; gPlk;
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;




gjpg;gfk;:




                                       I
                                       I
                                     KfTiu

      ;                                       ;
Nju;rrpfis mbj;jskhff; nfhz;l fiyj;jpllj;ijg; ghlrhiy Kiwikapy; mwpKfk;
nra;Ak; gzp 13Me; juj;Jf;Fupa Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;bfis mwpKfk;;
                     ;
nra;tJld; G+u;jjpailfpd;wJ. 12Mk; 13Me; ju khzt khztpau;fs; gy;fiyf;fofg;
gpuNtrj;Jf;fhf epyTk; fLikahd Nghl;bf;F cs;shtjhy; epjKk; fzprkhd
mOj;jj;Jf;F Mshfpd;wdu;. f.ngh.j. cau; juj;Jf;fhf Gjpa fiyj;jpl;lj;ij Kjy;
jlitahfg; gad;gLj;Jk; epiyapy; mt;tOj;jk; NkYk; mjpfupf;Fk;. mt;thwhd
xU re; j u; g ; g j; j py; cq; f sJ iffis milAk; ,e; j Mrpupau; mwpTiug; G
topfhl; b ahdJ ghlj; j pl; l j; i jg; Nghd; N w Kf; f pakhdjhFk; . ,q; F Mrpupau;
Kjd;ikahff; ftdj;jpnyLf;f Ntz;ba %d;W mk;rq;fs; cs;sd. Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G
                           ;                                             ;
topfhl;bfs; ghlj;jpllj;Jld; KOikahfg; nghUe;jpaike;jpUj;jy;> fiyj;jpllj;jpdhy;
vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLk; Nju;r;rpfis mbg;gilahff;nfhz;L> fiyj;jpl;lj; jj;Jtj;ijAk;
J}uNehf;ifAk; Kjd;ikahff;nfhz;L jahupf;fg;gl;bUj;jy;> 12Mk; 13Me; ju
                             ; ;                         ;             ;
khztu;fsplj;Nj vjpughu;ffg;gLk; milT kl;lj;ij kdjpwnfhz;L jahupffg;gl;bUj;jy;
MfpadNt mitahFk;. vdNt ,jid ed;F crhTjy; Mrpupaupd; ,d;wpaikahj
gzpAk; nghWg;GkhFk;.

Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l %d;W tplaq;fisAk; cq;fsJ ftdj;Jf;Ff; nfhz;L tUjtw;fhfj;
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk; 13Me; juj;jpy; fw;gpf;Fk; rfy Mrpupa MrpupiafSf;Fk;
cupa gapw;rpia toq;Fk; gzpfisAk; nra;J tUfpd;wJ. njhlu;r;rpahf elj;jg;gLk;
        ;
,g;gapwrp mku;Tfspy; Mrpupau;fs; gq;Fgw;WtJ ,d;wpaikahjjhFk;. ,q;F jug;gl;Ls;s
fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; Nfhl;ghLfs;> nrad;Kiwfis tpsq;fpf;nfhs;tjw;F mg;gapw;rp
ngupJk; Jizahf mikAnkd;gNj mjw;fhd fhuzkhFk;. Fwpg;ghfg; ghlrhiy
kl; l kjpg; g P l ; L r; nraw; g hLfisj; Nju; r ; r p tpUj; j pf; F j; Jizahff; nfhs; s
vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fw;gpj;jiyg; ghl tplq;fSf;F khj;jpuk; kl;Lg;gLj;jptplhJ
khzt khztpauJ jpwd;fSf;F nkU$l;Ljy; vDk; vjpu;ghu;g;ig epiwNtw;Wtjw;F
,t;nty;yhj; jiyaPLfSk; ,d;wpaikahjitahFk; vd;gij fy;tp kw;Wk; kjpg;glLg;           P ;
gzpfspy; <LgLk; ehk; midtUk; ed;F tpsq;fpf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;biaj; jahupf;Fk; rpukkpf;f gzpia epiwT nra;tjpy;
gq;fspg;Gr; nra;a Njrpa fy;tp epWtff; fy;tprhu; gzpazpapdu; cl;gl Vida rfy
gzpazpapdUf;Fk; ntspthupahfg; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;j fy;tpkhd;fs; midtUf;Fk;
vdJ kdkhu;e;j ed;wp cupj;jhFk;.



fyhepjp cghyp vk;. Nrju
gzpg;ghsu; ehafk;
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;




                                           I
                                          II
                                 Kd; D iu
                                                                       ;
,e;j Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;b 2009Mk; Mz;L njhlf;fk; 13Mk; juj;jpwFupa
fw;wy;-fw;gpj;jy; nrad;Kiwia xOq;FgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;F cq;fSf;Fj;
Jizahf mikAk;. ,e;j topfhl;b E}iyj; jahupg;gjw;F mbg;gilahff;
nfhs;sg;gl;l ghlj;jpl;lk; ,Jtiuapy; eilKiwapypUe;j ghlj;jpl;lq;fspypUe;J
NtWgl; l J. ,J Nju; r ; r pfis mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; l ghlj; j pl; l khf
                                                     ;
mike;jpUg;gNj mt;NtWghlhFk;. ,q;F jug;gl;Ls;s Nju;rrpfis ,j;juj;jpNyNa
mila Kbahkw; Nghf ,lKz;L. rpyNtis> mjw;fhf ePz;lfhyk; vLf;fyhk;.
vdpDk;> Nju;r;rp kl;lq;fisAk; me;jj; Nju;r;rp kl;lj;jpd; fPo;j; jug;gl;Ls;s
fw;ww; NgWfisAk; ,j;juk; Kbtiltjw;Fs; miljy; mtrpakhFk;. vdNt>
,j;juj;jpw;Fupa ghlq;fisj; jpl;lkpl;Lf; nfhs;tjw;F mj;Nju;r;rp kl;lq;fSk;
fw;ww;NgWfSk; JizahFk;.
,f;fw;ww;NgWfisf; fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nrad;Kiwapd; Fwpf;Nfhs;fis tFj;Jf;
                              P ;
nfhs;tjw;Fk; tFg;giw kjpg;glLf; fUtpfisj; jahupj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Fkhd
                                                   ;              ;
epajpfshfg; gad;gLj;JtJ Fwpj;Jf; ftdk; nrYj;JtPufs; vd vjpu;ghu;ffpNwhk;.
NkYk; ,g;ghlj;ijg; gapYk;NghJ crhTtjw;Fupa Nkyjpf E}y;fs;> ,iza
tiyf; flg;gplq;fs; (Web Site) Kjyhdit Fwpj;J khztu;fSf;F mwpt+l;lk;
nra;tjw;F ,e;j Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;b Jizahf mikAk;.
ePq;fs; Mf;fg+u;tkhd Mrpupauhfr; nraw;gLtPu;fs; vDk; vjpu;ghu;g;GlNdNa
cj;Njr nraw;ghLfs; ,q;F khjpupr; nraw;ghLfshfj; jug;gl;Ls;sd vd;gijf;
fUj;jpw; nfhs;Sq;fs;. Fwpg;ghf Mrpupau; - ika tFg;giwr; nrad;Kiwia
khw; w p khztu; - ikar; nrad; K iwahf mikj; j y; Ntz; L k; vd
vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpwJ. vdNt> khztiu E}y; crhTif> ,izag; gad;ghL
                                                  ;
Kjyhd Njly;fspy; ftdk; nry;yj;jf;fthW fw;wy; tha;gGf;fis cUthf;FtJ
Fwpj;J kpfTk; mtjhdkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
      ;   ;                            ;                          ;
fw;gpjjypdNghJ kuG uPjpahd Kiwapy; FwpgG toq;Ftjw;Fg; gjpyhd ftu;rrpfukhd
tifapy; Gj;jwpT> Nfhl;ghLfs; Kjyhdtw;iw Kd;itj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mjw;fhf
                           ;
,g;Gjpa tFg;giwapy; njhopyEl;gj;ij cr;rstpy; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; njhlu;ghly;
                              ;
Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;JtJ FwpjJf; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. vdNt> Gjpa
        ;                                 ;
njhopyEl;gr; rhjdq;fis ,d;wsTf;F Mf;fg+utkhfg; gad;gLj;JtJ mtrpakhFk;.
13Mk; juj;jpy; ,g;ghlj;ijf; fw;fj; njhlq;Fk; cq;fs; khztu;fSf;F
,g;ghlj;jpl;lk; Fwpj;Jj; njspTgLj;JtJ gaDilajhFk;. tUlj;Js; eilKiwg;
gLj;j vjpu;ghu;f;Fk; cq;fsJ fw;wy;-fw;gpj;jy; jpl;lj;ij mwpKfQ; nra;tjhy;
fw;wypd;ghy; mk;khztu;fspd; Mu;tj;ijj; J}z;lyhk;. NkYk; KOg; ghlj;ijAk;
fw;gjw;fhf khztu;fisg; ghlrhiyapd;ghy; <u;g;gjw;Fk; mJ JizahFk;.
Gjpa fiyj;jpl;l kWrPuikg;gpD}lhf tFg;giw fw;wy; fw;gpj;jw; nrad;Kiwapy;
njs;sj; njspthf khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhf ,g;ghlj; jpl;lj;ijAk; Mrpupau;
mwpTiug;G topfhl;biaAk; gad;gLj;jp cq;fsJ Mf;fj; jpwid tpUj;jp
nra;Jnfhs;SkhW Ntz;LfpNwd;.
,e;j Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;biaj; jahupg;gjpy; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;j
fy;tpkhd;fSf;Fk;> Mrpupau;fSf;Fk; Njrpa fy;tp epWtf mjpfhupfSf;Fk; vdJ
tpNrl ed;wpiaj; njuptpf;fpd;Nwd;. ,g;gzpapy; topfhl;ly; toq;fpa gzpg;ghsu;
ehafk; fyhepjp cghyp vk;. Nrju mtu;fSf;Fk; mr;rpl;Lg; ghlrhiyfSf;F
tpepNahfpf;Fk; nghWg;ig Vw;Ws;s fy;tp ntspaPl;L Mizahsu; cl;gl Vida
                                       ;  ;
gzpahsu;fSf;Fk; vdJ ed;wpiaj; njuptpffpdNwd;. ,jpy; mlq;fpAs;s tplaq;fs;
                                                                 P ;
njhlu;ghf cq;fsJ Mf;fg+u;tkhd fUj;Jf;fis vdf;F mDg;gp itg;gufshapd;
ed;wpAilatdhNtd;.
tpky; rpak; g yhnfhl
cjtpg; gzpg;ghsu; ehafk;
fiyj;jpl;l mgptpUj;jpg; gPlk;.
Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

                                      IV
                 MNyhridf; FOTk; vOj;jhsu; FOTk;
MNyhrid :            fyhepjp cghyp vk;. Nrju
                     gzpg;ghsu; ehafk;
                     Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

                     jpU. tpky; rpak;gyhnfhl
                     cjtp gzpg;ghsu; ehafk;
                     fiyj;jpl;l mgptpUj;jpg; gPlk;
                     Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

Nkw; g hu; i t     : jpU. B.Nf. tpjhdNf
                     rpNu\;l MNyhrfu; - juk; 1
                     njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gj; jpizf;fsk;
                     nkhwl;Lit gy;fiyf;fofk;

                     njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;g MNyhrfu;
                     Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

                     Nguhrpupau;. V.v];. fUzhee;j
                     gzpg;ghsu;
                     njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;g gPlk;
                     nkhwl;Lit gy;fiyf;fofk;

                     fyhepjp. vd;.B. nfhbfhu
                     gzpg;ghsu;
                     fzpdpg; ghlrhiy
                     nfhOk;Gg; gy;fiyf;fofk;

ghlj;jpl;lf; FO
              : jpU. vk;.vg;.v];. gP. [atu;jd
                     gpujhd nraw;wpl;l mjpfhup>
                     njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gj; jpizf;fsk;
                     Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

                     jpUkjp. V.vk;. fhe;jp
                     gpujhd nraw;wpl;l mjpfhup>
                     njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gj; jpizf;fsk;
                     Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

                     jpU. lg;spAt;. vk;.V.v];. tpN[Nrfu
                     epiya Kfhikahsu;
                     tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                     `hypvy




                                         V
                   jpU. lg;spAt;. v];.vy;. gyp`f;fhu
                   epiya Kfhikahsu;
                   tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                   nkhul;Lit

                   nry;tp. fyhepjp. gP.V.Nf.V.Nf. gz;bjuj;d
                   MNyhrfu;
                   tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                   FUzhfiy

                   jpU. vk;.gP. gPup];
                   tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                   FUzhfiy

                   jpUkjp. vk;.rP.vk;. [atu;jd
                   Mrpupa MNyhrfu;
                   tyaf;fy;tp fhupahyak;
                   gpypae;jiy

                   jpU. mNgrpq;f
                   Mrpupa MNyhrfu;
                   tya fy;tp fhupahyak;
                   kft

                   jpU. N[.V. fUzhehaf;f
                   epiya Kfhikahsu;
                   [dhjpgjp tpj;jpahyak;
                   uh[fpupa

jkpohf; f k;       jpU. V.vk;.t]Pu;
                   epiya Kfhikahsu;
                   tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                   f`nghy;y> jpaj;jyhit.
                   jpU.N[.V. gYY}d;
                   tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                   `hypvy

ml;ilg;glk;    :   jpU.N[.V. gYY}d;
                   tya jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp epiyak;
                   `hypvy

fzpdpg; gjpg;Gk; tbtikg;Gk; :
                   jpUkjp. vg;.V.vg;. ep];kpah
                   njhopDl;g cjtpahsu;
                   nkhopfs;> khDltpay; kw;Wk; r%f tpQ;Qhd gPlk;
                   Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;



                                         VI
         Mrpupau; mwpTiug; G topfhl; b iag; ghtpj; j Yf; f hd
                        mwpTWj; j y; f s;


,e;j Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;b f.ngh.j. (cau;juk;) jftYk; njhlu;ghly;
                                           ;         ;
njhopEl;gtpaYk; ghlj;jpy; 13 Mk; juj;jpwfhf jahupffg;gl;lnjhd;whFk;. ,g;ghlj;jpwF  ;
epr;rapf;fg;gl;l Nju;r;rp kl;lq;fspy; njupT nra;ag;gl;l Nju;r;rp kl;lq;fs; 14 ,w;fhd
nraw;ghLfs; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.


,j;Nju;r;rp kl;lq;fs; 14 ,w;Fkhd fw;wy; NgWfs; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,f;fw;wy;
NgWfisAk;; Nju;r;rp kl;lq;fisAk; milAk; Kiwapd; khztu; ikakhd fw;wy;-
fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghnlhd;W cq;fshy; gpd;gw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;fhf ckf;F
                                        ;
topfhl;lnyhd;whf njupT nra;ag;gl;l Nju;rrp kl;lq;fSf;fhf gpuNtrKk; fw;wYf;fhd
cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,q;F nraw;ghl;bd; Kbtpy; "ghl
tplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b" jug;gl;Ls;sJ. mjid cq;fs;
tFg;giwapy; khztu;fSld; ,Wjpapy; fye;Jiuahlg;gl Ntz;ba ghltpaq;fSf;fhd
topfhl;bnahd;whFk;.


,e;j Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;biaf; ifahOk;NghJ fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fs;
njhlu;ghf ckJ ftdj;ij nrYj;JtJ Kf;fpakhFk;.

•   10.7 Nju;r;rp kl;lj;jpy; juTj;jsnkhd;wpd;> juT ifaho;tjw;F rpwe;j ts
    nkd;nghUnshd;whd MYSQL nkd;nghUisg; ghtpf;f KbAk;.
•                 ;                  ;       ; P ;                    ;
    13 Mk; juj;jpwfhd fw;wy; - fw;gpjjy; kjpgglLf; fUtpfs; %d;W jahupffg;gl;Ls;sJ.




                                        VII
                                cs;slf;fk;


                                                               gf;fk;


KfTiu                                                            III

Kd;Diu                                                           IV


Mrpupau; mwpTiug;G topfhl;biag; ghtpj;jYf;fhd mwpTWj;jy;fs;      VII


khjpupr;   nraw;ghLfs;
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk; 5.1                                      1-    10
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 6.3                                      11 -   20
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 6.4                                      21 -   25
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 7.7                                      26 -   33
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 8.9                                      34 -   39
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 8.11                                     40 -   45
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 9.3                                      46 -   51
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 10.3                                     52 -   57
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 10.4                                     58 -   63
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 11.3                                     64 -   71
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 11.4                                     72 -   78
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 11.5                                     79 -   84
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 11.8                                     85 -   92
Nju;r;rp   kl;lk 13.1                                     93 -   94


kjpg;gPl;Lf; fUtpfs;
Kjyhk;; jtiz> kjpg;gPl;L epiy 1                           95 - 96
,uz;lhk; jtiz> kjpg;gPl;L epiy 2                          97 - 98
%d;whk;; jtiz> kjpg;gPl;L epiy 3                          99 -100


mUQ; nrhw;fs;                                            101 -111

      1. juk; 13   - Kjyhk; jtiz                     1 - 15


      2. juk; 13   - ,uz;lhk; jtiz                        16 - 34


      3. juk; 13   - %d;whk; jtiz                    35 - 62


      4. tpdhf;fs;> ghlrhiy kl;lf; fzpg;gPL          63 - 88
                                      II
                                     VI
Nju;r;rp 5             :                                    ;
                           fzpdpnahd;wpd; nraw;wpuid mjpfupggjw;F epidtf
                           Kfhikj;Jtj;ijg; ghtpg;ghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 5.1 :      gy;NtW tifahd epidtfq;fisAk; mtw;wpd; rpwg;gpay;G
                           fisAk; mwpe; J nfhs; t jw; f hf fzpdpapd; epidtf
                           Kiwikia gupNrhjpg;ghu;.


ghlNtis                :   Ie;J ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;      :
•    md;whl nraw;ghLfisg; gad;gLj;jp fzpdpapd; epidtfj;Jld; njhlu;Gila
    gFjpfisAk; mtw;wpd; nraw;ghLfisAk; fz;lwpe;J tupirg;gLj;Jthu;.
•    fzpdp epidtfk; nraw;gLk; Kiwiaf; fhl;Ltjw;fhf gha;r;rw; Nfhl;Lg;glk;
    (Flow charts) jahupg;ghu;.
•                              ;
     epidT mfd;w NghjpYk; vjpufhy Njitf;fhf mjpy; cs;slf;fg;gl;l jfty;fis
    ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd tpjpfis gpNuupg;ghu;.
•    NkNyhl;lkhf thrpj;Jj; Njitahd jfty;fis Nehf;fpr; nry;thu;.
•       ;                                                                ;
     rpffyhd nraw;ghLfis ruskhfg; Kd;itg;gjw;F cUtg;glq;fis gad;gLj;Jthu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk; :
• Rakhf Kd;tUk; khztu;fs; ehd;F Ngiu tFg;gpy; Kd; mioj;J fPo;f;fhZk;
 ciuahliy tFg;gpw;F Kd;itf;fTk;.
Mrpupau;: tuyhw;Wg; ghlj;jpw;F ,e;j tFg;G khztu;fs; ngw;w Gs;spfis ehd;
          guprPyid nra;Njd;. mjpf Gs;spfis ngw;wtu;fs;> eLj;ju Gs;spfis
          ngw;wtu;fs; Nghd;W Fiwe;j Gs;spfisg; ngw;wtu;fSk; ,e;j tFg;gpy;
          ,Uf;fpd;whu;fs;.
          epkyd;> ckJ Gs;spfs; Fiwtjw;F vd;d fhuzk; vd;W nrhy;Yq;fs;
          ghu;f;fyhk;.
epkyd; :     ehd; ed;whf gbj;Njd;. Br;ru;. guPl;irf;F Kd; jpdKk; vy;yhg;
             ghlq;fisAk; ed;whf thrpj;Njd;. MdhYk; tpdhg;gj;jpuj;ij ifapy;
             vLj;jTlNd xd;Wk; Qhgfj;jpw;F tutpy;iy.
Mrpupau;:    tpkhyp vd;why; 50 Gs;spfisg; ngw;Ws;shu;. cq;fs; mDgtq;fisf;
             $w KbAkh?
tpkyp :      vdf;F Neuk; Nghjhkw; Nghapl;L Br;ru;. Qhgfj;jpy; itj;jitfis
             Qhgfg;gLj;j rw;W Neuk; vLj;jJ.
Mrpupia:                              ;
             90 Gs;spfis ngw;w Rjj;jpwfk; mDgtq;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. mjidf; $Wq;fs;
             ghu;g;Nghk;.

Rjj; :       vdf;nfd;why; guPl;ir f\;lkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy Br;ru;. tpdhj;jhisg;
             ghu;j;jTld; tpilfs; vy;yhNk Qhgfj;jpw;F te;jJ.


                                       1
Mrpupia:     mjw;F VjhtJ fhuzq;fs; ,Uf;fh?

Rjj;:        ehd; gpujhd ghlf;Fwpg;GfSf;F Gwk;ghf rpW Fwpg;GfisAk; itj;Jf;
             nfhs; N td; . mitfis mbf; f b thrpj; J Kf; f pa fhuzq; f is
             epidTgLj;JNtd;.

•   fPo;tUk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;
    nfhs;sTk;.
    • FWq;fhy kw;Wk; neLq;fhy epidtf tiffs; ,uz;L kdpj epidtfj;jpNy
       cs;sd vd.
    • FWQ;fhy epidtfk; jw;fhypfkhdJ. mjpy; Nrkpj;jitfs; epiyaw;wit
       vd.
    • fw;wy; nraw;ghl;bd;NghJ epkyd; ngw;w mDgtq;fs; epue;ju epidtfj;jpy;
       Nrkpf;fg;gltpy;iy vd.
    • tpkhyp fw;witfs; epue;ju epidtfj;jpy; Nrkpf;fg;gl;bUe;j NghjpYk; jw;fhypf
                   ;
       epidtfj;jpwF nfhz;L nry;Yk; tpjpKiwfs; mikf;fg;gl;bUf;fhjjd; fhuzkhf
       jhkjk; Vw;gl;lJ vd.
    • Rjj; rpW Fwpg;Gfs; itg;gjd; %yk; epue;ju epidtfj;jpy; cs;sitfis
       tpiuthf> jw;fhypf epidtfj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L nry;y jahuhf ,Ue;jhu; vd.
    • fzpdp rk;ge;jkhfTk;> epue;ju epidtfk;> jw;fhypf epidtfk;> kw;Wk; epue;ju
                                            ;
       epidtfj;jpypUe;J jw;fhypf epidtfj;jpwF tpiuthfj; jfty; nfhz;L nry;Yk;
       FWfpa KiwfSk;> epue;ju epidtfk; mspe;JNghd NghjpYk; mjpy; Nrkpj;jit
       fis kPsg;ngw;Wf;nfhs;s Clfq;fs; cs;sd vd.

fw;gpj;jYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
                                  ;                           ;
fzpdpapd; epidtf Kiwikiag; ghu;gNghk;. mjd; nraw;ghl;bid mwpeJnfhs;Nthk;.
• guPl;ir xd;wpw;F tpilaspf;Fk;NghJ Vw;gLk; fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fspy; ckJ
  FOtpw;Ff; fpilf;Fk; tplak; gw;wp mtjhdpf;fTk;.
  • neLq;fhy epidtfk; capNuhl;lkiljy;.
  • jw;fhypf epidtfj;jpw;F Njitahd juTfs; gupkhw;wkiljy;.
  • jw;fhypf epidtfj;jpypUe;J guPl;ir tplaj;jpw;Fj; juT vLj;Jr; nry;yYk;>
      mjid tpiuTgLj;Jtjw;fhf neUq;fpa ,lnkhd;wpy; juT Nru;j;J itj;jy;.
                               ;
  • epidT KOikahf ,oe;Jtpll NghjpYk; $ba juTfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhf
      tpjpKiwfs; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sik.
• ckf;Ff; fpilj;j tplak; fw;wy; nraw;ghl;bd;NghJ eilngWk; Kiwia mwpe;J
  nfhs;tjw;Fr; rpW FOf; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;f.
• fzpdp epdtfj;Jld; njhlu;Gila ve;jg; gFjp vt;tplaj;ij gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;J
  fpd;wJ vd Muha;e;J ghu;f;f.
• fzpdp epdtfj;Jld; njhlu;Gila mg;gFjpfis ed;F fw;f.
• md;W Kjy; ,d;W tiu mjpy; Vw;gl;bUf;Fk; khw;wq;fis Muha;e;J ghu;f;f.
• ckJ fz;lha;Tfis $l;lkhfTk; Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; tFg;giwf;F Kd;itf;f
  Maj;jkhfTk;.
                                       2
ghl tplaq;fisj; njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;bfs;
•   rpWFo fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;te;j FOtpw;Nf Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; Mf;fG+u;tkhd MNyhridfisf; Nfl;lwpaTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fspd; kPJ ftdQ; nrYj;JtJld; mtw;iw ntspf;nfhzUk;
    tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
                                                         ;
    • neLq;fhy epdtfj;jpy; cs;stw;iw FWq;fhy epdtfj;jpwFg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F
        neLq;fhy epidtfk; ,af;f epiyapy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd.
    • fzpdpapw;F kpd; toq;fpaTld; fzpdpapd; neLq;fhy epidtfk; ,aq;fp mjy;
        cs;s nray;Kiwikia FWf;fhy epidtfj;jpw;Ff; nfhLf;Fk; vd.
    • ,jw;fhf CMOS vDk; ~rpg;| ,y; cs;s BIOS vd miof;fg;gLk; nraw;ghL
        ,aq;Fk; vd.
    •   CMOS rpg; MdJ Rkhu; 10 tUlq;fs; MAs; cs;s ,U gl;lupfspd; kpff; Fiw
        thd kpd; rf;jpahy; ,aq;Fk; rpwe;j njhopy;El;gj;Jld; $baJ vd.
    •                                                               ; ;
        BIOS vDk; epuy; fzpdpapy; nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;s td;nghUl;fis guPlrpjJ mtw;wpd;
        nraw;ghl;ilg; gw;wpa jfty;fisj; jUk; vd.
    •   ,e;j epuy; thrpf;f KbAkhapUe;jhYk; khw;wpaikf;f KbahJ vd;gjhy; thrpg;G
        khj;jpu epidtfk; (Read only memory - ROM) vd miof;fg;gLk; vd.
    •   ,e;epidtfq;fs; jw;NghJ gy tbtq;fspy; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; kPz;Lk;
        kPz;Lk; vOjf;$ba tpUj;jpaile;j KiwfSld; $ba EPROM, EEPROM
        vd;w ngau;fspy; etPd fzpdpfspy; ,d;W gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wnjd;gJ.
    •   ,j;njhopEl;gk; NkYk; tpUj;jp nra;ag;gl;L Jupj epidtfq;fs; (Flash memory)
        cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sd vd;gJ.
    •   jw;fhypf epidtfkhdJ thrpg;G vOJ epidtfk; (Read Write Memory) vd
        miof;fg;gLk;. ,J fzpdpapd; gpujhd kpd; toq;fspy; jil Vw;gl;Ls;sJld;
        mope;JtpLk; vd.
    •   ,e;epidtfk; vOkhW mDfy; epidtfk; (Random Access Memory - RAM) vd
        miof;fg;gLk; gpujhd epidtfk; (Main Memory) vd.
    •   vOkhW mZfy; epidtfj;jpd; (RAM) nfhs;ssT epue;ju epidtfj;jpd;
        nfhs;ssit tpl FiwthdJld; tplaj;jpw;fhf juTfis ngWk;NghJ xOq;F
        Kiw gpd;gw;w Njitapy;iy vd.
    •   nrayp (Processor) ,w;F kpf mUfpy; RAM mike;Js;sjhy; kpf Fiwe;j
        fhyj;jpy; ,jpy; cs;s juTfis Processor ,w;Fg; ngw;Wf;nfhLf;Fk; vd.
    •   nrayp (Processor) ,w;F toq;Fk; juTfspy; mbf;fb ngw;W ghtpf;fg;gLk;
        juTfis gJf;F epidtfk; (cache memory) vDk; epidtfj;jpy; itj;Jf;nfhs;Sk;
        vd.
    •   ,e;j gJf;F epidtfk; RAM ,d; nfhs;ssT I tpl Fiwthf ,Ug;gpDk;
        juT ngw;Wj;jUk; Ntfk; kpfTk; mjpfkhFk; vd.
    •   gJf; F epidtfk; Kw; f hyq; f spy; nrayp ,w; F mUfpy; ntspapy;
        mike;jpUe;jhYk; etPd nraypfspy; mJ cw;GwkhfNt mike;js;sJ vd.

                                        3
  •   nraypf;Fg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l my;yJ xOq;fikf;fg;
      glhj juTfis gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F mDg;gg;gLtjw;F Kd; jw;fhypfkhf
      epWj;jp itj;jpUg;gjw;fhf rpW nfhs;ssTfs; nfhz;l epidtfk; ,r; nrayp
      ,Ds; cs;sd vd.
  •   me; epidtfq;fs; gjptfq;fs; (Registers) vd miof;fg;gLk; vd. RAM, Cache
      kw;Wk; gjptfq;fs;(Registers) vd;gitfs; kpd; rf;jpapNyNa jq;fpAs;sgbahy;
      ,it mopAk; epidtfq;fs; (Volatile Memory) vd miof;fg;gLk; vd.
  •   mopAk; epidtfj;jpy; juTfs; Kiwahfr; Nrkpj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhy; mij
      miltJ kpf Rygk; vd.
  •                           ;
      me; epidtfq;fs; mopeJ Nghd NghjpYk; neLq;fhy epidtfj;jpy; Nrkpffg;gl;l  ;
      juTfis Njitahd Neuq;fspy; kPsg;ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topKiwfs;
      cs;sd vd.
  •   fzpdpapDs;Ns nghWj;jg;gl;Ls;s gpujhd td;tl;L neLq;fhy epidtfkhFk;.
      ,jpy; Nrkpj;J itj;j juTfis fzpdpapd; ntspg;Gwj;jpd; nghUj;jg;gl;l
      fhe;j (Magnetic) kw;Wk; xspapay; (optical) Clfq;fs; rpytw;wpy; Nrkpj;J itf;f
      KbAk; vd.
  •                                    ;
      td;tl;L> ehlh(tapes) kw;Wk; nefpotl;L (floppy disk) vd;git fhe;j Clfq;fshfTk;>
      ,Utl; L (CD)" DVD Nghd; w it mopTwh epidtf (Non Volatile Memory)
      Clfq;fshfTk; cs;sd vd.



                               thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

epiyaw;w epidtfk;       (Volatile Memory)
fzpdpfspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; epidtfk; fzpdpfspd; nraw;ghl;bw;F
Kf;fpakhdnjhd;whFk;. epidtfj;jhy; GupAk; gpujhd nrayhdJ fzpdp juT
nraw;ghl;bd; gyjug;gl;l $l;lq;fSf;Fj; Njitahd juTfisf; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp
itg;gjhFk;. mjpy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp cs;s juTfs; mopahkypUf;f njhlu;r;rpahf
kpd; toq;fiy Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. VNjh xU tifapy; me;j epidtfq;fSf;Ff;
fpilf;Fk; kpd;njhlu;G Jz;bg;gile;jhy; clNd mjd; epidtfj;jpYs;s juTfs;
mope;J tpLk;. Mifahy; ,eepidtfq;fs; kpd; njhlu;gpd; Nky; jq;fpapUf;Fk;
                                   ; ;
epidtf tifahFk;. fzpdpapYs;s fPoffhZk; epidtfq;fs; ,t;tifiar;; NrWk;.
1. vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk; (RAM)
2. gjptfq;fs; (Registers)
3. gJf;F epidtfk;

vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk;             (RAM)
,e; epidtfk; fzpdpapd; gpujhd epidtfk; vdTk; miof;fg;gLk;. fzpdpapd;
kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L myfpw;F VjhtnjhU nraw;ghl;ilr; nra;tjw;Fj; Njitahd



                                            4
Kiwik nkd;nghUs;> gpuNahf nkd;nghUs; kw;Wk; Njitahd juTfisf;
fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp itg;gJ ,e; epidtfj;jpNyahFk;. ,jd; rpwg;gk;rk; vd;dntd;why;
nraw;ghl;L myfpw;F ,jpy; cs;sitfis Neubahf ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba tha;g;G
cs;sikNaahFk;. mJNghyNt ,jd; gpuNtr fhyk; kpfTk; Fiwthdgbahy;
nraw;ghLfis kpfTk; Ntfkhfr; nra;a KbAk;.


,e; epidtfj;jpd; VjhtnjhU ,lj;jpypUe;J Neubahfj; juTfisr; nraypapw;Fg;
ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjdhy; ,jw;F xOq;FKiwnahd;W Njitapy;iy. Mifahy; ,e;
epidtfj;ij vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk; vd miof;fg;gLk;.


,e; epidtf tiffs; NtfkhdJ NghyNt ,jpy; gytpjkhd nfhs;ssTfisf;
nfhz;ljhf ngw;Wf; nfhs;s KbAk;. ,jpy; juTfis fsQ;rpag;gLj;jtTk;> mjpypUe;J
thrpf;fTk; KbAk;. ,g;gb ,Ue;jNghjpYk; fzpdpapd; kpd; njhlu;ig epWj;jpaTld;
mjpy; cs;s midj;Jj; juTfSk; mope;JNgha;tpLk;.


vOkhW mZfy; epidtfq;fs; ,U tiffsppy; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. mitfshtd:
1. ,af;ftpay; vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk; (DRAM)
2. epiyapay; vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk; (SRAM)


etPd fzpdpfspy; Rygkhff; fhzg;gLk; epidtf tif mirT vOkhW mZfy;
epidtfkhFk;. ,e; epidtfj;jpy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp itj;Js;s VjhtNjhu; jftiy
mbf;fb Gj;Jzu;t+l;l (refresh) Ntz;Lk;. ,e; epidtfj;jpd; epidtf fyd;fspy;
itf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; juTf;s nrf;fDf;F kpy;ypad; msT my;yJ kpd; Jbg;Gfis
mDg;gp kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; Gj;Jzu;t+l;Lk;.

epiyapay; vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk; fzpdpapd; ,uz;lhk; tif epidtfkhf
fUj KbAk;. ,e; epidtfq;fspYs;s juTfs; mbf;fb Gj;Jzu;T+l;lg; glkhl;lhJ.
MdhYk; mj;juTfs; Nky; ,d;DnkhU juT vOjg;gLk; tiuapy; my;yJ kpd;
Jz;bg;gilAk; tiu ,J Xu; epiyapay; glkhf epfOk;. ,e; epidtf rpg;fs;
nky;ypajhdjhy; ghtidapy; ,y;yhjNghJ ghtid FiwthdJ. ,jdhy; ,af;ftpay;
epidtfq;fis tplTk; nraypapy; cs;s gJf;F epidtfj;jpw;F (cache memory)
kpfTk; nghUj;jkhd njupT ,e;j epiyapay; epidtfk; vdf; fhl;lyhk;. ,d;DNkhu;
tifapy; mirT epidtfq;fspd; juTf; nfhs;ssT mjpfkhdjhy; gpujhd
epidtfj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd njupT ,JthFk;.


gjptfq;fs;   (Registers)
fzpdp epu;khzj;jpd;NghJ gjptfq;fs; vd;gd kpfTk; rpwpa nfhs;ssTfisf; nfhz;l
fsQ;rpa epidtfkhFk;. ,tw;wpYs;s juTfis NtW ,lj;jpy; cs;s juTfis
ngWtij tpl mjpf Ntfj;jpy; nraypapw;F mZfpf; nfhs;sf;$baJ> ,jd; rpwg;gk;r
khFk;. epidtf Ntfg; gbepiyapd; cau; epiyapy; ,Ug;gJ ,g; gjptfq;fNsahFk;.

                                     5
gJf;F epidtfk;     (Cache Memory)
                                              ;
fzpdp nraw;ghl;bw;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l fhyj;ij fzpffg;gLtJ kpfr; rpwpa myfpdhyhFk;.
cjhuzkhf fzpdp nrayp gpujhd epidtfj;ij mZFtjw;F vLf;Fk; Neuk;
nghJthf tpdhbapd; kpy;ypad; 60 ,y; xU gq;fhFk;. mjhtJ neNdh nrf;fd; 60
MFk;. MdhYk; nraypapd; nraw;ghl;by; xU Rw;wpw;fhf nry;Yk; Neuk; neNdh
nrf;fd; 2 MFk;. ,jd;gb nraypnahd;wpw;F neNdh nrf;fd; 60 vd;gJ kpfg; ngupa
fhykhFk;.


,jd;gb fzpdp nraypapw;F jkJ fhupaq;fSf;fhfj; Njitg;gLk; juTifsg; gpujhd
epidtfj;jpypUe;J mZfpf;nfhs;tjw;F mjpf Neuk; nrytplg;gLk; tplakhdgbahy;
gpujhd epidtfj;ij tplf; Fiwe;J ,Ug;gpDk; Ntfkhf mZfy; cs;s nraypapw;F
kpfTk; neUf;fKs;s my;yJ nraypapDs; mlf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; epidtf tif gJf;F
epidtfkhFk;.


gJf;F epidtfj;jpy; ngUk;ghYk; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ nraypapdhy; mbf;fb
                                                                    ;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk; gpujhd epidtfj;jpYs;s juTfspd; gpujpfshFk;. nraypapwF gpujhd
epidtfj; j pd; Xu; ,lj; j pYs; s tw; i w thrpf; f my; y J mjpy; vOJtjw; f
NjitNaw;gl;lhy; nrayp Kjyhtjhf gJf;F epidtfj;jpy; mjw;Fupa gpujp cs;sjh
vd;gijg; guPl;rpj;Jg; ghu;f;Fk;. mjw;Fupa gpujpapUe;jhy; cldbahf mjid
        ;
nraypapwFg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;. gpujhd epidtfj;jpd; juT mZfSf;F ,J Ntfj;ijj;
jUk;.


etPd jdpegu; fzpdpfspd; gJf;F epidtf kl;lq;fs; %d;W cs;sd. Kjy; kl;lk;
L gJf;F epidtfk;. kpfTk; NtfkhdJld; nraypapDs;NsNa mike;Js;sJ. ,jdhy;
 1
,j;juT nraypapw;F nry;tjw;F jha;g; gyifapd; juT khu;f;fq;fisg; gad;gLj;jg;
glkhl;lhJ. Mifahy; ,J nraypapd; Ntfj;ij tpl mjpf Ntfj;jpy; nraw;gLk;.
,uz;lhk; kl;lk; L2 kw;Wk; %d;whk; kl;lk; L3 jha;g;gyifapy; my;yJ nraypapy;
mike;jpUf;f KbAk;. jha;g;gyifapypUf;Fk;NghJ mjw;F juT khu;f;fj;ij gad;
gLj;Jtjhy; rpwpjsT Ntfk; Fiwe;jhYk; gpujhd epidtfk; Ntfkhfr; nraw;gLk;.
L3 kl;l epidtfk; L2 kl;l epidtfj;jpw;Fj; Njitahdtw;iwg; ngw;Wf; nfhLg;gJld;
L epidtfk; L epidtfj;jpw;Fj; Njitahdtw;iwg; ngw;Wj;jUk;. L1 epidtfk;
 2            1
nraypapw;F mtw;iwf; nfhLf;Fk;. ,e; epidtf kl;lq;fs; midj;Jk; my;yJ
,d;iwa rpy fzpdpfspd; mlq;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

mopAwh epidtfk;      (Non Volatile Memory)
,t;tifahd epidtfq;fs; fsQ;rpag;gl;bU;fk; juTfs; my;yJ jfty;fs; kpd;
njhlu;G Jz;bj;jTld; my;yJ fzpdpia nraypyf;fr; nra;jTld; mopakhl;lhJ.
,e; epidtf tiff;F thrpg;G khj;jpuk; epidtfk; kw;Wk; ,uz;lhe;ju epidtfq;fs;
Nru;j;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. ,it nfhs;sytpy; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jhYk; epiyaw;w
epidtfj;ijg; Nghd;W Ntfk; nfhz;ljy;y. mit tpiyapYk; $bajhFk;.

                                        6
etPd fzpdp njhopy;El;gj;jpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;Jld; cyfpy; gy fzpdp epWtdq;fs;>
epiyaw;w epidtfq;fspd; Ntfj;jpw;Fr; rkdhd Ntfj;jpy; nraw;glf;$bathW thrpg;G
khj;jpu epidtfq;fisj; jahupg;gjpy; gupNrhjidfis Nkw;nfhz;L tUfpd;wdu;.
cjhuzkhf IBM epWtdk; tpUj;jpnra;Js;s Magnetoresistive RAM vDk; M R A M ,idf;
$wyhk;.


epiyahd epidtfk; gpujhdkhf ,uz;L tifg;gLk;.
1. thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk; (Read only memory - ROM)
2. ,uz;lhe;ju epidtfq;fs; (secondary storage)

thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk;
,e; epidtfk; thrpf;f khj;jpuk; Kbe;j epidtfk; NghyNt fzpdp nraypapw;F
mjpy; vOj KbahJ. ,t;thwhd epidtfq;fspy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s tpNrl
nkd;nghUs; cs;sJ. mit epiyg;nghUs; (firmware) vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,k;
nkd;nghUl;fs; tpNrlkhd td;nghUSf;F khj;jpuk; fl;Lg;gl;lJk; mit mbf;fb
Gj;Jzu;t+l;l mtrpakw;wjhFk;. tpNrlkhf jdpegu; fzpdpia nghUj;j tiuapy;
              ;
mtw;wpd; jha;ggyifapy; nghUj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk; Fiwflj;jp rpg; xd;wpy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp
,Uf;Fk; epiyg;nghUs; %yk; fzpdpapid nraw;gLj;Jk; mbg;gil fhupaq;fis
epiwNtw;Wk;.


         ;                                                               ;
fzpdpapwF kpd; njhlu;ig toq;fpaTld; nraw;gLk; ,k;nkd;nghUs; %yk; fzpdpapwF
nghUj;jg;gl;l cgfuzq;fisf; fz;lwptjw;fhd eilKiw (Diagnostic Routine) ia
nra;tJld; mk; nkd;nghUspd; kw;nwhU gFjpapd; %yk; fzpdpapd; ,af;f Kiwik
fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp cs;s ,lj;jpypUe;J xU gpujpia gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F mZf
               P ;                               ;            ;
itf;Fk;. cs;slL cgfuzq;fspypUe;J fpilf;Fk; rkpfiQfis guptu;jjid nra;jy;
Nghd;witfSk; ,e; epuypd; kw;iwa tplaq;fshFk;. fzpdpfSf;F Nkyhf kw;iwa
cw; n ghjpe; j KiwikfspYk; ,t; t hwhd thrpg; G khj; j pu epidtfq; f s;
nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. ,e;j thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfq;fSf;F fzpdp nraypapdhy;
vJTk; vOj Kbahtpl;lhYk; etPd njhopy;El;g Kiwapdhy; kpd; kw;Wk; NtW
Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;jp tpNrl cgfuzq;fs; %yk; mopf;fTk; kPz;Lk; vOjTk;
KbAk;. ,t;thwhd thrpg;g khj;jpu epidtf tiffs;:


1. thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk;     - ROM (Read only Memory)
2. epuy;gLj;jf;$ba thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk;
                                - PROM (Programmable Memory)
3. mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jy; thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk;
                                - EPROM (Erasable Programmable Memory)
4. kpd;dhy; mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jy; thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk;
                                - EEPROM (Elactrically Erasable Programmable Memory)
5. Jupj epidtfk;                - Flash Memory

                                         7
epuy;gLj;jf;$ba epidtfk; (PROM - Programmable Memory)
kpfr; rpwe;j thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfnkhd;iw epu;khdpf;f mjpf fhyk; nry;tjhYk;>
kpfr; rpwpjhf jahupg;gjw;F nryT mjpfkhtjhYk; ,t; thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtf
jahupg;ghsu;fshy; epuy;gLj;jf;$ba thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk; (PROM) vDk; ngaupy;
epidtf rpg; epu;khzpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e; epidtf rpg; ntw;W rpg;fshff; Fiwe;j
tpiyapy; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. mtw;iw programmer vDk; tpNrl cgfuzj;jpd;
%yk; epuy;gLj;j KbAk;.

mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jy; epidtfk;          - EPROM
Nkw;Fwpg;gplg;gl;l R O M kw;Wk; P R O M fSld; nraw;gLtJ xUtifapy; ehrfhu
nrayhff; fUjyhk;. Vndd;why; ,r; rpg;fspd; tpiuFiwthapUe;jhYk; kPz;Lk;
kPz;Lk; epuy;gLj;j KbahjjhyhFk;. Mifahy; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; epuy;gLj;jf;$ba
rpg; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mjid mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jf;$ba thrpg;G khj;jpu
epidtfk; vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,e;j rpg;gpy; cs;s juTfs; Gw Cjh fjpu; %yk;
tpNrl cgfuznkhd;wpdhy; mopf;f KbAk;. gpd; kPz;Lk; vOjf;$ba epiyf;F
tUk;. ,e;j KO rpg;GNk mopf;fg;gLk;.


kpd;dhy; mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jy; thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk; -           EEPROM
mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jy; thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk;> epuy;gLj;jy; thrpg;G khj;jpu
epidtfj;ij tpl rpwg;gpay;Gfspy; Kd; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; ,r; rpg;ig mopf;Fk; NghJk;
    ;
kPzLk; vOJk; NghJk; mjw;fhf xJf;fg;gl;l tpNrl cgfuzk; gad;gLj;j Ntz;baJk;
                                                  ;
Fiwe;j nrytpy; ,yFthf nra;Jnfhs;sf;$ba tha;gG ,y;yhikahYk; ,t;thwhd
mnrsfupaq;fis mfw;wp kpd;id gad;gLj;jp mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jy; thrpg;G
khj;jpu epidtfk; jahupf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j rpg;ig jahupj;jjd; gpd; fPo;f;fhZk;
mD$yq;fs; cUthfp cs;sd.
   • kPz;Lk; vOJk;NghJ rpg;ig nghUj;jpa ,lj;jpypUe;J mfw;w Njitg;glhJ.
   • KO rpg;igAk; mopj;J tplhky; mtrpakhd gFjpia kl;Lk; kPz;Lk; vOj
       KbAk;.
   • cs;slf;f juTfis mopg;gjw;fhd tpNrl cgfuzk; Njitg;glhik

Jupj epidtfk; -    Flash Memory
kpd;dhy; mopf;ff;$ba epuy;gLj;jf;$ba thrpg;G khj;jpu epidtfk; rpg;gpy; 1byte
kl;LNk kPz;Lk; vOj KbAk;. MdhYk; ,J ke;j fjpapy; eilngWk;. ,t; tplak;
xUtifapy; ,yFthdjhapUe;jhYk; ,U nfhs;ssit vOJtjw;F ntF Neuk;
nry;tJ xU gpujp$ykhff; fUjyhk;.


Xu; cgfuzj;jpd; cs;slf;fg;gl;l rpg;gpy; cs;s juTfspd; jpBu; khw;wq;fs; Vw;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk; vdpd; mt;thwhf cgfuzq;fSf;F ,j;jifa rpg;fs; kpfTk; nghUj;jkw;w
jhFk;. ,j;jifa gpd;thq;fSf;Fj; jPu;thf Jupj epidtf rpg; jahupf;fg;gl;lJ.


                                       8
,t;tifahd rpg;gpy; juT kPy; vOJk;NghJ xNuabahf ghupa gFjpahf (chunks)
vOj KbAk;. mjhtJ 512 igl;fspd; gFjpia xNuabahf vOjyhk;. kpf NtfkhfTk;
,yFthftk; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; vOj Kbahjjhy; mjw;nfd;W tpNrl cgfuzk;
Njitg;gglhjjdhy; Jupj epidtfk; kpfTk; gpugy;akhfpAs;sJ.


mbg;gil cs;sPl;L> ntspaPl;L Kiwik               (Basic Input Output System - BIOS)
,J fzpdpia jahu;g;glj;Jk; epiyg; nghUshFk;. fzpdpapw;F kpd; njhlu;ig
toq;fpaTld; nraw;gLk; KjyhtJ nkd;nghUs; ,e;epiy nghUshFk;. CMOS ,r;rpg;
gpujhd gyiff;Fg; nghUj;jg;gLtJ mg; gyifia jahupf;Fk; NghNjahFk;. ,e;
epiyg;nghUspd; mbg;gil eltbf;ifahdJ fzpdp Kiwikapd; td; jl;L>
tpirg;gyif> Rl;b kw;Wk; midj;J cs;sPl;L> ntspaPl;L ghfq;fis milahsk;
fhzy;> guPl;rpj;jy;> kw;Wk; Muk;gj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jyhFk;. ,q;F Kiwikapy;
cs;s td;nghUs;fs; KiwikfSf;F Vw;wkhd Kiwf;F mikj;Jj; jUk;. ,jw;fhf
,t; td;nghUl;fspd; xl;Lk; nkd;nghUl;fis mZfy; nra;J mt; td;nghUl;fis
fl;Lg;ghl;il Kiwikf;F toq;Fk;. ,r; nraw;ghL booting my;yJ boots up vd
rhjhuzkhf miof;fg;gLk;. ,ij bootstrapping vdTk; miof;fg;gLk;.


epug;G cNyhf xf;irl;L Fiwflj;jp              (Complementry Metel Oxide Semi-conductor
- CMOS Chip)
                ;
,J fzpdp jha;ggyifapy; nghUj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk; rpwpa rpg; MFk;. ,jpy; Kiwikapd;
jpfjp> Neuk; kw;Wk; Vida mikg;Gfs; (settings) mlq;fpAs;sJ. ,e;j rpg;gpw;Fj;
                                                                ;
Njitg;gLtJ kpfr; rpwpa kpd; rf;jp vd;gjhy; mr; rf;jpia rpwpa ypjjpak; gl;lupnahd;why;
toq;fg;gLk;. ,e;j gl;lupia gy tUlq;fs; ghtpf;f KbAk;. ,ij C M O S gl;lup vd
miof;fg;gLk;.


epiyahd epidtf tiffSf;F mlq;Fk; ,d;DnkhU epidtfkhf ,uz;lhe;ju
fsQ;rpakhf miof;f KbAk;. ,it gy tbtq;fspy; fhzyhk;. fPo; fhl;lg;gLtJ
mjd; rpyjhFk;.
   1. fhe;j ehlhf;fs;    - Magnetic tapes
   2. td; tl;Lfs;        - Hard disks
   3. xspapay; ehlhf;fs; - Optical disks


fhe;j ehlhf;fs;
fhe; j xspg; g jpT nra; t jw; f hd ClfkhtJ ,f; fhe; j elhf; f Ns. nky; y pa
fzj;ijf;nfhz;l> ePz;l gpsh];bf; ehlhit fhe;jg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; ,e;j fhe;j
ehlhf;fs; mikf;fg;gLk;. ngUk;ghYk; xyp> xsp juTfs; Nghd;W fzpdp juTfis
fsQ;rpag;gLj;jpitf;f ,it gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. Kjd; Kiwahf ,f; fhe;j ehlhf;fis
       ;                                                       ;
jahupjjtu;fs; N[u;kdpapdu; Mthu;fs;. ,e;ehlhf;fs; xyp> xsp xspggjpT nra;tjw;Fk;>
kPs; Xl;lTk; (play back) $ba gy cgfuzq;fspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. cjhuzkhf Nlg;



                                         9
nuf;Nfhlu; kw;Wk; tPbNah nuf;Nfhlu;fis fhl;lyhk;. fzpdp juTfis fsQ;rpag;gLj;J
tjw;fhf ,f;fhe;j ehlhf;fis nrYj;Jk; gFjp ehlh nrYj;jp (         Tape Drive) vd
miof;fg;gLk;. Kw;fhyj;jpy; fzpdpapd; ,uz;lhe;ju fsQ;rpakhf gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
,f;fhe;j ehlhf;fisg; ghJfhg;G Nrkpj;jYf;fhfg; (backup) gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ghupa
mytpyhd juTfis fsQ;rpag;gLj;Jtjw;F ,it jw;NghJk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

td;tl;L    (Hard disk)
fzpdpapd; gpujhd fsQ; r pakhf gad; g Lj; j g; g LtJ td; t l; l hFk; . vz; z pay;
FwpaPlhf;fg;gl;l juTfis fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gl;l fhe;j Kfg;igf;nfhz;l tisahj>
Ntfkhf Rw;Wk; tl;Lfs; gy Nru;f;fg;gl;l td;tl;L Xl;bnahd;W etPd fzpdpfspy;
fhzg;gLk;. ,it gy nfhs;ssTfspy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;. fhe;j ehlhf;fis tpl
kpff;$ba juTfis mZfy; nra;Jnfhs;s Kbak;. ,j;jl;Lfs; etPd fzpdpfspy;
gutyhff; fhzyhk;.

xspapay; tl;Lfs;
,it jl;ilahd tl;ltbt tl;L tiffshFk;. ,jpy; vz;zpay; juTfis
fsQ;rpag;gLj;Jk;NghJ ,t;tl;by; cs;s rpwpa gs;sq;fs; ( i s > NkLfs; mbg;gilahff;
                                                     pt)
                                 ;                           ;
nfhz;L vz;zpay; 0 kw;Wk; 1 thrpfff;$ba tifapyhd njhopyEl;gk; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.
,j; juTfs; thrpf;fg;gLtJ Nyru; xspf;fjpu; cjtpAldhFk;. ,t;tl;by; juTfisf;
fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gLtJ Nyru; %yk; my;yJ ,ae;jpug; gjpT %ykhFk;. nghJthf
,t;tl;Lfs; xsptl;L (Compact Disk-CD-R) vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,jpy; xUKiw kl;LNk
juT vOj KbAk;. kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; vOJtjw;fhf CD-RW tifapyhd xyptl;Lfs;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,jpy; mNefkhf fzpdp juTfs; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gLtJld; xyp>
xsp juTfSk; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jyhk;. ,j;jl;Lfspy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jpajy;y. jpiug;glq;fs;>
ghly;fs; nghd;wtw;iw re;ijapy; ngwyhk;. jw;NghJ mNefkhf gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ
DVD tl;LfshFk;. ,j;jl;Lfs; gy nfhs;sTfspy; cs;sd. etPd fzpdpfspy;
gad;gLj;Jk; ,it tpiyapYk; Fiwe;jitahFk;.




                                       10
Nju;r;rp 6              :   fzpdpapd; KO mstpyhd nraw; g hLfisAk;
                            Kfhikj; J tk; nra; t jw; F ,af; f Kiwikia
                                    ;
                            cgNahfpgghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 6.3 :       xU ,af;f KiwahdJ fzpdpapd; nraw;ghLfis vt;thW
                            epu;tfpf;fpd;wJ vd;gij Muha;thu;.


ghlNtis                 :   Ie;J ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
• gy;njhopy; kw;Wk; gy;epuy; Kiwikfspd; gz;Gfis tpsf;Fthu;.
• nray; K iwfs; ,Uf; F k; epiyfisAk; mit NtWgLk; tpjj; i jAk;
  njspTgLj;Jthu;.
• ,af;f Kiwik nray;Kiw cgepuy; %yk; nray;Kiw Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;ag;gLk;
  tpjk; gw;wp tpsf;Fthu;.
• KOtijAk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;fhf rpW gFjpfshf Ntwhf;fpf; nfhs;Sthu;.
• $ba nraw;wpwidg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F Neuj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;thu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrpnahd;wpd; nraw;ghl;ilAk; mjpy; fhzg;gLk; NritfisAk;
  gw;wp khztu;fsplk; tpdtTk;.
• fhj; j pUf; F k; miog; G ( Call waiting) Nritnahd; W nraw; g Lk; tpjk; gw; w p
  fye;JiuahlTk;.
• fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrp miog;G xd;wpy; <Lgl;bUf;Fk; Ntisapy; ,d;DnkhU
                                  ;
      miog;G tUkhapd; xyp rkpQirAk;> jpiuapy; njd;gLk; nra;jp xd;Wk; fpilf;Fk;
      vd;gJ.
  • Njitnadpd; ,izg;gpy; ,Uf;Fk; miog;ig jw;fhypfkhf epWj;jptpl;L Gjpa
      miog;Gld; ,izaf;$baJld; mg;Gjpa miog;ig epWj;jp kPz;Lk; gioa
      ,izg;Gld; njhlu;G glTk; KbAk; vd;gJ.
  • ,r;nraw;ghl;bd;NghJ ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrp %yk; xNu jlitapy; gy
      tplaq;fis Nkw;nfhs;sf;$ba trjpfs; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sd vd;gJ.
  • ,r;nraw;ghL gy;njhopy; (multitasking) vdg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • ,r;nraw;ghLfs; ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrpapd; ,af;f Kiwik %yk;
      Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ.
  • fzpdpapYk; gy;njhopy; nraw;ghLfs; eilngWtJld; mtw;wpd; Kfhikj;Jtk;
      ,af;f Kiwik %yk; eilngWfpd;wJ vd;gJ.


                                       11
fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   fPo;f; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s jiyg;Gf;fspy; ckJ FOtpw;Ff; fpilf;Fk; jiyg;gpd;
    kPJ ftdk; nrYj;jTk;.
    • gy;njhopy; kw;Wk; gy;epuy; ,af;f Kiwikfspy;
        • Neug;gfpu;T (time sharing) kw;Wk; nraypapd; cr;r gad;ghL(processor utilization)
        • nray;KiwfSk; (processes) mtw;wpd; epiyfSk; (process states)
        • nray;Kiwfis ml;ltizg;gLj;jy; (process scheduling)
•   thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk; ckJ jiyg;gpw;Fupa gFjpapd; kPJ $ba
    ftdKk; nrYj;jTk;.
•   fzpdpapd; nraw;ghl;bDs; nray;KiwfSk;> mtw;wpd; cgepuy; gLj;jy;fSk;>
    gy;njhopy; my;yJ gy;epuy; Kiwf;F cjTk; tpjk; gw;wp rpW FOf; fye;Jiuahl
    nyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
•   nraypapd; gad;ghl;il nraw;wpwDld; gpuNahfpg;gjw;F nray;Kiw epuy;fs; %yk;
    Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nray;fis jkJ FOtpw;F Kd;itj;Jf; fye;JiuahlTk;.
•   nray;Kiw epiy (process states) fspd; %yk; Neuj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tJld;
                        ;                                        ; P ;
    nraw;wpwid mjpfupjJf; nfhs;Sk; tpjk; gw;wp ftdk; nrYj;jp kjpgglbw;Fl;gLj;jTk;.
•   cq;fsJ fUj;Jf;fis $l;lhfTk; gilg;ghw;wy; kpf;fjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;Fk;
    Kd;itg;gjw;F jahuhfTk;.


ghl tplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
•   rpW FOf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kidtf;fTk;.
•   Kd;itj;j FOtpw;Nf tpupTiug;gpw;fhd Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; Mf;fg+u;tkhd fUj;Jf;fis tprhupf;fTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;JtJld; rhuhk;rg;gLj;jTk;.
    • fzpdp nraypapd; nraw;wpuid mjpfupg;gjw;fhf mjd; Neuj;ij mjp$ba
        mstpy; gad;gLj;jj;jf;f mtrpak; Vw;gl;lJ vd;gJ.
    • ,jw;fhf nraypia mjp$ba mstpy; gad;ghl;bw;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;sf;$ba
        gy;epuy; kw;Wk; gy;njhopy; ,af;f Kiwikfs; cUthfpd vd;gJ.
    • ,t;tpaf;f KiwikfSf;F nraypapd; Neuj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;J nfhs;t
        Jld; mjd; mjp$ba cw;gj;jpj;jpwid ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk; vd;gJ.
    • ,t;tpaf;f KiwikfspYs;s gpujhd ,ay;ghdJ nraw;ghL vd;W miof;fg;gLk;
        epuy; gFjpfs; ghtpf;fg;gLtJ vd;gJ.
    • ,r;nray;Kiwfs; mtw;wpd; gy;NtW epiyfspw;F (states) toq;fg;gl;L mit
        VNjDk; xU xOq;fpy; nraypf;F mDg;gg;gl;L Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd
        vd;gJ.
    • ,k;Kfhikj;Jtj;ij Nkw;nfhs;tJ nray;Kiw xOq;fikg;G (process sheduler)
        vdg;gLk; Kiwnahd;wpd; %ykhFk;.
                                              ;
    • ,r;nray;Kiw FWq;fhy> ,ilf;fhy> ePzlfhy vd;w %d;W tiffshyydJ
        vd;gJ.


                                           12
   •   ,t; xt;nthU gFjpfspYk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; tplak; xd;wpw;nfhd;W NtWgl;l
       njd;gJ.
   •   etPd fzpdpfspy; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;w gy;njhopy; kw;Wk; gy;epuy; ,af;f Kiwik
       fSf;F ,r;nray;Kiw %yk; fzpdp juT xOq;FgLj;Jk; nray;Kiwapid
       njhlu;r;rpahfg; Ngzf;$ba tha;g;G Vw;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJ.



                               thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;
gy;epuy;gLj;jy;   (Multiprogramming)


Muk;g fhy fzpdpfspy; nraypnahd;wpd; Neuk; ngWkjpkpf;fjhf ,Ue;jJld;
,e;Neuj;ij mjp$bastpy; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ fbdkhdjhy; fzpdpg; ghfq;fspy;
nraw;ghL kpfTk; ke;jfjpahapUe;jJ. mt;thW elg;gjw;F nraypnahd;W VNjDnkhU
tplaj;jpy; <Lgl;bUf;Fk;NghJ NtnwhU ghfk; my;yJ nkd;nghUs; %yk; ,ila+WU
Vw;gl;l clNd ,Jtiu nra;J nfhz;bUe;j Ntiyia epWj;jptpl;L ,ila+W(Interupt)
f;Fg; gjpyspf;fg;gLk;. ,J KO Kiwikf;Fk; Vw;gl;l ghupa tpUk;gj;jfhj epfo;thFk;.
,e;epiyf;F jPu;thf 1960 fspy; gy gadu;fs; (Multiuser) xNu jlitapy; Ntiy
nra; a f; $ baJk; epfo; r ; r pfs; gytw; i w (Multiprogramming) xNu jlitapy;
nraw;gLj;jf;$baJkhd Kiwikfs; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. ,k;Kiwikfs; nraypahy;
        ;
njhlu;eJ nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;sf;$ba tifapy; jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;ld. vdNt>
,r;nray; cau; nraw;wpwDld; $banjd;gij njspTgLj;jpaJ. ,k;Kiwikfspy;
xNu jlitapy; gy nkd;nghUl;fis ,af;ff;$ba trjp Vw;gl;lJ.

etPd fzpdpfspy; VNjDk; nkd;nghUl;fis ,af;Fk;NghJ mk;nkd;nghUspd; xd;Wf;F
Nkw;gl;l gpujpfis xNu jlitapy; gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F cl;nrYj;jf; $baJld;
                                                   ;                   ;
,jd; %yk; xNu jlitapy; gyuhy; ,k;nkd;nghUis ghtpfff;$ba trjp fpilf;fpdwJ.
mJ khj;jpukd;wp rpy nkd;nghUl;fspy; xU gpujp khj;jpuk; gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F
cl;gLj;jg;gl;L mg;gpujp gyUf;F xNu jlitapy; mjid gad;gLj;jf;$ba trjpia
               ;                            P               ; ;
ngw;Wj; jUfpdwJ. ,q;F xNu nkd;nghUspd; FwpaL nghJthf gfpueJ nfhs;sf;$ba
                  ;       ;            ;
Kiwnahd;W ghtpffg;gLfpdwJ. ,k;Kiw kPsnrYj;jp (Re-entered) Kiw vd;w ngauhy;
miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

nrayp xd;W xU jlitapy; xU nraw;ghl;by; xU fl;lisia khj;jpuk; nraw;gLj;Jk;.
vdpDk;> VNjDnkhU Neu ,ilntspapy; gy nraw;ghLfis Njf;fp itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.
,r;nraw;ghLfSf;fhf nrayp %yk; Neuk; xJf;fg;gLk;. xJf;fg;gl;ll Neuk; fpilf;Fk;
tiu> kpFjp nraw;ghLfis jw;fhypfkhf nraypoe;j epiyapy; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.
VNjDk; nraw;ghLfs; rpy xNu Neuj;jpy; nraw;glhky;> VNjDk; Neu xOq;fpw;fika
nraw;gLkhapd; mt;thW eilngWtJ ~~Vffhy ,af;fk;|| (Concurent excecution) vd;W
miof;fg;gLk;.




                                       13
gy;epuy; gy;njhopy; ,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpy;> $ba vz;zpf;ifapyhd nraw;ghLfs;
Fwpj;j ,ilNtisf;Fs; nraw;gLj;jg;gly; eilngWk;. gy; epuy;fSf;fhf nrayp
%yk; xt;nthU nraw;ghl;bw;Fk; Fwpj;j Neu xJf;fy; Njitg;gLk;. mNj Nghd;W
Fwpj;j Neuj;jpy; mr;nraw;ghLfs; g+u;j;jp nra;ag;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ,r;nray;fs;
epiwtiltjw;F Kd;dNu nrayp %yk; Neu xJf;fis epiwT nra;ag;gLnkdpd;>
mjid $ba tpiutpy; kPz;Lk; Muk;gpj;J mjd; kpFjpg; gFjpia epiwT nra;tjw;F
re;ju;g;gk; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;lthW nraw;ghLfs; epiwtiltjw;F
Kd; ,ileLNt epWj;jf;$ba re;ju;g;gq;fs; ,uz;L cs;sd. mitahtd:

1. NtnwhU nraw;ghl;bd; %yk; Kiwikf;F ,ila+W nra;jp toq;fg;gly;. ,r;re;ju;ggk;    ;
   ~~nkd;nghUs; ,ila+W|| (Software Interrupt) vdg;gLk;.
                                                                               ;
2. td;nghUs;fs; %yk; ,ila+U nra;jp (Hardware Interrupt) toq;fg;gLk;. ,r;re;ju;ggk;
   ~~td;nghUs; ,ila+U|| vdg;gLk;.

xU nraw;ghl;il epWj;jp NtnwhU nraw;ghl;il tyq;Fjy; re;ju;g;g Msp (Context
Switch) vdg;gLk;. etPd ,af;f Kiwikfspy; xU nraw;ghL gy cgnrw;ghLfisf;
nfhz;bUf;f KbAk;. mt;Tgr; nraw;ghLfs; threads vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,t;thwhd
cgnraw;ghLfspdhy; jdpahf nraw;gl KbAk;.

Neug;gfpu;T   (Time shearing)


gy gadu;fSf;fpilapy; gy;njhopy; gy;epuy; ,af;f Kiwikfs; %yk; nra;ag;gLfpd;w
Neu Kfhikj;Jtk; ~~Neug;gfpu;T|| vdg;gLk;. ,J Kjd; Kjyhf 1960 fspy;
mwpKfg; g Lj; j g; g l; l Jld; > 1970 Mk; jrhg; j kstpy; fzpdpj; njhopEl; g j; j py;
jpUg;GKidia Vw;gLj;jp fzpdp ,af;f Kiwikapd; gpujhd gz;ghf mike;jJ.
,jd; %yk; fpilf;fg;ngw;w gpujpgydhdJ gy gadu;fs; xNu fzpdpia ghtpg;gjd;
%yk; gz tpuaj;ijf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;sf;$ba re;ju;g;gk; Vw;gl;lJ. NkYk; xNu
fzpdp gpuNahf nraw;ghl;bd;NghJ xNu jlitapy; gyUf;F ,ilr; nraw;ghLfs;
%yk; njhlu;GgLtjw;Fk; ,jd; %yk; tha;g;Gf; fpl;Lfpd;wJ.

xU gadu; nraw; w pwdw; W ,Ug; g pDk; $ba vz; z pf; i fapyhd gadu; f s;
gpuNahfg;gLj;jg;gLkplj;J $ba nraw;wpwDld; nraw;gLjtw;Fupa rhj;jpaj;ij
ikakhff; nfhz;Nl ,t;ntz;zf;fU cUthdJ. ,q;F xU gadu; fzpdpAld;
VjhtnjhU nraiy nra;JKbj;J gpd; ntnwhU nraiy Muk;gpg;gjw;F mjpf
                                                               ;
Neuk; vLf;Fk;NghJ nrayp mf;fhyg; gFjpapy; cjhrPdk; nra;ag;gLfpdwJ. gadu;fsJ
vz; z pf; i f mjpfkhf ,Uf; F k; N ghJ NtnwhUtuJ gad; g hl; b w; F ,e; N euk;
gad;gLj;jg;glf; $bajhAs;sJ. ,t;thW gw;gadu; nray;fSf;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk;
FO nghUj;jkhd vz;zpf;ifapy; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ KO nray; KiwAk; kpfTk;
nraw;wpwDs;sjhf mikAk;. NkYk; tl;L> ,Wtl;L> tiyaikg;G Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;J
fpilf;Fk; cs;sPLfSf;fhf fhj;jpUf;Fk; FWfpa Neuj;ij NtnwhU gadupd;
ghtidf;fhf cgNahfpg;gLj;jy; ,q;F eilngWfpd;wJ.



                                        14
nraypapd; cr;r gad;ghL         (Processor Utilization)


fzpdpapd; %yk; nray; xd;iw my;yJ gytw;iw nra;J nfhs;Sk;NghJ ,Uf;Fk;
                           ;
gy tsq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpdwd. ,tw;wpy; Kf;fpakhd tskhdJ kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L
myfhFk;. ,jd; nra;wwpwid cr;r mstpy; gad;gLj;jy; ~nraypapd; cr;r gad;ghL||
vdg;gLk;.

xU nraw;ghL khj;jpuk; nraypy; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ nraypapy; cr;r gad; Fiwe;J
fhzg;gLk;. vdpDk; gy;nraw;ghLfspd;NghJ nraypapd; gad;ghL cr;r epiyia
milAk;. mt;Tr;r epiyia miltjw;fhf ,af;f KiwikapDs; gy;NtW cghaq;fs;
ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. nray;Kiw xOq;FgLj;jYk; ,jd;NghJ kpf Kf;fpa gq;fspg;igr;
nra;fpd;wJ.

nraypfSk; nray; epiyfSk;            (Processors and Process States)


fzpdp ,af;f Kiwikapd; %yf;fU (Kernel) %yk; nrad;Kiw Kfhikj;Jtk;
nra;ag;gLk;NghJ gy;NtW fl;lq;fspd; fPo; ,r;nray;Kiwfs; nraw;ghl;bw;Fl;gLj;jy;
tupirg;gLj;jg;gLk;. mt; xt;nthU fl;lj;jpd; NghJk; nray;Kiw Nkw;nfhs;sg;
gl;bUf;Fk; epiyfs; ngauplg;gl;Ls;sd. gy;NtW ,af;f Kiwikfspy; ,g; ngau;
khWgl;bUg;gpDk; xt;nthU epiyapYk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nray;fs; xj;jjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

nray;Kiw ml;ltizg;gLj;jy; %yk; nray;KiwfSf;F nghUj;jkhd epiyfs;
xg; g ilf; f g; g LtJld; me; e piyfs; khw; w g; g l; L Kfhikj; J tk; nra; a g; g Lk; .
,e;epiykhw;wy; re;ju;g;g Msp (Context Switch) vdg;gLtJld; nray;Kiw cgepuy;
%yk; ,r; n ray; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g Lfpd; w J. ,t; t hW gy; N tW epiyfspd; fP o ;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nray;Kiw nraw;gLj;jg;gLk; re;ju;g;gj; njhlupd; gpd; mtw;wpd;
nraw;ghL Kbtile;J gpujhd epidtfj;jpypUe;J ePf;fg;gLk;. nrad;Kiwfspd;
mbg;gil re;ju;g;gq;fisAk; mr;re;ju;g;gq;fspy; epyTk; epiyfisAk; ftdpg;Nghk;.




                                           15
nray;Kiw epiy tiuglk;           (Process State Diagram)


    cUthf;fg;gl;l(Gjpa)                       epWj;jg;gl;ll/KbTw;w
         Created (New)                              Terminated



                                    ,af;f
        fhj;jpUj;jy;/            epiyapYs;s
       jahuhapUj;jy;              Running                                gpujhd
       Waiting or Redy                                  milgl;l/       epidtfk;;
                                                        jLf;fg;gl;l   Main Memory
                                                          Blocked




        khw;wg;gl;lJk;            khw;wg;gl;lJk;
                                                                        kiwKf
        fhj;jpUg;gJk;             jLf;fg;gl;lJk;.
                                                                       epidtfk;
        Swapped out and           Swapped out and
                                                                      Virtual Memory
            Waiting                   Blocked




NkYs;s tiuglj;jpd; tl;lq;fspd; %yk; nray;Kiw re;ju;g;gq;fSk; mtw;wpw;F
Vw;glf;$ba ~re;ju;g;gk; khWjy;| njhlu;ghf mk;Gf;Fwpfs; %yKk; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.
mjd;gb cUthf;fg;gl;l (created) nray;Kiwnahd;W jahu; epiyf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;L
mJ gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F tUtjhy; me;epiy ,af;f epiyf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L
nraypf;F nry;tjw;F my;yJ kiwKf epidtfj;jpw;F nrd;W fhj;jpUf;f NeupLk;.
,af;f epiyf;F cl;gLkhapd; me;epiy epiwT nra;ag;gl;L> gpujhd epidtfj;jpypUe;J
epf;fg;gLtjw;F epWj;jg;gl;l my;yJ KbTw;w epiyf;F (  Terminated St t ) cl;gLtjw;F
                                                                ae
my;yJ ,il epWj;jg;gl;L ,ila+W Vw;gl;l epiyf;F cl;gl;L kiwKf epidtfj;jpy;
fhj;jpUf;f Neuplf;$Lk;.



mbg; g il nray; K iw epiyfs;

cUthf;fg;gl;l my;yJ Gjpa epiy               (Created or New State)
Kjy; jlitahf nray;Kiwnahd;W cUthf;fg;gl;lJk; me;epiy cUthf;fg;gl;l
(Created) my;yJ Gjpa (New) epiy vdg;gLk;. ,e;epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; nray;Kiw
jahu;epiyf;F tUk;tiu fhj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,it ePz;l fhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jy;
(Long Term Sheduler) vDk; nkd;nghUspd; %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. jahu; epiyapy;
(Ready Stt ) ,Uf;Fk; ,r;nrad;Kiw ePz;lfhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jy; %yk; mLj;J
         ae
tuf;$ba epiyf;F khw;wg;gLtJld; mJ jhkjkiltjw;F my;yJ me;epiyf;F
                                         ;
cl;gLj;jhJ mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;gLtjw;Fk; tha;gGz;L. mNef Nkirf; fzpdpfspy; (Desktop)



                                       16
,g;gpuNjrk; Rakhf eilngWtJld; epfo; Neu xOq;FgLj;jy; (Real Time Processing)
eilngWk; fzpdpfspy; ,jw;fhf jhkjk; Vw;gLk;. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; epfo; Neu
               ;                                  ;          ;
xOq;FgLj;jypdNghJ nray;Kiwfs; gytw;iw epidtfj;jpwF mDkjpggJld; mit
,af; f epiyf; F cl; g LtjpYs; s Nghl; b apd; fhuzkhf ,Wjpg; ngWNgiw
ngw;Wf;nfhs;s vLf;Fk; fhyk; ePbj;jyhFk;.

jahu;epiy     (Ready State)
,e;epiy ~~fhj;jpUj;jy; (wating)" my;yJ ~~,af;fj;jf;f epiy(runable) || vdTk;
$wg;gLfpd;wJ. Gjpa epiyapy; fhzg;gl;l nray;Kiw xd;W mLj;J cl;gLtJ
,e;epiyf;fhFk;. ,e;epiyf;Fl;gLk; nray;Kiw gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; jq;fpapUg;gJ
mr;nray;Kiw fzpdpapd; kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L myF %yk; ,af;f epiyf;F
cl;gLj;jg;gLk; tiughFk;. ,t;tpaf;f epiy ~~XLepiy|| (Running Stt ) vd miof;fg;gLk;.
                                                             ae
jdp nraypAila fzpdpnahd;wpy; xNu jlitapy; nraw;gLtJ xU nray;Kiw
khj;jpuNk. Mifahy; jahu; epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; nray;Kiwfs; gy mit ,af;f
epiyf;F cl;gLk; tiu gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; tupirg;gLj;jp itf;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
vdpDk; etPd fzpdpfspy; fhzg;gLk; tYkpf;f nraypfs; nray;Kiwfs; gytw;iw
xNu jlitapy; nraw;gLj;jf;$ba ,ay;Gilad.

XL epiy      (Running State)
,e;epiy ~~nraY}f;fKs;s (Active)|| my;yJ ~~,af;f (Executing) epiy|| vdg;gLk;.
NtW tifapy; $Wtjhdhy;> VNjDk; xU re;ju;g;gj;jpy; kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L myfpy;
nraw; g Lk; nrad; K iw ,g; n gauhy; miof; f g; g Lk; . ,e; e piyapy; fhzg; g Lk;
nray;Kiwanhd;wpd; nraw;ghL Kbtiltjw;Fupa Neuj;ij tpl $ba Neuk; vLf;fyhk;.
                               ;
mt;thwhd nray;Kiwnahd;W kPzLk; jahu; epiyf;Fl;gLj;jg;gLk;. mt;thW eilngWk;
NghJ jw;fhypfkhf jilg;gl;l epiyf;F (Blocked St te)my;yJ jahu; epiyf;F (Ready
                                             a
St t )cl;gLj;jg;gLk;
 ae


jilg;gl;l epiy      (Blocked State)
,e;epiy ~~cwq;Fepiy|| (sleeping state) vdTk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ. VNjDnkhU
nray;Kiw ,e;epiyf;F cl;gLkhapd; mjid kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L myfpypUe;J
mfw;wg;gl;L gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; my;yJ kiwKf epidtjf;jpy; jf;f itf;fg;gLk;.
,t;thW ,Uf;Fk; nray;KiwfSf;Fg; nghUj;jhkhd tsq;fs; fpilf;Fk; tiu
,ila+U epiyapNyNa ,Uf;f NeupLk;. mt;tsq;fs; fpilj;j clNdNa ,ila+U
epiy jahu; epiyf; F khw; w g; g l; L ,af; f epiyf; F cl; g Ltjw; F kP z ; L k;
tupirg;gLj;jg;gLk;.

             KbTw;
epWj;jg;gl;l/KbTw;w epiy        (Terminated State)
nraw;ghnlhd;W ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghJ ,ileLtpy; epWj;jptply; my;yJ ,aq;fp
Kbe;j gpd; epWj;jg;gly; ,g;ngauhy; miof;fg;gLk;. rhjhuzkhf ,e;epiyf;F cl;gLk;
                                                                      ;
nray;Kiwnahd;W gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; my;yJ kha epidtfj;jpypUe;J ePffg;gLt
Jld; mt;thW ePf;fk; nra;ag;glhj nraw;ghLfs; mtjhuq;fs; (Zombies) vdg;gLk;.



                                         17
Nkyjpf nray;Kiw epiyfs; (Additional Process States)
kiwKf epidtfk; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;w fzpdp Kiwikfspy; nray;Kiw Nkyjpf
epiyfs; ,uz;L fhzg;gLk;. ,t;tpuz;L epiyfspYk; nray;Kiwfs; ,uz;lhe;ju
Nrkpg;gfq;fspy; (Secondary Storage) Njf;fp itf;fg;gLk;.

khw;wg;gl;lJk; fhj;jpUg;gJkhd epiyfs; (Swapped             out and waiting)
jahu; epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; nray;Kiwnahd;W mjpf Neuk; gpujhd epidtfj;jpy;
Njq;fp ,Ug;gpd; tpiutpy; ,af;fg;glNtz;ba NtW nray;KiwfSf;Fg; gpujhd
epidtfj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;Wf; nfhLg;gjw;fhf ,r;nray;Kiwfs; ,uz;lhe;ju epidtfj;jpy;
,Uf;Fk; kiwKf epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;. ,t;thW khw;wg;gl;l gpd; mJ ,Uf;Fk;
epiy ~~khw;wg;gl;lJk;> fhj;jpUg;gJkhd|| epiy vdg;gLk;. ,t;tif nray;Kiwfs;
kPz;Lk; nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F Njit Vw;gl;l clNd jahu;epiyf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L
gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;.

khw;wg;gl;lJk; jilg;gl;lJkhd epiy            (Swapped and blocked)
         ; ;                              ;
Nkw;Fwpggpll epiyiag; Nghd;Nw ,r;re;ju;ggj;jpYk; gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; jilNaw;gl;l
epiyfSld; $ba nray;Kiwfs; ,uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;ghf kiwKf epidtfj;jpw;F
khw;wg;gLk;. mg;NghJ kiwKf epidtfj;jpy; ,r;nray; ~~khw;wg;gl;lJk; jilg;gl;lJ
khd|| (swapped out and blocked) epiyapNy fhzg;gLk;. vdpDk; ,e;epiy kPz;Lk;
~~khw;wg;gl;lJk; fhj;jpUg;gJkhd|| (Swapped out and waiting) epiyf;F khWglyhk;. gpd;
mJ jahu; epiyf;Fl;gLj;jg;gl;L gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F kPz;Lk; tuyhk;.

ml;ltizg;gLj;jy;       (Sheduling)
gy;njhopy; kw;Wk; gy;nray; ,af;f Kiwikfs; cUthf;fg;gLk;NghJ gpuNahfg;gLj;jg;
gLk; gpujhdkhd Nfhl;ghlhf ,J fUjg;gLk;. ,q;F fzpdpnahd;wpy; fhzg;gLk;
nraypfspd; vz;zpf;ifiatplf; $ba vz;zpf;ifahd nray;Kiwfs; nraypapDs;
nraw;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gjhYk;> ,Uf;fk; xOq;FgLj;jy; myFfisf; nfhz;L rfy
nray; KiwfisAk; nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F NeupLtjhYk; ,r;nray; Kiwfs; VNjDk;
xU xOq;fpw;fika nraypw;F mDg;Gk; nranyhd;W fzpdp ,af;f Kiwik %yk;
nraw;gLj;jg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,r;nray; ~~ml;ltizg;gLj;jy;|| (Sheduling) vdg;gLtJld;
mij nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F ~~ml;ltizg;gLj;jp|| (Sheduler) vd;w ngaupdhy; miof;fg;gLk;
epunyhd;W cs;sJ. mt;tl;ltizg;gLj;jp ~~mDg;gp|| (dispatcher) vd;W miof;fg;gLk;.
,e;epuy; fPo;f;ffhzg;gLk; tplaq;f;s gw;wp tpopg;GldpUf;Fk;.


1. kj;jpa nraw;ghl;lyF cr;r nraw;wpwDld; ghtpf;fg;gly;
2. rhjpj;j msT (Throughput) - Neu mynfhd;Wf;Fs; nray;gLj;jg;gl;L Kbf;fg;
   gLk; nray;Kiwfspd; vz;zpf;if.
3 KO nray; Neuk; (Turnaround) - nray;Kiwnahd;W nraypfF ngw;Wf;nfhLf;
                                                           ;
   fg;gl;lJk; mr;nray; Kiw nraw;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Neuk;.




                                        18
4   fhj;jpUj;jy; Neuk; (Waiting time) - nray;Kiwnahd;W nraypfF ngw;Wf;nfhLg;
                                                             ;
    gjw;F Kd;G jahu;epiyapy; tupirg;gl;bUf;Fk; Neuk;.
5   gjpyspg;G Neuk; (Response Time) - nray;Kiwnahd;wpwF VNjDk; mwpTWj;jy;
                                                      ;
    fpilj;jy; Neuk; Kjy; mjid nraw;gLj;Jtw;F Muk;gpf;Fk; tiuahd fhyk;.
6   nraypapd; xt;nthU nray;Kiwf;Fk; nraw;ghl;lyF Neuj;ijr; rhjhuzkhfg;
    ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jy;.



ml;ltizg;gLj;jp tiffs; (Sheduler Types)
fzpdp Kiwiknahd;wpy; njspthf ml;ltizg;gLj;jpfs; %d;W ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
mitahtd:
1. ePz;lfhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jp(Long term sheduler)
   ,it gpuNtr ml;ltizg;gLj;jp (admission sheduler) my;yJ cau;kl;l ml;ltizg;
   gLj;jp (highlevel sheduler) Nghd;w ngau;fshy; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
2. kj;jpafhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jp (Mid term sheduler)
3. FWq;fhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jp (Short term sheduler)
   ,J mDg;gp vdTk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

ePz;lfhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jp (Long term sheduler)
jahu;epiy tupirg;gLj;jYf;F cl;gLj;jg;glNtz;baJ ve;j nrad;Kiw vd;gij
jPu;khdpg;gJ ,e;j ml;ltizg;gLj;jp %ykhFk;. mNjNghd;W ve;j nray;Kiw
Kiwikapy; nraw;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij jPu;khdpg;gJk; ,jd; %ykhFk;. NkYk;
njhlu;r;rpahf nraw;gLk; nray;Kiwfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfupf;f Ntz;Lkh my;yJ
Fiwa Ntz;Lkh vd;gJk; ,jd; %yk; jPu;khdpf;fg;gLk;. etPd ,af;f Kiwikfspy;
epfoNeu nraw; g Lj; j pypd; NghJ nrad; K iwfs; nraw; g Ltjw; f hf kj; j pa
nraw;ghl;lyfpdhy; Nghjpa Neuk; ngw;Wf;nfhLj;jYk; ,jd; %yk; eilngWfpd;wJ.
,t;tif ml;ltizg;gLj;jp ghupa mstpy; njhFjp nray;gLj;jy; (batch processing)
fspy; <LgLtJk; ghupa mstpyhd kPf;fzpdp Nghd;wtw;wpw;F kpfg; nghUj;jkhdJ.

kj;jpa fhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jp (Mid term sheduler)
,t;tl;ltizg;gLj;jp %yk; nray;Kiw gpujhd epidtfk; kw;Wk; kiwKf epidtfk;
Nghd;wtw;wpw;fpilapy; khw;Wjy; eilngWk;. ,J khw;wy; (Swapping) vdg;gLk;. ,t;thW
eilngWtJ gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; jahu; epiyapy; ePz;l Neuk; jupj;jpUj;jy;
nray;Kiwfs; mfw;wg;gl;L Kd;Dupik toq;fg;gl Ntz;ba nray;KiwfSf;Fg;
gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; Eiotjw;F Njitahd ,ltrjpia ngw;Wf; nfhLg;gjw;fhFk;.
                             ;
,t;thW kiwKf epidtfj;jpwF khw;wg;gl;l nray;Kiwfs; ,af;f epiyf;F cl;gLj;j
                ;
Ntz;ba re;ju;ggq;fspd;NghJ mr;nray;Kiwfs; kiwKf epidtfj;jpypUe;J gpujhd
epidtfj;jpw;F khw;Wjy; ,jd; %yk; eilngWk;.




                                      19
FWq;fhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jp (Short term sheduler)
,t; t l; l tizg; g Lj; j pia ~~mDg; g p (Dispatcher)|| vd; w iof; f g; g Lk; . jw; N ghJ
nray;epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; nry;Kiwapd; gpd; gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;
nray;Kiwfspy; vr;nray;Kiw nraypf;F mDg;Gtjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhdnjd;gij
         ;
,J jPukhdpf;Fk;. mJ nraw;gLj;jg;gLtJ fbfhu ,ila+W (clock intrupt) %yk; my;yJ
       P         P                           ;
cs;sL/ntspaL Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;J tUfpdw ,ila+W xd;wpd; (I/Ointrupt) %yk; my;yJ
,af;f Kiwikapdhy; toq;fg;gLfpd;w rkpQ;ir my;yJ nra;jp my;yJ NtW
,aw;if rkpQ;ir Nghd;w FWf;fPLfspd; gpd;ghFk;. NkYk; Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ePz;lfhy>
kj;jpafhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jpfis tpl ,e;j ml;ltizg;gLj;jp ve;NeuKk; ghtidf;F
                                                                   ;
vLf;fg;gLk;. ,q;F ,Uf;Fk; nkhba+y; xd;whd mDg;gp %yk; nraypfF mDg;gg;gLfpdw            ;
nray;fis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F kj;jpa nraw;ghl;lyif fl;Lg;gLj;jy; re;ju;g;g Msp
(Context Switch) vdg;gLfpd;w nray;Kiwfspd; epiyia khw;Wjy; ,jd; %yk;
eilngWfpd;wJ. ,t; mDg;gp nkhba+y; mjp$ba NtfKilajhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
mt;thW mika Ntz;baJ xt;nthU nray;Kiw khw;wkilAk; re;ju;g;gq;fspYk;
,t; mDg;gp nraw;gLtjd; fhuzj;jpdhyhFk;. xU nray;Kiw epWj;jg;gl;L NtnwhU
nray;Kiw Muk;gpg;gjw;F ,t; mDg;gp vLf;Fk; fhyk; ~~Gyg;glhj mDg;gp fhyk;
(Dispatcher Latency Time)|| vd miof;fg;gLk;.




                                          20
Nju;r;rp 6             :   fzpdpapd; KOmstpyhd nraw; g hLfisAk;
                           Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;F ,af;f Kiwikfis
                                   ;
                           cgNahfpgghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 6.4 :      fzpdpfspd; epidtfj; i jAk; cs; s P l ; L ntspaP l ; L
                           nraw;ghLfisAk; XU; ,af;f KiwikahdJ v;thW
                           epu;tfpf;fpd;wJ vd;gij Muha;thu;.

ghlNtis                :   Ie;J ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;      :
• fzpdp epidtf Kfhikj;Jtj;jpw;F mbg;gilahFk; mq;fq;fisg; ngaupLthu;.
• fzpdpnahd;wpy; epidtf Kfhikj;Jtg;gLj;Jk; Kiwia tpgupg;ghu;.
• cs;sPl;L> ntspaPl;L cgfuz Kfhikj;Jtj;ij td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs;
  ,af;fj;jpd; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L tpgupg;ghu;.
• xU nray; Ntfkhfr; nraw;gLjtw;fhf gy cghaq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jthu;.
• midj;J nraw;ghLfisAk; njhlu;r;rpahff; nfhz;L nry;tjw;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l
  nraw;ghLfis ,aq;F epiyapy; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sthu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
•   fzpdp epidtfk; gw;wpa khztu;fspd; Kd; mwpitf; Nfl;lwpaTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahly; xd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • fzpdpapd; nraw;ghl;bw;F mjd; epidtfk; mj;jpahtrpakhdJ vd.
    • fzpdpf;F nghUj;jg;gLfpd;w rhjdq;fSk; fzpdpapd; epidtfj;ij cgNahfg;
        gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd vd.
    • Mifahy; fzpdp nraw;ghl;bd; NghJ mjd; epidtf Kfhikj;Jtk; mtrpak;
        vd.

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij ed;F guprPyid nra;aTk;.
•      ;                             ;
    fPotUk; jiyg;Gfspy; ckJ FOtpwFupa jiyg;igg; gw;wp $ba ftdk; nrYj;jTk;.
    • epidtf Kfhikj;Jtk;
         • epidtfj;ij cs;sf epidtfk;> ntspaf epidtfk; vdg; gpupj;jy;.
         • cs;sf kw;Wk; ntspaf epidtfq;fspd; rpwg;gk;rq;fs;
    • epidtf Kfhikj;Jtj;jpd; gpur;rpidfSk; thjq;fSk;.
         • epidtf xJf;fPL nra;jy;.
         • khw;wy;> gf;fkhf;fy;> milahskply;.


                                        21
• cs;sPl;L> ntspaPl;L cgfuzq;fis Kfhikj;JtKk; td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs;
  fSf;fpilapyhd ,ilj;njhlu;ig itj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhd cgfuz Xl;b
  nkd;nghUl;fs; mtrpak; vd.
• ckJ fz;lha;Tfis $l;lhfTk;> Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; tFg;giwf;F Kd;itf;f
  Maj;jkhfTk;.

                            thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

fzpdp epidtf Kfhikj; J tk;
fzpdpapd; epidtfk; gpujhdkhf cs;sf kw;Wk; ntspaf vd ,U ghfq;fshfg;
gpupf;fyhk;.

cs;sf epidtfkhff; fUjg;gLtd:
1. gjptfq;fs; (Registers)
2. gJf;F epidtf kl;lk; I (Cache 1)
3. gJf;F epidtf kl;lk; II (Cache 2)
4. vOkhW mDfy; epidtfk; (R A M)

                                                    ;
nghJthf Nehf;Fk;NghJ midj;J cs;sf epidtfq;fSk; fPotUk; rpwg;gk;rq;fsif;
nfhz;litahf ,Uf;Fk;.
   1. Fiwe;j nfhs;ssT
   2. kpff; Fiwe;j gpuNtr Neuk;
   3. cau;e;j tpiy (tpiy igl; mbg;gilahff; fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.)

ntspaf epidtfkhdJ
  1. kpFe;j nfhs;ssitf; nfhz;lJ.
  2. kpff;$ba gpuNtr Neuk;
  3. Fiwe;j tpiy

gjpTfis kl;Lk; ftdpf;Fk;NghJ mit Ntfkhf ,aq;Fk; jd;ik cilajhapDk;
nraypapd; cs;Ns cs;s cgfuzkhdjhy; mJ ngWkjp tha;e;jjhFk;. mjd;
nfhs;ssT Fiwe;jjhFk;. gpuNtr Neuk; Fiwe;jjhFk;.

tpiuT epidtf kl;lk; I kw;Wk; tpiuT epidtf kl;lk; 2 IAk; ,NjNghy;
gad;gLj;j KbAk;. ,y;iynadpd; ,jw;Ff; fPo;j; juj;jpy; cs;s vOkhW mDfy;
epidtfk; (R A M) gad;gLj;jg;gl KbAk;. ,jd; gpuNtr fhyk; $bajhFk;. nrytplf;$ba
tpiyapy; cs;sd nfhs;ssTk; $bajhFk;.

fzpdpapd; rfy nra;wghLfisAk; ftdj;jpw;nfhs;Sk;NghJ tpiy> gpuNtr fhyk;>
kw;Wk; nfhs;ssT rpwe;j Kiwapy; elhj;jg;gLtjw;F Nkw;gb epidtf tiffs;
,uz;ilAk; Kfhikj;Jtg;gLj;jy; mtrpakhFk;.


                                      22
epidtf Kfhikj; J tj; j pw; f hd gpur; r pidfSk; > thjq; f Sk;

1. epidtf xJf;fPL (Memory Allocation)
                                    )
fzpdp nraw;ghl;bd;NghJ vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLk; ntspaPl;il ngWtjw;fhf mjw;Fupa
epuiy epidtfj;jpw;Fg; gpuNtrpj;J ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;fhf Kjd;ik epidtfj;jpd;
,lk;ngWkhdk; NghJkhdjhfTk;> Njitf;Nfw;g xJf;fg;gl;bUe;jYk; Ntz;Lk;.

2. gupkhw;wk;> ,izj;jy;> Jz;lhf;fk;
fzpdpapd; epidtfj;ij xJf;fPL nra;Ak; gpujhd nghWg;G fzpdpapd; ,af;f
KiwikiaNa rhUk;. fzpdpapy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; gyjug;gl;l epuy;fSf;fhf
                  P
Kjd;Kiwahf xJf;fL nra;jy; ,yFthdjhFk;. Mdhy; fzpdpapDs; rpy nraw;ghLfs;
                                                ;
epiwNtwpaTld; my;yJ mfw;wpaNghJ NtW epuy;fs; kPzLk; epidtfj;jpw;F nrYj;jp
mtw;iw xJf;fPL nra;tJ kpfTk; f\;lkhdjhFk;. ,jw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk;
mr;nraw;ghLfs; epidtfj;jpypUe;J mfw;Wk;NghJ mjd; epidtf Jisnahd;W
cUthFk;. ,it vOkhwhf cWthtjhFk;. ,e; epidtfj;Jis cUthtjd;
gpur;rpidia xOq;fhf Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.




Fg;ig jpul;Ljy; (Garbage Collection)
rpy epuy;fspy; ,af;ftpay; juT (Dynamic Data) tbtikg;G gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,it
                               ;
epidtff; fyq;fis cgNahfj;jpwF vLj;Jf;; nfhs;sg;gLtJ Nghd;W ntspNaw;WjYk;
eilngWk;. njhopy;El;g uPjpapy; ftdpj;jhy; njhlu;e;Jk; Njitapy;yhj juTfis
ePf;Fk;NghJ mt;tplq;fspy; ntw;Wf; fyq;fs; cUthfpd;wd. vOkhwpahf cUthFk;
ntw;wplf; fyq;fis $l;lkhf xd;W Nru;j;jy; ,af;f Kiwikapdhy; cldbahf
elg;gjpy;iy. mt;thW mike;j ,lq;fs; Fg;ig gpuNjrq;fshf miof;fg;gLk;.
                     ;                                                  ;
,f;Fg;igfs; mjpfupfFk;NghJ epidtfj;jpy; mdhtrpakhd ,l neUf;fb Vw;gLfpdwJ.
                 P ;
,J epidT xJf;flbw;F Neubahf ghjpg;gopf;Fk;. Mifahy; Fg;igfs; Xuplg;gLj;jy;
nra;a Ntz;b cs;sd.

ghJfhf;Fk; nraw;ghLfs; (Protecting Processes)
fzpdp epuy;fspy; ,Uf;ff;$ba FiwghLfspdhy; xU nraw;ghl;bw;fhf xJf;fPL
nra;ag;gl;l epidT fyq;fs; NtnwhU nraw;ghl;bd; %yk; Mf;fpukpj;jy; nra;ag;gLk;
re;ju;g;gq;fs; fhzyhk;.

,af;f Kiwikapd; %yk; ,t;thwhdit elf;fhjpUf;f toptFf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,af;f
Kiwikapd; ,r; rpwg;gk;rk; nraw;ghL ghJfhg;G vd miof;fg;gLk;.

kha epidtfk;
nghJthf nraypapw;F kha epidTf; fyq;fs; njupe;;jhYk; fzpdpapy; ngsjpfkhf
cs;sJ kpfTk; Fiwthd msNtahFk;. Mifahy; ju;f;f epidtf Kftupnahd;iw
ngsjpf epidtf Kftupahf khw;wpf;nfhs;Sk; tpjpKiwnahd;W ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

                                     23
kha epidtj;jpd; %yk; ngupa mstpyhd Kftup ntw;wplk; (Address Space)
epu;khdpf;fg;gLk;. nraw;ghl;bd; MAw;fhyj;jpy; mJ nraw;gLtJ mijr; #oTs;s
mwpTWj;jy;fs; rpytw;iwf; nfhz;NlahFk;.

xU nraw;ghL gad;gLj;JtJ mjw;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l juTfs; mlq;fpa rpy epidT
fyq;fisNaahFk;. Fiwe;j epidtf fyd;fSldhf ,Ue;jhYk; kpfr; nraw;wpwDld;
                                                           ;
epidtfj;ij Kfhikj;Jtg;gLj;JtJ gf;fkhf;fy; kw;Wk; Jz;lfj;jpwF cWJizahf
mikAk;. kha epidtfk; rl;lfnkhd;wpd; Kftupf;F xg;ghd ngsjpf epidtfKs;s
rl;lfnkhd;wpw;F ,izg;gJ milahsg;gLj;jy; (Mapping) vdg;gLk;.

nraw;ghl;nlhd;wpd;NghJ nefpo;Tj; jd;ikia ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhf VjhtJ gf;f
nkhd;wpd; VjhtJ rl;lfnkhd;wpw;F milahsg;gLj;jy; nra;a KbAk;.

gf;fkhf;fYk; (                     (Mapping)
             (Paging) milahskplYk; (
                    )                      )
ntspg;Gw Nrkpg;G epidtfq;fspy; cs;s juTfis fzpdpapd; gpujhd epidtj;jpw;F
nfhz;L nry;tjw;fhd gy topKiwfs; cs;sd. mjpy; epidtf Kfhikj;Jt
topKiwahf gf;fkhf;fk; fUjg;gLk;.

,jpy; ntspg;Gw Nrkpg;G Clfj;jpYs;s juT Kfhikj;Jtg; gLj;jf;$bathW
xNuasthd rpW ghfq;fshfg; gpupj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gLk;. ,t;thwhd ghfnkhd;iw gf;fk;
vd miof;fg;gLk;.gf;fq;fshf gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F juT my;yJ epuy; gFjpfs;
gpuNtrpg;gjhy; mq;f ,Uf;Fk; ,lg;gpukhdk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;af;$bajhf cs;sJ.
NkYk; ,it Gj;jfg; gf;fq;fs; NghYs;sgbahy; Njitahd gf;fj;ij khj;jpuk;
gpuNtrpf;fr; nra;a KbAkhAs;sJ.

cs;sPl;L kw;Wk; ntspaPl;L cgfuzq;fspd; Kfhikj;Jtk;
,Jtiu ehk; fye;jhNyhrpj;jJ epfo;T Kfhikj;Jtg;gLj;jy; KiwfisNaahFk;.
                                        ;           P ;      P ;
kdpjd; fzpdpAld; ,ilj;njhlu;G Vw;gLj;jpfnfhs;tJ cs;slL> ntspalLf; fUtpfspd;
%yNkahFk;.

fzpdpnahd;iw gad;gLj;Jk;NghJ mk;KiwikfspYs;s cghaq;fs; gytw;iw
xNuabahf gad;gLj;j Ntz;b tUk;. nraw;ghnlhd;wpd;NghJ fzpdpapd; gy
cgfuzq;fs; xd;Wld; xd;W ,ilr; nraw;ghl;by; <LgLk;.

,J ,af;f Kiwikapd; mbg;gil nraw;ghlhFk;. ,jpy; Kiwikapd; cgfuzq;fs;
midj; J k; Vffhyg; g Lj; j g; g l; L s; s d. vjpu; Vffhyg; g Lj; j y; nraw; g hl; b d;
vr;re;ju;g;gj;jpYk; epfoyhk;.

,q;F nraw;ghLfs; Vffhyg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf xU nraw;ghl;bw;Fupa fhyj;jpy; kw;iwa
cgfuzk; Nru Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thwhd nraw;ghLfs; gy xNuabahf eilngw KbAk;.
,r; nraw;ghLfs; xd;NwhL xd;W ,iztJ rkpQ;irfs; %ykhFk;.



                                         24
fzpdp cgfuz Xl;b nkd;nghUs;
,it fzpdp epuy;fshFk;. ,it ,af;fKiwik kw;Wk; td;nghUl;fSf;fpilNa
Vw;gLk; njhlu;ghlYf;F cjTk;.

cjhuzkhf mr;R ,ae;jpunkhd;iw fzpdpapw;F nghUj;jp ,af;Fk;NghJ mjw;Fupa
Xl;b nkd;nghUs; ,ilKfkhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

ghl tplaq;fisj; njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b
•   rpW FOf; fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; toq;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;te;j FOtpw;Nf Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; tpUj;jpAld;$ba MNyhridfisf; Nfl;lwpaTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fspd; kPJ ftdQ; nrYj;JtJld; mjid ntspf;nfhzUk;
    tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • epidtf Kfhikj;Jtj;jpd;NghJ fPo;tUk; nraw;ghLfs; eilngWk;.
        • xJf;fPL nra;jy;
        • gupkhw;wk;> ,izj;jy;> Jz;lhf;fk;
        • mdhtrpakhdij mg;Gwg;ggLj;jy;
        • nraw;ghLfis ghJfhj;jy;.
    •   gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F Gwk;ghf kha epidtfk; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd.
    •   ghtidapd;NghJ gf;fkhf;fYk; milahsg;gLj;jYk; eilngWk; vd.
    •         P ;        ;
        cs;slL> ntspaPlL cgfuzq;fs; ,af;f Kiwikapdhy; Kfhikj;Jtg;gLj;
        jg;gLk; vd.
    •   mjdhy; cgfuzq;fs; nkd;nghUs;fSf;fpilapyhd ,ilj;njhlu;ig itj;Jf;
        nfhs;sg;gLk; vd.
    •   ntspthupahf fzpdpf;F nghUj;jg;gLk; cgfuzq;fs; xoq;fhf nraw;Gupa
        cgfuz xl;b nkd;nghUs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd.




                                   25
Nju;r;rp 7              :   fzpdp fl;lisj; njhFg;gpw;Fw;gLj;jp gpur;rpidfis
                               ; ;
                            jPuggjw;F fzpdp fl;lisj; njhFg;G nkhopfisg;
                                   ;
                            ghtpgghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 7.7 :       fl; l isj; njhFg; G fis mgptpUj; j p nra; t jpy;
                            fl;Lg;ghl;Lf; fl;likg;Gfisg; ghtpg;ghu;.

ghlNtis                 :   Ie;J ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
• fzpdp epuy;fis fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf fl;Lg;ghl;Lf; fl;likg;Gfisg; ghtpg;ghu;.
• epuy;fis tpUj;jp nra;Ak;NghJ tupirKiw> vspaKiw> gy;Kiw Nghd;w kPs;
  nray; Kiwfisg; ghtpg;ghu;.
• kPs; nray;fSf;fhf fzpj fl;Lg;ghl;il my;yJ ju;f;ff; fl;Lg;ghl;il Njitf;
  Nfw;g njupT nra;thu;.
• xU gpur;rpidia jPu;f;Fk;NghJ gy tifahd jPu;TKiwfs; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ kpfTk;
  nghUj;jkhd jPu;T Kiwia Nju;e;njLg;ghu;.
• gpur;rpid jPu;f;Fk;NghJ mjd; fl;likg;ig ,dq;fz;L mg; gpur;rpidia NkYk;
  ruskhf;fpf;nfhz;L jPu;T fhz;ghu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• ngUksT khztu;fs; fye;Jnfhs;Sk; guPl;irnahd;wpd; Nju;r;rp ml;ltizia
  jahu;nra;ag;gLk; Kiwapid khztu;fSld; fye;jhNyhrpf;fTk;.
• ,q;F eilngWk; juT nraw;ghl;il tpsf;Ftjw;fhf Rakhf Kd;tUk; khztDf;Fr;
  re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
• fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhUWk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahly; xd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • guPl;irapd;NghJ xt;nthU ghlj;jpw;Fk; ngw;w Gs;spfis fzpdpapw;F cs;sPL
      nra;J ngw;w Gs;spfSf;Fupa juj;ij ngwyhk; vd;gJ.
  • Vw;fdNt jPu;khdpj;j Gs;sp guk;gy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • juj;jpidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ Gs;spfis xg;gpl;L mjw;Fupa juj;ij
      ngwg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • ,r;nraw;ghL midj;J khztu;fspdJk; Gs;spfis cs;sPL nra;J KbAk;
      tiu kPs; nraw;ghL nra;ag;gLk; vd;gJ.


fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   ckf;F toq;fg;gl;l thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij ed;F ftdpf;fTk;.




                                       26
•   fPof;fhZk; gpur;rpidfspy; ckJ FOTf;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s gpur;rpidiag; gw;wpa
    $ba mtjhdk; nrYj;jTk;.
    • VjhtJ xU ghlj;jpd; Gs;spfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhz;L mjw;Fupa juj;ij ntspaPL
       nra;jy;. ,jw;fhf fPo;tUk; xOq;fikg;igg; gpd;gw;Wf.
    • guPl;irapd;NghJ xt;nthU ghlj;jpw;Fk; ngw;w Gs;spfis fzpdpapw;F cs;sPL
       nra;J ngw;w Gs;spfSf;Fupa juj;ij ngwyhk; vd;gJ.
    • Vw;fdNt jPu;khdpj;j Gs;sp guk;gy; gad;gLj;j;gLk; vd;gJ.
    • juj;jpidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ Gs;spfis xg;gpl;L mjw;Fupa juj;ij
       ngwg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    • ,r;nraw;ghL midj;J khztu;fspdJk; Gs;spfis cs;sPL nra;J KbAk;
       tiu kPs; nraw;ghL nra;ag;gLk; vd;gJ.

               Gs;spfs;            juk;
          75 ,w;F Nky;              A

          65 ,ypUe;J 75 tiu         B

          55 ,ypUe;J 64 tiu         C
          45 ,ypUe;J 54 tiu         S

          0 ,ypUe;J   44 tiu        W


    • VjhtJ xU vz;zpd; 1 ,ypUe;J 12 tiu tha;g;ghl;L ml;ltiziaj;
      jahupj;jy;.
  • nghUl;fspd; tpiyfis cs;sPL nra;J mtw;wpd; $l;Lj;njhifia ngw;Wf;
      nfhs;sy;. (nghUspd; tpiy ~0| Mf cs;sPL nra;jhy; NkYk; cs;sPL
      nra;jy; KbtilAk;.)
• ckf;Ff; fpilf;fg; ngw;w gpur;rpidia ed;F tpsq;fp mjidj; jPu;g;gjw;Fupa
  epuiy jahu; nra;f.
• ckJ FOtpd; tpilfis Cu;[pjg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf rpW FO fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;f.
• ckJ fz;lha;Tfis $l;lhfTk;> gilg;ghw;wy; kpf;fjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;Fk;
  Kd;itg;gjw;Fj; jahuhfTk;.

                               thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

                           ;
vy;yh fzpdp epuy;fspYk; fPotUk; fl;Lg;ghl;L fl;likg;Gfspy; Vjhtnjhd;W my;yJ
mjw;F Nkw;gl;litfs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.
1. tupir Kiw (sequence)
2. njupT Kiw (selection)
3. kPs; nray; (repetion)




                                          27
fzpdp epuypy; cs;s tupirfis nraw;gLj;Jk; tupir Kiw fl;Lg;gl;L fl;likg;gpd;
%yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk;.
1. tupir Kiw
epunyhd;wpy; cs;s tupfis xd;wpd; gpd; xd;whf jug;gl;Ls;s Kiwapy; nraw;gLj;jy;
~tupir Kiw| vd miof;fg;gLk;.
cjhuzk; 1:
      celsius=float(input(“Enter Celsius temperature: “))

      fahrenheit = 1.8 * celsius + 32

      print “Fahrenheit = “, Fahrenheit


,e; epuypd; %yk; ntg;gj;ij nry;rpa]; ghifahfg; ngw;W mjid guidl; ghiff;F
             P
khw;wp ntspaL nra;ag;gLk;. ,jpy; cs;s fl;lisfs; midj;Jk; gbg;gbahf nraw;gLk;.
cjhuzk; 2:
       rc=la(nu(Etr rc: )
      piefotipt“ne Pie “)

      qty=int(input(“Enter Quantity: “))

      amount=price*qty

      print “Amount is “, amount


,e;epuypd; %yk; nghUspd; tpiy> nghUl;fspd; njhifapid thrpj;J mjw;fhf
nrYj;j Ntz;ba KOj; njhifia fzpj;jy; nra;ag;gLk;.

2. njupTKiw
,jpy; njupT nra;tjw;fhd khw;W ntspaPLfs; gy ,Ug;gpd; toq;fg;gl;l tiuaiwf;F
mika guPl;rpj;J xU khw;W ntspaPl;bid kl;Lk; njupT nra;J nfhs;sg;gLk;.

a).   ruykhd njupT

,yf;fz tpjp (syntax)
      i
      f   expression:
               statement(s)
 es
[le       statements(s)]


cjhuzk; 3:


      a=int(input(“Enter a No: “))

      if a%2==0:

          print “Even number”




                                                     28
Nkw;gb cjhuzj;jpd;NghJ xU vz;izg; ngw;W mjid 2My; tFj;jhy; kPjp ~0|
Mapd; mjid ,ul;il vz; (Even Number) vd ntspaPL nra;ag;gLk;.
cjhuzk; 4:


      a=int(input(“Enter a No: “))

      if a%2==0:

          print “Even number”

       le
      es:

          print “Odd number”


,t; cjhuzj;jpy; xUvz;izg; ngw;W mjid 2My; tFj;jhy; kPjp ~0| Mapd; p i t         rn
'''Even number' vd;Wk; ,y;yhtpl;lhy; print "Odd number" vd;Wk; ntspaPL nra;ag;gLk;.


  gy; n jupTfs;
b).
njhlupay; (syntax)
      i
      f   expression:
               statement(s)
       lf
      ei expression2:
               statement(s)
       le
      es:
               statements(s)]


cjhuzk; 5:
      price=int(input(“Enter Price: “))

      if price>1000:

          discount=price*10/100

      elif price>=500:

          discount=price*5/100

       le
      es:

          discount=price*2/100

      net_price=price-discount

      print “Net Price is “, net_price


                                                                   ;
,t;Tjhuzj;jpd; %yk; nghUnshd;wpd; tpiyiag; ngw;W mjw;Fupa fopT fzpffg;gLk;.
nghUspd; tpiy &. 1000/- ,w;F $Ljyhf ,Ue;jhy; 10% fopTk;> mjd; tpiy &. 500
,ypUe;J 1000/- tiuahapd; 5% fopTk; Vida tpiyfSf;F 2% fopTk; toq;fg;gLk;.




                                          29
cjhuzk; 6:
    no1=int(input(“Enter first number: “))

    no2=int(input(“Enter second number: “))

     rn 1
    p i t“ . Add”

    print “2. Substact”

     rn 3 utpy
    p i t“ .M l i l ”

     rn 4 iie
    p i t“ .D v d ”

    choice=int(input(“Enter Choice: “))

    if choice==1:

         print no1, “+” , no2, “=”, no1+no2

    elif choice==2:

         print no1, “-” , no2, “=”,no1-no2

    elif choice==3:

         print no1, “*” , no2, “=”,no1*no2

    elif choice==4:

         print no1, “/” , no2, “=”,no1/no2

     le
    es:

          rn Ivld nr!
         p i t“ n a i E t y ”



,t; cjhuzj;jpd; %yk; ,uz;L vz;fis ngw;W mjid xU nkDtpd; %yk;
njupe;njLf;fg;gLk; fzpj nraw;ghl;bw;F cupa tpilia ntspaPL nra;ag;gLk;.

3. kPs; nray;
$w;nahd;iw my;yJ gy $w;Wf;fis kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; nraw;gLj;jy; ~gd;Kiw
nray;| vd miof;fg;gLk;.

a) For $w;W
xU $w;iw my;yJ gy $w;Wf;fis rpy Fwpg;gpl;l jlitfs; gd;Kiw nra;tjw;fhf
                                                 ;
,e;j For $w;W gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,jid ,uz;L re;ju;ggq;fspy; khj;jpuk; gad;gLj;jg;
gLfpd;wJ.

)
i   Fwpg;gpl;l ,yf;f vy;iyf;Fs; (tiuaiwf;Fs;) gd;Kiw nrayhf;Fk;.
    for var-name in range (stard-no,stop-no)


i
)   juT gl;banyhd;Wld; gad;gLj;jy;
     o itie n it
    frls-tmi ls
    statement(s)


                                               30
cjhuzk; 7:
    for no in range(1, 5):

         rn n)
        p i t( o
,jpy; 1 ,ypUe;J 4 tiu ,yf;fq;fis ntspaPL nra;Ak;. ,t; cjhuzj;jpYs;s
range vd;gjd; %Yk; ngwg;gLk; Muk;g vz; 1 ,ypUe;J filrp vz; 5 tiu vz;is
ntspaPL nra;ag;gLk;. (,jpy; filrp vz; 5 Nruf;fg;glkhl;lhJ.)

cjhuzk; 8:
    numbers=[10,30,40,60,50]

    for number in numbers:

        print (number)
Nkw;gb cjhuzj;jpd; %yk; fr $w;iw juT gl;banyhd;Wld; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,jpy;
                            o
Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ,yf;fg;gl;bay; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

cjhuzk; 9:
    for letter in “Computer”:

     rn lte)
    p i t( e t r
,t;Tjhuzk; gl;baYf;Fg; gjpyhf ))) gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. mq;F cs;s vOj;Jf;fspd;
vz;zpf;ifapd; gb Fwpg;gpl;l mqk¾lrKh nra;ag;gLk;.

b) while$w; W
,f;$w;Wld; toq;fg;gl;l epge;jid cz;ikahf cs;stiu gz;Kiw nraw;ghL
eilngWk;.

cjhuzk; 10:
num = int (input ('''Enter Number'))

     hl
    wie     num>0:

    if num%2==0:

    count + = 1

    num = int (input ('''Enter Number'))

     r n To
    p i t " tal Even numbers", count


Nkw;gb cjhuzj;jpy; Kjypy; xU vz;izg; ngw;Wf;nfhz;L mJ Neu; ngWkhdk;
cs;sjhapd; num>0 epge;jid cz;ikahFk;. mt;thwhapd; while $w;wpDs; nry;Yk;.
mq;F mt; vz; ,ul;il vz;zh vd;gijg; guPl;rpj;Jg; ghu;f;Fk;. mt;thwhapd; count
,id 1 ,dhy; mjpfupj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;. mjw;Fg; gpd; ,d;DnkhU vz;izg;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;. toq;fg;gl;l epge;jid (no>0) cz;ikaw;wjhFk; tiu gd;Kiw
gLj;jg;gLk;. toq;fg;gl;l ,ul;il ,yf;fq;fs; midj;jpdJk; vz;zpf;ifia ,e;
epuy; %yk; ntspaPL nra;ag;gLk;.

                                           31
Kf;fpa nrhy; - break (Keyword)

fr kw;Wk; while gd;Kiw
 o                              nraypypUe;J kPs;tjw;fhf break vd;gij gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.
cjhuzk; 11:


 =
iI

     while 1<10:

          rn
         piti

          f =5
         i i=:

              print "stoping the loop"

              break

         i+=1


Nkw;gb cjhuzj;jpd; %yk; 1 ,ypUe;J 5 tiu ,yf;fq;fis ntspaPL nra;Ak;.
i ,w;F nfhLf;fg;gl;l ngWkhdk; 1 Mapd; while $w;wpd; epge;jid i<10 cz;ikahFk;.
mt;thwhapd; gd;KiwapDs; i ,d; ngWkhdj;ij ntspaPL nra;Ak;. mjd; gpd; f       i
$w;wpd; %yk; i ,d; ngWkhdk; 54 ,w;F rkdhdjh vd;gij guPl;rpj;Jg; ghu;f;fg;gLk;.
VjhtJ xU re;ju;g;gj;jpy; i ,d; ngWkhdk; 5 ,w;Fr; rkdhdJk; "Stop the loop"
vd;gij ntspaPL nra;J break $w;wpd; %yk; while $w;wpypUe;J tpLgLk;.

Continue
cjhuzk; 12:


while True:

        name = input ("Enter a name less than four charactors or "quit" to stop")

        if name=="quit":

              break

        if len (name)>5:

              continue

         le
        es:

              print name


                                    ;
Nkw;gb cjhuzj;jpd; " u t vDk; cs;sPlil gz;Kiwg;gLj;jy; epWj;jg;gLk;. cs;sPL
                    qi"
nra;ag;gLk; ngaupd; vOj;Jf;fspd; vz;zpf;if 5 Mapd; mg; ngaiu ntspaPL
nra;Ak;. mt;thW ,y;iynadpy; gz;Kiwg;gLj;jy; kPz;Lk; Muk;gpf;Fk;.




                                                  32
ghl tplaq;fisj; njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b
•   rpW FOf; fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; toq;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;te;j FOtpw;Nf Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; Mf;fG+u;tkhd MNyhridfisf; Nfl;lwpaTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
        • fzpdp epuy;fSf;Fs; $w;Wf;fs; nraw;gLj;jg;gLk; xOq;FKiwnahd;W
            cz;L vd;gJ.
        • ,jw;fhf xt;nthU fzpdp epuypYk; fl;Lg;ghl;L fl;likg;G xd;Nwh my;yJ
            mjw;F NkyjpfkhfNth gad;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wnjd;gJ.
        • fzpdp xd;wpy;. nfhLf;fg; gl;Ls;s $w;Wf;fs; xt;nthd;whf
            xOq;FKiwf;fika nfhLf;fg;gl;l Kiwapy; nraw;gl itg;gJ tupirKiw
            vdg;gLk; vd;gJ.
        • njupTfis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhf khw;W topfs; gy ,Uf;Fkplj;J toq;fg;gl;l
                         ;
            epge;jid guPlrpf;fg;gl;L khw;W topnahd;iw njupT nra;jy; Nju;T vdg;gLk;
            vd;gJ.
        • $w;W xd;W my;yJ gy kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; nraw;gLj;jy; kPs;nray; vdg;gLk;
            vd;gJ.




                                        33
Nju;r;rp 8             :   tiyg;gq;fPL kw;Wk; juT> Fuy; vd;gtw;iw nraw;wpw
                           Ds;s tifapy; njhlu;ghly; nra;tjw;fhf gupkhw;wj;jpd
                                         ; ;            ;
                           Jk; fzpdp gzpggpddy;/tiyg;gpddypdJk; gad;ghl;il
                           Muha;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 8.9 :      tiyg;gpd;dYf;fhd xU Nkw;Nfhs; khjpupahf jpwe;j
                           Kiwikfs; ,ilj;njhlu;G js cld;gL newpKiw
                           tbtikg;igg; ghtpg;ghu;.

ghlNtis                :   Ie;J ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;      :
• jpwe;j Kiwik> %ba KiwikapdpilNa cs;s tpj;jpahrj;ij njspTgLj;Jthu;.
• jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilj;njhFg;G mLf;fg;gl;l cld;ghL (OSI) newpKiwapd;
  mLf;Ffisg; ngaupLthu;.
• jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilj;njhFg;G mLf;fg;gl;l cld;gL newpKiwapd; Kf;fpa
  flikfisAk;> nghWg;Gf;fisAk; tpgupg;ghu;.
• tiyg;gpd;dypd; jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilj;njhlu;G mLf;fg;gl;l cld;ghL newpKiw
  tbtikg;gpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij ntspf;nfhzUthu;.

fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• jghy; epiya%lhf ed;gndhUtDf;F jghy; xd;iw mDg;Gtij tFg;gpd;
  ftdj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L tuTk;.
• fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahly; xd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • jghy; epiya%lhf jghnyhd;iw mDg;Gk; nraw;ghL gy gFjpfshf eil
      ngWk; vd.
  • ,jpy; mDg;Ggtu;> ngWgtu;> mDg;Gk; Clfk; kw;Wk; nfhz;L nry;gtu;
      cs;shu;fs; vd.
  • fbjj;jpid vOJjy;> Kftupia vOjp ciwapypl;L jghy; ngl;bapy; NghLjy;>
      jghy; nfhz;L nry;gtu; jghy; ngl;bapypUe;J jghy; epiyaj;jpw;F nfhLj;jy;>
      jghy; epiyaj;jpypUe;J fbjj;ij vLj;J cupa jghy; epiyaj;jpw;F mDg;Gjy;
      Nghd;w mDg;Ggtupd; gFjp NkypUe;J fPohf cg gFjpfshfg; gpupf;f KbAk;
      vd.
  • ngWgtu; kpf njhiytpy; cs;stuhapd; mf;fbjj;ij kj;jpa jghy; gupkhw;W
      epiya%lhf mDg;g Ntz;Lk; vd.
  • kj;jpa jghy; gupkhw;W epiya%lhf ngWgtupd; jghy; epiyaj;jpw;F jghiy
      mDg;GtJ ngWtjw;F jghiy nfhLj;jy;> kw;Wk; ngw;wtu; jghiy jpwf;fTk;
      thrpf;fTk; vd ngWgtupd; ghfKk; fPopUe;J Nkyhd %d;W gFjpfshf gpupf;f
      KbAk; vd.

                                       34
    •                     ;
        xt;nthU cg gFjpfFk; rupahd egUf;Fj; jghiy nfhLg;gjpy; cupa flikAk;
        nghWg;Gk; kw;Wk; cghaKk; cs;sd vd.
    •   vg;NghJk; Nky; cggFjp fPo; cg gFjpapd; Nritiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJld;
        fPo; cggFjpapd; mr;Nrit Nky; cg gFjpapw;F ngw;Wf; nfhLf;Fk; vd.
    •   ,NjNghyNt fzpdp tiyg;gpd;dypd;NghJk; gy mLf;FfSf;$lhd jpwe;j
        Kiwik tbtikg;Gfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd vd.


fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   fPo;tUk; jiyaq;fq;fspy; ckJ FOtpw;Fupa jiyg;igg; gw;wpf;$ba ftdk;
    nrYj;jTk;.
    • ru;tNjr ju epu;za epWtdk; (ISO) kw;Wk; jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilj;njhlu;G
       khjpup (ISO) mwpKfk;.
                                                                          ;
    • OSI tbtikg;gpd; xt;nthU mLf;fpd; mbg;gil flikfs;> nghWg;Gf;fs; ghtpfFk;
       cghaq;fs;.
    • OSI tbtikg;gpd; xt;nthU mLf;fpw;Fupa mbg;gil newpKiwfs;.
•   thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk; ckJ jiyg;gpw;Fupa gFjpia Kf;fpakhfTk;
    ftdpff.;
•   jpwe;j Kiwik kw;Wk; %ba Kiwikf;fpilapyhd mbg;gil NtWghLfisj;
    NjLf.
•   thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;jpy; cs;sitfSf;Fg; Gwk;ghf ckJ jiyg;igg; gw;wp ckf;Fj;
    njupe;jtw;iw Fwpj;Jf; nfhs;f.
•   ckJ fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis $l;lhfTk; Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; tFg;giwf;F Kd;itf;f
    Maj;jkhfTk;.

                              thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;

ntsp cyfj; J ld; ,ize; J nrayhw; w f; $ baJk; trjpfis nfhz; l Jkhd
Kiwikapid jpwe;j Kiwiknad miof;fg;gLtJld; mt;thW ntsp cyFld;
,izahJ mjd; midj;J nray;ghLfSk; mk; KiwikapDs;NsNa elhj;Jk;
Kiwikapid %ba KiwiknadTk; miof;fg;gLk;.


tiyg;gpd;dypd;NghJ nkd;nghUs; kw;Wk; td;nghUspd; tupaiuapNyNa (Specifica-
t o ) jq;fpapuhJ VjhtJ xU tpj;jpahrkhd jsq;fspypUe;Jk; njhlu;ghlYf;F ,lk;
 in
nfhLf;Fk; Kiwik tbtikg;G jpwe;j Kiwik vdf; fUjg;gLk;.


jpwe;j Kiwik tbtikg;G vz;zf;fUthdJ ru;tNjr tpahghuj;ij xU rpwe;j
topf;Ff; nfhz;LtUk;. ,izaj;jpNy xNu khjpupahd tpahghu Nehf;Fldhd
tpahghupfSk; kw;Wk; gadu;fs; jw;fhy myFfisf; nfhz;l fzpdp Kiwikfisg;
ghtpg;gu;.


                                      35
Kw;fhyq;fspy; fzpdp njhlu;ghly; ghupa fzpdpfis ikakhff; nfhz;L mike;
jpUe;jd. mf;fzpdpAld; NtW cgfuzq;fs; gy ,izf;fg;gl;bUe;jd.


          ;                      ;
tiyg;gpddypd; nraw;ghLfs; mjpfupjjjd; fhuzkhf mr; nraw;ghLfis gFjpfshfg;
gpupf;f Ntz;b Vw;gl;lJ.


mf; f hyj; j py; fzpdp tiy Kiwikfspd; njhlu; g hly; td; n ghUs; kw; W k;
nkd;nghUl;fspd; tupaiuapNy jq;fpapUe;jJ NghyNt mur rhu;gpNyh (Arpanet) my;yJ
jdpahu; fzpdp tpw;gidahsu;fshy; gutyhd mstpy; tiyaikg;G nra;ag;gl;lJ.
,t; tiyfspy; njhlu;ghlypd; NghJ gpur;rpidfs; vOe;jjdhy; nghJ tiyj;
                                                 ;                          ;
jug;gLj;jypd; Kf;fpaj;jJk; Vw;gl;ljdhy; mjw;F jPuthf [dPthtpd; ru;tNjr juepuza
epWtdj;jpd; %yk; jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilKiw njhlu;G tbtikg;G mwpKfg;gLj;jg;
gl;lJ. xt;nthU tiyaikj;j fzpdp ,d;DnkhU tiyapd; fzpdpAld; njhlu;Ggl;L
jfty; gupkhw; W k; Kiw ,r; r u; t Njr juepu; z a epWtdj; j pd; tbtikg; g py;
tpgupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,J VO mLf;FfSldhd xg;gPl;L tbtikg;G MFk;. ep[ cyf
tiyaikg;gpy; ,jid xg;gpLk; NghJ ,jpy; cs;s mLf;Ffs; rpytw;iw xd;whfr;
Nrfupj;J NtnwhU mLf;F jahu;nra;J nfhs;s KbAk;. ,J xU gupe;JiuNaad;wp
rl;lKiwikay;y vd;gij ftdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.


jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilKfj;njhlu;G tbtikg;gpd; VO mOf;Ffs; fPo; jug;gl;Ls;sJ.
   7'    gpuNahf mLf;F (Application Layer)
   6'    Kd;itg;G mLf;F (Presentation Layer)
   5'    njhlu; mLf;F (Session Layer)
   4'    Nghf;Ftuj;J mLf;F (Transport Layer)
   3'    gzpg;gpd;dy; mLf;F (Network Layer)
   2'    juT ,izg;G mLf;F (Data Link Layer)
   1'    ngsjpf epiy mLf;F (Physical Layer)


njhlu;ghlypd; NghJ Kiwikfs; ,uz;bw;fpilapy; ,ilKfj;njhlu;G cs;s mLf;Ffs;
cs;sd. mt; mLf;FfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l tpNrl flikAk; nghWg;Gk; cs;sd.
mjw;Fr; rpy cghaq;fSk; cs;sd.

mDg;Ggtu; Kid         (Senders end)
mDg;Ggtuhy; ngWgtUf;F juTfis mDg;Gk;NghJ mDg;Gk; KidapypUe;J juTfs;
Vu; tupirahfr; nry;Yk;. juTfs; Nky; mLf;fpypUe;J fPo; mLf;fpw;Fr; nry;Yk;.
(cjhuzk;: 7Mk; mLf;fpypUe;J Kjyhk; mLf;fpw;F)




                                        36
ngWgtu; Kid              (Receivers end)
ngWgtUf;F juTfs; fpilf;Fk;NghJ mit ,wq;F tupirapy; nry;tij fhzyhk;.
mjhtJ fPo; mLf;fpypUe;J Nky; mLf;fpw;Fr; nry;Yk;.

gpuNahf mLf;F vDk; Vohk; mLf;F
,J OSI tbtikg;gpd; Nky; kl;lj;jpy; cs;sJ. gpuNahf nkd;nghUl;fs; tiyAld;
,ilj;njhlu;G Vw;gLj;Jk; tpjj;ijf; fhl;Lk;.


                mDg;Ggtu;                                ngWgtu;
           7
           6
           5
           4
           3
           2
           1   ngsjpf mLf;F
                                     01000110


                                                 ;
,q;F Nritapd; juk; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; Nrhbia mwpeJnfhz;L gadu; nraw;ghl;bw;F
xj; j hir toq; F k; . ,q; F gadupd; milahsk; > jdpj; J tk; kw; W k; juTfs;
mike;jpUf;Fk; Kiwfis ftdj;jpw; nfhz;L ,aq;Fk; ,t; mLf;F gpuNahfj;jpw;F
tpNrlkhdjhFk;. Nfhit gupkhw;wr; Nritfs;> kpd; mQ;ry;> juT Nkyhd;ik
Kiwikfs; kw;Wk; nkd;nghUl; Nritfs; ,t; mLf;fpy; mlq;Fk; Telnet kw;Wk; FTP,
DNS, HTTP, SMTP Nghd;w newpKiwfs; ,t; mLf;fpy; NrUk;.


Kd;itg;G mLf;F vDk; 6Mk; mLf;F
juT rhu;ghd Kd;itg;Gf;fs;> guptu;j;jidfs; kw;Wk; FwpaPLfs; Nghd;witfis
nra;Ak; Kiwapid ,t; mLf;fpw; fhl;Lk;.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension), XDR (External Data Representation)   Nghd;w newpKiwfs;
,t; mLf;fpw; NrUk;.

njhlu; mLf;F vDk; 5Mk; mLf;F
                                                ;
gpuNahfq;fspw;fpilna njhlu;ig Vw;gLj;JtJ njhlu;rrpahf nfhz;L nry;tJ kw;Wk;
epiwT nra;tJ ,t; Ie;jhk; mLf;fhFk;. xt;nthU KidapYk; gpuNahfq;fSf;fpilapy;
ciuahly; gupkhw;W mjid elhj;jp epiwNtw;WtJ ,t; mLf;fpd; nrayhFk;.

,q;F gad;gLj;Jk; epakq;fs; ,uz;lhff; SIP (Session initiation protocol), RTP (Real time
transport protocol) Fwpg;gplyhk;.


Nghf;Ftuj;J mLf;F vDk; 4Mk; mLf;F
cgrupg;ghsUf;Fk; (Host) njhlu;ghly; Kidapw;Fk; ,ilapy; juTfis rk;g+u;dkhf
gupkhw;wk; nra;Ak;. TCP (Transmmission Control Protocol) kw;Wk; UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
Nghd;wit ,jpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; newpKiwfs; ,uz;lhFk;.

                                                  37
gzpg; g pd; d y; mLf; F
,J %d;whk; mLf;fhFk;. njhlu;ghly; gzpg;gpd;dy;fSf;fpilapy; khWtJ ghijia
mikj;Jf;nfhLg;gJ kw;Wk; Xu; njhlu;ghly; ,yf;fpypUe;J ,d;DnkhU ,yf;fpw;F
juTfis CLflj;jy; ,jpy; tpgupf;fg;gLk;. ghijaikj;jy; kw;Wk; juTfis Kw;
nrYj;Jjy; Nghd;w Kftupfisj; jahupj;jy;> jilfis gupghypj;jy; kw;Wk; juT
nghjpfis Kiwahfj; jahupj;jy; Nghd;witfs; ,q;F tpgupf;fg;gLk;.

gzpg;gpd;dy; mLf;fpd; newpKiwfs; rpyjhf IP (Internet Protocol), RIP (Routing Information
Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Mfpatw;iwf; fhl;lyhk;.


juT ,izg;G mLf;F
,J ,uz;lhk; mLf;fhFk;. ,jpy; juT ciufs; gpl;fshf FwpaPL nra;jy;> gpl;
juTfs; kPs;FwpaPL nra;jy; fhl;lg;gLk;. ,t; mLf;fpd;; Clhf mDfy; fl;Lg;ghL
(MAC - Media Access Control) mLf;F kw;Wk; ju;f;f ,izg;G fl;Lg;ghl;L (LLC-Logical Link
Control Layer) mLf;F vd cg mLf;Ffs; ,uz;lhfg; gpupj;Jf; fhl;lyhk;. gzpg;gpd;dy;
fzpdp juTfSf;Fg; gpuNtrpg;gJk; mjid CLflj;jYf;fhd mDkjpia ngw;Wf;
nfhs;sYk; M A C cg mLf;fpy; tpgupf;fg;gLtJld; Fiw Njly;> gha;r;ry; fl;Lg;ghL
kw;Wk; rl;lf rkfhyg;gLj;jy; Nghd;wit LLC cg mLf;fpd; %yk; tptupf;fg;gLk;.

,jpy; PPP (Point to Point Protocol), PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol), vDk; newpKiwfSk;
Token ring, Ethertnet Nghd;w ,izTfs; tpgupf;fg;gLfpd;wd.


ngsjpf mLf; F
,J OSI tbtikg;gpd; fPo;kl;l mLf;fhFk;. ,jpy; CLfnkhd;wpd; %yk; juTfis
CLflj;jy; nra;ag;gLk;. mjhtJ Clfk;> juTfspd; Ntfk;> CLflj;jy; tif>
,ilKfg;gLj;jy; kw;Wk; CLflj;jy; Kiw (Transmission Mode) Nghd;wit tpyf;fg;gLk;.

ghl tplaq;fisj; njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
•   rpWFO fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;te;j FOtpw;F Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; tpUj;jpAld; $ba MNyhridfis Nfl;lwpaTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • ntsp cyfj;Jld; ,ize;J nrayhw;wf;$ba trjpfSldhd Kiwik jpwe;j
        KiwiknadTk; mg;gb my;yhjitfis %ba Kiwikfs; vdTk; fUjg;gL
        nkd.
    • fzpdp tiyg;gpd;dy; ,uz;bw;fpilapy; jy RahjPdkhd (platform independent)
        njhlu;ghlYf;F ,lk; nfhLf;Fk; tbtikg;G tiyg;gpd;dypd; jpwe;j Kiwik
        ahFk; vd.




                                              38
•   ru;tNjr ju epu;za epWtdj;jpd; %yk; ehd;F mLf;Ffisf;nfhz;l jpwe;j
    Kiwik tbtikg;ig njhlu;ghly; kw;Wk; jfty; gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhd tiyg;
    gpd;dypd;NghJ mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ vd.
•   mt; tbtikg;G jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilj;njhlu;G tbtikg;G vd miof;fg;gLk;
    vd.
•   ,jpy; xt;nthU mLf;fpw;Fk; VjhtnjhU fliklAk; nghWg;Gk; ghtpf;Fk;
    cghaKk; cs;sJ vd.
•   vg;NghJk; fPo; mLf;fpOUe;J Nky; mLf;fpw;F Nrit toq;fg;gLk; vdTk;>
    Nky; mLf;fpypUe;J mr;Nritfis Nfhwg;gLk; vdTk;.
•   xt;nthU mLf;fpw;Fk; mjw;Fupa epakq;fs; cs;sJ vd.
•   Nkw;gb jpwe;j Kiwik tbtikg;G xg;gPl;L tbtikg;ghFk; vd.




                                39
Nju;r;rp 8              :   tiyg;gq;fPL kw;Wk; juT> Fuy; vd;gtw;iw nraw;wpw
                            Ds;s tifapy; njhlu;ghly; nra;tjw;fhf gupkhw;wj;jpd
                                          ;              ;
                            Jk; fzpdp gzpggpidy;/tiyg;gpdd tpdrk; gad;ghl;il
                            Muha;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 8.11 :                                             ;
                            thbf;ifahsu; Nritaf (Client Sever) fzpggpd; mbg;gilf;
                            Nfhl;ghLfis Muha;thu;.


ghlNtis                 :   Ie;J ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
•   fzpdp tiyaikg;nghd;wpd; thbf;ifahsu;fs; kw;Wk; Nritafq;fis NtWgLj;jy;.
•                                                        ;            ;
    fzpdp tiyaikg;nghd;wpy; gyjug;gl;l Nritafq;fis mwpeJnfhz;L tpgupjjy;.
•   fzpdp tiyapD}lhf ,izar; Nritfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;NghJ gad;gLj;Jk;
    njhopEl;g cghaq;fis tpsf;fpf; fhl;Ljy;.
•   rpy fhupaq;fis elhj;jpf; nfhs;Sk;NghJ Nritafq;fspd; cjtpapidg; ngw;Wf;
    nfhs;Sjy;.
•   md;whl tho;f;ifapy; thbf;ifahsu;fSf;Fg; gyjug;gl;l mtrpaq;fSf;Fr;
    Nritafq;fspd; mDruiz nfhLj;jy;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
•   ~Neau; tpUg;gk;|| Nghd;w Neub thndhyp epfo;r;rpfs; ,aq;Fk; Kiwiag; gw;wpa
    fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;f.
•   ,jpy; Nfl;gtu; thbf;ifahsu; vdTk;> thndhyp Nrit toq;Fk; epWtdk;
    Nritafk; vd;gijAk; ntspf;nfhzuTk;
•   thbf;ifahsUf;Fk; Nritafq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,ilj;njhlu;ig Vw;gLj;jp
    apUf;Fk; Kiw gw;wpa khztu;fspd; ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jTk;.
•   fP o ; t Uk; tplaq; f is ntspf; n fhzUk; tifapy; fye; J iuahly; xd; i w
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
•   ghliy tpUk;gpf; Nfl;Fk; Neau; thbf;ifahsu; vd.
•   ghliy toq;Fk; thndhyp Nrit epWtdk; Nritafk; vd.
•   thbf;ifahsUf;Fk; Nritafq;fSf;Fkpilapy; rpwe;j njhlu;ghly; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;
    vd.
•   ,izaj;Jld; ,ize;j fzpdp tiyapDs; mt;thwhd thbf;ifahsu; - Nritaf
    njhlu;ghly; cs;sd vd.




                                         40
fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:

• ckJ FOtpw;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij ed;F guprPyid nra;f.
• fPo;f;fhZk; jiyg;Gf;fspy; ckJ FOtpw;Fupa jiyg;igg; gw;wpa $ba ftdQ;
  nrYj;jTk;.
• thbf;ifahsUf;Fk; Nritafq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,ilj;njhlu;ig Vw;gLj;jp
  apUf;Fk; Kiw gw;wpa khztu;fspd; ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jTk;.
  • thbf;ifahsu; kw;Wk; Nritafk; (Client & servers)
    • tiy Nritafq;fs; (web servers)
    • mQ;ry; Nritafq;fs; (mail servers)
    • gpujpepjpj;Jt Nritafq;fs; (proxy servers)
    • gpuNahf Nritafq;fs; (application servers)
    • jsg; ngau; toq;fp Nritafq;fs; (DNS servers)
    • nraY}f;fKs;s cgrupg;Gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L newpKiw Nritafq;fs; (DHCP servers)
    • Fj;jif ,izg;Gfs;
    • ,izaj;js Nrit toq;Feu;fs; (ISP)
    • Eiothapy;fs;
•   ckJ FOtpw;Ff; fpilj;Js;s jiyg;gpd; tplaq;fis mwpe;Jnfhs;f.
•   ckJ fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fisf; $l;lhfTk;> Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;Fk;
    Kd;itf;f Maj;jkhfTk;.



                            thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

thbf;ifahsu; - Nritaf tbtikg;G                 (Client Server Configuration)
ghupa mstpyhd fzpdpfSf;F gpujpaPlhf jdp egu; fzpdpfspd; tUifAld; fzpdp
rhu;ghd fzpdp tiyaikg;Gfs; gpugy;ak; mile;jd.


fzpdp tiyg;gpd;dy; Kiwfspy; Nritaf - thbf;ifahsu; gzpg;gpd;diy
ftdpf;Fk;NghJ mjid Nritaf fzpdp kw;Wk; thbf;ifahsu; fzpdpfs; vd ,U
tiffshfg; gpupj;J milahsk; fhl;lyhk;.


                        Nritafk;




                                              thbf;ifahsu;fs;




                                     41
thbf;ifahsu; fzpdpfs;                   (Clients)
fzpdp tiynahd;wpy; my;yJ ,iza%lhf fzpdpnahd;why; Nritiag; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;Sk; fzpdpfs; thbf;ifahsu;fs; vd miof;fg;gLk;. nghJthf ,it tiy
gpuNahf nkd;nghUl;fs; gad;gLj;jp ,aq;Fk; jdp egu; fzpdpfyhFk;. mit nry;ypl
fzpdpfshfNth my;yJ Nkirf; fzpdpfshfNth ,Uf;fyhk;.

Nritaf fzpdpfs;                 (Servers)
fzpdp tiyaikg;nghd;wpy; my;yJ ,iza%lhf fzpdpfSf;F Nritfis toq;Fk;
fzpdpfs; Nritafq;fs; vd miof;fg;gLk;. thbf;ifahsu;fSf;Fr; rpwe;j Nritia
toq;Ftjw;fhf Nritafq;fspd; ,af;f Ntfk;> epidtf nfhs;ssT kw;Wk; Nrkpg;gpd;
nfhs;ssT vd;gd mjpfupj;J ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. tiyf;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l thbf;ifahsu;
                                                              ;
fzpdpfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfupf;Fk;NghJ mjw;Nfw;g Nfs;tpfis g+u;jjpnra;tjw;fhf
tiyapDs; Nritaf fzpdpfs; gy gad;gLj;jg;gLk; re;ju;g;gq;fis fhzyhk;.

Nritaf tiffs;
ngsjpf tbtpYs;s tiyfs; Nritaq;fspDs; nkd;nghUs; gad;gLj;jp mikf;fg;gl;
Nritafq;fs; gy ,Uf;fyhk;. ,r; Nritafq;fSf;fhd tpNrl nkd;nghUs;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. mt;thwhd Nritaf nkd;nghUl;fs; rpy.
  • tiy Nritafq;fs; (web servers)
  • mQ;ry; Nritafq;fs; (mail servers)
  • gpujpepjpj;Jt Nritafq;fs; (proxy servers)
  • gpuNahf Nritafq;fs; (application servers)
  • jsg; ngau; toq;fp Nritafq;fs; (DNS servers)
  • nraY}f;fKs;s cgrupg;Gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L newpKiw Nritafq;fs; (DHCP servers)

tiy Nritafq;fs;                  (Web Servers)
tiy NritafkhdJ cyfshtpa tiy (WWW) apy; kPAiw gupkhw;W nepwpKiw
(HTTP) iag; gad;gLj;jp thbf;ifahsu; fzpdpapw;F tiyg; gf;fq;fis toq;Fk;
tpNrl nkd;nghUshFk;. ,izaj;jpDs;Ns Nritafq;fs; gpuRupf;fg;gl;Ls;s vy;yh
cgrupg;Gf; fzpdpfSk; (Host Computer) ,e;j tiy Nritaf nkd;nghUisg;
                                                                  ;
gad;gLj;Jk;. gutyhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; tiy Nritafq;fs; rpytw;iwf; fPof; fhzyhk;.
   .
   1 Apache Server
   2 I S - ( i r s f ® Internet Information Server)
   . I      Mcoot
   3 Novell® Server
   .
   4 Lotus® Domino Server
   .




                                                  42
mQ;ry; Nritafq;fs;            (Mail Servers)
gpuhe;jpa kw;Wk; njhiytpYs;s gadu;fshy; ngWk; kpd; mQ;ry;fis ngw;Wf;
nfhs;tjw;Fk;> gadu;fSf;F mDg;gNtz;ba kpd; mQ;ry;fis gfpu;e;jspf;Fk;
tplaq;fis Nkw;nfhs;Sk; tpNrl nkd;nghUs; jghy; Nritafq;fs; vd miof;fg;gLk;.
cjhuzk;: 1 Microsoft Exchange
             .
             .
             2 Qmail
             .
             3 Exim
             .
             4 Sendmail


mQ;ry; Nritafq;fSf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; gadu;fspd; kpd; mQ;ry;fis Kjypy; mQ;ry;
fsQ;rpak; (message store) xd;wpy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jp itj;J ,uz;lhtjhf ngWgtUf;F
mDg; g g; g Lk; . mQ; r y; mDg; G k; N ghJ SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) my; y J
ESMTP(External Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) vDk; newpKiwfisg; gad;gLj;JtJld;
mQ;ry;fisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ POP-3 (Post Office Protocol Version 3) my;yJ IMP
(Internet Message Access Protocol) vDk; newpKiwfs;; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.


gpujpepjpj; J t Nritafq; f s;         (Proxcy Server)
          ;
gpujpepjpjJt NritafkhdJ ,izaj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jk; tpahghuq;fs;> gazu;fSf;Fk;
,izj;jpw;Fkpilapyhd ,ileLtuhf nrayhw;Wk; NritafkhFk;.


,jpy; ,izaj;jpD}lhf eilngWk; jfty; gputhf;fq;fis Kiwahff; fl;Lg;gLj;jy;>
gadupd; ghJfhg;ig cj;juthjg;gLj;jy; kw;Wk; fsQ;rpag;gLj;Jk; Nritfis ngw;Wf;
nfhLj;jy; Nghd;witfs; elhj;jg;gLk;.


,jd; ed;ik vd;dntd;why; mjpYs;s gJf;F epidtfj;ij midj;J gadu;fSf;Fk;
toq;ff;$bajhFk;. Mifahy; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; Nfhug;gLk; ,izaj;js;q;fs;
gpujpepjpj;Jt Nritafj;jpd; gJf;fpa epidtfj;jpy; gJf;fg;gl;bUg;gjhy; gadu;fSf;F
tpiuthf FWfpa fhyj;jpw;Fs; tpilaspf;f KbAk;.


gpuNahf Nritafq;fs;            (Application Server)
gpuNahf nkd;nghUnshd;wpw;F tpahghu ju;f;fk; (Business Logic ) toq;Fk;> gue;j
tiyapDs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; Nritaf nkd;nghUs; gpuNahf nkd;nghUs; vd
miof;fg;gLk;. tiy Nritafnkhd;Wld; ,ize;J nraw;gLk; gpuNahf Nritafk;>
tiy gpuNahf Nritafk; (Web Application Server) vd miof;fg;gLk;.


jsg;ngau; toq;fpr; Nritafk;              (Domain Name Service - DNS Server)
jsg; ngau; Nrit KiwikfSf;F ,iztjw;F gjpTnra;ag;gl;l fzpdpNa jsg;
ngau; toq;f Nritafk; vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,jpy; tpNrl tpla tiyaikg;G
nkd;nghUs;> nghJ I Kftup rpwg;gk;rq;fs; kw;Wk; NtnwhU ,izaj;jsj;jpd;
                   P
jsg; ngaUk;> KftupTila juTj;jsk; nraw;gLk;. jsg; ngaiu I Kftupahf
                                                        P
khw;wpaikg;gJ ,jd; gpujhd fhupakhFk;.

                                           43
,aq; F epiy cgrupg; G tbtikg; G newpKiw Nritafk;                   (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocole - DHCP Server)
Ke;jpa I Kftupaw;w ,iza newpKiwfis kl;Lk; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l
          P
fzpdp tiyfs; xd;NwhL xd;W ,iztjw;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; Nritaf nkd;nghUs;
DHCP Nritafk; vd miof;fg;gLk;. cgfuzq;fSf;F milahsg;gLj;jg;gl;l I         P
Kftupia xg;gilj;jYf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; newpKiwfs; ,r;Nritafq;fs;> fzpdp
tiyf;F cgfuzj;ij nghUj;JjYk;> mfw;WtJk; nghWj;J mtw;wpw;F toq;fpa
Kftupia mfw; W k; my; y J khw; w paikf; F k; . ,izaj; j pw; F ,yFthf
njhlu;GgLj;Jtjw;fhf ,iza Nritfs; toq;Feu;fs; I ,e;j DHCP Nritafq;fisg;
                                                  P
gad;gLj;Jtu;. mJNghyNt mfd;w miytupir topnrYj;jp (Broad Band Router) Nghd;w
tiyg; g pd; d y; cgfuzq; f isg; gad; g Lj; j p epiykhwhj tiynahd; w pw; F
njhlu;GgLj;Jtjw;Fk; DHCP Nritafq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

Fj;jif ,izg;Gfs;              (Leased Lines)
,uz;L ];jhgfq;fSf;fpilapy; njhiyNgrpNah my;yJ juT gupkhw;wYf;fhf
xJf;fg;gl;l njhiyNgrp njhlu;ghly; Nritfs; Fj;jif ,izg;G vd miof;fg;gLk;.
,it ,U epiyikfSf;fpilapy; nraw;gl Vw;gLj;jpa Rw;whFNk jtpu xU ngsjpf
fk;gp ,izg;G my;y. xJf;fg;gl;l juT fk;gpfSf;F FWe;J}u my;yJ ntFJ}uj;jpw;F
gut KbAk;. vg;NghJk; rk;gpujhag;g+u;tkhd njhiyNgrp Nritfspw;F vjpuhdjhf
,f;fk;gpfs; jpwe;j kpd; Rw;whf rkpQ;irfis guhkupf;Fk;. ,f;Fj;jif ,izg;Gfis
ngWk;ghYk; Fj;jiff;Fg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ tpahghu epiyaq;fspd; fpisfis
xd;Nwhnlhd;W njhlu;GgLj;Jtjw;NfahFk;. Fj;jif ,izg;Gfs; ,UtifahFk;.

T1   ,izg; G
T1 tifapyhd Fj;jif ,izg;Gfspy; juT CLflj;J Ntfk; tpdhbnahd;wpw;F
nkfh gapl; 1.544 MFk;. ,e;j kpd; Rw;W nrk;G fk;gp my;yJ ,io xspapay;
(Opticalfibre) Clhf nraw;gLk;.


T3   ,izg; G
,jpYk; nrk;Gf; fk;gpNah> my;yJ ,io xspapay; fk;gpfNsh gad;gLj;JtJld;
nkfh gapl; 44 - 736 juT CLflj;J Ntfj;ijf; nfhz;ljhFk;. ,e;jf; fk;gpfs;
neLe;J}u juT CLflj;jYf;fhf tpNrlkhf gad;gLj;jg;glf;$bajhFk;. cau;e;j
juT epWtdj;jpd; %yk; ,jw;fhd rpwpjsT cau;e;j khjhe;j fl;lzk; mwtplg;gLk;.

,izaj; j s Nritfs; toq; F eu; f s;                  (ISP)
,izaj;js Nritfs; toq;Feu;fs;> thbf;ifahsu;fSf;F ,iza Nritia
toq;Fk; egu; my;yJ epWtdkhFk;. jkJ thbf;ifahsu;fspd; Njitf;Nfw;g njupT
nra;af;$ba gf;Nf[;fs; gy ,tu;fsplk; cz;L. ,itfisf; fPo;f;fhZk;gb tifg;
gLj;jyhk;.
1' ,izg;Gfs; (Dial up) ,izaj;ijg; ghtid Neuj;jpwF khj;jpuk; fl;lzk; mwtpLtJ
                                                ;
   ,jd; tpNrlkhFk;. fl;lzk; nrYj;jy;> gpd; fl;lzk; nrYj;jy; vd ,Utifg;gLk;.



                                               44
2' Fj;jif ,izg;Gfs; (Leased Line) njhlu;rrpahf ,izaj; njhlu;ig toq;FtJld;
                                         ;
   ghtid nra;j gpl; mstpw;F njhlu;ig toq;FtJld; ghtid nra;j gpl;
   mstpw;F my;yJ epue;ju fl;lzk; mwtplg;gLk;. ,it nghJthf tlq;fSs;s
   my;yJ tlq;fsw;w mfd;w gl;ilAila (Broad Band) ,izg;GfshFk;.

,yq;ifapy; ,izaj;js Nritfis toq;Fk; epWtdq;fs; rpytw;iw fPo; fhzyhk;.
1. = yq;fh nuypnfhk;   2. lanyhf;
3. nkhgpnly;           4. yq;fhngy;
5. ANuf;fh ,d;lu;nel;  6. yq;fh ,d;lu;nel;

topr; nrayp     (Routers)
topr; nraypfshdJ FWk; g ug; G tiyaikg; g pypUe; J efuq; f Sf; f pilapyhd
tiyaikg;ig ,izg;gjw;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; cgfuzkhFk;. xU tiyaikg;gpy;
fhzg;gLk; fzpdpnahd;wpypUe;j NtNwhu; tiyaikg;gpYs;s fzpdpnahd;wpw;Fj;
juTg; nghjpfis gupkhw;wk; nra;Ak;NghJ rupahf nrd;wiljy;/gpuNtrj;ij Vw;gLj;jpf;
nfhLg;gJ ,e;j cgfuzkhFk;.

Eiotpfs;      (Gateways)
EiotpahdJ xd;wpw;nfhd;W khWgl;l newpKiwfis gad;gLj;Jk; tiyfSf;fpilap
yhd ,ilj;njhlu;ig Vw;gLj;Jk; tiyapd; rpwg;gk;rkhFk;. mjd;gb xU tiyapypUe;j
                 ;
,d;DnkhU tiyapwF gpuNtrj;ij Vw;gLj;JtJ ,jd; %yk; eilngWk;. Eiotpnahd;W
nkd;nghUs;> td;nghUs; ,uz;Lk; xd;wpidg;ghfr; nray;gLk;.

ghl tplaq; f isj; njspTgLj; J tjw; f hd cj; N jr topfhl; b
•   rpW FO fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; toq;fr; nra;f.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd; te;j FOtpw;F Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;jpid toq;fTk;.
•   Vida Fof;fspd; tpUj;jpAld;$ba MNyhridfisf; Nfl;lwpaTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • rpy fzpdp tiyfspd; nraw;ghLfSf;F mika njspthf NtWgLj;jp mwpe;J
        nfhs;sf;$ba fzpdpfs; ,Utif cs;sd vd.
    • kw;iwa fzpdpfSf;F Nritfis toq;Fk; fzpdpfisr; Nritaff; fzpdpfs;
        vd miof;fg;gLk; vd.
    • Nritafq;fspD}lhf Nritapidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; fzpdpfs; thbf;ifahsu;
        fzpdpfs; vd miof;fg;gLk; vd.
    • fzpdp tiyr;rhu;e;j ,izaj;jpDs; jfty; njhlu;ghlYf;F cjTk; gy
        Nritaq;fs; cs;sd vd.
    • ,izaj;jpw;fhd ,izg;ig toq;Fk;NghJ Fj;jif ,izg;Gf;fs;> Eiotpfs;>
        topr; nraypfs; kw;Wk; ,izar; Nrit toq;Feu;fspdhy; rpwe;jNjhu; Nrit
        elf;fpd;wJ vd.
    • rpwe;jNjhu; njhlu;ghliy nra;Jnfhs;tjw;F mjw;fhfNt jdpahd nray;Kiw
        ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd.

                                      45
Nju;r;rp 9               :   nraw;wpwDs;sJk; gaDs;sJkhd juTfisf; ifahS
                             tjw;F Vw;w juTj; jsj; njhFjpfis tbtikj;J
                             tpUj;jp nra;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 9.3 :        juTj; j snkhd; w pd; cs; t hupahd nraw; g hlfisg;
                                 ; ;
                             guPlrpggJld; ANSI - SPARK Kk;kl;lf; fl;likg;Gf;fis (ANSI
                             - SPARK three level architecture) Muha;thu;.


ghlNtis                  :   ehd;F ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;        :
• juTj;jsnkhd;wpw;fhd ANSI - SPARC fl;likg;gpd; %d;W kl;lq;fis ngaupLthu.;
• juT RahjPdk;; vd;why; vd;d vd;gij tpsf;Fthu;.
• ANSI - SPARKC fl;likg;ig tiue;J xt;nthU kl;lj;jpYk; eilngWk; nray;fis
  tpsf;Fthu;.
• rk;gpujha juTj;jsj;jpw;Fk; fzpdp juTj;jsj;jpw;Fk; ,ilapyhd tpj;jpahrj;ijj;
  njspTgLj;Jthu;.

fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
•   ijf;fg;gl;l Milnahd;W jahupf;fg;gLk;NghJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w fl;llq;fis
    gps;isfSld; fye;Jiuahb fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzuTk;.
    • Efu;Nthu; NjitfSf;Nfw;w juTfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sy;> Milia tbtikj;jy;
        (design)> nghUj;jkhd Jzpiaj; njupT nra;jy;> Milf;fhf ntl;lg;gl;l
                                            ;
        gFjpfis xd;wpizj;J Miliag; g+u;jjp nra;jy; Nghd;w fl;lq;fs; gytw;iw
        mile;j gpd; ijf;fg;gl;l Mil g+uz epiyia milfpwJ vd;gJ.
    • mj; ijf;fg;gl;l Milia thq;Fk; Efu;Nthu; ,ij g+u;j;jp nra;tjw;F
        Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w nraw;ghLfis fhz;gjpy;iy vd;gJ.
    • ,ijg;Nghd;W juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwik (DBMS) fl;bnaOg;GtJk; gy
        fl;lq;fspy; eilngWfpd;wnjd;gJ.
    • juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwik fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;F ANSI - SPARK vd;w
                                                                               ;
        ngauhy; miof;fg;gLk; %d;W; kl;lqfspyhd; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;l rhuk;rj;jpllk;
        fl;likg;G gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wnjd;gJ.


;   fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; jiyg;Gf;fspy; ckJ FOtpw;Fupa jiyg;gpd; kPJ $ba ftdk
    nrYj;jTk;.
    • Gw mikg;GKiwfs; (Exteríl Schemas)
    • ju;f;f mikg;GKiwfs; (Logical Schemas)
    • ngsjpf mikg;GKiwfs; (Physical Schemas)

                                          46
• jug;gl;Ls;s thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk;> ckf;Fupa gFjpia tpNrlkhfTk;
  ed;F thrpf;fTk;.
• ckf;Fupa jiyg;gpd; tpNrl gz;Gfs; gw;wp FOTld; Nru;e;J fye;JiuahlTk;.
• xt;nthU jiyg;gpdhYk; $wg;gLk; tpsf;fq;fis ed;whf tpsq;fpf; nfhs;sTk;.
• ,j;jiyg;Gf;fSf;fpilapy; ,Uf;Fk; njhlu;ig FOf;fSld; fye;JiuahlTk;.
• ~~tpgug;glkply;|| vd;gjd; %yk; fUjg;gLtJ ahJ vd;gij ed;F tpsq;fpf;
  nfhs;sTk;.
• ~~juT RahjPdk;|| vd;gJ vd;d vd;gij tpsf;fp mjd; cg gFjpfs; gw;wp
  Muha;e;J mtw;wpw;F cjhuzq;fs; Kd;itf;fTk;.
• ckJ fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis $l;lhfTk; Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;;Fk;
  Kd;itf;fTk;.

                                  thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;
ANSI - SPARC   kl;lq;fs; %d;wpd; fl;likg;G
ANSI - SPARC   vd;w RUf;fj;jpd; tpupthf;fk; 'American National St                  andards
                                                                andards Institute St
Planning And Requirements Committee' vd;gjhFk;.
,f; f l; l ikg; G > juTj; j s Kfhikj; J t Kiwikfis fl; b naOg; G tjw; F
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l rhuhk;rj;jpl;lkhFk;. ,J gw;wp KjyhtJ gpNuuiz 1975 ,y;
nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ. mNef> tu;j;jf juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwikfs; (Commercial
DBMS)      fl; b naOg; G tjw; F ,e; j ANSI - SPARC fl; l ikg; G mbg; g ilahf
vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

ANSI - SPARK   $l;likg;gpw;Nfw;g juTj;js rhuhk;r tiuglq;fspd; kl;lk;
(Abstract levels of database schemas);

,rrhuhk;rk; %d;W kl;lq;fspy; cs;sJld; mit Kiwahf Gw kl;lk;> vz;zf;fU


                                                               Gw kl;lk;
               View 1       View 2        View 3               (External Level)


                                                             vz;zf;fU kl;lk
                                                             (Conseptual Level);


                                                     cs;sf / ngsjPf kl;lk
                                                     (Physical/ External Level;)


                                                juTj;js ngsjPf uPjpapy;
                             DB                 Nrkpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; ,lk;.




                                           47
kl;lk;> cs;sf kl;lk; vd;gdthFk;.

Gw kl;lk;
     ,J gadUf;F rkPgkhf cs;sJld;> xt;nthU gadUk; juitf; fhZk;tpjk;
     ,jd;%yk; tpsf;fg;gLfpd;wJ
vz;zf;fU kl;lk;
     ,J ngsjPf kl;lk; vdTk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ngsjPf kl;lj;jpw;F mUfpy;
     cs;sjhy; ,jd; %yk; ngsjPf uPjpapy; juT Nrkpf;fg;gLk; tpjk;
     tpsf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

cs;sf kl;lk;
            ;
     ,J ju;ff kl;lk; vdTk; miof;fg;gLtJld; Vida ,uz;L kl;lq;fSf;fpilapy;
     ,ilj;njhlu;g;ig Vw;gLj;jfpd;wJ.




                      External        External   External
  Gw mikg;G
                      View 1          View 2     View 3




  vz;zf;fU mikg;G           vz;zf;fU Njhw;wk;
                            Conseptual view



                               cs;sf Njhw;wk;
 cs;sf mikg;G
                                      nenl iw
                                     Itra ve


                                                    juTj;js ngsjPf uPjpapy;
                                       DB           Nrkpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; ,lk;.
                        tpupthd Kiwik khjpup

Gw mikg;GKiw     (External Schema)
gadu;fSf;Fj; juTfs; vt;thW njd;gLk; vd;gJ tpsf;fg;gLtJ ,jd; %ykhFk;.

vz;zf;fU mikg;GKiw        (Conceptnal Schema)
juTfspd; ju;f;f> vz;zf;fU Njhw;wq;fs; ,jd; %yk; tpsf;fg;gLfpwJ.

cs;sf mikg;GKiw       (Internal Schema)
juTfspd; cs;sf / ngsjPf Njhw;wq;fs; ,jd; %yk; tpsf;fg;gLfpwd;wJ.
Gw mikg;GKiw     (External Schema)




                                       48
,J hpuNahf nkd;nghUs;fspd; ghtpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; juT fl;likg;ig gpujpepjpj;Jtg;
gLj;Jk; mikg;ghFk;. xt;nthU Gw mikg;GKiwAk; cs;sf mikg;gpw;Nfw;g
mike;jpUf;Fk;. Ruf;fkhff; $Wkplj;J> Gw mikg;G KiwahdJ> Njitahd
vt;tifahd jfty; KiwikAlDk; rpf;fy;fspd;wp njhlu;G glf;$bajhAs;s juTf;
fl;likg;Gj; jpl;lkhFk;. ,J gadu;fSf;F khj;jpuk; cwpajhFk;.

vz;zf;fU mikg;GKiw           (Conceptnal Schema)
 ,t; vz;zf;fU mikg;GKiwahdJ> KO nraw;jpl;lj;ijAk; gw;wpa tpupthdf
tpsf;fkspj;jyhFk;. jtTj;jsnkd;wpy; ,Uf;Fk; rfy jfty;fSk; ,jd; %yk; ;
tpsf;fg;gLfpwJ. tpupthff; $Wk;NghJ> vz;zf;fUj; Njhw;wk;> juT cz;ikahf
,Uf;Fk; tpjj;ij fhl;Ltjw;F ,lkspf;fpd;wJ. ,J juTj;js tbtikg;ghyUf;Fk;
fl;Lg;ghl;lhyUf;Fk; cwpajhFk;.

cs;sf mikg;GKiw           (Internal Schema)
                  ;                                              ;
,J ngsjPfg; gFjpfF mz;ikapy; ,Ug;gJld; juT ngsjPf uPjpapy; Nrkpffg;gl;bUf;Fk;
tpjk; gw;wp tpsf;Ffpd;wJ. juit Njbg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; Kiwia tpiuT
gLj;Jtjw;Fk; njhku;Gfis Nrkpg;gjw;Fk; vt;tif Nfhit mikg;G ghtpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk; Nghd;wtw;iw jPu;khzpg;gjw;Fk; cjtpj; juT fl;likg;ig epu;khzpg;gjw;Fk;
,jd; %yk; KbAkhAs;sJ.

tiuglkply;    (Mapping)
•  cs;nghUs;fSf;fpilapypUf;Fk; ju;f;fj; njhlu;G tiuglkply; vdg;gLk;.
•  tiuglkply; vd;gJ t];j;Jf;fSk; (Objects) mtw;wpd; ju;f;f njhlu;Gfs; (Relation-
   s i ) juTj;jsj;jpd; epiyahd juT Nrkpg;gfq;fspy; epiyg;gl;bUg;gJ vt;thW
    hp
   vd;gij tpsf;FtjhFk;.
tiuglkply; ,uz;L gFjpfshfg; gpupf;fg;gLk;.
1. Gw vz;zf;fU tiuglkply; (External Conceptnal Mapping)
2. vz;zf;fU - cs;sf tiuglkply; (Conceptnal Internel Mapping)

Gw vz;zf;fU tiuglkply;
mjptpNrl Gwf;fhzy; (External View) xd;Wf;Fk; vz;zf;fU fhzy; (Concepenal View)
xd;Wf;Fkpilapy; tiuglkply; Gw vz;zf;fU tiuglkply; vdg;gLk;.
cjhuzk;: 1. fsq;fspy; gy juLT tiffs; ,Uf;ff;$baik.
           2. fsq;fspYk; gjpTfspYk; ngau; khw;wk; nra;af;$baik.
                                                            ;
           3. rpy vz;zf;fU fsq;fs; ntspf;fsk; xd;wpw;F Nru;ffg;glf;$baik.

xNu Neuj;jpy; ntspf;fhzy; gy ,Uf;ff;$Lk;. jug;gl;l ntspf;fhzy; xd;W gadu;fs;
gyUf;F ghtpf;ff;$bajhf cs;sJ.




                                         49
vz;zf;fU cs;sf tiuglkply;
vz;zf;fU fhzy;> cs;sff; fhzy; (Nrkpf;fg;gl;l juTj;jsk;) ,uz;bw;Fkpilapy;
tiuglkply; vz;zf;fU cs;sf tiuglkply; vdg;gLk;. cs;sf kl;lj;jpd;NghJ
vz;zf;fU gjpTfSk; fsq;fSk; vt;thW Kd;itff;g;gl;Ls;sd vd;gJ ,q;F
tpsf;fg;gLk;.

juT RahjPdk;     (Data Independence)
juTj;js khjpupapy; (Database Model) fPo;kl;lq;fSf;F vt;tpj jhf;fKk; Vw;glhjthW
cau;kl;lk; tbtikj;jy;> juT RahjPdk; vdg;gLk;. juT RahjPdk; ,uz;L tifahfg;
gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
1. ju;f;fj; juT RahjPdk; (Logicla data independence)
2. ngsjpfj; juT RahjPdk; (Physical data independence)

ju;f;f juT RahjPdk;
                                                                                  ;
Gwj;jpl;lk; my;yJ gpuNahf nray;fspy; (Application performs) khw;wk; nra;ahky; ju;ffj;
jpl;lj;ij (Logical schema) khw;;wf;$ba jd;ik> ju;f;f juT RahjPdk; vdg;gLk;.
MfNt Gw> rhuhk;r Mfpa ,U tiuglkply;fSf;fpilapy; ,Uf;Fk; RahjPdk; ,JthFk;.
(cjhuzk;: Gjpa cs;nghUs;fs; Nru;f;fg;gly; my;yJ ePf;fg;gly;)

ngsjpf juT RahjPdk;
ju;f;fj; jpl;lj;jpy; khw;wk; nra;ag;glhky; ngsjpf jpl;lj;jpy; khw;wk; nra;af;$baik
~~ngsjpf juT RahjPdk;|| vdg;gLk;. MfNt ju;f;f> ngsjpf jpl;lq;fSf;fpilapyhd
RahjPdkhFk;. (cjhuzk;: Gjpa Nrkpg;gfq;fs; gad;ghL> gy;NtW juT fl;likg;Gfspd;
gad;ghL> xU EioT KiwapypUe;j NtnwhU Kiwf;F njhlu;Ggly;> gy;NtW
Nfhit xOq;FgLj;jy; my;yJ Nrkpg;gff; fl;likg;G gad;ghL> Rl;b (Indexes)
etPdg;gLj;jy; Nghd;wit)

ghl tplaq; f isj; njspTgLj; J tjw; f hd cj; N jr topfhl; b
•   tplaq;fis xg;gilj;J FOf;fz;lha;tpy; <LgLj;jTk;.
•   FOf;fspd; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd; itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; Nkk;gLj;jf;$ba fUj;Jf;fis tprhupf;fTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • ANSI - SPARC vd;w RUf;fg; gpuNahfj;jpd; mu;j;jk; American St
                                                                 andards Institute -
        Standards Planning And Requirements Committee vd;gJ.
    • kw;iwa fzpdpfSf;F Nritfis toq;Fk; fzpdpfs; Nritaff; fzpdpfs;
        vd miof;fg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    • re;ijapy; fhzg;gLk; mNef etPd juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwikfs;
        ,e;j ANSI - SPARC fl;likg;ig mbg;gilahff; nfhz;litNa vd;gJ.
    • ,f;fl;likg;gpy; Gw> ju;f;f> ngsjpf Nghd;w %d;W kl;lq;fs; cs;sd vd;gJ.




                                         50
•                                                 ;
    ,g;Gw kl;lk; gadu;fSf;Fupajhf cs;sJld; ju;ff kl;lk; juTj;js tbtikg;
    ghsu;fSf;Fk; juTj;js epu;tfpg;gtUf;Fk; (DBA) cupajhFk; vd;gJ.
•   juTj;jsnkhd;wpw;Fs; mlq;FtJ vt;tifahd juTfs; mtw;wpd; njhlu;G
    vt;tifahdit vd;gJ.
•   fzpdp Kiwnahd;wpd; %yk; juTj;jsnkhd;W ngsjpf Kiwapy; Kd;itg;gJ
    vt;thW vd;gJ fhl;lg;gLtJ ngsjpf kl;lj;jpd; %yk; vd;gJ.
•   ,k;kl;lq;fs; %d;wpw;Nfw;g Gw> ju;f;f> ngsjpf vd ngauplg;gl;l mikg;G
    Kiwfs; %d;W cs;sdntd;gJ.
•   jug;gl;l juTj; jsnkhd;wpw;F gy Gw mikg;GfSk; xU ju;f;f mikg;Gk; xU
    ngsjpf mikg;Gk; cs;sd vd;gJ.
•   cs;nghUl;fSf;F ,ilapy; ju;f;f njhlu;G tpgug;glkply; (mapping) vdg;gLk;
    vd;gJ.
•   ,t;tpgug;glkply; (mapping) ntsp vz;zf;fU tpugg;glkply;> cs;sf vz;zf;fU
    tpgug;glkply; vd ,uz;L tifg;gLk; vd;gJ.
•   juTj;jsq;fspd; fPo; kl;lq;fSf;F vt;tpj jhf;fq;fSk; Vw;glhj tifapy;
    juTj; jsq;fspd; cau;jd;ik cUthf;fg;gly; "juT RahjPdk;|| vdg;gLnkd;gJ.
•   juT RahjPdkhdJ ju;f;f juT RahjPdk;> ngsjpf juT RahjPdk; vd ,U
    gpupTfshf cs;snjd;gJ.
•   Gw mikg;G my;yJ epuy; gpuNahfk; vd;gtw;wpy; vt;tpj khw;wKk; nra;ahky;
    ju;f;fj; mikg;gpy; khw;wk; nra;af;$baik "ju;f;f juT RahjPdk;" vdg;gLk;
    vd;gJ.
•   ju;f;f mikg;gpy; khw;wNkJk; nra;ahky; ngsjpf mikg;gpy; khw;wk; nra;af;
    $baik ~~ngsjpfj; juT RahjPdk;|| vdg;gLnkd;gJ.




                                   51
Nju;r;rp 10             :   gy;Y}lf njhopEl;gq;fis xUq;fpizj;J ,izaj;
                            jsq;fis tpUj;jp nra;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 10.3 :      ,izj;jsq;fis cUthf;Ftjw;F kPciur;Rl;L nkhop
                            (HTML)iag; ghtpg;ghu;.


ghlNtis                 :   Ie;J ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
•   HTML                                                ;        ;
          vd;w RUf;fj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L mjd; mu;jjj;ij ntspggLj;Jthu;.
•   HTML epakq;fisg; ngaupLjy;.
•                                                     ;
    Nfhit tpupTfisg; gad;gLj;jp HTML gf;fnkhd;iw NrkpfFk; Kiwia tpsf;Fjy;.
•   tu;j;jf tpsk;gu nray;fSf;Fg; ghuk;gupa Kiwfis tpl;Lk; Gjpa njhopEl;g
    Kiwfisg; ghtpj;jy;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• khztu;fspd; gq;Nfw;Gld; nra;jpg; gj;jpupif Mrpupaupdhy; gj;jpupifr; nra;jp
  nahd;iw gjpg;G nra;Ak; tpjj;ijg; gw;wp tFg;giwapd; ftdj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L
  tuTk;.
• fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • gjpg;gpw;F cl;gl;l tplak;> mNj tplaj;jpw;F Nkyhff; fhzg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • vOjg;gl;bUf;Fk; epwj;ij tpl tpj;jpahrkhd tu;znkhd;W jpUj;j Ntiyapd;
      NghJ ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ.
  • ,J mwpf;ifia vOJtjw;F khj;jpuk; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ.
  • gj;jpupifia thrpg;gtUf;F njhFg;gpd; NghJ nra;ag;gl;l FwpaPLfs; fhzf;
      $bajhf ,Uf;fhnjd;gJ.
  • njhFg;gpd;NghJ nra;jp Mrpupau; %yk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l rpy FwpaPl;L Kiw
      fisg; gpd;gw;Wthu; vd;gJ.
  • gj;jpupiff; fiyapy; Nghd;W fzpdpapYk; ,izaj;jsq;fs; jahupf;Fk;NghJk;
      kPciuf; FwpaPLfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd vd;gJ.


fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•      ; ;        ;                             ;
    fPoffhzg;gLfpdw %d;W jiyg;Gf;fspy; ckJ FOtpwFupa jiyg;gpd; kPJ khj;jpuk;
    ftdk; nrYj;jTk;.
    • ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpw;F tiuglq;fis cs;slf;fy;
    • ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpw;F nrtpg;Gyq;fisAk;> fl;Gyq;fisAk; cs;slf;fy;




                                      52
    • ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpw;F mirt+l;lq;fis cs;slf;fy;
•   thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk; ckJ FOtpw;Fupa jiyg;gpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd
    gFjpapd; kPJ $ba ftdj;ijAk;; nrYj;jTk;.
•   Hyper text Markup Language (HTML)vd;gij ,dq;fhzTk;
•   HTML tiuKiwfis tprhupj;jwpaTk;.
•   Nfhit tpupTKiwia cgNahfpj;J HTML gf;fq;fis Nrkpf;Fk; Kiwia jkJ
    FOtpw;F Kd;itj;J fye;JiuahlTk;.
•                ;                                    ;
    ckJ FOtpwF fpilj;jpUf;Fk; ,izag; gf;fnkhd;wpwF %yfq;fis cl;Nru;jjy;       ;
    gw;wp ,g;NghJ mtjhdpf;fTk;.
•   rhjhuz nrhy; njhFg; g pnahd; i wg; gad; g Lj; j p ckf; F f; fpilj; j pUf; F k;
    FwpaPLfisg; gjpe;J ,iza cyhtp Clhf njd;gLk; tpjj;ijg; guPl;rpf;fTk;.
•                    ;
    ,J njhlu;ghf ePqfs; mwpe;j tplaq;fis ml;ltizg;gLj;jp thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;jpd;
    cs;slf;fj;Jld; xg;gpl;Lg; ghu;f;fTk;.
•   FOf;fspd; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis Mf;fj;jpwDld; $l;lhf KO tFg;giwf;Fk;
    Kd;itf;fTk;.

ghl tplaq;fisj; njspT gLj;jpf;nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
•   rpW FOf; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   Kd;itg;Gr; nra;j FOtpw;Nf tpupTiug;gpw;fhd Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;FTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fSf;F Mf;fG+u;tkhd fUj;Jf;fis tprhupf;fTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;f;s kPJ ftdk; nrYj;jp rhuhk;rg;gLj;jypy; <LglTk;.
    • Hypertext Markup Language vd;gjd; RUf;fk; H T M L vd miof;fgLfpd;wJ vdTk;.
    • ,J St                                                            P        P
              andard Markup Language ,y; cg gpupnthd;whf ,Ug;gJld; Fwpably; FwpaL
        xd;whfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ.
    • ,izag;gf;f cUthf;fj;jpd; NghJ ,J ghtpf;fg;Lfpd;wJ vd;gJ.
                                                               P
    • ,iza cyhtp %yk; ,izag;gf;fk; vdg;gLk;NghJ FwpaLfs; vJTk; njd;glh
        njd;gJ.
    • %yf;Nfhitia my;yJ HTML njhFf;ff;$ba njd;nghUnshd;wpd; %yk; Mtd
        nkhd;W cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wnjd;gJ.
    • %yf;Nfhit vd;gJ rhjhuzkhf nrhw; njhFg;gp xd;whFk; vd;gJ.
    • nrhw;njhFg;gp xd;wpd; ghtid %yk; FwpaPL vOJk; epakq;fs; cs;sd
        vd;gJ.
                                ;                                 ;
    • %yf; Nfhitia NrkpfFk;NghJ my;yJ Nfhit tpupT ghtpffg;gLfpdwnjd;gJ.  ;
    • ,izag; gf;fnkhd;wpw;F nrhw;fs; Nru;f;fg;gLk;NghJ jiyg;G tbtpy; my;yJ
        ge;jp tbtpy; cUthf;Ftjw;F mjw;Fupa Fwpfs; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd vd;gJ.
    • ,g;gf;fnkhd;wpw;F tiuglq;fs; cl;gLj;jg;gLk;.
    • ,izag; gf;fnkhd;wpw;F glq;fs; cs;slf;Fk;NghJ <img> vd;w FwpaPL
        mjd; ePs mfyk; Fwpg;gpl;L my;yJ Fwpg;gplhky; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ.
    • fl;Gy nrtpg;Gy Clfq;fs; ,izf;fg;gLk;NghJ mp3, .mid, .wav, .wmv , .mpeg


                                        53
       Nghd;w Nfhit tpupTfs; nfhz;l Nfhitfs; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wnjd;gJ.
   •   ,q;F <img> my;yJ <embed> Fwp ghtpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;gJ.
   •                                 ;      ;
       mirt+l;lnkhd;W ,izag;gf;fj;jpwF Nru;ffg;gLk;NghJ . i ,. w Nghd;w Nfhit
                                                         gf sf
       tpupTfSila Nfhitfs; ghtpf;fg;gLtJld; <embed> FwpAk; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;w
       njd;gJ.

                             thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

HTML   mwpKfk;
                      (kP ciu Rl;L nkhop) vd;gjd; RUf;fNk H T M L MFk;. ,J
Hyper Text Markup Language
xU epuy;nkhop my;y. ,J xU FwpaPl;L KiwahFk;. St andard General Markup Language
- SGML vd;gjd; cg gpupnthd;whd ,J FwpaPLk; Fwpfs; (markup tags) gytw;wpdhy;
mike;jjhFk;.

                              ;
,izag; gf;f tpUj;jp nra;jypdNghJ %yf;Nfhit my;yJ HTML njhFg;gp nkd;nghUs;
          ;
xd;W ghtpffg;glf;$baJld; %yf;Nfhit vd;gJ nrhy; njhFg;gp ( xt editor) xd;whFk;.
                                                           Te
                                   ;
rhjhuz nrhw;njhFg;gp xd;iwg; ghtpjJ ,izag;gf;fk; tpUj;jp nra;Ak;NghJ rhjhuz
nrhw;fSk; H T M L FwpaPl;Lf; FwpfSk; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,iza cyhtp xd;wpd;
                                         ;
Clhf ,izag;gf;fk; njd;gLk;NghJ FwpaPlLf; Fwpfs; gadUf;Fj; njd;gLtjpy;iy.

HTML epakq; f s;
HTML   FwpaPnlhd;W H T M L Fwp vdg;gLtJld; ,J      ( < > ) Nfhz milg;gpw;Fs;
                                                    " "
fhl;lg;gLk;. rhjhuzkhf HTML Fwp xd;W Nrhbfspy; fhzg;gLtJld; jdpj;Jf;
fhzg;gLk; FwpfSk; cs;sd. Nrhbfshff; fhzg;gLk; Fwpfspy; KjyhtjhdJ
Muk;gf;Fwp vd;Wk; mLj;j Fwp KbTf;Fwp vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. KbTf; Fwpf;F
—$˜ vd;w milahsk; KbTf;Fwpapd; Jyf;fj;jpy; Nru;ffg;gLk;. ,t;tpU FwpaPLfSf;Fk;
                                                ;
,ilapy; cs;slf;fk; fhzg;gLk; rpy Ntisfspy; cs;slf;fk; ,y;yhkYk; fhzg;gLk;.
HTML gf;fnkhd;iw tpsf;Fk;NghJ Muk;gj;jpYk; KbtpYk; KiwNa <HTML>, </HTML>
Fwp ghtpf;fg;gLk;. jiyg;nghd;W ,Ltjw;fhf <head> <title> jiyg;G </title> </head>
Fwpfs; ghtpf;fg;gLtJld; gf;fq;fspd; cs;slf;fj;ijf; fhl;rpg;gLj;Jtjw;F <body>,
</body> Fwp ghtpf;fg;gLk;.


HTML   Nfhit tpupT
HTML Nfhitnahd;W Nrkpf;fg;gLk;NghJ .htm my;yJ .html Mfpa tpupTfspy; xd;iwg;
ghtpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

,J jiyg;G ciu> tiuglk;> fl;Gy> nrtpg;Gy ,izTfs;> mirt+l;lq;fs;
Nghd;w mbg;gil tplaq;fis cl;GFj;jy;.




                                      54
HTML   ciu
                     ;               ;                   ;                 ;
,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpwF ciu Nru;jjy;> NjitNaw;gLk; vr;re;ju;ggj;jpYk; Fwp ghtpggjd;
                                             ;
%yk; Nkw;nfhs;syhk;. jiyg;nghd;whf Nru;fFk;NghJ <h1> njhlf;fk; <h6> tiuahd
Fwpfs; ghtpf;fg;gLtJld; <h1> Kjy; <h6> tiu vOj;Jf;fspd; msT Fiwe;J
nry;Yk; epiy fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
cjhuzk;:        <h1> This is a heading </h1>
                    <h2> This is a heading </h2>
,J ,izag;gf;fj;jpy; fPOs;sthW njd;gLk;.
    This is a heading
       This is a heading


ge;jp tbtpy; ciu Nru;f;Fk;NghJ <p> ... </p> Fwp ghtpf;fg;gLk;.
cjhuzk;:      <p> This is a paragraph </p>


ciufspd; msT> tbtk;> epwk; Nghd;wtw;iw khw;Wjy; jbj;j vOj;Jfspy; fhl;ly;
<b> rupj;Jf; fhl;ly; <i> Nghd;witAk; Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.


HTML   tiuglq;fs;

HTML    ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpw;F tiuglq;fs; cl;gLj;Jtjw;F <img> Fwp ghtpf;fg;
gLfpd;wJ. ,jw;F KbTf;Fwp ,y;iy. <img> Fwpf;Fs; s c gz;G (attribute) ghtpf;fg;gLk;
                                                r
s c vd;gJ source vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;. cjhuzkhf x x g f vDk; tiuglk; xd;W
 r                                                x.i
,izaf; Nfhit Nru;g;Gfspd; milTf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ mJ fPOs;sthW
vOjg;glyhk;.

   <img src    =     xxgf
                    "x.i"            width = "104"    height = "42" >



           tpupTld;       tiuglj;jpd; tiuglj;jpd;
            $ba             mfyk;       ePsk;
           Nfhitg;
            ngau;
,ijj;jtpu Ntwplj;jpypUe;J tiuglnkhd;W cl;gLj;jg;gLk;NghJ mt;tiuglk; ,Uf;Fk;
,lj;ij gpioapd;wpf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.

cjhuzk;:       td;tl;L D vDk;; gpuptpd; images vDk; milTf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; abc.gif
               vDk; tiuglj;ij cl;GFj;jy;.
                    <img src = "D:/images/abc.gif">


tiuglj;jpw;F NtnwhU ciu toq;fg;gLk;NghJ "l" gz;G cgNahfpf;fg;gLk;.
                                         at
       <img src = "ship.gif" alt = "ship">




                                                 55
FwpaPnlOJjy;>
    <html>
         <head> <title>My First Page </title> </head>
              <body>
                 <h1> Text and Graphics </h1>
                 <h2> Text </h2>
                 <p> The Location of Sinharaja <br>
                 <b> Sinharaja </b> is a rain forest located in the south-west of Sri Lanka </p>
                 <h3> Graphics </h3>
                 <img src="C:/......./Sunset.jpg">
              </body>
    </html>


,q;F <br> Fwpf;F KbTf;Fwp fpilahJ. ,iza cyhtpapy; tiuglk; njd;gLtjw;F
tiuglk; ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpd; ,izg;G top rupahf fhl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

HTML     fl;Gy nrtpg;Gy tplaq;fs;
HTML    gf;fnkhd;wpw;F fl;Gy nrtpg;Gy tplaq;fs; cl;gLj;jg;gLk;NghJ .mid, .mp3,
.wav, .mpeg, .wmv Nghd;w tpupTfSila Nfhitfs; gad;gLj;jyhk;. ,q;F <a href>
my;yJ <embed> Mfpa FwpfSs; xd;W ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
cjhuzk;: <a href = "myfile.mid"> My Song </a>
               <embed> cld;; s c gad;gLj;jy;
                              r


cjhuzk;: <embed src = "myfile.mid" width = "45"> </embed> vd Fwpf;f KbAk;. ,t;thW
nra;Ak;NghJ Rakhf fl;Gy tplaq;fs; ,aq;Fk;. .wav, . u Nghd;w Nfhitfs; msT
                                                           a
ngupjhifahy; jpiuapy; Njhd;Wtjw;Fr; rw;W NeunkLf;Fk;.
glj;Jld; njhlu;Gila ,irf;Nfhitnadpd;>
<a href = "myfile.mid"> <img src = "mypicture.jpg" Border = "0" alt = "describe picture and music"> </a>


FwpaPnlOjy;>
<html>
         <head> <title>My Second Page </title> </head>
              <body>
                 <h1> Text and Audio </h1>
                 <h2> Text </h2>
                 <p><u> Beethoven's Sympony</u><br>
                 <embed src="C:/......./Beethovens Sympony.mid" autostart="false" loop="false">
</embed>
              </body>
    </html>
,q;F fl;Gy tplaq;fs; cs;s ,lj;jpw;F rupahd ,izg;G topia fhl;l Ntz;Lk;.
MFk;NghJ jhdhf xyp Nfl;Fk;.

                                                     56
mirt+l; l q; f s;

HTML                                   ;
     gf;fnkhd;wpy; mirt+l;lq;fs; Nru;fFk;NghJ . w my;yJ .i tpupTs;s Nfhitfs;
                                                 sf      gf
gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. <embed> Fwp s c gz;Gld; .swf tpupT Nfhitapd; ngau; Fwpg;gplg;gl
                               r
Ntz;Lk;.                 <embed src = "xxx.swf">


gf
 itif tiuglq;fs; mirt+l;lq;fSf;F (animated) cl;gLj;jyk;. mJ <img> FwpAld;
            ;
toq;fg;gLfpdwJ. gf mirt+l;lq;fs; mNefkhf ,iza cyhtpfspD}lhf fhzf;$ba
                  i
jhAs;sJ. mirt+l;l gf Nfhitfs; HTML gf;fnkhd;wpw;F cl;gLj;jy; rhjhuz gf
                        i                                                      i
Nfhitfis cl;gLj;Jk; Kiwia xj;jjhfNt fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
cjhuzk;: <img src = "filename.gif" alt = "alternate text" width = x hight = y>

,q;F ,lg;gf;f> tyg;gf;f xOq;fikg;Gk; (alignment) nra;ayhk;.

FwpaPnlOjy;>
<html>
         <head> <title>Animation </title> </head>
               <body bg color = "ffffaa">
                   <h1> Text and Animation</h1>
                    p t s i />
                   <>I i agf<p
                   <img src="xxx.gif">
               </body>
     </html>


,jw;F x x g f vd;w ngaupy; mirt+l;lg;gl;l glk; xd;iw ckJ fzpdpapy; jahupj;Jf;
       x.i
nfhs;sTk;.




                                                    57
Nju;r;rp 10             :   gy;Y}lf njhopEl;gq;fis xUq;fpizj;J ,izaj;
                            jsq;fis tpUj;jp nra;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 10.4 :      ,izag;gf;fq;fis nkU$l;Ltjw;F kP ciu Rl;Lnkhop
                            (HTML)apd; cau; gz;Gfisg; ghtpg;ghu;.


ghlNtis                 :   Ie;J ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
• ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpd; nghUl;fis xOq;FgLjJk;NghJ H T M L nkhopapd; cau;
  gz;Gfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy;.
• gy;ypiza cs;slf;fq;fis ,izf;Fk; Kiwia njspTgLj;Jjy;.
• ,izag;gf;f mikg;gpd;NghJ nghUl;fis xOq;Fg;gLj;JKfkhf HTML ,d; cau;
  gz;Gfis gad;gLj;Jk; mtrpaj;ij ntspf;nfhzUjy;.
• nghUl;fs; xOq;fikg;gij fz;ftUk; tifapy; nra;jy;.
Mtdnkhd;wpw;Fupa ,izg;ig rupahf epiyg;gLj;Jjy;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• tFg;gpy; khztu;fspd; xj;Jiog;Gld; w w w.schoolnet.lk ,zaj;jpy; cs;sitfisg;
  gw;wp tpgupf;f Rakhf Kd;tUk; khztndhUtDf;F re;ju;g;gk; toq;fTk;.
• fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • nghJthf xU ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpy; vOj;Jf;fs;> fhl;rpfs;> fw;Gy nrtpg;Gy
      kw;Wk; mirt+l;lq;fs; Nghd;witfSf;F Nkyjpfkhf VidaitfSk; fhzyhk;
      vd;gJ.
  • ,itfs; ml;ltizfs;> gl;bay;fs;> rl;lfq;fs; Nghd;witfs; Mfyhk; vd;gJ.
  • ,yf;fkpl;l my;yJ FwpaPbl;l gl;bay;fs; ,izag;gf;fq;fspy; fhz Kbak;
      vd;gJ.
  • rpy vOj;JUf;fSf;F gy;NtWgl;l tbtq;fs;> msTfs; kw;Wk; tu;zq;fSk;
      cs;sd vd;gJ.
  • ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpDs; NtnwhU ,lj;jpw;F ,izg;G cs;sJ vd;gJ.
  • ,t;thwhf ,izag;gf;fnkhd;iw nkU$l;lTk; NtW gf;fq;fSf;F ,izaTk;
      KbAk; vd;gJ.


fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•      ; ;        ;                             ;
    fPoffhzg;gLfpdw %d;W jiyg;Gf;fspy; ckJ FOtpwFupa jiyg;gpd; kPJ khj;jpuk;
    ftdk; nrYj;jTk;.
    • gl;bay;fs;
    • ml;ltizfs;
    • rl;lfq;fs;

                                       58
• thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk;> jiyg;gpw;Fupa gFjpia Kf;fpakhfTk;
  ftdpf;fTk;.
• gy;ypiza cs;slf;fq;fis ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpw;F ,izf;Fk; Kiwia
  Muha;e;J ghu;f;fTk;.
• nrhw;njhFg;gpnahd;wpy; cq;fSf;Fupa epuw;njhlu;fis (Codes) njhFj;J tiy
  cyhtp (web browser) nahd;wpd; %yk; guPl;rpj;Jg; ghu;f;fTk;.
• ,izag;gf;fnkhd;iw nkU$l;Lk;NghJ cs;slf;fq;;fis xOq;FgLj;Jtjw;fhf
  ckf;Ff; fp;ilf;Fk; HTML ,d; cau; gz;Gfisg; gad;gLj;Jk; KiwiaAk; mjd;
  mtrpaj;ijlAk; Njbg;ghu;f;fTk;.
• thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;jpy; jfty; toq;Ftjw;fhf fUjg;gl;l tplaq;fSf;F Nkyjpfkhf
  ckf;Fj; njupe;j NtW tplq;fis Fwpj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
• ckJ fz;lha;Tfis $l;lhfTk;> Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; tFg;giwf;F Kd;itf;f
  Maj;jkhfTk;.

                                      thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

                         ;
,izag; gf;fq;fs; jahupggjw;fhd tplaq;fis xOq;F gLj;Jk; NghJ ml;ltizfs;>
rl;lfq;fs;> gl;bay;fs; Nghd;wit cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. Njitiag; nghUj;J
,tw;iwg; ghtpj;J ,izag; gf;fq;fis nkU$l;lyhk;.

gl; b ay;

,izag; gf;fnkhd;wpy; ,yf;fkplg;gl;l gl;bay;fs;> FwpaPLfSld; $ba gl;bay;fs;
kw;Wk; tpsf;fkspf;fg;gl;l gl;bay;;fs; vd;gd fhzg;glyhk;.
Kiwahf ,yf; f kplg; g l; l gl; b ay; f s; > tupirg; g Lj; j g; g l; l gl; b ay; vdTk; >
FwpaPLfSld;$ba gl;bay;fs; tupirg;gLj;jg;glhj gl;bay;fs; vdTk; miof;fg;gLk;.
 tupirg;gLj;jg;gl;l gl;bayhdJ ,yf;fq;fshy; tupirg;gLj;jpAk;> tupirg;gLj;jg;glhj
gl;bay;fs; FwpaPLffshy; tupirg;gLj;jpAk; fhzg;gLk;.
tupirg;gLj;jg;gl;l gl;bay; <ol> FwpaPLld;; Muk;gpf;fg;gLtJld; tupirg;gLj;jg;glhj
gl;bay;fs; FwpaPLfSld; Muk;gpf;fg;gLk;.


tupirg; g Lj; j g; g l; l gl; b ay;

<ol>
<li>coffee</li>
<li>tea</li>
</ol>

NkYs;s tplak; ,iza cyhtpapy; njd;gLk; tpjk;

    1. coffee
    2. tea



                                               59
tupirg; g Lj; j g; g lhj gl; b ay; f s;

<ul>
<li>coffee</li>
<li>tea</li>
</ul>

NkYs;s tplak; ,iza cyhtpapy; fPOs;sthW njd;gLk;

      • coffee
      • tea
              ;
<ul> FwpaPlbd; tifia “disc”; “square” , “circle” Nghd;wtw;wpdhy; fPOa;athW njupT
nra;ayhk;.
<ul type = “circle”>

tpsf;fkspf;fg;gl;l gl;bay;;fs;
tpsf;fkspf;fg;gl;l gl;bay;; <dl> FwpaPLld;; Muk;gpf;fg;gLtJld; tpsf;Ftjw;F<dl>
njhlu;e;J <dd> FwpaPL ghtpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

<dl>
<dt> Sinharaja</dt>
<dd> A lowland rain forest in Sri Lanka </dd>
<dt> Red faced Malkoha</dt>
<dd> Endemic bird to Sri Lanka </dd>
</dl>
NkYs;s tplak; ,iza cyhtpapy; njd;gLk; tpjk; fPNo fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

Sinharaja
         A lowland rain forest in Sri Lanka
Red faced Malkoha
Endemic bird to Sri Lanka
tiy cyhtpnahd;wpy; ,jid ,g;gbf; fhzyhk;.

100

<tr> Fwpapd; cs;Ns <th> Fwpiag; gad;gLj;jp ml;ltizapd; jiyg;G tupiria
mikj;Jf; nfhs;s KbAk;. ml;ltizapd; fiu (border) kw;Wk; tu;zk; (colour)
Nghd;w gz;Gfis cs;splyhk;. fPOs;sthW rpy tupirfSldhd ml;ltiznahd;iw
jahu; nra;J nfhs;sTk;.
cjhuzk;:
         <html>
           <body>
                  <h4> table width two rows and three columì </h4>
                  <table border = "1" border color = "#336699" width = "100%">
                  <tr>


                                                   60
                     <th> Name </th>
                     <th> Marks </th>
                     <th> Rank </th>
                 </th>
                 <tr>
                     <td> Mala </td>
                     <td> 70 </td>
                     <td> 2 </td>
                  /r
                 <t>
                 <tr>
                     <td> Geetha </td>
                     <td> 85 </td>
                     <td> 1 </td>
                  /r
                 <t>
                 </table>
          </body>
      </html>


rl; l fk; ((Frame):
                 ):
        rl;lfk; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; xNu tiy cyhtpapy; xd;wpw;F mjpfkhd
        ,izag;gf;fq;fis fhl;rp ju KbAk;. Mtzq;fis mr;rply; rpukkk;> Htm
        Mtzq; f is NtW Ntwhf mikf; f g; g l Ntz; b aJ Nghd; w d ,jd;
        gpujp$yq;fshFk;. rpy ,iza cyhtpfspy; fhl;rpaspg;gjpy; Vw;gLk; rpukq;fs;
        fhuzkhf jw;NghJ ,e;j rl;lfk; ghtid Fiwe;Js;sJ. <frameset> Fwpapd;
        %yk; ,izag; gf;fj;ij gpupj;Jf; fhl;Lk; ,f;Fwpapd; %yk; epuy;fs; kw;Wk;
        epiufspd; vz;zpf;ifAk; fhl;lg;gLk;. ,jdhy; jpiuapd; gUkDk; fhl;lg;gLk;.
        <frame> FwpaPl;il gad;gLj;jp Html Mtzj;jpd; vj;jifa gFjpf;Fr; rl;lfk;
        mikf;fg;gLk; vd;gij jPu;khdpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

cjhuzk;;:        ,uz;L epuy;fSila rl;lfnkhd;iw gad;gLj;Jk;NghJ mfyj;jpy; 25%
                 Kjy; epuYf;Fk;> 75% ,uz;lhk; epuYf;Fk; vd gpupf;fg;gLk;.

KjyhtJ Html Mtzk; "fr amea.html" Kjyhk; epuypYk;>
,uz;lhtJ Html Mtzk; "fr ameb.html" ,uz;lhk; epuypYk;
Njitg;gbd; mjid fPo;f;fhZk; tifapy; vOjyhk;.

   <frame src cols = "25%, 75%">
   <frame src = "frame-a.htm">
   <frame src = "frame-b.htm">
   </frameset>
,e;epuy;fsp;d; msit pixels %yKk; fhl;lyhk;.



                                         61
      <frameset cols = "200, 500">
rl;lfq;fSf;F cle;ijapy;yhj tiy cyhtpfSf;fhf <noframes> Fwpia vOjg;gLk;.

cjhuzk;;:
          <html>
          <frameset cols = "2.5%, 50%, 25%">
          <frame src = "frame-a.htm">
          <frame src = "frame-b.htm">
          <noframe>
          <body> your browser doesn't support frames.
          </body> </noframes> </frameset> </html>


kP ,izg;G epWj;jp                (Anchor)     kw;Wk; ,izg;G
kP ,izg;ghdJ ,izaj;jpd; Mtzj;jpw;Nfh my;yJ Html gf;fk;> rhl;rpfs;> kw;Wk;
xypf;Nfhit Nghd;w tsq;fSf;fhd (Resource) njhlu;ghFk;.

kP ,izg;G kw;Wk; ,izg;G Mfpa ,uz;bw;Fk; <a> Fwp gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.
          <a href = "URL"> Llink Text </a>


                          kP ,izg;G gFjpf;F Rl;b nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk; NghJ ,g;gFjp;
fhl;lg;gLk;.

cjhuzk;: <a href = "http://www.schoolnet.lk"> visit schoolnet </a>

,J ,jw;Fupa 'Schoolnet| kP ,izg;ghFk;.
t r e gz;gpdhy; njhlu;GgLj;Jk; Mtzj;ij ,Uf;Fk;; ,lj;ijf; fhl;Lk;.
 agt


                            shontl"
      <a href = "http://www. c o l e . k target = "blank"> visit schoolnet </a>
,jd;gb blank %yk; ,izak; jpwf;fg;gLtJ xU Gjpa gf;fnkhd;wpyhFk;.

   gz;G:
Name
,J thrpg;gtUf;F fhl;rpjuhjjhFk;.
      <a name = "label"> any content </a>
Name    Fwpapd; njhlu;G
      <a href = "# label"> any content </a>
he
 rf   gz;gpd; # vDk; FwpaPL ngauplg;gl;l named Fwpapid njhlu;GgLj;Jk;.

ghl tplaq;fisj; njspT gLj;jpf;nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
•     rpW FO fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; toq;fr; nra;aTk;.
•     tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;itj;j FOtpw;Nf Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•     Vdia FOf;fspd; tpUj;jpAld; $ba MNyhridfis Nfl;lwpaTk;.



                                                    62
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • ,izag;gf;fnkhd;wpy; NghyNt kw;iwa ,izag;gf;fq;fSf;fpilapy; njhlu;G
        gLj;Jtw;fhf <a> vDk; Fwpia gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    •   ,izag;gf;fk; xd;wpDs;Ns njhlu;GfSf;F <a> FwpAld; name vDk; gz;ig
        gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    •   ,izagf;fq;fSf;fpilNa njhlu;Gf;fhf <a> FwpAld; h e vDk; gz;ig
                                                              rf
        gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    •   njhlu; ,yf;fj;Jldhd gl;banyhd;W <OL> FwpAlDk;> njhlupyf;fkw;w
        FwpaPLfSldhd gl;banyhd;W <UL> vDk; FwpAlDk; Muk;gpg;gJld; ,jy;
        mq;Fk; tplq;fis <li> vDk; FwpAld; muk;gpf;fyhk; vd;gJ.
    •   tiutpyf;fzk; gl;banyhd;iw <dl> FwpAld; Muk;gkhtJld; mij tpyf;F
        tjw;fhf <dt> FwpAk; mjd; tpugq;fSf;fhf <dd> FwpAld; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;
        vd;gJ.
    •   ml;ltiznahd;iw jahupf;Fk;NghJ <table> FwpAk; Muk;gpg;gJld; mjd;
        tupirnahd;W <tr> FwpahYk; ml;ltizapd; juTfis cs;spl <td>
        FwpaPLk; Nru;f;fg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    •   rl;lfk; %yk; xNu tiy cyhtpapDs; xd;wpw;F Nkw;gl;l tiyg;gf;fq;fis
               ;
        fhl;rpggLj;j KbAk; vdTk;. mjid <frameset> kw;Wk; <frame> vDk; FwpfSld;
        gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.




                                       63
Nju;r;rp 11             :   jfty; Kiwikfspd; tpUj;jpapy; Kiwik vz;zf;fUit
                            Muha; e ; J Kiwik gFg; g ha; i tAk; tbtikg; G
                            KiwapaiyAk; (SSADM) ghtpg;ghu;

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 11.3 :      gy;NtWgl;l jfty; Kiwikfspd; tpUj;jp khjpupfisAk;
                            KiwikfisAk; Muha;thu;.


ghlNtis                 :   ehd;F ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
• gy;jug;gl;l jfty; Kiwik fl;likg;Gfspd; ,ay;ig tpgupg;ghu;.
• jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jpapd;NghJ gad;gLj;jg;gLk; mD$yq;fisAk; vy;iyfis
  Ak; tpsf;Fthu;.
• jfty; Kiwik mikg;gjw;fhf khjpupfspy; kpfTk; nghUj;jkhd khjpupia
  ntspg;gLj;jpf; fhl;Lthu;.
• gpujhd Kiwik tpUj;jp Kiwfs; ,uz;L cs;sd vdf; fhl;Lthu;.
• md;whl fhupaq;fis jpl;lkpLk;NghJ gy;NtW cfe;j KiwfisAk; khjpupfisAk;
  ghtpg;ghu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• ckJ ghlrhiyapd; ,y;yq;fSf;fpilapyhd tpisahl;Lg;Nghl;b xd;wpd;NghJ
                          ;
  ,y;yq;fSf;fpilapy; fpupffl; Nghl;bnahd;iw xOq;Fnra;AJ FOf;fs; Nghl;bapLk;
  tpjj;ij jpl;lkpLk; nraw;ghl;il khztu;fSf;F Kd;itf;ftk;.
• ,jd;gb Nghl;b jpl;lkpLtjw;F gy KiwfSk; khjpupfSk; cs;sd vd;gij
  ntspf;nfhzuTk;.
  cjhuzk;: Njhf;fbj;jy; Kiw - (Knockout)
                  fof Kiw           -   (Leage)


vjpu; FOf;fis Njhf;fbf;Fk; Kiw

              A
                                ntw;wp ngw;w
                                   mzp
              B                                       ntw;wp ngw;w
                                                         mzp
              C                                       Kjyhk; ,lk;
                                ntw;wp ngw;w
                                   mzp
              D




                                        64
fof Kiw
                           A/B


      A                    A/C


      B                    A/D              ,Wjpg;Nghl;b.
                                           Mff;$ba ntw;wp
      C                   B/C              fisg; ngw;w ,U
                                          mzpfSf;F ,ilapy;
      D                   B/D


                          C/D




•   fPo;f;fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;f.
                                                              ;
    • Nghl;b elj;Jtjw;F Nkw;gb Kiwfspy; nghUj;jkhd Kiwia Nju;enjLj;Jf;
        nfhs;syhk; vd;gJ.
    • vy;yh KiwfspYk; Vw;wj;jho;Tfs; cs;sd vd;gJ.
    • jfty; Kiwiik tpUj;jp nra;Ak;NghJ gy;NtW KiwfSk; khjpupfsk;
        ghtpf;f KbAk; vd;gJ.

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
• ckf;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij ed;F mtjhdpf;fTk;.
•                         ;                ; ;
  vOkhwhf ckJ FOtpwF toq;fg;gl;Ls;s fPoffhZk; jiyg;GfSf;F nghUj;jkhd
  jfty;fisf; fz;lwpaTk;.
  • fl;likg;G Kiwik tpUj;jp Kiwfs;
  • nghUs; Nehf;Fila Kiwik tpUj;jp Kiwfs;.
  • ePu;tPo;r;r;rp khjpup
  • RUsp khjpup
  • ,izf;fg;gl;l khjpup
  • tpiuT gpuNahf mgptpUj;jp khjpup
• ckJ fz;lha;Tfis $l;lhfTk;> gilg;ghw;wy; kpf;fjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;Fk;
  Kd;itg;gjw;Fj; jahuhfTk;.




                                  65
                              thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

jfty; Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;Ak;NghJ gy khjpupfs; ghtpf;fg;gLk;. mj;jifa
khjpupfs; xU tiyakhfNt mikf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd. mt;thwhd jfty; Kiwikfs;
rpy fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.
1. ePu;tPo;r;rp khjpup (waterfall)
2. RUsp khjpup ( p r l
                   sia)
3. ,izf;fg;gl;l mgptpUj;jp khjpup (united development)
4. tpiuT gpuNahf mgptpUj;jp khjpup (rapid application development)

ePu;tPo;r;rp khjpup
jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw tpUj;jp nra;tjpy; xd;wpize;j khjpupapd; fl;lq;fs; Neuhd
ruykhd Kiwapy; Kd;itf;Fk; re;ju;g;gk; vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,k; khjpupia Kjypy;
Kd;itj;jtu; 1970 Mk; Mz;by; W .W. Royce vd;gtNu.

,jd; Kf;fpa $l;lq;fshf fPo;tUtdtw;iwf; fhl;lyhk;.

   1
   .   Kiwik tiuaiw (System Definitation)
   2
   .   Kiwik gFg;gha;T nra;jy; (System Analizing)
   3
   .   Kiwik tbtikg;G (System Design)
   4
   .   Kiwik tpUj;jp (System Development)
   5
   .   guPl;rpj;jy; (Testing)
   6
   .   Kiwik mKy;gLj;jy; (System Implimentation)
   7
   .   guhkupj;jy; (Maintanace)




                                       66
Nkw;$wg;gl;l ePu;tPo;r;rp khjpupapd; fl;lq;fspd; Fwpg;Gfis ,t;thW Kd;itf;fyhk;.



  Kiwik rhj;jpag;ghL              nry;Ygbahf;fy;
  System Feasibility                ldto
                                  Va i a i n




         nkd;nghUs; jpl;lkplYk;                      nry;Ygbahf;fy;
         Software Plan s &                         ldto
                                                 Va i a i n




                 cw;gj;jp tbtikg;G             cWjpg;gLj;jy;
                 Product Design                    rfcto
                                                 Ve i i a i n




                        tpupthd tbtikg;G              cWjpg;gLj;jy;
                        Detail Design                      rfcto
                                                         Ve i i a i n



                               FwpaPnlOjy;                      gFjp guPl;rpj;jy;
                               Coding                              nt
                                                                  U i Testing




                                        xd;wpizj;jy; cw;gj;jp cWjpg;gLj;jy;
                                         nerto
                                        Itgain                          rfcto
                                                              Product Ve i i a i n




                                               mKy;gLj;jy;           Kiwikg; guPl;rpj;jy;
                                               Implementation                 System Testing



                                                       nra;gzp nraYk; Gzu;
                                                       guhkupj;jYk; cWjpg;gLj;jy;
                                                       Operation &              Revalidation
                                                       Maintenance




                                                67
,e;j khjpupf;Nfw;g xU jlitapd; nry;Ygb my;yJ nraypf;Nfw;g mLj;j fl;lj;ij
Nehf;fp Kd;Ndwyhk;. mg;gb ,y;yhtpbd; Vw;glf;$ba fl;lk; kPz;Lk; nraw;gLk;.
ePu;tPo;r;rp khjpupf;Nfw;g jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jpahdJ njhlu;r;rpahd nraw;ghnlhd;
whFk;. cjhuzkhf: ,af;f Kiwiknahd;W gy fUtpfspD}lhf tpUj;jp nra;jy;>
jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;jYf;F ghtpf;fg;gLk; tPo;r;rp khjpupahFk;. ,J kpfTk;
nghUj;jkhtJ Njitfs; ed;F Fwpg;gplg;gl;l md;whl tho;f;ifapd;NghJ gue;jstpy;
ghtpf;fg;gLk; nraw;wpl;lq;fSf;fhFk;.

ePu;tPo;r;rp khjpupfspd; gpujp$yq;fs;
1. ep[ tho;tpd; jfty; nraw;wpl;l Kiwikfs; nraw;gLk; NghJ vy;yh re;ju;g;gq;f
   spYk; Nfhl;L KiwapD}lhf nraw;glhjjhy; ,k;khjpup ghtpg;gjw;F Kbahik.

                ;
2. mNef nraw;wpllq;fs; njhlq;Fk;NghJ Nrit ngWeUf;F mtuJ rfy NjitfSk;
   vd;dntd;gij nraw;wpl;lf; FOtpw;F nrhy;y KbahikAk; Nrit ngWedupd;
   rfy NjitfSk; ahit vd nraw;wpl;lf; FOtpdhy; mwpe;J nfhs;sg;glhikAk;.

3. KbTg; nghUisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F vLf;Fk; fhyk; epr;rakw;wpUj;jy; kw;Wk;
                                              ;
   Nrit ngWeuhy; KbTg; nghUis filrp fl;lj;jpdNghJ jhd; fzhf;$baJs;sjhy;
   mJ jhd; vjpu;ghu;j;jij tpl tpj;jpahrkhdjhapUj;jy;.

4. ,k;khjpupapd; fl;lq;fis Kd;Nd nfhz;L nry;y KbtJ fl;lk; fl;lkhfthjyhy;>
   nraw;wpl;lj;ij Kd;ndLj;Jr; nry;tjw;F xU fl;lk; KOikahf epiwT nra;ag;
                                      ;
   gl;bUf;fg;gl Ntz;Lkhifahy; nraw;wpllf; FOtpd; xt;nthU fl;lKk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;
   gLfpd;w cWg;gpdu;fSf;Fj; Njitaw;w tifapy; fhj;jpUf;f NeupLk;.

RUsp khjpup
RUsp khjpup vd;gJ Nfhl;L khjpupAk; Kd;khjpupAk; fye;J cUthdnjhd;whFk;.
,J 1988 ,y; Boehm vd;gtuhy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,k;khjpupf;fika nkd;nghUs;
gFjpfshf kpf tpiutpy; tpUj;jpnra;J nfhs;s KbAk;. RUsp khjpupnahd;W nray;gL
rl;lfk; vDk; nray; gpupTfs; gytw;wpw;F gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. rhjhuzkhf nray;
gpupTfs; 3 Kjy; 6 tiuapy; ,Uf;Fk;.




                                        68
                                                                  2. mghag; gFg;gha;T
                                                                    (Analize Risks)
                                                                    • nraw;gLj;jpf;fhl;ly;
                1. cs;slf;fj;ij mwpe;Jnfhs;sy;                      • kPz;Lk; gFg;gha;T nra;J
                   jw;NghJ ,Uf;Fk; epiyia tpUj;jp/                    fhl;ly;
                   jw; f hyg; g Lj; j Yf; F upa epiyia              • mghak; ,y;yhkyhf;Ftjw;F
                   mwpe;J nfhs; s y; . (gq; F jhuu; f s; /            jpl;lkply;
                   Nehf; f k; / khw; W topfSk; vy; i y
                   fSk;)

                                                                                 3. jpl;l mgptpUj;jp (Plan Development)
                                                                                    • mghak; ,y;yhkyhf;Ftjw;fhd
                                                                                       cghaq;fis nraw;gLj;jy;
                                                                                    • khw;WtopAz;lh vdf; fz;lwpjy;.
           5. jpl;lkplYk; Kfhikj;JtKk; (Manage & Plan)                              • xOq;F tupiriaj; jpl;lkply;.
              • jpl;lj;ij jw;fhyg;gLj;jy;
              • Kd;Ndw;wj;ij rhuhk;rg;gLj;jy;
              • KbTg;nghUs; kPjhd nryT fhl;Lg;ghL
                                                                   4. KbTg; nghUspd;
                                                                      mgptpUj;jp
                                                                      (Product Development)
                                                                      • KbTg;nghUs;
                                                                        mgptpUj;jpAk;
                                                                        cWjpg;gLj;jYk;
                                                                      • topfhl;lYk;
                                                                       rhuk;rg;gLj;jYk;




NkYs;s Fwpg;gpw;F Vw;g nray; tyaq;fis mwpe;Jnfhs;Sk;NghJ fPo; fhzg;gLk;
tplaq;fs; gw;wpf; ftdk; nrYj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

•   thbf;ifahsUf;Fk; KbTg; nghUis tpUj;jp nra;gtUf;Fkpilapy; cw;gj;jpj;
    jpwdhd njhlu;ghliy Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij mwpe;Jnfhs;sy;.
•   ts tptupg;G> fhy epu;zak; kw;Wk; tbtikg;gpw;F Vw;g jfty; jPu;khdpg;gjw;Fj;
    Njitahdtw;iw xOq;F nra;jy;.
•   mghaf; fzpg;gPl;bd;NghJ njhopy;El;g mghak;> Kfhikj;Jt mghak; vDk;
    ,uz;ilAk; fUj;jpw; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
•   gpuNahf gpujpepjpj;Jtnkhd;W my;yJ Nky;kl;l gpupjpepjpj;Jtj;jpw;fhf nghwpapay;
    xj;jhir Njitg;gLk;.
•   cUthf;Fk;NghJk;> RahjPdg;gLj;jYf;fhf cUthf;fk;> guPl;rpj;jy;> nghUj;Jjy;
    kw;Wk; ghtid Nkw;Nfhs;fs; toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;.

                                     ;
nghUj;jp nraw;gLk; fl;lj;jpYk; jahupgG nghwpapay; fl;lj;jpYk; mjw;F mbg;gilahFk;
ghtidahsu; Gj; J zu; t +l; l y; mtrpakhFk; . nkd; n ghUs; tpUj; j pahsu; f s;
Kfq;nfhLf;Fk; midj;J gpur;rpidfSf;Fk; RUsp khjpupapd; %yk; tpilfis
ngwyhk;.




                                                             69
tpiuT gpuNahf tpUj;jp khjpup
kpfTk; FWfpa tpUj;jp tl;lnkhd;Wld; $ba Neu;Nfhl;L nkd;nghUs; tpUj;jp nrad;
KiwAldhd khjpupahFk;. Njitfs; ed;whf ,Ug;gpd; ,k;khjpupia ghtpj;J kpfTk;
Ntfkhf nkd;nghUs; tpUj;jp nra;a KbAk;. tbtikg;G Fwpf;Nfhs;fis ed;F
mwpe;Jnfhs;tjd; %yk; tbtikg;G tpUj;jpf; FOtpw;F g+uz nraw;ghl;L Kiwik
nahd;iw kpf FWfpa fhyj;jpy; epu;khdpf;f KbAk;. (60 - 90 ehl;fspy;) Kf;fpakhf
         ;                                         ;
khjpupapwNfw;g jfty; Kiwikfs;> gpuNahfq;fSf;fhf fPotUk; tyaq;fs; midj;Jk;
                               ;
xd;W Nru;tjd; %yk; ,k;khjpupapwFupa jfty; Kiwik gpuNahfq;fSf;Fg; gad;gLj;j
KbAk;.
 1. tpahghuk;
 2. juT
 3. nraw;ghL
 4. gpuNahfk;
 5. guPl;rpj;jy;

Kiwik tpUj;jp Kiwfs;
Kiwiknahd;wpid tpUj;jpnra;Ak;NghJ gpujhdkhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; Kiwik tpUj;jp
Kiwfs; ,uz;bid Kf;fpakhf mwpe;Jnfhs;s KbAk;.

1. fl;likg;G Kiw
jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jp nraw;ghl;by; jpl;lkpLgtUf;F topfhl;Ltjw;fhf ~~fl;likg;G
Kiwik tpUj;jp|| Kiw gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. MdhYk; ,jdhy; Kiwik tpUj;jp
nraw;ghl;by; gad;gLj;Jk; fl;lq;fspy; FiwT Vw;gLj;jg;glkhl;lhJ.

2. nghUs; Nehf;Fila Kiwik
Kiwik tpUj;jpapd;NghJ ghuk;gupakhf gad;gLj;jg;gl;l fl;likg;G KiwfSf;F
khw;W Kiwahf nghUs; Nehf;Fila Kiw ghtpf;fg;gLk;. ,k;Kiwf;F mika
ek; g fj; j dkhf guhkupf; f f; $ ba nkd; n ghUs; jpl; l q; f is Kd; N dw; W tjw; f hf
gad;gLj;jf;$ba %d;W tplaq;fs; cs;sd.

i. NtWgLj; j y; : nghUs;fshdJ ep[ cyfpy; NtWgLj;jpf;fhl;lf;$ba xU
 .
mk;rkhFk;. mjhtJ xg;gpl;Lf; fhl;lf;$ba mk;rkhFk;. mNdfkhf guhkupf;ff;$baJk;
kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; gad;gLj;jf;$baJkhFk;.

ii. ciw nghjpahf;fk;: guhkupg;Gj;jd;ikia mjpfupg;gjw;fhf nghUspd; cw;Gw
  .
cs;slf;fq;fis NtW cWg;Gfspy; kiwj;J itj;jy; my;yJ ciwnghjpahf;fy;.

   . kuGupik/nrhj;
iii. kuGupik nrhj;Jupik: nghUl;fis kPz;Lk; ghtpg;gjw;fhf mDkjpg;gjw;fhf
mfu    tupirAld; $ba nghUl;fisj; jahu; nra;jy;.




                                         70
ghl tplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
•   rpW FOf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;itj;j FOtpw;Nf Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; fz;lha;Tfis tFg;gpw;F Kd;itf;f re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;f.
    • Kiwik tpUj;jpf;fhf fl;likg;gpd; Kiw> nghUs; Nehf;Fila Kiw vd
        ,uz;L Kiwfs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.
                                        ;                              ;
    • jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F fPotUk; Kiwfspd; gy khjpupfs; ghtpffg;
        gLk; vd;gJ.
        • ePu;tPo;r;rp khjpup
       •   RUsp khjpup
       •   ,izf;fg;gl;l khjpup
       •   tpiuT gpuNahf mgptpUj;jp khjpup




                                      71
Nju;r;rp 11            :   jfty; Kiwikfspd; tpUj;jpapy; Kiwik vz;zf;fUit
                           Muha;e;J Kiwik gFg;gha;itAk; tbtikg;G Kiwapa
                           iyAk; (SSADM) ghtpg;ghu;gy;Y}lf njhopEl;gq;fis
                           xUq;fpizj;J ,izaj; jsq;fis
Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 11.4 :     fl; l ikg; G s; s Kiwik gFg; g ha; i tAk; tbtikg; G
                           KiwikapaiyAk; (S S A D M) gupNrhjpg;ghu;.


ghlNtis                :   ehd;F ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;      :
•                    ;                                    ;
  Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;fif tl;lnkhd;wpd; gy fl;lq;fis ntspfnfhzur; nra;thu;
• Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;pd; fl;lq;fSf;fpilapy; njhlu;G cz;L vdf;
  fhl;Lthu;.
• fl;likg;Gs;s Kiwik gFg;gha;tpw;fhf tbtikg;G Kiwapaiy tptupg;ghu;.
• xU tplaj;ijr; nra;Ak; Kd; mjid jpl;lkpLthu;.
• xU fhupaj;ij nra;tjw;F njhlu;; fl;lq;fis gad;gLj;Jthu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
•   Esk;G Nghd;w njspthd tho;f;if tl;lnkhd;Wldhd [Ptp xd;wpd; tho;f;if
    tl;lj;jpd; ,ay;Gfisg; gw;wp khztu;fSf;fpilapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;f.




                           epiwAlyp            Kl;il
                            epiwAlyp           Kl;il
                              Esk;G
                             Esk;G

                             $l;Lg;GO        Flk;gp
                              Flk;gp         $l;Lg;GO




                                        72
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
    • Esk;gpd; tho;f;if tl;lk;; ehd;F gpujhd fl;lq;fSld; $baJ vd;gJ.
    • mjpy; xU fl;lj;jpd; gpd; kw;iwa fl;lk; njhlUk; vd;gJ.
    • Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;jpYk; ,J Nghd;w fl;lq;fs; cz;L vd;gJ.

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
• ckJ FOtpw;F toq;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuq;fis ed;F guprPyid nra;f.
• nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s jiyg;Gfspy; ckJ FOtpw;F toq;fpa jiyg;gpd; kPJ $ba
  ftdk; nrYj;jTk;.
  • Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;tjw;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; fl;likg;G Kiwik gFg;gha;Tk;
     tbtikg;G KiwapaYk;.
  • Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lKk; mjd; fl;lq;fis ngauplYk;
  • Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;jpd; Kiwik milahsk; fhzy;> Kiwik
     gFg;gha;T nra;jy;> Kiwia xOq;F nra;jy; Nghd;w fl;lq;fis tpgupj;jy;.
  • Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;jpd; Kiwik tpUj;jp> Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy;>
                                              ;                        ;
     Kiwik mKyhf;fy; kw;Wk; Kiwik guhkupjjy; Nghd;w fl;lq;fis tpgupjjy;.
               ;                 ;
• ckJ FOtpwF toq;fg;gl;l jiyg;gpwF mbg;gilahd tplaq;fis ed;F guPryid P
  nra;f.
• ckJ fz;lha;Tfis $l;lhfTk;> gilg;ghw;wy; kpf;fjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;Fk;
    Kd;itg;gjw;Fj; jahuhfTk;.

                            thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

fl;likg;Gs;s Kiwik gFg;gha;Tk;> tbtikg;G KiwapaYk; - SSADM
                ;
xU epWtdnkhd;wpwF jfty; Kiwiknahd;wpid cUthf;Fk;NghJ gad;gLj;jf;$ba
gpujhd Kiwfs; gy cs;sd. mtw;wpy; rpy rk;gpujhag+u;tkhdJld; kw;witfs;
etPd KiwfshFk;.

jfty; Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;Ak;NghJ gutyhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; rk;gpujhag+u;t
Kwiahf ~~fl;likg;Gs;s Kiwik gFg;gha;Tk;> tbtikg;G KiwikapaYk; S S A D M
vd miof; f yhk; . jfty; Kiwikapd; rpf; f iy Fiwg; g jw; f hf gbg; g bahf
cUthf;FtJ ~~ fl;likg;Gs;s Kiwik gFg;gha;Tk;> tbtikg;G KiwikAk; -
SSADM apDs; fhzg;gLk; Kf;fpa rpwg;gk;rkhFk;. mNjNghy;> nraw;wpl;l Kfhikj;J
tj;ij tpgupf;f nghUj;jkhd tiuglk; ,jdhy; jug;gLk;.

gpupj;jhdpa mur jug;gpd; jfty; Kwikia cUthf;Fk;NghJ ,r;nray;Kiw ~~mur
kj;jpa fzpdp kw;Wk; njhiynjhlu;g;G V[d;rp vd;gd %yk; fp.gp. 1980 ,y; Kjd;
Kjyhf mwpKfk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.



                                     73
SSADM  Kiwapw;F mika Kiwik tpUj;jp nraw;wpl;lk; gy ghfq;fshfg;
gpupj;Jf; fhl;lg;gLk;.
1.   $Wfs; (nkhbAy;fs; Module)
2.   fl;lq;fs; (Stages)
3.   gbfs; (Steps)
4.   gzpfs;; (Tasks)


fl;likg;G Kiwik gFg;gha;Tk; tbtikg;G KiwapaypdJk; Nehf;fk;
1. nraw;wpl;lnkhd;wpd; Kfhikj;Jtj;ijAk; fl;Lg;ghl;ilAk; tpUj;jp nra;jy;.
2. gapw;wg;gl;l kw;Wk; gapw;wg;glhj Nrtfu;fsplkpUe;J Mff;$ba Nritapid ngw;Wf;
   nfhs;sy;.
3. juk; cau;e;j jfty; Kiwikapid tpUj;jp nra;jy;.
                                                          ;
4. Nrtfu;fs; Fiwthf ,Ug;gpDk; nraw;wpl;lj;jpid njhlu;rrpahf nraw;glr; nra;jy;.
5. nraw;wpl;lj;jpw;fhf fzpdp rhu; nkd;nghUl;fs;> nghwpapay; Kiwikfs; Nghd;w
   fzpdp mbg;gilapyhd cgfuzq;fis gad;gLj;jf;$baik.
6. nraw;wpl;l FOtpy; mq;fj;jtu;fSf;fpilapy; rpwe;j njhlu;ghliy Vw;gLj;jy;.

SSADM    %yk; Kiwiknahd;wpd; rhj;jpa guPl;ir kl;lj;jpypUe;J ngsjpf fl;likg;G
tiu cs;slf;fg;gLk;. ,k;Kiwf;fika Kiwik tpUj;jpapy; gad;gLk; vy;yhf;
fl;lq;fSk; Vida fl;lq;fSf;F ,l;Lr; nry;yf;$ba tifapy; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.
,jid ePu;tPo;r;rp tbtikg;G khjpupahff; fhl;lyhk;. tpiuT gpuNahf tpUj;jp (Raphid
Application Development) tbtikg;G khjpupapw;F ,J KuzhdjhFk;. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk;>
tpiuT gpuNahf tpUj; j p Kiwapy; vy; y hf; fl; l q; f Sk; rkhe; j u Kiwapy;
tpUj;jpailtjhFk;.

SSADM ,d; gbKiwfs;
1.   rhj;jpag;ghl;Lg; guPl;rpj;jy;
2.   eilKiw Rw;whly; jd;ikia Muha;jy;.
3.   khw;W tpahghu Kiwikfis cUthf;Fjy;.
4.   Njitfis ,dq;fhzy;.
5.   khw;W njhopy;El;g Kiwikfis cUthf;Fjy;.
6.   nghUspay; jpl;lk; tbtikj;jy;.
7.   ngsjpf jpl;lk; tbtikj;jy;.

                                  ;
,jd;gb Kiwik cUthf;fj;jpdNghJ Vw;glf;$ba gpur;rpidfis jtpujjpfnfhs;tjw;; ; ;
fhf Kiwik> jahupg;gtu;fspdhy; ju;f;fj; njhlu;ghly;fis fhl;lf;$ba Kiwik
      ;                                                           ;
gha;rry; Nfhl;Lg;glq;fs; (System Flow Diagrams) kw;Wk; juTg; gha;rrw; Nfhl;Lg;glq;fs;
(Data Flow Diagrams) gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.


SSADM vd;gJ gupG+uzkhd xU tbtikg;ghFk;. ,jd; tpNrl rpwg;gk;rk; vd;dntd;why;>
nraw;wpl;lnkhd;wpy; mjw;F cfe;j mk;rq;fis khj;jpuk; gad;gLj;jf;$bajhFk;.



                                         74
Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lk; (Systems Development Life Cycle)
cl;Gw kw;Wk; ntspg;Gw %yfq;fspypUe;J ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk; juTfs; epue;juj;
jP u ; i t vLg; g jw; F cfe; j jfty; f shf khw; W tjw; f hd tpjpKiwfs; jfty;
Kiwikfspy; fhzyhk;. Mifahy; jfty; Kiwikfs; kdpjdpd; ehshe;j Ntiyfis
kpfTk; rpukkhf nra;Jnfhs;s cWJizahFk;. ,jdhy; mur epWtdq;fs; NghyNt
jdpahu; tpahghu fk;gdpfSk; jkJ vjpu;ghu;j;j ,yf;if miltjw;F jw;NghJ
cs;s jfty; Kiwikfis GJg;gpf;fpd;whu;fs;. my;yJ Gjpa Kiwiknahd;iw
fl;bnaOg;Gfpd;whu;fs;.

jfty; Kiwikapid cUthf;FtJ kpfTk; fbdkhd tplakhFk;. ,jw;fhf nry;Yk;
fhyk;> Njitahd %yjdk;> kw;Wk; mjpy; vjpu;ghu;f;Fk; cUthf;fq;fs; vd;gd gw;wp
cs;s epiyaw;w jd;ik kpfg; ngupjhFk;.

jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F gad;gLj;jg;gLk; gy tpjpKiwfs; cs;sd.
mJNghyNt mit kPs; nra;KiwahFk;. [PtpfSf;F tho;f;if tl;lnkhd;W
cs;sgbahy; mtw;wpd; gupzhk nraw;ghL mjd;gb eilngWk;. ,r;rpwg;gk;rj;ij
jfty; KiwikapYk; fhzyhk;. MfNt jfty; Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F
gad;glj;jg;gLk; xU nraw;ghlhf ~Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lk; - SDLC"
vd;gij milahsk; fhl;lyhk;.

                    ;             ; ;                        ;
Kjypy; Kiwik jahupgghsu;fshy; Fwpggpll Kiwikia gutyhf mtjhdpffg;gLk;.
gpd; KO KiwikiaAk; gFjpfshfTk; fl;lq;fshfTk; NtW Ntwhff; nfhz;L
tpgukhf guprPyid nra;ag;gLk;.

Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;jpd; gpujhd fl;lq;fs;
1.   Kiwikia Gydha;T nra;jy;. (Systems Investigation)
2.   Kiwik gFg;gha;T nra;jy; (Systems Analysis)
3.   Kiwik tbtikj;jy; (Systems Design)
4.   Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;jy; (Systems Development)
5.   Kiwik gupNrhjid nra;jy; (Systems Testing)
6.   Kiwik mKyhf;fy; (Systems Implementation)
7.   Kiwik guhkupj;jy; (Systems Maintenance)

Kiwik Gydha;T         (Systems Investigation)
Gjpa Kiwiknahd;wpw;fhd fUj;ij Kd;itj;jy; my;yJ eilKiwapYs;s
Kiwiknahd;wpw;fhd tpUj;jpAld;$ba fUj;Jf;fs; Kd;te;jNghJ ,f;fl;lq;fs;
nraw;gLk;. ,f;fl;lj;jpd;NghJ Kiwikiag; gw;wpa g+uz mwpitg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjd;
%yk; mt;thwhd Kiwikia epu;khzpf;f Ntz;ba Njit jPu;khdk; vLf;fg;gLk;.
,jw;fhf ,uz;L gFjpfspD}lhf Gydha;T nra;ag;gLk;.

1. g+u;thq;f Gydha;T (Preliminary Investigation) - ,q;F Kiwikia milahsq;fhzy;
kw;Wk; mjpy; epfOk; gpur;rpidfis milahsq; fhzy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.


                                          75
2. rhj;jpa ts Ma;T (Feacibility Study)- Kiwikia Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd nghUj;jg;
ghl;bid ghu;g;gJld; mjpy; Kd;nkhopag;gl;l Kiwik jdp egUf;F my;yJ
epWtdj;jpw;F vt;thW nghUe;Jk; vd;gij tpgukhf gFg;gha;T nra;ag;gLk;.

Kiwik gFg;gha;T nra;jy;            (Systems Analysis)
rhj;jpag;ghL mwpf;ifiag; gw;wp nraw;wpl;l fkpl;b %yk; Gjpa Kiwiknahd;wpd;
                     ;
mtrpaj;ijg; gw;wp jPuTf;F te;jhy; mjw;fhd tpgukhd guprPyidf;Fr; nry;y ,f;FO
jPu;khdpf;Fk;. ,jw;fika rhj;jpag;ghl;L mwpf;ifapD}lhf jug;gl;Ls;s tplaq;fis
NkYk; gFg;gha;T nra;ag;gLk;. Gjpa Kiwikapd; Nehf;fk;> mjw;Fupa re;ju;g;gk;>
Njitg;gLk; ngsjpf kw;Wk; kdpj tsq;fs;> Kd;nkhopag;gl;l Gjpa Kiwikia
tpUj;jp nra;Ak;NghJ Vw;gLk; jlq;fSk;> tiuaiwfSk; Nghd;wit tpNrlkhf
Muhag;gLk;. Kiwik gFg;gha;T nraw;ghl;bd;NghJ epWtdj;jpd; tbtikg;igg;
gw;wpAk;> Kfhikj;Jt kl;lq;fs; kw;wk; nraw;ghl;L kl;lq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwAk;
tpgukhf jfty; Nru;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk;. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; cj;Njr Gjpa Kiwik
%yk; Kfhikj;Jtj;jpYk; gadu;fspd; NjitfisAk; nra;a Ntz;baitNaahFk;.
                                                ;
Mifahy; Kiwik gFg;gha;T fl;lj;jpd; juT Nrfupjjy; kw;wk; juTfis jfty;fshf
gupkhw;wk; nra;jy; vd;gd %yk; Kiwikapd; mtrpaj;ij tpgukhf guprPyid
nra;ag;gLk;.

Kiwik tbtikj;jy;            (Systems Design)
cj;Njr Gjpa Kiwik tbtikf;fg;gLk;NghJ rhj;jpa ts Ma;T> Kiwik gFg;gha;T
                                                   ;
Nghd;w fl;lq;fspd; gpujp gydhfNtahFk;. Kiwik jahupgG gpujhd ,uz;L Kiwapy;
fhl;lyhk;.

1. ju;f;f Kiwik tbtikj;jy; (Logical Systems Design) - ,jpy; Kiwikapd;
    juTfs;> jfty;fs;> nraw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; Nfhitfs; Nghd;w ju;f;f tifapy;
    rk;ge;jg;glf;$ba Kiwapy; tpsf;fpf; fhl;lg;gLk;. ,jw;fhd Kiwfs; fPo;tUkhW:
•   Kiwik gha;r;ry; tiuglk; (Systems Flow Diagram)
•   juT gha;r;ry; tiuglk;a (Data Flow Diagram)

2. ngsjpf Kiwik tbtikj;jy; (Physical Systems Design) -,jpy; fPo;f;fhZk;
    fhuzpfs; gw;wp mtjhdk; nrYj;jg;gLk;.
•   ,ilKf tbtikg;G
•   cs;sL P
•   tbtikj;jy;;
•   ntspaPL
•   epuy;gLj;jy;
•   cgNahfpj;jy;
•   ghJfhg;G

Kiwik jahupg;gpdhy; ju;f;f kw;Wk; ngsjpf Kiwik jahupg;gpw;fhd jfty;fis
kpfTk; xOq;fhd Kiwapy; Mtzg;gLj;jg;gLk;.


                                            76
Kiwik tpUj;jp     (System Development)
jpl;lkpLk; KiwfSf;F mika KOikahd Kiwikia nkhbA+y;fSf;F gpupj;J
epuy;fSf;F toq;fg;gLk;. epuy;fspdhy; cfe;j fzpdp nkhopapid gad;gLj;jp gpiofs;
Fiwe;j epuy;fs; mlq;fpa gpuNahf nkd;nghUs; Kiwik jahupf;fg;gLk;. ,t;thW
jahupf;fg;gl;l nkhbA+y;fs; midj;ijAk; Kd; jahu; nra;ag;gl;l ,ilKfj;Jld;
njhlu;GgLj;jp KO Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;ag;gLk;.

Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy;;   (Systems Testing)
                                                         ;
,f;fl;lj;jpd; mbg;gil Nehf;fkhtJ gpiofsw;w juj;jpy; cau;ej Kiwik nahd;wpid
Nrit ngUeUf;F toq;FjyhFk;.

,q; F RahjP d FOnthd; w pd; %yk; Kiwikia KOjhf gupNrhjidf; F
cs;shf;FtNjhL Kiwikkahy; vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLk;. Njitapid mtu; vjpu;ghu;f;Fk;
tifapy; toq;fg;gLfpd;wjh vd;gij guprPyid nra;ag;gLk;. mNj Nghy; epuypy;
cs;s FiwghLfisAk; guprPyid nra;ag;gLk;.

                                               ;
Kiwik gupNrhjid fl;lj;jpy; Kiwikapid fPotUk; gupNrhjidfSf;F cw;gLj;jg;
gLk;.
• myF guPl;rpj;jy; (Unit Testing)
• xd;wpizj;J guPl;rpj;jy; (Integrated Testing)
• Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy; (System Testing)
• Vw;Gg; guPl;rpj;jy; (Acceptance Testing)

Kiwik mKyhf;fk;         (System Implementation)
epiwT nra;Jnfhz;l Kiwikia mKy;gLj;JtJ ,f;fl;lj;jpy; eilngWk;. ,q;F
KO Kiwikapd; nraw;ghl;il ml;ilg;gLj;jg;gLtJld; Kiwikapid gad;gLj;Jk;
tpjk; gw;wp gadu;fs; midtUf;Fk; mwpt+l;lg;gLk;.

Kiwikapid mKyhf;fk; gy fl;lq;fshf eilngWk;. mitahtd:
• Neub mKyhf;fk; (Direct Implimentation)
• rkhe;ju mKyhf;fk; (Parallel Implimentation)
• fl;l (gpupT) mKyhf;fk; (Phased Implimentation)
• Kd;Ndhb mKyhf;fk; (Pilot Implimentation)

Kiwikapw;F Njitahd td;nghUl;fis epUTtJk; nkd;nghUl;fis epUTtJk;
,f;fl;lj;jpy; eilngWk;. mt;thNw Kiwkapd; ntw;wp> Njhy;tp ,f;flj;jpNyNa
jPu;khdpf;fg;gLk;.




                                          77
Kiwik guhkupj;jy;      (System Maintenance)
GjpaKiwiknahd;iw mKy;gLj;jpa gpd; mjid nraw;gLj;Jk;NghJ gpur;rpidfs;
Vw;glyhk;. fzpdp Kiwikapd; rpwg;gk;rkhtJ njhopy;El;gj;jpd; Jupj Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;
Nfw;g mjidj; jw;fhyg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;baikahFk;.

Kiwik elhj;Jk; fl;lj;jpy; Kiwikapw;F Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fis guPl;rpj;Jg; ghu;j;J
                                       ;
mjw;fhd cj;Njr Kiwik elhj;jy; fkplbapd; %yk; epWtdj;jpd; Kfhikj;Jtj;jpwF  ;
Kd;itg;gjhFk;. mNjNghy; Kiwik elhj;Jk; fkpl;b kw;Wk; Kfhikj:jtj;jpd;
%yk; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba gy tplaq;f;s cs;sd. Kiwikapd; Nehf;fk;> Mw;wy;>
cw;gj;jpj;jpwd;> gad;gLj;jg;gLk; njhopy;El;gk;> nryT> ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; Kiwik
%yk; fpilf;fg;gLk; ,yhgk; ,jpy; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. Kiwik guhkupj;jypd;NghJ
fz;lwpe;j khw;wq;fis Nkw;gb khw;wq;fSf;F mikaNt nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

ghl tplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
•   FOf; fz;lha;Tfis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
•   tpupTiug;gpw;fhf Kd;te;j FOtpw;Nf Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   Vida FOf;fspd; fz;lha;Tfis tFg;gpw;F Kd;itf;f re;ju;g;gj;ij toq;fTk;.
•   fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
    Nkw;nfhs;f.
    • jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw tpUj;jp nra;Ak; rk;gpujha g+u;t Kiwahf fl;likg;G
        Kiwik gFg;gha;Tk;> tbtikg;G KiwapaYk; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;gJ.
    • S S A D M Kiwikapw;fika Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;Ak; nraw;wpl;lk; gy fl;lq;
        fspy; ,aq;ff;$ba rpy nkhbAy;fshf gpupf;fyhk; vd;gJ.
    •   S S A D M ,d; gpujhd Fwpf;Nfhs;fs; rpy cs;sd vd;gJ.
    •   S S A D M rpy gbKiwfshf ,aq;Ffpd;wd vd;gJ.
    •   Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lk; jfty; Kiwikapid fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;fhf
        gad;gLj;jf;$ba> gbg;gbahf Kd;Ndwf;$ba Kiwik nfhz;lJ vd;gJ.
    •   Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;ifj; jpl;lj;jpDs; gpujhd rpy fl;lq;fs; cs;sd
        vd;gJ.
    •   Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;jpYs;s fl;lq;fSf;fpilapy; ,ilj;njhlu;G
        cs;sJ vd;gJ.
    •   Kiwik tpUj;jp tho;f;if tl;lj;jpd; xt;nthU fl;lq;fSf;Fk; mjw;Nfw;w
        NtWgl;l nrad;Kiw cz;L vd;gJ.




                                       78
Nju;r;rp 11             :   Gjpa jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jpapy; Kiwik vz;zf;
                                        ;
                            fUit Muha;eJ fl;likg;G Kiwik gFg;gha;itAk;
                            tbtikg;G KiwapaiyAk; ghtpg;ghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 11.5 :                              ;
                            Gjpa jfty; Kiwiknahd;wpwfhd mtrpaj;ijAk; rhj;jpag;
                            ghl;ilAk; EZfp Ma;thu;.

ghlNtis                 :   Ie;J ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;       :
•   ,af;fnkhd;wpy; my;yJ epWtdnkhd;wpy; jw;NghJ epyTk; jfty;; Kiwikapy;;
    fhzg;gLk; rpf;fy;fis fz;lwpe;J Kd;itg;ghu;.
•                                         ;      ; ;
    jw;NghjpUf;Fk; jfty;; Kiwikapd; rpffy;fis jPujJf;nfhs;tjw;fhf Gjpa jfty;;
    Kiwiknahd;wpd; mtrpaj;ij Kd;itg;ghu;.
•   tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F vjpu;ghu;f;Fk; Gjpa Kiwik gw;wp tpgupg;Gld; $ba tprhuiz
    fis Nkw;nfhs;Sthu;.
•   VNjDnkhU nraiy jpl;lkpLk; NghJ Vw;glf;$ba gpur;rpidfis ,zq;fhZthu;.      ;
•   VNjDnkhU nraiy Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F Kd;> mJgw;wp tpupthd (tpguq;gslq;fpa)
    tprhuid Nkw;nfhs;Sthu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• Gjpa tPnlhd;iw epu;khdpf;Fk; NghJ gpd;gw;Wk; nraw;ghLfs; gw;wp khztu;fSld;
  fye;JiuahlTk;. mjd; %yk; fPo;tUk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzuTk;.
• fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • tPnlhd;W ,y;yhjpUg;gJ jw;Nghija gpur;rid vd;gJ.
  • tPLfl;Ltjw;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; epyj;ijAk; mjd; Rw;whliyAk; Kjypy;
      guPl;rpf;fg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • tPL fl;lg;gl ,Uf;Fk; fhzpapd; miktpw;F Vw;g tPl;bd; jpl;lk; mikf;fg;gLk;
      vd;gJ.
  • jahupf;fg;gl;l jpl;lj;jpw;Nfw;g tPL fl;Ltjw;Fwpa nryT tpguk; jahupf;fg;gLfpw
      njd;gJ.
                       ;
  • nryT tpguj;jpwNfw;g gzk; ,y;yhj NghJ mg;gw;whf; Fiwia Njbf;nfhs;tjw;F
      ntt;NtW Kiwfs; ifahsg; gLfpd;wd vd;gJ.(tq;fpf; fld; ngwy; Nghd;w)
  • tPl;ilg; epu;khdpg;gjw;F cupa cs;Suhl;rp kd;wj;jpd; mDkjpiag; ngw;Wf;
      nfhs;s Ntd;Lnkd;gJ.
  • Gjpa jfty; Kiwik nahd;W tpUj;jp nra;ag;gLk; NghJk; epyTk; gpur;rpidfis
      ,dq;fhz Ntd;Lnkd;gJ.



                                        79
    •   ,Uf;Fk; Kiwikapy; fhzg;gLk; gpur;rpidfisj; jPu;g;gjw;F Gjpa jfty;
        Kiwiknahd;W mtrpak; vd;gJ.
    •   tpUj;jp nra;ag;gLk; Gjpa jfty; Kiwik gw;wp tpguq;fSld; $ba tprhuiz
        nahd;W Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;LnkdTk; mJ~~rhj;jpats Ma;T|| vdg;gLk;
        vd;gJ.
    •   Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l Njitfis epiwT nra;J nfhz;ljd; gpd; epu;khzg; gzpfs;
        Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;gJ

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   ckJ FOtpw;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s thrpg;Gg; gj;jpug;gFjpia ed;F MuhaTk;.
•   Gjpa jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw mwpKfk; nra;tjw;F> jug;gl;Ls;s jiyg;Gfspy;
                 ;                       ;
    ckJ FOtpwF toq;fg;gl;l ,lj;jpwFwpa gFjpapd; kPJ tpN\l ftdk; nrYj;jTk.;
    1. ckJ tFg;G khztu;fspd; jfty;fslq;fpa jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw tpUj;jp
       nra; t jw; F Muk; g tprhuidnahd; i w Nkw; nfhz; L rhj; j pats
       mwpf;ifnahd;iw rku;g;gpf;fTk;..
    2. ckJ ghlrhiy jfty; njhopEl;gr; rq;fj;jpd; mq;fj;jtu; tpguq;fslq;fpa
       jfty; Kiwik nahd;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F nghUj;jkhd Muk;g tprhuidfis
       Nkw;nfhd;L rhj;jpats mwpf;if nahd;iw rku;gpf;fTk;.
    3. ghlrhiy $l;LwTr; rq;fj;jpd; tpw;gid eltbf;ifia nraw;wpwDs;sjhf;fp
       fzpdp gw; W r; r P l ; L toq; F tjw; F g; nghUj; j khd jfty; Kiwikia
       cUthf;Ftjw;;Fj; Njitahd rhj;jpats mwpf;if rku;g;gpf;fTk;.
•   mt;tplj;jpw;fhd rhj;jpa tsk; Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fj; Njitahd #oiy Vw;gLj;jpf;
    nfhs;tjw;F ckJ FOtpdUld; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
•   nghUj;jkhd Kiwnahd;wpidg; gad;gLj;jp cupa ,lj;jpw;Fr; nrd;W jfty;fis
    ngw;Wf; nfhs;sTk;.
•   Gjpa Kiwikia mwpKfg;gLj;Jtjw;F Njitahd rhj;jpa ts Ma;T mwpfifia    ;
       jahupf;fTk;.
•                                  ;
    ckJ fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis ftu;rrpfukhfTk; Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; KO tFg;gpw;Fk;
    Kd;itf;fj; jahuhfTk;.

                                thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;

Muk;g fl;l Gydha;Tfs; (Preliminary Investigations)
                                  ;
KbntLj;jy;> gpur;rpidfSf;F jPuitg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sy; Nghd;w tplaq;fspd; NghJ
jfty;fspd; jhf;fk; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. xNu jfty; gy;NtW fl;lq;fspy;
xd;Wf;nfhd;W NtWgl;l Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,Ug;gpDk; xNu Kiwik
NtWgl;l Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf cgNahfg;gL;JtJ nghUj;jkw;wJ. MfNt> jPu;khdk;
vLf;Fk; NghJ ntt;NtW kl;lq;fSf;fika mjw;F kpfg; nghUj;jkhd jfty;
Kiwik ghtpf;fg;gLk;. mjid ,af;fj;jpd; my;yJ epWtdj;jpd; fl;likg;G> Nehf;fk;>
vjpu;g;ghu;g;G> vd;gtw;wpw;fika jpl;lkply; Ntz;Lk;.


                                     80
VNjDnkhU epWtdj;jpw;F jkf;Fhpa jfty; Kiwik xd;iw jpl;lkpLk; NghJk;
,Uf;Fk; Kiwikg; gw;wp my;yJ jpl;lkplg;gLk; Gjpa Kiwikiag; gw;wp Kd;
tprhuiz xd;W Nkw;nfhs;tJ mj;jpahtrpakhFk;.

epWtdj;jpw;Fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;NghFk; Gjpa Kiwikiag; gw;wp Kiwahd fw;wy;
tplaq;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F Kd; Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;jypd; Fwpf;Nfhs;>
fhuzq;fis fz;lwpjy; Nghd;wit ,q;F gpujhdkhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. ,jw;Fg;
                                                      ;    ; ;
nghUj;jkhd tplaq;fs; epWtdj;jpd; cah; Kfhikj;Jtj;jpwF rkh;ggpjJ mDkjpiag;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,q;F Gjpa Kiwik Kfhikahsh;fs; %yk; fPo;
tUk;tplaq;fs; gw;wp ftdk; nrYj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.
• ,Uf;Fk; KiwikapYs;s gpur;rpidfis fz;lwpjYk; mJ gw;wp mwpf;if
   jahhpj; j Yk; > Gjpa Kiwik tbtikg; g hsh; f s; %yk; Kjyhtjhf
   nra;ag;glNtz;baJ epWtdj;jpw;Fs; jPh;j;Jf;nfhs;sg;glNtz;ba gpur;rpidfis
                       ;                       ;
   ,dq;fz;L mjw;F jPhitg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F gpdgw;wg;gl Ntz;ba eilKiwfs;
                                                                  ;
   vit vd;gij Kd;itj;jyhFk;. ,J epWtdj;jpd; cah;kl;lk; Kjy; fPokl;lk;tiu
   cs;s gpur;rpidfis jPh;j;Jf;nfhs;tjw;F kpfTk; cjtpahapUf;Fk;.

•   khw;W jPh;Tfis Kd;nkhopjy;.
    Gjpa khw;Wj;jPh;T Kd;itj;jypd; fPo; nraw;wpl;lj;jpw;F Gjpjhf Nrh;f;f Ntz;ba
    gFjpfs;> jw;NghJs;s Kiwikapy; jpUj;jg;glNtz;ba ,lk;> Gjpa Kd;nkhopjy;fs;
    Nghd;w epWtdj;jpd; ntw;wpf;F cah; Kfhikj;Jtj;jpw;F ,yFtpy; jPh;khdk;
    vLf;Fk; tifapy; khw;W Nahridfis ngw;Wf;nfhLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
    ,q;F>
    1. cj;Njr Gjpa nraw;wpl;lj;jpd; %yk; epWtdj;jpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Ff; fpilf;Fk;
       mD$yq;fSk;> gpujp$yq;fSk;.
    2. epWtdj;jpw;Fs; Gjpa Kiwikia nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F cj;Njrpj;jpUf;Fk;
       JiwfSk; mtw;wpd; gad;fSk;.
    3. Gjpa Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;Ak; NghJ Kfq;nfhLf;f NeupLk; tiuaiwfs;
       vDk; rpf;fy;;fSk; mtw;wpypUe;J kPs;tjw;Fupa topKiwfspd; tpsf;fKk;.
    4. cj;Njr Kiwikf;Fj; Njitahd tsq;fSk; mit epWtdj;jpDs; gfpug;gLk;
       KiwAk;.
    5. Gjpa nraw;wpl;lijtpUj;jp nra;tjw;F vLf;Fk; fhyk; Nghd;w tplaq;fs;
       Kd;nkhopjy;fSf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

•   jfty; Kiwikapd; NjitfSf;F Kd;Dupik toq;fs;.
    ,g; G +u; t hq; f Ma; T mwpf; i fia ikakhff; nfhz; L epWtdj; j pd; cau;
    Kfhikj;Jtk; jpUg;jp milAnkdpd; Gjpa jfty; Kiwikf;F Kd;Dupik ngw;Wf;
    nfhLj;J mk;Kiwikia fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;F eltbf;if vLf;fg;gLk;.




                                       81
rhj;jpa ts Ma;T (feasibility study)
epWtdj;jpd; cau; Kfhikj;Jtj;jpdhy; cj;Njr Gjpa Kiwikf;F mDkjp ngw;Wf;
nfhLf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd; rhj;jpa ts Ma;Tf; FOtpdhy; Gjpa Kiwikapd; nghUj;jg;
ghl;il Ma;T nra;ag;gLk;. Gjpa Kiwikia epWtdj;jpw;F mwpKfk;nra;tjpYs;s
                       ;
gpur;rpidfs; gw;wp FwpggpLk; tpupthd tprhuidnahd;whf rhj;jpa ts Ma;T fUjg;gLk;.
vdNt> Kiwik tprhuid (system investigation) epiyapy; fhzg;gLk; mj;jpahtrpa
fl;lnkd;whf rhj;jpa ts Ma;T mikfpwJ vdyhk;. Gjpa nraw;wpl;lj;jpd; rhj;jpa
ts Ma;T gy mk;rq;fspD}lhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
    • njhopEl;g rhj;jpag;ghL (Technical feasibility)
    • nghUshjhu rhj;jpag;ghL (Economical feasibility )
    • mKyhf;fy; rhj;jpag;ghL (Operational feasibility)
    • epWtd rhj;jpag;ghL (Organizational feasibility)


njhopy;El;g rhj;jpag;ghL
,Uf;Fk; jfty; Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F my;yJ Gjpa Kiwikia tpUj;jp
nra;tjw;fhf ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba fhuzpfs; vit? Gjpa Kiwikf;Fs;
gad; gLj;jf;$ba juT> nray;Kiwfs;> jfty;> fzpdp> fzpdp tiyaikg;G> kw;Wk;
nkd;nghUl;fSk; mtw;wpw;Fwpa NtW tsq;fSk; cgfuzq;fSk; vit? mjw;fhf
gad; g Lj; j f; $ ba mZF Kiwfs; vit? vd; g d gw; w pAk; mit ,Uf; F k;
KiwikAld; ve;jstpw;F nghUe;Jfpd;wd vd;gijAk; xg;gPl;L uPjpahf fw;if
Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; Nghd;wit njhopEl;g rhj;jpaj;jpd; NghJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.


mjhtJ Gjpa Kiwikf;Nfw;g td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs; cl;gl Vdia cjpupg;ghfq;
                        ; ;
fspd; gpur;rpidfisj; jPuggjw;F ve;jstpw;F ghtpf;fg;glyhk; vd;gdtw;iw fz;lwpjy;
,jpy; njhopEl;g rhj;jpag;ghlhFk;.

• nghUshjhu rhj;jpa tsk; (Economic Feasibility)
  Gjpa Kiwik tpUj;jpf;fhf nrythFk; nghUshjhu kjpg;gPL gw;wp jpUg;jpg;
  glyhkh vd;gJk; nkhj;j nryT> vLf;Fk; fhyj;Jld; xg;gpLifapy; epahakhdjh
  vd;gd nghUshjhu rhj;jpa tsj;jpy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. ,jw;F nrythFk; nkhj;j
  nryT
  1. njspthd nryT     -Tangible Cost
  2. njsptw;w nryT - Intangible Cost vd ,U tifg;gLk;.

• td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs;> Kfhikahsu;fs; kw;Wk; Copau;fs;> Nritfs; Nghd;w
  tw;wpw;fhf nryTfs; epr;rapf;fg;gl;l nryTfs; vdg;gLk;.

• Copau;fspd; Mu;tk; Fiwjy;> jtWfSk; tQ;ridfSk; Vw;gly;> epWtd
  ew;ngaUf;F gq;fNkw;gly;> cw;gj;jpAk; tpw;gidAk; Fiwjy; Nghd;wit epiyaw;w
  nryTfs; vdg;gLk;.


                                      82
  mNjNghd; W > nghUshjhu rhj; j pa tsj; j pDs; Kiwikf; F f; fpilf; F k;
  mD$yq;fSk; ,U tifg;gLk;.
  1. njspthd nryT    -Tangible Cost
  2. njsptw;w nryT - Intangible Cost

                             ;
• cgfuzq;fs;> ,ae;jpufs;> eputhf nraw;ghLfs;> Kfhikj;Jt rigfs;> Copau;fs;
  njhlu;ghd nryT Fiwjy; my;yJ kPjg;gly; Nghd;wit epiyahd gpujpgyd;f
  shFk;.

• Kfhikj;Jt rigf;F jPu;khdnkLg;gjw;fhf kpfg; nghUj;jkhd nraw;wpwDs;sJk;
  gaDs;sJkhd juTfis toq;Fjy;> ,af;fj;jpd; my;yJ epWtdj;jpd; nray;fspy;
  juj;ij cau;j;jf;$baik> epWtdj;Jld; njhlu;Gila Nrit ngWgtu;fSf;F
  caupa Nrit toq;Fjy; mjd; %yk; epWtdj;jpd; gpujp &gj;ijAk; ew;ngaiuAk;
  cau;j;Jjy; Nghd;wit epiyaw;w gpujpgyd;fshFk;.

• eilKiw rhj;jpa tsk; (Operational Feasibility)
  Gjpa Kiwikia eilKiwf;F nfhz;Ltu KbAkh vd;gJ gw;wp fw;if
  Nkw;nfhs;sy; eilKiw rhj;jpa tsk; vdg;gLk;. Gjpa Kiwikg; gw;wpa J}z;Ljiy
  cz;Lgz;zy; (Mortivation) nraw;wpwd;kpf;f tifapy; jpl;lq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;SjYk;
  ,af;f epiyf;F nfhz;L tUjYk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sYk; (Acceptonce) ,jpylq;Fk;.

• epWtd rhj;jpa tsk; (Organizational Feasibility)
  Gjpa Kiwik gw;wp ,af;f my;yJ epWtd Kfhikr; rigfspYk; Copau;fsplKk;
  fhzf;$ba kdg;ghq;Fk; nray;fSk; gw;wp fw;if Nkw;nfhs;sy; ,JthFk;.
  ,r;re;ju;g;gj;jpy; rhj;jpats Ma;Tf; FOtpdhy;
  • epWtd Copau;fspd; fzpdp guPl;rak;
  • cj;Njr Gjpa Kiwik gw;wp epWtd Copau;fs; kj;jpapy; fhzg;gLk; kdepiy
                                                                       ;
  • Gjpa KiwikapYs;s khw;wq;fs; Copau;fspd; njhopy; njhlu;ghf Njhw;WtpfFk;
      jhf;fq;fs;.
  • Gjpa Kiwik gw;wp epWtd Copau;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jf;$ba Kiwfs;
  Nghd;wtw;iw gw;wp jfty;fisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

,J njhlu;ghd jfty; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F epWtd Kfhikj;Jtr; rigapdJk;
Copau;fspdJk; xj;Jiog;igg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sy; mtrpakhFk;.




                                     83
rhj;jpa ts Ma;Tf; FOtpd; %yk; Nkw;$wg;gl;l tplaq;fs; gw;wp ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
jfty;fisf; nfhz;L mJ njhlu;ghd rupahd Ma;nthd;iw Nkw;nfhz;L mjd;
gpd; epWtd cau; Kfhikj;Jt rigf;F rhj;jpa ts mwpf;ifnahd;W Kd;itf;fg;
gl Ntz;Lk;. mt;thwhd rhj;jpats mwpf;ifnahd;wpy; nghJthf cs;slf;fg;gl
Ntz;ba tplaq;fshtd:
1. epWtdj;jpy; jw;NghJ ,Uf;Fk; KiwikiaAk; mjDld; njhlu;Gila gpur;rpidfs;>
   fUj;J NtWghLfs; kw;Wk; mjid Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;Fupa tpguq;fs;.
2. Gjpa Kiwikapid tpUj;jp nra;jYld; njhlu;Gila g+uz jpl;lk; gw;wpa tpguk;.
3. Gjpa Kiwik epWtdj;jpw;F nghUj;jkhdJ vd;gijf; fhl;Lk; rhj;jpats Ma;Tf;
   FOtpd; fUj;Jf;fs; gw;wpa tpguk;.
                                                                     ; P
4. Gjpa Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F vLf;Fk; fhyKk; nryTk; gw;wpa kjpggnlhd;W.
5. Kiwik tpUj;jp nra;ifapy; epyTk; rl;luPjpahd epyikfSk; epakq;fSk; gw;wp
   tpguk;.

ghltplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf;nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
• FOf;fspd; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
• Vida FOf;fspd; Nkk;ghl;Lf; fUj;Jf;fis tprhupf;fTk;.
• fPo; fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; rhuhk;rg;gLj;jypy; <LglTk;.
  • Gjpa jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw mwpKfg;gLj;Jk; NghJk; ,Uf;Fk; Kiwikia
      tpUj;jp nra;Ak; NghJk; epyTk; gpur;rpidfs; fz;lwpag;gl Ntz;Lnkd;gJ.
  • ,af;fnkhd;wpy; my;yJ epWtdnkhd;wpy; fhzg;gLk; jfty; Kiwikfs;
      rk;ge;jg;gl;l gpur;rpidfSf;F khw;Wj; jPu;TfSk; Kd;nkhopTfSk; cs;sd
      vd;gJk;.
   • gpur;rpid gw;wp g+uz tprhuiz Nkw;nfhs;tjd; %yk; Gjpa Kiwik tpUj;jp
      nra;jy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtJk; mt;tprhuiz “rhj;jpa ts Ma;T” vdg;gLk;
      vd;gJ.
   • rhj;jpa ts Ma;T Nkw;nfhs;Stjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd kpf Kf;fpa tplaq;fs;
      gw;wp ed;F ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ.
   • rhj;jpa ts Ma;tpd; gpufhuk; Gjpa Kiwik tpUj;jp Nkw;nfhs;sy; my;yJ
      iftply; jPu;khdpf;fg;gLk; vd;gJ.




                                      84
Nju;r;rp 11              :   Gjpa jfty; Kiwik tpUj;jpapy; Kiwik vz;zf;
                                         ;
                             fUit Muha;eJ fl;likg;G Kiwik gFg;gha;itAk;
                             tbtikg;G KiwapaiyAk; ghtpg;ghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 11.8 :       cj;Njr Kiwikia tpUj;jp nra;J guPl;rpg;ghu;.


ghlNtis                  :   Ie;J ghlNtis


fw;ww; NgWfs;        :
•   tpUj;jp nra;j Kiwikia nghUj;jkhd epuy; nkhopnahd;iw gad;gLj;jp
    epul;gLj;Jthu;.
•   Kiwikf;fhf tpUj;jpnra;j epuiy nraw;gLj;jp mjid guPl;rpg;ghu;.
•   Kiwapd; FiwghLfis fz;lwpe;J mtw;iw eptu;j;jp nra;jy;.
•   VjhtJ xU Ntiyia nra;tjw;F Vw;fdNt nra;ag;gl;l jpl;lnkhd;iw ghtpg;ghu;.
•   xU nraypd; ,Wjpg;Ngw;iw $ba juj;JlDk; caupa epakq;fSf;fikaTk;
    ngw;Wf; nfhLg;gjw;F nraw;gLthu;.

fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
• rpw;Whz;br; rhiyapy; ghtpf;fg;gLk; cldb ghy;NjdPu; jahupf;Fk; ,ae;jpuk; gw;wp
  khztu;fsplk; tprhupf;fTk;.
• fPo;f;fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
                 ;                                P
  • ,ae;jpuj;jpwF Njapiy> rPdp> ghy; Nghd;wit cs;sLfshf nfhLf;f Ntz;Lnkd
  • mjd; gpd; mit nraw;ghnlhd;wpw;F cs;shfpd;wd vd;gJ
                                                      ;       ;
  • ,ae;jpuj;jpd; nghj;jhid mOj;jpaJk; Nfhg;ignahd;wpwF Fwpjj msT NjdPiu
      khj;jpuk; xU jlitf;F ntspr;nrYj;Jk; vd;gJ
  • ,r;nray; eilngWtjw;F Vw;fdNt jahupf;fg;gl;l epfo;r;rp epuy; xd;W mq;F
      GFj;jg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lnkd;gJ.
                   P
  • ,jw;F cs;slhf nfhLf;fg;gl;l nghUl;fs; VNjh xU nraw;ghl;bw;Fl;gLj;jg;gl;L
      gpd;du; ntspaPnlhd;W fpilf;fpd;wnjd;gJ.
  • mjw;fika ,JTk; xU Kiwikahf nray;gLfpwnjd;gJ
  • mNj Nghd;W cl;nghjpe;j nkd;nghUspd; fl;Lg;ghl;lhy; Kiwiknahd;iw
      ,af;fKbAnkd;gJ.

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:
•   fPo; fhzg;gLk; jiyg;Gf;fspy; ckJ FOtpw;F fpilf;Fk; jiyg;Gf;Fupa gFjpapd;
    kPJ $ba ftdk; nrYj;jTk;.
    • epuy; vOJk; NghJ gpd;gw;w Ntz;ba tpjpKiwfs;
    • guPl;rpj;jy; epiyfs; (Test cases) myF guPl;rpj;jy;> xd;wpidj;Jg; guPl;rpj;jy;>
        Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy;.


                                         85
   •   thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk; ckJ FOtpw;F nghUj;jkhd gFjpia
       tpNrlkhfTk; ftdpf;fTk;.
   •   ckJ fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis ftu;r;rpfukhfTk; Mf;fj;jpwDs;sjhfTk; KO
       tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fj; jahuhfTk;.

ghltplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf;nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
• rpW FOf;fspd; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fTk;.
• Kd;itg;ig Nkw;nfhz;l FOtpw;Nf tpupTiug;gpw;fhd Kjy; re;ju;g;gj;ij ngw;Wf;
  nfhLf;fTk;.
• Vida FOf;fspd; Nkk;ghl;Lila fUj;Jf;fis tprhupj;jupaTk;.
• fPo; fhzg;gLk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; fye;Jiwahlnyhd;iw
  Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
  • epuy; vOJifapy; mjw;Fupa tpjpKiwfis ghtpj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ.
  • epuy; vOjpajd; gpd; mJ rupahf vOjg;gl;Ls;sjh vd;gij cWjp nra;jy;
      Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ.
  • Kiwikia guPl;rpg;gjw;F> guPl;rpj;jYf;Fj; Njitahd cs;sPLfis toq;fp
      ntspaPLfs; kpfr;rupahdjh vd;gij guPl;rpf;f Ntz;Lnkd;gJ> ,g;guPl;rpj;jy;
      fWg;Gg;ngl;b guPl;rpj;jy; (Black box testing) vd miof;fg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • Kiwikia guPl;rpf;Fk; NghJ Kjypy; xt;nthU gFjpAk; jdpj;jdpahf
      guPl;rpf;fg;glNtz;Lk; vd;gJk;> ,J gFjpg; guPl;ir vdg;gLk; vd;gJ.
                                                                    ;
  • epuypd; gFjpfis (Module) cgKiwikfSld; ,izj;J guPlirf;Fl;gLj;jg;gl
      Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ. ,J xUq;fpize;j guPl;rpj;jy; vdg;gLk;.
  • KO nkd;nghUisAk; guPl;rpj;jy; Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy; vdg;gLk; vd;gJ.
  • cz;ikahd juT cl;gLj;jg;gl;L Nrit ngWgtUf;F Kiwik jpUg;jpfukhf
      nray;gLfpwJ vd;gij khjpupfSld; nra;J fhl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk;. ,J
      mq;fPfupj;jy; guPl;ir vdg;gLk; vd;gJk;.
  • ,Wjpahf cau; juj;Jld; $ba nkd;nghUs; NritngWdUf;F toq;fg;gl
      Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ.


                              thrpg; G g; gj; j puk;

FwpaPnlOjy; my;yJ epuy; vOjy;
FwpaPnlOjy; my;yJ epuy; vOjy; vd;gjd; Nehf;fkhtJ Kiwik cUthf;fspd;
NghJ ,Uf;Fk; epuiyf; fzpdp epuy; nkhopnahd;wpw;F khw;WjyhFk;.


mjd; %yk; vOjg;gl;l epuiy fzpdpia ,af;fp> Kiwik tpUj;jpapd; Fiwfis
eptu;j;jp nra;jy; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.


epuy; vOjy; fl;lq;fs;> guPl;rpj;jy;> guhkupj;jy; Mfpa ,uz;L fl;lj;jpYk; jhf;fj;ij
cz;L gz;Zk;.



                                       86
ehk; mwpe;jstpy; epuy; vOjYf;F vLf;Fk; fhyKk; nryTk;> nkd;nghUs; nryTld;
xg;gpLifapy; kpf rpwpa tpfpjNkahFk;. Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy;> guhkupj;jy; vd;gtw;wpw;F
ghupa nryT Vw;gLk;. ,jd; %yk; njspthtJ epunyOjypd; Nehf;fk; Kiwikia
                                                     ; ;             ;
eilKiwg;gLj;jypd; nryit Fiwg;gjd;wp> Kiwik guPlrpjjy;> guhkupgG vd;gtw;wpd;
nryitf; Fiwj;jyhFk;.


epunyhd;W gy;NtW epiyfspy; kj;jpa];jk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. mitahtd: njspthf
thrpf;ff;$bajhf ,Uj;jy;> epuypd; tprhyk;> xLNeuk;> epidtfj;jpy; vLf;Fk; ,ltsT
vd;gdthFk;.


thrpf;ff;$bajhAk;> tpsq;ff;$bajhAk; ,Uj;jy; epuypd; tpNrl gz;ghFk;. ,jd;
%yk; nkd;nghUs; guhkupj;jiy kpf ,yFthf Nkw;nfhs;sf;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;.

epuy; vOjy; tpjpKiwfs;
    P      ;                            ;                 ;
FwpablypdNghJ mjhtJ epuy; vOJk;NghJ gpdgw;wg;glNtz;ba gupeJiu nra;ag;gl;l
                                          P
xOq;Ftpjpfs; cs;sd. ,t;nthOq;fikg;G FwpaLfis vspa Kiwapy; vOJtjw;Fk;
tpsq;fpf; nfhs;sf;$ba tifapy; vOJtjw;Fk; kpftk; cjtpahAs;sJ. mtw;wpy;
rpy fPOs;sthW mikAk;.

ngauply;   (naming)
gFjpfSf;Fk; (Module) khupfSf;Fk; ngau; njupT nra;ifapy; mit mu;j;jKs;sit
ahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;Jld; gFjpfSf;F toq;fg;gLk; ngau; mjd; nraYf;Fg;
nghUj;jkhdjhf mika Ntz;Lk;.

fl;Lg;ghl;L mikg;G
fl;likg;gpy;yhj tifapy; fl;lisj; njhFjpnahd;W cUthf;fg;gLtjhy; fzpdp
epfo;r;rp epuypd; (nkd;nghUspy;) nraw;wpwd; FiwAk;. vdNt> Kiwahd fl;Lg;ghl;L
mikg;nghd;W ghtpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

gpd; tpisTfs;
gFjp (Module) xd;W miof;fg;gLk;NghJ gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk; rhuhkhwp (Parameters)
khw;wg;gLk;NghJ mjd; gpd;tpisthf epuYk; khWjYf;F cl;glf;$Lk;. ,t;tif
gpd;tpisTfis jtpu;f;fg;gl Ntz;baJld; mij rupahd Kiwapy; Mtzg;gLj;jy;
Ntz;Lk;.

$bly;   (nesting)
FwpaPnlOjypd;NghJ ePz;l $bly; jtpu;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynadpd; tpsq;fpf;
nfhs;tJ rpukkhFk;.




                                       87
$W (nkhba+ypd;); msT
nkhba+y;fspd; msT xNu khjpup ,Ug;gJ Kf;fpakhFk;. nkhba+y;fspd; msT kpf
                    ; ;    ;       ;                      P            ;
mjpfkhapUg;gpd; guPlrpjjypdNghJ rpffyhd epiy cUthFk;. FwpaLfs;> Njitapdwp
ePsf;$bajhy; nkhba+iy kpfr; rpwpjhf vOJtJ jtpu;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

nkhba+nyhd;wpd; ,ilKfk;
nkhba+ypy; rpf; f yhd ,ilKfk; ,Uf; f pd; w jhntd guP l ; r pj; j y; Ntz; L k; .
,ilKiwnkhd;wpd; rhuhkhwp (Parameters) Ie;Jf;F Nky; ,Uf;Fnkdpd; mjid
ed;F guPl;rpj;J mjid vspa ,ilKfq;fs; gytw;wpw;F Ntuhf;fp mjd; nraw;wpuid
mjpfupf;f Ntz;Lk;.

epuypd; g+u;tj;jpl;lk;
epuiy vspjpy; thrpg;gjw;F mjpy; cggFjpfs;> ,ilntsp> milg;Gf;Fwp vd;gd
nghUj;jkhdthW cgNahfpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

cs;sf Mtzg;gLj;jy;           (internal documentation)
      P        ;            P ;                          P
FwpanlOjypdNghJ ntspalL Mtzkhf fUjg;gLtJ FwpaLfshFk;. ,t;ntspalL              P ;
Mtdj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; FwpaPL ,yFthf tpsq;fpf;nfhs;sf;$ba tifapy; cUthf;fg;
gl; L s; s J. ntspaP l ; L Mtdk; FwpaP n lOjypd; N ghJ epuyupdhy; FwpaP l ; L f; F
tpgunkOJjy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. tpgukply; xU Fwpg;ghf ,Uf;FNk jtpu epuy; XL
epiyapy; ,J gad;gLj;jg;gLtjpy;iy. FwpaPLfs; %yk; nra;ag;gLfpd;w nray;fs;
vit vd Fwpg;Gfs; %yk; fhl;lg;gLk;.

cWjpg;gLj;jy;   (verification)
epuy; vOjypy; ntspaPLfSf;fhd cWjpg;gLj;jy; ghtpf;fg;gLtJ mf;fl;lj;jpy; cs;s
FiwghLis fz;L nfhs;tjw;fhfthFk;.


FwpaPLfis cWjpnra;J gpioapy;iy vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jpaTld; mJ jpl;lj;jpw;F
nghUe;Jfpd;wnjd;gijAk; mk;nkd;nghUs; ,af;fg;ghl;bw;F nghUj;jk; vd;gijA
NkahFk;.


epuy; cWjpg;gLj;jy; ,U tifg;gLk;. mit epiyapay; (Stt c)> ,af;ftpay;(Dynamic)
                                                  ai
vd;gdthFk;.


                                                  P
,af;ftpay; Kiwapy; epuYf;Fg; ghpNrhjid juTfs; cs;sL nra;ag;gl;L nraw;gLj;jg;
                         P ;                              ; ;       ;
gLk;. mg;NghJ mjd; ntspalby; FiwghLfs; cs;sdth vdg; ghPlrpjJg;ghh;ffg;gLk;.


epiyapay; Kiwapd;NghJ epuYf;F cz;ikahd guPl;rpj;jy; juTfis cs;sPL
nra;J mit rupahf ,aq;Ftijf; fhl;Lk;. epiyapay; Kiwapd;NghJ epuiy



                                           88
toq;fp ,aq;fr; nra;ag;gl khl;lhJ. ,q;F FwpaPL cWjpg;gLj;jy;> thrpj;jy;>
rhuhk;rg;gLj;jy;> Nkw;Nfhy; (walk through) Nghd;wit eilngWk;.

Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy;
Kiwik tpUj;jp nraw;ghl;bd; ve;j xU fl;lj;jpYk; FiwghL Vw;glyhk;. xt;nthU
fl;lj;jpYk; Vw;gLk; Fiwghl;il fz;Lgpbg;gjw;F ghtpf;fg;gLk; gy;NtW El;gq;fs;
cs;sd. vt;thW ,Ug;gpDk; ve;j KiwapyhtJ E}W tPjk; rupahd FiwghLfsw;w
Kiwiknahd;iw ,af;Ftjw;F re;ju;g;gk; ,y;iy. mNef re;ju;g;gq;fspy; xt;nthU
fl;lj;jpYk; Vw;glf;$ba FiwghLfs; nkd;nghUs; FwpaPnlOjypd;NghJ ntspf;fhl;lf;
$Lk;. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; mjw;F Ke;jpa fl;lq;fspy; nry;Ygb guPl;ir gykhf
eilngwhikahFk;. epunyhd;iw ,af;Fk;NghJ Vw;gLk; FiwghLfis tpl epuy;
tpUj;jpapd;NghJ Vw;gLfpd;w jpl;l FiwghLfisg; Nghy; Nrit ngUeupd; Njit
rupahf njhlu;ghlSf;Fl;gLj;jhikapdhy; Vw;glf;$ba FiwghLfSk; fhzg;gLk;.


                                        ; ;          ;                    ; ;
epunyhd;W Kjy; jlitahf ,af;fg;gLtJ guPlrpjjy; re;ju;ggj;jpyhFk;. ,r;re;ju;ggj;jpy;
fpilf;fpd;w ntspaPL ehk; vjpu;ghu;j;j rhjid kl;lj;ij md;kpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
                                ;               ;
nkd;nghUspYs;s FiwghLfis ePfFtjw;fhfNt guPlrpj;jy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

guPl;rpj;jy; re;ju;g;gq;fs;   (Test Cases)
Kiwiknahd;wpypUf;Fk; FiwghLfis fz;lwptjw;F guPl;rpj;jy; cjTfpd;wJ.
guPl;rpj;jy; nray;Kiwapd;NghJ guPl;rpf;Fk; re;ju;g;gk; cs;sPlhfTk; Kiwik rupahf
,aq;Ffpd;wjh vd;gij mwpa nry;Ygb guPl;ir re;ju;g;gq;fs; mjpf mstpy;
Njitg;gLk;.


           ; ;          ;
epiya guPlrpjjy; re;ju;ggnkhd;wpy; nray; eilngWtJ epuypy; Fiwfs; ,y;yhjpUf;Fk;
gl;rj;jpyhFk;.


epiya guPl;rpj;jy; re;ju;g;gnkhd;wpy; ftdpf;fj;jf;f tplankhd;whtJ epunyhd;wpd;
cs;sPLfs; mjw;F toq;ff;$ba re;ju;g;gj;jpyhFk;.

rpwpa epunyhd;whapDk; cs;sPLf;fhf ,Uf;ff;$ba $Wfspd; vz;zpf;if ghupa
mstpy; ,Uf;f KbAk;. ,jdhy; guPl;rpj;jy; xd;wpd; ajhuj;j Nehf;fkhdtJ rpwg;G
kl;lj;jpw;F fpl;ba guPl;rpj;jy; gytw;iw njupT nra;jyhFk;.

Kiwik guPl;rpj;jy; Kiwfs;
Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l guPl;rpj;jy; Kiwgw;wpa mwpKfnkhd;W fPo; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thW
guPl;rpf;Fk;NghJ Kiwikapd; g+uz nraw;ghLk; rupahf eilngWfpwjh vd;gij
epr;rag;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;.
• fUk;ngl;bg; guPl;ir (black box testing)




                                             89
•     ntz;ngl;bg; guPl;ir (white box testing)
•     myFg; guPl;ir (unit testing)
•     xd;wpize;j guPl;ir (intergrated testing)
•     Kiwik guPl;ir (system testing)
•     mq;fPfupj;jy; guPl;ir (acceptance testing)

fUk;ngl;b guPl;ir
,g;guPl;rpj;jy;> mq;fPfupj;jy; re;ju;g;gj;jpNyNa Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. ,q;F Kiwik
%ba ngl;bnahd;whff; fUjg;gLk;. ,r;re;ju;g;gj;jpy; guPl;rfUf;F Kiwikapy;
cs;sfj;ijg; gw;wp mwpe;jpUg;;gJ mtrpakpy;iy. Njitahd cs;sPLfis toq;fp
    ;     ;           P                              ; ;                     ;
vjpughu;fFk; ntspaLfspd; rupahd jd;ikia guPlrpjjy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. vjpughu;jj ;
ntspaPL fpilf;fhj gl;rpj;jy; mJ gw;wp mwpf;if rku;g;gpg;ghu;.

ntz;;ngl;b guPl;ir
FwpaPLfisg; guPl;ir nra;tjw;F Kiwik nraw;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk; tpjk; gw;wpa
mwpT Njit. FwpaPLfisg; guPl;rpj;jYf;F Kiwikf;Fs; juT gha;jy; (nry;Yk;)
                 ;                                  ;
gFg;gha;T> gha;rry; fl;Lg;ghL vd;gd ,e;epiyapy; guPlirf;Fl;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,uz;lhtjhf
nkd;nghUl;fspd; jpwd;> rupahapUj;jy; vd;gd guPl;rpf;fg;gLtjw;F guPl;rfu; mjid
                                      ;                            ;
tpku;rpf;fj;jf;f fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ghu;ff Ntz;Lk;. %d;whtjhf guPlrpj;jiy gaDs;s
tifapy; nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F FwpaPLfisg; guPl;rpj;jypd;NghJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w
                                                      ;       ;
NtW tifahd fUtpfs;> El;gq;fs; vd;gd gw;wpAk; guPlrfu; njupejpUj;jy; mtrpakhFk;.
FwpaPLfisg; guPl;rpj;jypd;NghJ ,k;%d;W NjitfisAk; jdpj;jdpahf nraw;glhJ
xNu Kiwapy; nraw;gLk;.

    Nrit ngWeupd; Njit                        xg;Gjy; guPl;ir


    Njitfs;                                   Kiwik guPl;ir


    jpl;lk;                                   xd;wpize;j guPl;ir

    FwpaPL                                    gFjpg;guPl;ir

gFjpg; g uP l ; i r
                                                    ;
,q;F Kiwikapd; xt;nthU gFjpAk; jdpj;jdpNa guPlirf;Fl;gLj;jg;gLk;. epuyupdhy;
,g;guPl;ir Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtJld; mtuJ rfhf;fspdhy; mJ cWjp nra;ag;gLk;.
,g;guPl;irapd; Nehf;fkhtJ myfpd; cs;sf ju;f;fq;fis guPl;rpg;gjw;fhFk;. epuyu;
nry;Ygbaw;w jug;guPl;irfs; Nkw;nfhz;L mJ ve;epiyapNyDk; epfo;r;rp epuypy;
jilfNsw;gLfpwjh vd;gij guPl;rpj;jYld; epfo;r;rp epuypy; nray; ,izg;GfisAk;
guPl;rpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,q;F rfy FwpaPLfSk; cs;slf;fg;gLk; tifapy; ,g;guPl;ir
gw;wp ey; kjpg;gPnlhd;W epuyuhy; ngw;Wf; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.


                                               90
xd;wpize;j guPl;ir
              ;            ; ;
,f;fl;lj;jpdNghJ myF guPlrpffg;gl;L nkhba+y;fs; cgKiwikfSf;F ,izf;fg;gl;L
    ;       ;                             ;
kPzLk; guPlrpj;jYf;Fl;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,g;guPlrpj;jypd; Nehf;fkhtJ nkhba+y;fs; rupahf
                                                              ;
,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sdth vd;gij fz;lwpjyhFk;. mjhtJ nkhba+yfspd; ,ilKifq;fs;
kpf mtjhdj;Jld; guPl;rpj;jyhFk;.

Kiwik guP l ; i r
,j;jUzj;jpy; KO nkd;nghUSk; guPl;rpj;jYf;F cl;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,r;nraw;ghl;bw;F
Mtdnkhd;whf gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ Kiwik Njit MtzkhFk;.


,jd; Nehf;fkhtJ vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gl;l Njitia nkd;nghUs; g+u;j;jpnr;afpwjh vd;gij
fz;lwpjyhFk;.


mNefkhf ,J nry;Ygb guPl;irnahd;whf ,Ug;gJld; mNef re;ju;g;gq;fspy;
ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;w xNu nry;Ygb nraw;ghlhfTk; mikfpd;wJ. Kiwik guPl;ir
kpfTk; gaDs;sjhf ,Ug;gJ RahjPd FOnthd;W cupa #oYf;Fs; Nkw; nfhs;sg;gLk;
NghjhFk;.


,r;nraw;ghl;bw;F Nkyjpfkhf Kiwikapd; ghJfhg;G> kPl;rp (recovery)> Kiwikia
kPz;Lk; rupahd Kiwapy; Muk;gpj;jy; vd;gd guPl;irf;Fl;gLj;jg;gLk;.

Vw;Gg; guPl;ir
mq;fPfupj;jy; guPl;irf;fhf ghtpf;fg;gLtJ juTfshFk;. ,q;F Nrit ngUedUf;F>
tpUj;jp nra;ag;gl;l nkd;nghUs; jpUg;jpfukhd Kiwapy; nraw;gLfpd;wnjd;gij
guPl;rhu;j;jkhf nra;Jfhl;l Ntz;Lk;.


,q;F Kiwikapd; cz;ikahd nray;Kiw guPl;rpf;fg;gLk;.


       ;                                  P
,g;guPlirapd; gpd;dNu cj;Njr Kiwikia mq;ffupg;gjh ,y;iyah vd;gij Nrit
ngUedu; KbT nra;thu;. mDkjpg;ghnudpd;> mLj;j fl;lkhd Kiwik mKyhf;Fk;
fl;lk; Muk;gpf;fg;gLk;.




                                       91
ghltplaq;fis njspTgLj;jpf;nfhs;tjw;fhd topfhl;b:
• FOf;fspd; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis KO tFg;gpw;Fk; Kd;itf;fr; nra;aTk;.
• Vida FOf;fspd; Nkk;ghl;Lf; fUj;Jf;fis tprhupf;fTk;.
• fPo; fhZk; tplaq;fis ntspf;nfhzUk; tifapy; rhuhk;rg;gLj;jypy; <LglTk;.
  • Gjpa jfty; Kiwiknahd;iw mwpKfg;gLj;Jk; NghJk; ,Uf;Fk; Kiwikia
      tpUj;jp nra;Ak; NghJk; epyTk; gpur;rpidfs; fz;lwpag;gl Ntz;Lnkd;gJ.
  • ,af;fnkhd;wpy; my;yJ epWtdnkhd;wpy; fhzg;gLk; jfty; Kiwikfs;
      rk;ge;jg;gl;l gpur;rpidfSf;F khw;Wj; jPu;TfSk; Kd;nkhopTfSk; cs;sd
      vd;gJk;.
   • gpur;rpid gw;wp g+uz tprhuiz Nkw;nfhs;tjd; %yk; Gjpa Kiwik tpUj;jp
      nra;jy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtJk; mt;tprhuiz “rhj;jpa ts Ma;T” vdg;gLk;
      vd;gJ.
   • rhj;jpa ts Ma;T Nkw;nfhs;Stjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd kpf Kf;fpa tplaq;fs;
      gw;wp ed;F ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ.
   • rhj;jpa ts Ma;tpd; gpufhuk; Gjpa Kiwik tpUj;jp Nkw;nfhs;sy; my;yJ
      iftply; jPu;khdpf;fg;gLk; vd;gJ.




                                   92
Nju;r;rp 13              :   jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopEl;gj;ijAk; mjd; Gjpa
                             Nghf;FfisAk; topfhl;ly;fisAk; Muha;thu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 13.1 :       fzpj;jypd;;  Gjpa Nghf;FfisAk;             vjpu;fhy
                             topfhl;ly;fisAk; Muha;thu;.

ghlNtis                  :   Ie;J ghlNtis

fw;ww; NgWfs;        :
•   ep[ cyfpd; cjhuzq;fspD}lhf mwpitAk; czu;Tk; gw;wpa vz;zf;fUf;fis
    ,zq;fhzghu;.
•                             ;
    mwpthw;wYs;s ,ae;jpu tpQQhdj;jpy; (Artificial Intelligence) tUk; mwpTrhu; fzpdp
    epuy;fs; gw;wp Muha;thu;.
•   fd;Nr (Kansei Systems) KiwikAk; czu;TfSk; njhlu;ghf fzpdp epuy;fis
    Muha;thu;.
•   mwpthw;wYs;s ,ae;jpu tpQ;QhdKk; fd;Nr KiwikAk; vd;gJ ,aw;if mwpT
    czu;T gw;wpa fzpdp epuy;fshtJld;> mit nraw;if mwpnthd;iwg; gw;wpNah
    my;yJ czu;nthd;nthd;iwg; gw;wpNah $wtpy;iy.
•   ehisa cyfpy; Vw;glf;$ba kdpj / ,ae;jpu rftho;it (coexistance)njspT
    gLj;Jthu;.


fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghLfs;:
gpuNtrk;
•    vkJ mwpitg; gad;gLj;jp nra;fpd;w md;whl nraw;ghLfis ,zq;fz;L
     nfhs;SkhW khztu;fSf;Ff; $wTk;.
•   gof;fg;gl;l czu;Tfs; rpytw;iw ngaupLkhW khztu;fSf;Ff; $wTk;.
•   mwpTk; czu;Tk; nfhz;l ,ae;jpunkhd;W cUthf;fg;gl KbAkh vd;W khztu;fis
     tpdtTk;.
•   kdpj (Humanoid) NuhNgh xd;wpd; xspxyp fhl;rp xd;iw fhd;gpf;fTk;.
•                                           ;
    kdpj NuhNgh xd;wpd; mwpT kw;Wk; czu;Tkpff gz;Gfis ,zq;fz;L nfhs;SkhW
     khztu;fSf;Ff; $wTk;.
•    kdpj NuhNgh xd;wpd; fry gz;GfSk; ,aw;if mwpT / czu;T vd;gtw;wpd;
     khjpupnahd;nwdTk;> nraw;if mwpT / czu;T vd;gd gw;wa fUj;jy;y vdTk;
     khztu;fSf;Ff; $wTk;.
•   Wikipedia f;fs; Clhf mwpthw;wYs;s ,ae;jpu tpQ;Qhdj;jpd; / fd;Nr Kiwikapd;
     tpsf;fq;fis NjLkhW khztu;fSf;Ff; $wTk;.




                                           93
• ,ae;jpunkhd;wpd; vjpu;fhyk; gw;wp
     kdpjd; Nghd;w ,ae;jpuk;
     ,ae;jpuk; Nghd;w kdpjd;
     kdpj ,ae;jpu rftho;T
  Nghd;w tplaq;fisf; nfhz;L fye;Jiuahlnyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.


    •   i-robot xd;wpd; xspxyp fhl;rp xd;iw fhz;gpj;J kdpj ,ae;jpu rftho;Tf;fhf
        cjhuzq;fs; ,zq;fz;L nfhs;SkhW khztu;fSf;Ff; $wTk;.


fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr mwpTWj;jy;fs;:

•   Mrpupaupdhy; fPo; fhzg;gLgit jahu; nra;J nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
      kdpj NuhNgh gw;wpa xspxyp fhl;rp
      i-robot xd;wpd; xspxyp fhl;rp
      Wikipedia f;fs; Clhf mwpthw;wYs;s ,ae;jpu tpQ;Qhdj;jpd; / fd;Nr
      Kiwikapd; tpsf;fq;fs;


•   jhk; thOk; #oypy; my;yJ r%fj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; mwpthw;wYs;s ,ae;jpuq;fs;
                             ;
    Clhf mwpT kw;Wk; czu;Tkpff gz;Gfis ,zq;fz;L nfhs;tjw;F khztu;fisj;
    J}z;lTk;.


•   ,g;gz;Gfis ,zq;fz;L nfhs;tjw;F Kd; mwpT / czu;T vd;gd vit vd
    jhkhfNt Njbf;nfhs;tjw;F khztu;fisj; J}z;lTk;.

•   ,Wjpahf ,ae;jpunkhd;W kdpjidtpl cau;thd my;yJ jho;thd kl;lj;jpw;F
    cl;gLtjpy;iy vd;gJld; kdpju;fSld; ,ae;jpuk; rftho;Tld; ,Uf;Fnkd;gij
    khztu;fSf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lTk;.

                                  thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuk;

fPo;fhzg;gLk; ,izag; gf;fq;fisg; ghu;f;fTk;.
            American Association for Artificial Intelligence
            Sri Lanka Association for Artificial Intelligence




                                           94
                          fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; kjpg;gPL
(1)   kjpg;gPl;L epiy          :   Kjyhk; jtiz> epiy 1

(2)   cs;slq;Fk; Nju;r;rp
      kl;lq;fs;           :        10.3> 10.4> 10.5

(3)   cs;slq;Fk; Nju;r;rp
      kl;lq;fs;           :        •   HTML  nkhopia mwpKfg;gLj;jy;
                                   •   HTML  tupaiwfs;
                                   •   Nfhit ePbg;G (Extentions)
                                   •                         ;
                                       ,izag; gf;fnkhd;wpwfhd %yfq;fis Nru;jjy;;
                                   •   cau; gz;Gfisg; ghtpj;J t];Jf;fis/nghUl;
                                       fis xOq;fikj;jy;.
                                                                   ;     ;
                                       • nrhw;fs;> glq;fs;> xspgGy> nrtpgGy> mirT
                                           glq;fs;
                                   •                             ;
                                       rpwg;gk;rq;fis cgNahfpjJ nghUl;fis jahu;g;
                                       gLj;jy;.
                                       • tbtk;> ml;ltiz> gl;bay;> rl;lfq;fs;
                                           tbtikj;jy;
                                   •   gy;Nehf;Fila ,iza cs;slf;fq;fis
                                       njhlu;GgLj;jy;
                                       • kP ,izg;Gfs;> gf;fq;fs;> gy;Y}lfq;fs;

(4)   fUtpapd; jd;ik           :   •   nra;Kiw nraw;ghL

(5)   fUtpf; F upa
      Fwpf; N fhs; f s;        :   •   tpahghu tpsk;guq;fSf;fhf kuG topfspypUe;J
                                       tpyfp Gjpa njhopy;El;g Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;J
                                       thu;.
                                   •   tbtikg;G Kiwfis tpUj;jp nra;J nfhs;thu;.
                                   •   nghUl;fis xOq;FgLj;Jtij fz;ftUk;
                                       tifapy; nra;thu;.
                                   •   gl;banyhd;wpw;Fupa ,izg;Gf;fis nghUj;j
                                       khd Kiwapy; itg;ghu;.

(5)   njhopw;ghl;bw;fhd Mrpupau;
      topfhl; l y; f s; : • Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 10.4 Kbtpy; nra;Kiw nraw;ghL
                                       cs;sJ vd;gij Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 10.3 ,d; Muk;
                                       gj;jpNyNa khztu;fSf;F mwptpf;fTk;.
                                   •   kjpg;gPl;L epajpfis khztu;fSf;F njupag;
                                       gLj;jTk;.
                                   •                              ;     ;
                                       tFg;ig %d;W FOf;fshg; gpupjJ gpdtUk; nraw;
                                       ghl;bid mtu;fSf;F toq;fTk;.
                                       • Fiwe;j gl;rk; %d;W gf;fq;fSld;$ba
                                           ,izankhd;iw jahu; nra;aTk;. (Kjw;
                                           gf;fKk; - ,izg;gf;fq;fSk;)



                                           95
                              •   xt;nthU khztDk; jdJ FOtpd; nraw;
                                  ghl;bid g+u;j;jp nra;tjw;fhf jkJ tbtikg;G
                                                    ;
                                  xd;iwahtJ Nru;jJf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gij
                                  mwptpf;fTk;.
                              •   vy;yhf; FOf;fspdJ nraw;ghLfisAk; if
                                  aspf;f jpfjpnahd;iw Fwpf;fTk;.
                              •   epajpapw;fika xt;nthUfl;lq;fSf;Fupa Gs;sp
                                  fis toq;fTk;.

(6)   nraw;ghl;by; <LgLtjw;fhd khztu;fSf;Fupa
      mwpTWj; j y;      : • Mrpupaupd; topfhl;liyg; gpd;gw;wTk;.
                              •   nraw;ghl;bw;Fupa jfty;fis Mrpupauplk; Nfl;Lj;
                                  njupe;J nfhs;sTk;.
                              •   Fwpj;j jpdj;jpy; ckJ nraw;ghl;bid
                                  MrpupaUf;F xg;gilf;f jahuhfTk;.
                              •   FOtpYs;s xt;nthU mq;fj;jtUk; cupa nraw;
                                  ghl;bw;F gq;fspg;G nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gij
                                  epidtpw; nfhs;sTk;.
                              •        ;
                                  Fwpjj jpdj;jpy; ckJ Mf;fq;fis MrpupaUf;F
                                  Kd;itf;f jahuhfTk;.
                              •   ,r;nraw;ghLfis fUj;jpw;nfhz;L Mrpupau;
                                  epakpf;Fk; jpdj;jpy; jdpg;gl;l nraw;ghl;bid
                                  jahu; nra;aTk;.

(7)   Gs;sp toq;fSf;fhd
      epajpfs;         : •        nraw;ghl;bw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd mk;rq;fis mlf;
                                  fg;gl;Ls;sik
                              •   Fwpj;j Neuj;jpDs; Ntiyfis epiwNtw;Wjy;
                              •   ghl tplaq;fs; kl;Lky;yhJ Vida GJj;jfty;
                                  fs; mlq;fpAs;sik.
                              •                                      ;
                                  Mrpupaupd; topfhl;liy KOikahf gpdgw;Wjy;.
                              •   Mf;fg+u;tkhd Kd;itg;G.

       Gs;spfspd; tPr;R   :   •   kpf ed;W              04
                              •   ed;W                  03
                              •   kj;jpkk;              02
                              •   tpUj;jp Njit          01




                                     96
                          fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; kjpg;gPL
(1)   kjpg;gPl;L epiy          :   ,uz;lhk; jtiz> epiy 1

(2)   cs;slq;Fk; Nju;r;rp
      kl;lq;fs;           :        8.9> 8.10> 8.11

(3)   cs;slq;Fk; Nju;r;rp
      kl;lq;fs;           :        •   jpwe;j Kiwik ,ilj;njhlu;G (Open System
                                       inter connection) VO mLf;Fila Nkw;Nfhs; khjpup.
                                   •          ; ;
                                       gzpggpddy; cgfuzq;fSk; mtw;wpd; mbg;gil
                                       nraw;$WfSk;.
                                       • tY Ntw;wpfs;; (Repeaters)
                                       • kPs; gpwg;ghf;fpfs; (Regenerators)
                                       • Ftpad;fs; (Hubs)
                                       • ghyq;fs;; (Bridges)
                                       • khw;wpfs;; (Switches)
                                       • topr;nraypfs;; (Routers)
                                       • Eiothapy;fs; (Gateways)
                                   •   thbf;ifahsu;> Nritaf miktbtk;.

(4)   fUtpapd; jd;ik           :   •   Rtu;g;gj;jpupif

(5)   fUtpf; F upa
      Fwpf; N fhs; f s;        :   •   Gj;jhf;f kw;Wk; vOJk; jpwid Nkk;gLj;jpf;
                                       nfhs;thu;.
                                   •   jfty;fis NjLtjw;fhf Gjpa %yq;fis cg
                                       Nahfpg;ghu;.
                                   •                ; ;
                                       fzpdp gzpggpddypd; mbg;gil cgfuzq;fSk;
                                       VO mLf;Fila Nkw;Nfhs; khjpup gw;wp mwpit
                                       Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhs;thu;.

(5)   nraw;ghl;bw;fhd Mrpupau;
      topfhl; l y; f s; : • Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 8.11 Kbtpy; nra;Kiw nraw;ghL
                                       cs;sJ vd;gij Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 8.9 ,d; Muk;
                                       gj;jpNyNa khztu;fSf;F mwptpf;fTk;.
                                   •   kjpg;gPl;L epajpfis khztu;fSf;F njupag;
                                       gLj;jTk;.
                                   •                              ;    ;
                                       tFg;ig %d;W FOf;fshg; gpupjJ gpdtUk; nraw;
                                       ghl;bid mtu;fSf;F toq;fTk;.
                                       • VO mLf;Fila Nkw;Nfhs; khjpup
                                       • gzpg;gpd;dy; cgfuzq;fSk; mtw;wpd; mbg;
                                           gil nraw;$WfSk;.
                                       • thbf;ifahsu; Nritaf mik tbtk;.
                                   •                 ;
                                       jkJ FOtpwF toq;fg;gl;Ls;s jiyg;Gf;nfhz;l
                                       nra;jpj;jhs;> kly; xt;nthU khztu;fshYk;
                                       vOjg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;gij mwptpj;JtpLq;fs;.



                                           97
                              •   khztu; Mf;fq;fis ifaspf;f Ntz;ba
                                  jpfjpia mwptpj;J tplTk;.
                              •   khw;wq;fSf;Fg; gpd;du; cupa FOtpw;F toq;fg;
                                  gl;l jiyg;Gfs;> FOtpd; midj;J khztu;f
                                  shYk; fw;fg;gl;L Ra Mf;fkhf Kd;itf;f
                                  Ntz;Lnkd;gij mwptpf;fTk;.
                              •   Mf;fq;fspd; epiyf;F Vw;g Gs;spfis toq;fTk;.


(6)   nraw;ghl;by; <LgLtjw;fhd khztu;fSf;Fupa
      mwpTWj; j y;      : • Mrpupaupd; topfhl;liyg; gpd;gw;wTk;.
                              •            ;
                                  Mf;fj;jpwFg; nghUj;jkhd jfty;fis gj;jpupif>
                                  ntspaPLfs;> ,izak; Nghd;witfis gad;
                                  gLj;jTk;.
                              •   Mf;fq;fis epakpj;j jpfjpapy; xg;gilf;f
                                  Ntz;Lk; vd;gij epr;rag;gLj;jpf; nfhs;;sTk;.
                              •   ckJ FOtpYs;s xt;nthU mq;fj;jpdUk; jkJ
                                  jiyg;Gf;Fj; Njitahd jfty;fisr; NrfupggJ     ;
                                  fl;lhakhFk; vd;gij epidtpw; nfhs;sTk;.
                              •   Ra Mf;fq;fs; midj;ijAk; fUj;jpw;nfhz;L
                                  Mrpupau; Fwpg;gpLk; jpfjpapy; mwpf;ifnahd;iw
                                  jahupf;fTk;.
                              •   gpuj;jpNafkhf Fwpg;gpl;l jpfjpapy; gj;jpupiff;F
                                  Mf;fq;fis xg;gilAq;fs;.

(7)   Gs;sp toq;fSf;fhd
      epajpfs;         : •        jiyg;Gf;Fg; nghUj;jkhd jfty;fis mlf;fg;
                                  gl;Ls;sik.
                              •   Fwpj;j jpfjpapy; tplaq;fis nra;J Kbj;jy;.
                              •   ghl tplaq;fs; kl;Lky;yhJ Vida GJj;jfty;
                                  fs; mlq;fpAs;sik.
                              •                                     ;
                                  Mrpupaupd; topfhl;liy KOikahf gpdgw;Wjy;.
                              •   Mf;fg+u;tkhd Kd;itg;G.

       Gs;spfspd; tPr;R   :   •   kpf ed;W               04
                              •   ed;W                   03
                              •   kj;jpkk;               02
                              •   tpUj;jp Njit           01




                                      98
                                      kjpg; g P l ; L j; jpl; l k;
(1)       kjpg;gPl;L re;ju;g;gq;fs;      : %d;whk; jtid> kjpg;gPl;L re;ju;g;gk; 3

(2)   cs;;slf;fg; gLk;                   : 8.13> 8.14> 8.15
      Nju;r;rp kl;lk;

(3)   fUtpf;F Vw;g                       : • ,izaj;jsk;
                                           • toq;fg;gLk; Nritfs;
                                           • cyfyhtpa tiy (World Wide Web)
                                           • nghJ Mgj;Jf;fs;; (Common vulnerables)
                                           • mr;RWj;jy;fs; (Threats)
                                           • jhf;fq;fs; (Attacks
                                           • jPq;Fepuy;fs; (Malware)


(4)   fUtpapd; jd; i k                    • fz;lha;jy;

(5)       fUtpapd; Fwpf; N fhs;           • fzpdp ,izak; vd;gtw;iw
                                            cgNahfpf;Fk; NghJ Vw;glf;#ba
                                            tpgj;Jf;fs;; mr;RWj;jy;fs; vd;gd gw;wp
                                            vd;NeuKk; tpopg;Gzu;Tld; ,Ug;ghu;.

                                         • tpgj;Jf;fs;; mr;RWj;jy;fs; vd;gdtw;wpypUe;J
                                           ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhf etPd njhopEl;g
                                           Kiwfis gpuNahfpg;ghu;.
                                         • tpgj;Jf;fs; mr;RWj;jy;fs; vd;gd gw;wp

(6)   nraw;ghl;bw;fhd Mrpupau;
      topfhl; l y; f s; :  • Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 8.5 ,Wjpapy; fz;lha;T
      ;                                     nraw;ghnlhd;W nra;tjw;F cz;nld;gij
                                            Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 8.13 ,WjpapNyNa
                                            khztu;fSf;F mwptpf;fTk;.
                                         • kjpg;gPl;L epge;jidfs; gw;wp khztu;fSf;F
                                           mwptpf;fTk;.
                                         • khztu;fis 3 FOf;fshfg; gpupj;J rfy
                                           FOf;fSf;Fk; fPOs;s fz;lha;T nraw;ghl;bid
                                           toq;fTk;.
                                           • ,izak;> cyfyhtpa tiy kw;Wk;
                                              mtw;wpdhy; toq;fg;gLk; Nritfspy; <LgLk;
                                             NghJ fzpdpf;Fk; fzpdp tiyaikg;gpw;Fk;
                                            Vw;gkf ;$ba Gjpa Mgj;Jfs;> mr;RWj;jy;fs;>
                                             Mf;fpukpg;Gfs; gw;wpAk; mtw;wpypUe;J
                                             jfty;fis ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Fk;
                                             fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;s etPd njhopEl;g Kiwfs;
                                             vd;gtw;iw ,izak; %yk; fz;lha;e;J
                                             mwpf;ifnahd;W jahupf;fTk;.




                                                  99
                        • xt;nthU khztUk; jdJ FOtpd; nraw;ghl;il
                           Ke;jpa ghlq;fspy; ngw;Wf;nfhz;l gpuNahf mwptpid
                           gad; gLj;jp nra;a Ntz;Lnkd;gij njwptpf;fTk;.
                        • midj;J FOf;fspdJk; mwpf;iffis g;gilg;gjw;fhd
                           jpfjpnahd;iw Fwpj;J tplTk;.
                        • nghUj;jkhd xt;nthU re;ju;g;gj;jpYk;
                          epge;jidfSf;F mikthf Gs;spfs; toq;fTk;.


nraw;ghl;by; <LgLtjw;fhd khztu;fSf;Fupa
     mwpTWj; j y; :   • Mrpupau; topfhl;liyg gpd;gw;wTk;.
                        • cwpa fz;lha;tpw;Fj; Njitahd nra;jpg;
                             gj;jpupif> rQ;rpiffs;> ,izak; Nghd;wtw;iw
                             guprPypj;J ngw;Wf;nfhs;sTk;.
                        •   Fwpj;j jpfjpapy; mwpf;ifia xg;gilg;gjpy; ftzk;
                            nrYj;jTk;.
                        •   FOtpd; xt;nthU cWg;gpdUk;fz;lha;jy;
                            jiyg;gpw;Nfw;w jfty;jpul;l Ntz;Lk; vd;gij
                            ftzpf;fTk;.
                        •    Mrpupauhy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l jpdj;jpy; ckJ fz;lha;T
                            mwpf;ifia MrpupaUf;F Kd;itg;gjw;F eltbf;if
                            Nkw;nfhs;sTk;.
                        •    fz;lha;T mwpf;iffs; ahtw;iwAk; fUj;jpw;
                            nfhz;L mtw;wpd; jdp mwpf;ifia Mrpupau;
                            Fwpg;gpLk; jpdj;jpy; jahupf;fTk;.

(7) Gs;sp toq;fSf;fhd
      epajpfs; ; :    • KO jftYk; cs;slf;fg;gl;l mwpf;ifnahd;W
   ;                    jahupj;jy;.
                      • gpiofs; ,y;yhjthW tplaq;fis tYT+l;ly;.
                      • Fwpj;j jpfjpapy; Ntiyfis G+uzg;glj;jy;.
                      • Mrpupau; topfhl;liyg gpd;gw;wy;.

Gs;spfspd; tPr;R :      •   kpf ed;W             04
                        •   ed;W                 03
                        •   kj;jpkk;             02
                        •   tpUj;jp Njit         01




                                     100
                 f.ngh.j,(c.j) jfty; n jhlu; g hlYk; njhopEl; g tpaYk;
                          Mq;fpy - jkpo; mUQ;nrhy; tpsf;fk;


Abnormalities                         toikf;F khwhdit
Abstract                              rhuhk;rk;
Abstraction                           gphpj;njLj;jy;
Access Privilege                      EioT cupik
Accuracy                              kpfr;rupahd>Jy;ypakhd
Acknowledgement                       Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;
Addition                              $l;ly;
Address space                         ,ilntsp
Addressing                            Kftupaply;
Advantages                            mD$yq;fs;
Algorithms                            newpKiwfs;.
Alignment                             ,irT> rPuhf;fy;
Allocation                                 P
                                      xJf;fL
Amplitude                             tPr;rk;
Analog                                xg;Gik
Anchor                                epUj;jp
Application                           gpuNahfk;
Application servers                   gpuNahf Nritafk;
Appropriateness                       nghUj;jg;ghL
Architecture                          fl;likg;G
Arguments                             tpthjq;fs;
Arithmetic & Logic Unit               vz;fzpj jHf;f myF
Associative                           $l;L> guptu;j;jid
Attenuation                           xLf;fy; > tYtpoj;jy;.
Atiue
 trbt                                 gz;G
Auction                               Vyk;
Authentication                        cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;
Automated                             jd;dpaf;f
Axiom                                 rpj;jhe;jk;
Backup                                ghJfhg;gpw;fhf Nrkpj;jy;
Bandwidth                             gl;il mfyk;
Basic                                 mbg;gil
Batch                                 njhFjp
Binary                                Jtpj



                                          101
BIOS (Basic Input Output System)   mbg;gil cs;sPl;L ntspaPl;L Kiwik
Bt / Bt
 i    ye                           gpl; / igl;
Bitwise                            gpl; Kiw
Blocked St
         ate                       jLf;fg;gl;l epiy
Blogs                              tiyg;gjpTfs;
Boolean Algebra                    g+ypapd; ,aw;fzpjk;
Booting                            tYT+l;ly;> Muk;gpj;jy;
Boundary                           vy;iy
Broadband                          mfd;w miytupir
Cache Memory                       tpiuT epidtfk;
Canonical
Capacity                           nfhs;ssT
Case                               epfo;T
Causes                             fhuzpfs;
Cl
 el                                fyk;
Characteristics                    rpwg;gp;ay;Gfs;.
Chunk                              ngUk;gFjp
Crut
 ici                               Rw;W
Classes                            tFg;Gfs;
Classification                     tifg;gLj;jy;fs;.
Cin
 let                               thbf;ifahsH
Cis
 lp                                ntl;bnaLf;fg;gl;l gFjp
CMOS – Complimentary Metal Oxide   epug;G cNyhf xw;irl;L Fiwflj;jp
Semiconductor                      Fiwflj;jp
Code                               FwpaPL> epuw;njhlH
Collecting                         Nrfhpj;jy;
coexistance                        rftho;T
Command                            fl;lis
Communication partners             njhlu;ghly; gq;Fjhuu;
Communication Technology           njhlHg;ghly; njhopy;El;gtpay;
Commutative                        Fiwf;Fk;> khw;Wk;
Compaction                         milj;jy;
Compare                            xg;gPL
Competency                         NjHr;rp
Competency Level                   NjHr;rp kl;lk;
Compiler                           njhFg;ghd;




                                       102
Complement                     epug;gp
Computer                       fzpdp
Computer Based                 fzpdprhH
Computing                      fzpj;jy;
Concept                        vz;zf;fU
Concurrent execution           Vffhy ,af;fk;
Content                        cs;slf;fk;> nghUslf;fk;
Context Switch                 re;jHg;g epiykhw;wp
Control Unit                   fl;Lg;ghl;lyF
Conversion                     khw;wk;
Copyright                      gjpg;Ghpik.
Counter                        vz;zp
Coverage                       gug;G
CPU(Central Processing Unit)   kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L myF
Crackers                       ngha;aHfs; > FwpKwpg;ghd;fs;
Created state                  cUthf;fg;gl;l epiy
Ciei
 rtra                          epge;jid
Customization                  jdpg;gadhf;fy;
Data                           juT
Data flow diagram              juT gha;r;ry; tiuglk;
Data Packets                   juTg; nghjpfs;
Database                       juTj;jsk;
Decimal                        gjpd;kk;
Dfnto
 eiiin                         tiutpyf;fzk;
Defragmentation                rPuhf;fy;> xUq;fpizj;jy;
Degree                         juk;
Dependency                     rhHGfs;
Design                         tbtikg;G
DHCP server                    ,aq;Fepiy tpUe;Njhk;gy; tbtikg;G
                               cld;gL newpKiwfs;
Dialup                         Row;W Kiw
Dgtl
 iia                           vz;zpay;
D g t lC r u t
 iia ici                       vz;zpay;; Rw;W
Digital Signature              vz;zpay;; ifnaOj;Jf;fs;
Drc
 iet                           Neubahd
Directory                      milT




                                   103
Disadvantages                gpujp$yq;fs;
Disclosure                   ntspf;fhl;Ljy;.
Disk                         tl;L
Dispatcher                   mDg;gp
Distortion                   jphpG
Dsrbtv
 itiuie                          P
                             gq;fL
Dvso
 iiin                        gpupj;jy;
Document                     Mtzk;
Domain                       jsk;
Domain name service server   jsg;ngau; Nrit Nritafk;
Dynamic                      ,af;ftpay;> ,aq;Fepiy
Eaves dropping               xw;Wf;Nfl;ly;.
Ei
 dt                          Gjpg;G
Elcode                       Fwpaply;
Electro Mechanical           kpd; ,ae;jpu
Electronic                   ,yj;jpudpay;
Elements                     %yfq;fs;> $Wfs;
Embed                        cw;nghjp
Embedded                     cl;nghjpe;j
Emergence                    Njhw;wk;> ntspj;Njhd;wy;
Encrypted                    kiwf;FwpaPlhf;fg;gl;l
Ette
 niis                        nghUl;fs;
Error Checking               gpio Njly;> jpUj;jy;
Espionage                    xw;wH Nrit
Evolution                    ghpzhkk;
Exception                    tpjptpyf;F
Executable                   epiwNtw;wf;$ba
Features                     gz;Gfs;
Fiber Optics                 ,io xspapay;
Fed
 il                          fsk;> Gyk;
Fl
 ie                          Nfhit> Nfhg;G
Firewalls                    jPr;Rtu;fs;
Firmware                     epiyg;nghUs;
Fixed                        epiyahd
Flash Memory                 Jhpj fjp epidtfk;
Feil
 lxbe                                    ;
                             nefpo;Tj;jd;ik




                                 104
Floating Point            ePSk; jrkq;fs;
Floppy Disk               nefpo; tl;L
Flow Charts               gha;r;rw; Nfhl;Lg;glq;fs;.
Flow Control              gha;r;rw; fl;Lg;ghL
Folder                    milT
Format                    tbtk;
Fragmentation             Jz;lhf;fk;
Frame Synchronization -   rl;lf rkfhyg;gLj;jy;
Frames                    rl;lfq;fs;
Gateway                   Eiotp
Generalization            nghJikg;ghL
Generation                Afk;> guk;giu
Grading                   jug;gLj;jy;
Guided                    topg;gLj;jg;gl;l
Hackers                   FWk;gHfs;
Hand Traces               if tiuGfs;.
Hardware                  td;nghUs;
Headings                  jiyg;Gfs;
Hexadecimal               gjpdUkk;
Hierarchy                 Gbepiy
Host Computer             cgrupg;G> tpUe;Njhk;gy; fzpdp
Humanoid                  kdpjidg; Nghd;w
Humanoid                  kdpj,ay;Gila
Hyperlink                 kP ,izg;G
Hypertext                 kPciu> kpifAiu
Ietfes
 dniir                    Fwpg;ghd;fs;
Iett
 dniy                     xj;j jd;ik
Image Maps                cU tpgug;glq;fs;
Impact                    jhf;fk;> mOj;jk;
Implementation            mKyhf;fk;.
Inaccuracy                kpfr;rhpapd;ik.
Independence              RahjPdk;> Rje;jpuk;
Index                     mftupir> Rl;b> Rl;nlz;
Information               jfty;
Ifae
 nrrd                     nre;epwfPo;
Inheritance               cupikg;ngwy;




                              105
Ipt
 nu                                       cs;sPL
Isrcin
 ntuto                                    topKiw> tpjpKiwfs;
Instruction Set                           Mizj;njhFjp
Itgr
 nee                                      KO vz;> epiu vz;
Integrated Development Environment(IDE)   xUq;fpizf;fg;gl;l tpUj;jpr; #oy;
Itrcin
 neato                                    ,ilj;njhlu;g;G
Itrae
 nefc                                     ,ilKfk;
Itre
 nent                                     ,izak;
Itrrtr
 nepee                                    ,ilj;njhlu;ghsu;
Itrut
 nerp                                     ,ilkwp> FWf;fPL
Itae
 nrnt                                     cs;spizak;
Kansei system                             fd;nra; Kiwik
Karnaugh Map                              fhHdh ml;ltid
Kernel                                    %yf;fU
Key Constraints                           rhtpf;fl;Lg;ghLfs;
Keyword                                   Kjd;ikr;nrhy;
Landmark                                  iky;fy;> jUg;GKis
Laws                                      tpjpfs;
Leased line                               Fj;jif       ,izg;G
Lbais
 irre                                     E}yfq;fs;
Lss
 it                                       gl;bay;fs;
Logic                                     ju;f;ftpay; > ju;f;fk;
Logic Gates                               jHf;ftpay; thapy;fs;
Logical link control layer                ju;f;f ,izg;G fl;Lg;ghl;L mLf;F
Magnetic                                  fhe;j
Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR)      fhe;j ik vOj;JU thrpg;ghd;
Mail servers                              mQ;ry; Nritafk;
Malware                                   gpwo; nghUs;
Management                                Kfhikj;Jtk;/Nkyhz;ik
Manipulate                                jpwikahf ifahsy;
Manual handling                           ifKiw ifahSjy;
Mapping                                   milahsg;gLj;jy;> tpgug;glkply;
Markup                                    Rl;L
Mash up                                   rpW $whf;fy;
Media access control                      Clf mDfy; fl;Lg;ghL
Memory                                    epidtfk;




                                                 106
Merge                            xd;wpizj;jy;> xd;whf;fy;
Meta data                           ;
                                 kPjjuT
Methods                          Kiwfs;.
Micro                            Ez;
Micro Processors                 Ez; nraypfs;
Microwave                        Ez;ziyfs;
Mini                             rpwpa
Mobile Computing                 elkhLk; fzpj;jy;
Modularization                   $Wfshf;Fjy;
Motherboard                      jha;g;gyif.
Multimedia                       gy;Âlf
Multiplex                        gd;ikahf;fk;
Mlilcto
 utpiain                         ngUf;fy;
Multiprogramming                 gy;epuyply;
Multitasking                     gw;gzp
Multi-user                       gw;gadH
Network                          tiyg;gpd;dy;
Newsgroups                       nra;jpf;FOf;fs;
Nonvolatile memory               mopTwh epidtfk;
Normalization                    vspikg;gLj;jy;
Number System                    vz;Kiwik
Numeric Data                     vz;juTfs;
Object Oriented                  nghUs;rhu;> tplak; rhu;e;j
Objects                          nghUl;fs;> t];j;Jf;fs;
Octal                            vz;kk;
Open Source Software             jpwe;j %y nkd;nghUl;fs;
Operating System                 ,af;f Kiwik
Optical                          xspapay;
Optical Character Reader (OCR)   xspapay; vOj;JU thrpg;ghd
Optical Mark Reader (OMR)        xspapay; Fwp thrpg;ghd;
Organization                     mikg;G> epWtdk;
Organizing                       xOq;fikj;jy;
Output                           ntspaPL.
Package                          nghjp> njhFg;G
Paging                           gf;fkhf;fy;
Parameter                        rhuhkhwp




                                       107
Password                     flTr;nrhy;
Patch                        rPuhf;Fjy;> xl;Lg;Nghly;
Performance                  nraw;wpwd;
Phase                        fl;lk;
Phased implementation -      fl;l mKyhf;fk;
Physhing                     topjtwr;nra;jy;
Plt
 io                          Kz;Nzhb
Pilot implimentation -       Kz;Nzhb mKyhf;fk;
Pt
 i                           gs;sk;
Plagiarism                   Kiwaw;w gpujpahf;fk;
Plan                         jpl;lk;
Platform independent         js Rje;jpu
Playback                     kPy; Xl;ly;
Portals                      tiy thry;fs;
Postulate                    nfhs;iffs;
Presentation                 Kd;itg;G
Primary                      Kjd;ik
Problem                      gpur;rpid
Procedures                   nra;Kiwfs;
Process                      nraw;ghL
Process scheduler            nray;Kiw fhyKiw> ml;ltiz gLj;jp
Process scheduling           nray;Kiw fhyKiw> ml;ltiz gLj;jy;
Process state                nray;Kiw epiy
Processes                    nray;Kiw
Programmer                   epuyH
Proprietary                  chpj;Jhpik
Protocols                    cld;gL newpKiwfs;
Prototype                    Kd;khjphp
Proxy servers                gpujpepjpj;Jt Nritafq;fs;
Pseudo Codes                 Nghypf;Fwpfs;
Publishing                   ntspapLjy;> gpuRupj;jy;
Pulse                        Jbg;G > ehbj;Jbg;G
Quantum                      rf;jpr;nrhl;L
Random Access Memory - RAM   vOkhW mZfy; epidtfk;
Range                        tPr;R
Read Only Memory             thrpg;G epidtfk;




                                  108
Real time                Epfo;Neu
Real Time Processing -   Epfo; Neu nraw;ghL
Receiver                 thq;fp
Reduction                Fiwj;jy;
Redundancy               kpifik / ghtidaw;w
Reentered                kPy;gjpe;j> kPy;Eiye;j
Reference                Nkw;Nfhs;> Fwpg;G
Refresh                  Gj; J zH{l; L
Registers                gjptfq;fs;
Relationship             cwTKiw
Relevance                cupa> jFe;j> nghUj;jk;
Remedies                 epthuzpfs;
Remote                   njhiytpyhd
Represent                gpjpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;J
Repudiation              epuhfhpg;G
Response time            Gjpyypg;G Neuk;
Reverse                  vjpHkhwhd> kWGuk;
Review                   jpwdha;T> kPyha;T
Router                   topr;nrayp> jpirtp
Running St t
         ae              XL epiy
Save                     Nrkpg;G
Scheduling               ml;ltizg;gLj;jy;> fhyKiwg;gLj;jy;
Schema                   mikg;G Kiw> tiuglk;> jpl;lk;
Secondary Storage        ,uz;lhe;ju / Jiz epidtfk;
Selection                njhpT
Semi conductor           Fiwflj;jp
Sensor                   czHthd;
Sequence                 thpir Kiwahf
Servers                  Nritafq;fs;
Session                  njhlH
Setting                  mikg;G
Simple                   vspa
Single Precision         xw;iwr; rupEl;gk;
Single User              jdpg;gadH
Slowness                 Ntff;FiwT
Software                 nkd;nghUs;




                             109
Software interrupt              nkd;nghUs; ,ilA+W
Solution                        jPHT
Sort                            epuw;gLj;jy; > xOq;F gLj;jy;
Source file                     tsf; Nfhit
Sp c f c t o
  eiiain                        tupaiw
Sprl
  ia                            RUspahd
Spoofing                        gfpb tpisahLjy;
St
 andardization                  jug;gLj;jy;
St
 atement                        $w;W
Stt c
 ai                             Epiyapay;
St
 atic Image                     epiyapay; glk;
Storage                         fsQ;rpak;> itg;gfk;
Structured                      xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l
Subtraction                     fopj;jy;
Support                         cjtp> MjuT
Swapped and blocked state       khw;;wg;gl;lJk; jilgl;lJkhd epiy
Swapped out and waiting state   khw;;wg;gl;lJk; fhj;jpUg;gJkhd epiy
Swapping                        khw;wg;gly;
Switching                       epiykhw;wy;
Symbol                          FwpaPL
Synchronization                 xj;jpaf;fk;>    Vffhyj;jpy; epfo;fpd;w
Syntax                          njhlhpay;> ,yf;fz tpjp
System development              Kiwik tpUj;jp
System flow diagram             Kiwik gha;r;ry; tiuglk;
Tables                          ml;ltizfs;
Tags                            Fwpfs;
Tampering                       njhe;juT nra;jy;
Task                            gzp> gzpf;flk;
Techniques                      EZf;fq;fs;
Technology                      njhopy;El;gk;
Terminated sta e
              t                 KbTw;w epiy
Te t e i o
  x dtr                         ciuj; gjpg;gp
Theorem                         Njw;wk;
Thread                          GupcU
Throughput                      nray;tPjk;
Time Sharing                    fhyg;> Neug; gfpHT




                                       110
Topologies           ,izTfs;
Transistor           kpd;kg;ngUf;fp> jpuhd;rp];lu;
Translate            nkhopg;ngaH
Translators          nkhopngaHg;ghd;fs;
Transmission media   CLflj;jy;> nrYj;Jk; Clfk;
Transmitter          CLflj;jp> nrYj;jp
Tr t Table
  uh                 cz;ik ml;ltiz
Tuples               gjpTfs;
Turnaround           Row;rp
Twisted Pair         KWf;fg;gl;l Nrhb
Two sta e l g c
       t oi          ,U epiy ju;f;fk;
Type                 tif
U t aV o e
 lr ilt              Gw Cjh fjpH
Unique               jdpj;Jtkhd
Update               epfo;epiyg;gLj;jYk;.
User                 gadu;
Uiiain
 tlzto               cr;rg;gad;ghL
Vacuum               ntw;wplk;> #dpag; gpuNjrk;
Variables            khwpfs;
Ve i i a i n
  rfcto              rupghu;j;jy;
Video Conferencing   xspg;gl ciuahly;
Virtual Memory       Kha> kiwKf epidtfk;
Volatile Memory      mopAk;> epiyaw;w epidtfk;
Vulnerability        jhf;fk;
W a t n St
   i i g ate         fhj;jpUj;jy; epiy
Waiting time         fhj;jpUj;jy; Neuk;
Web Browsers         tiy cyhtpfs;
Web servers          tiy Nritafk
Word length          nrhy; ePsk;
World Wide Web       cyfshtpa tiy
Zombies              Mtpfs;




                          111

								
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