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					PALESTINE UNIVERSITY

BUILDING MATERIAL
    chapter No.#7

  Mechanical Works

Dr. Ali Ibrahim Tayeh
       MECHANICAL WORKS
                      General

 Mechanical  works must hve high control in order
to prevent any damage.
 Because its problem appear after some times.
      MECHANICAL WORKS
                       considerations

We should take in our considerations
 Bath room accessories distribution
         Accessories     (such as grab bars, paper towel
            dispenser, seat cover dispenser, toilet tissue
            dispenser, soap dispenser, hand dryer, etc.) should
            not be appered by doors.
         Bath   room accessories distribution depend on
          accessories dimensions
   Structural factors
            pipes must be taken in consecration when we
            design structural element for buildings as drop
            beams.
MECHANICAL WORKS
            considerations
     water pipes must be prevented to locate near
      to footings or in the middle of buildings.
Collector boxes
     Collector boxes must be located in a suitable
      place enable the human move with more
      friability in order to be easier maintenance
      and easier insulation.
MECHANICAL WORKS
               considerations
     Fresh water and waste water pipes must
      check it after installed it .

     It is preferred to control any supplier by
      water switch.

     To prevent leakage losses or to make high
      control and easy maintenance.

     It is preferred to use a good kind of switch to
      prevent water leakage and brokenness.
MECHANICAL WORKS
                     Valves
     All valves shall be installed so that they are
      accessible for inspection and maintenance,
      and are fully operable.
     Air vents shall be located at highest points in
      the lines.
     No joints shall be made within walls, floors
      or ceiling thickness, or in inaccessible
      positions.
     Drain valves shall be provided at the bottom
      of every riser and on the outlet side of branch
      isolating valves, and at all low undeniable
      points.
MECHANICAL WORKS
                    Testing

     The domestic hot and cold water service pipe
      work shall be tested with potable water to a
      pressure of 1 1/2 times the working head and
      maintained for two hours without further
      application of pressure, and without visible
      leakage or drop in indicated pressure.
     In the event of the failure of any test the
      defect shall be located and repaired, and the
      test repeated.
MECHANICAL WORKS
                   Testing
   All pipe work shall be hydraulically tested as
    soon as is practicable after installation and
    before completion of shaft walls, access
    panels, suspended ceilings and application of
    insulation.
   The pipe work shall be inspected and
    hydraulically tested to not less than 1 1/2
    times the working pressure whichever is
    greater. The test shall be maintained for 2
    hours without further application of pressure
    and without visible leakage or drop in
    indicated pressure.
MECHANICAL WORKS
                   Pipe Sleeves

Where   pipes pass through floors or walls, compatible
pipe sleeves shall be supplied. Unless otherwise
stated pipe sleeves shall be sized to provide 15 mm
clearance around the pipe to be installed or, where the
pipe is to be thermally insulated or otherwise covered,
15 mm clearance around the surface covering in order
that the sleeve may be packed and sealed with
mineral or glass wool sealed at both ends with water
and fire retardant mastic. Particular attention should
be given to necessary fire-stop approval materials.
MECHANICAL WORKS
                     Pipe Sleeves

   Sleeves shall be of the same material as the piping
    and shall be cut to the correct required length at site
    with due allowance for the thickness of plaster
    and/or other finishes.
   Water protecting pipe sleeves through floors shall
    be supplied and fixed in the following locations:
              in floors provided with a waterproof
               membrane
              in plant rooms
              in kitchen areas
MECHANICAL WORKS
                 Drainage System
   This system shall be installed to collect the foul
    drainage from sanitary and waste water items and
    convey this effluent to the external authority
    sewers. Also this system shall cover the storm
    water (rain water) drainage .
     Drainage water can be grouped to three group:
                 Clean water
                 Rain water
                 waste water
MECHANICAL WORKS
                 Drainage System
   Drainage water coming to its manholes by gravity
    generally
   Some times we used pumps in order to getting
    water to manholes ,in this case the reason to use
    pump is:
            Difference of level
                This happen if the lowest level of pipes
              is lower than the bottom level of
              manholes, so we use pump to come over
              this problem and getting the water out.
MECHANICAL WORKS
        Drainage System
    Huge quantities
   Some times huge quantities of water cause
     discharge problem , so we use pump to
     come over this problem and getting the
     water out.
MECHANICAL WORKS
               EVAPORATORS
  Material

  The shell and tube plates shall be of steel and the
  water boxes/end covers of steel or cast iron.
  Water-box end covers shall be removable. Tubes
  shall be copper, aluminum brass or cupro-nickel.
  Supports of suitable materials shall be installed to
  prevent tube vibration
  Tests

  Refrigerant and water spaces shall be pressure
  tested at the manufacturers works in accordance
  with this specification.
MECHANICAL WORKS
              Roof isolation
   Roof isolation
   To check roof isolation we must close all
    sewage or rain water pipe opening then pump
    a big water quantities to special datum and
    observe the change of water level with
    respect to datum level
   Piping requiring to be thermally insulated or
    otherwise covered shall be so fixed as to
    permit the application of the covering around
    the full circumference and also leave
    adequate space between covered pipes.
MECHANICAL WORKS
                    ELEVATOR
ELEVATOR
 There are General spas faction should be taken in our
consideration in order to get more safe elevators as:
           Driving system.
           Capacity (LOAD).
           Power supply.
           Motor capacity.
           Stops and saftey.
           Travel
           Rate speed.
           Door systems.
           Door size.
           Car Size.
           Hoist way Size.
MECHANICAL WORKS



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posted:7/17/2012
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