Adrian Caciur Nov. 11th 2010 Contents Social skills definition Causes of social skill deficits Why do we need social skills intervention? Social functioning assessment Common social skills difficulties associated with ASD Differentiating between skill acquisition and performance deficits Setting stage for intervention Strategies that promote skills acquisition Strategies that promote skills performance Evaluating and monitoring progress Working in partnership with teachers and parents Definition “Socially acceptable learned behaviors that enable a person to interact with others in ways that elicit positive responses and assist the person in avoiding negative responses (Elliot, Racine, & Busse 1995, p.1009)” “Bad” definitions: - Social skills can be defined as the set of skills people use to interact and communicate with one another. - Social skills are the skills that enable a person to interact and communicate with others in a meaningful way. Social skills are closely allied to Emotional Intelligence (EI)- a kind of intelligence or skill that involves the ability to perceive, assess and positively influence one's own and other people's emotions. In order to interact effectively with others, one has to be able to monitor and control one's own emotional state. Reasoning: - First definition puts emphasis on “learned behaviors” - The difference between neurotypical children acquire these skills by modeling, trial and error, and experience. - Children with ASD need to be taught these skills explicitly Although social skill deficits are central feature of ASD few children receive adequate social skills programming (Humme, Bellini, & Pratt, 2005) Causes of social skills deficits INTERNAL CAUSES: - External Locus of control - Mind blindness - Limited areas of interests - Difficulty adjusting to new environments and new rules - Limited communication capabilities - Strong need for consistent routine - Difficulty with generalization of new learned skills - Difficulties understanding connection between behavior and resulting consequences Environmental causes: - Low socioeconomic income (Boyle & Offor, 1990) - Large family size (Rutter et al, 1975) - Urban residence (Boyle and Offord, 1990) - Single parent home (Boyle and Offord, 1990) Odds are also found in one or both parents suffering from emotional disturbance, parental depression, domestic violence, medical illness, etc. According to Rutter (1987) to identify the specific risk is not as important as their cumulative effect in contributing to maladjustment. Cumulative odds predict problem behaviors better than does any single variables (Sameroff & Seifer, 1983). Academic causal model Social skills deficits/behavior problems Academic weakness Social causal model Social skills deficits/behavior problems Academic weakness Bidirectional model Social skills deficits/behavior problems Academic weakness Common mediator model Mediating variables Academic weakness (e.g. language processing) Social skills deficits/behavior problems Why do we need social skills intervention? Social skill deficits are common to a large area of disabilities such as: learning disabilities, ADHD, ASD, and MD They are critical to successful social, emotional, and cognitive development. Effective social skills allow us to elicit positive reactions and evaluations from peers as we perform socially approved behaviors (Ladd and Mize, 1983) This is especially troubling considering that the presence of social impairment may portend the development of more outcomes such as: social failure and peer rejection Social isolation is further linked to more severe forms of behavior such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and other forms of psychopathology (Bellini, 2004: La Greca & Lopez, 1998, Tantam 2000) Bullying More aggressive forms of behavior such as bullying tend to inflict a great toll on victims. In 1991 Olweus reports that 1 in 6 children were bullied on the playground. “In 2009 in a recent study, 77% of the students said they had been bullied. Cyber bullying statistics reveal similar numbers. And 14% of those who were bullied said they experienced severe (bad) reactions to the abuse.” APA: How to stop bullies (2009). how-to-stop-bullying.com/index.html: “Stop bullying” Retrieved on November 5th , 2010 from: http://www.how-to-stop- bullying.com/index.html - Students with disabilities need to be taught self advocacy skills Severe forms of behavior Chronically aggressive tend to become adolescent and adult offenders with associated drug, alcohol, and mental health problems (Robins, 1983). Tax payers money are used to provide expensive services, either therapeutic or criminal justice, for children with fully developed behavior and emotional problems . In the United States, yearly incarceration exceeds $40,000 for each offender (Zigler, Taussing, and Black 1992) In 2004 the costs for each inmate was $76,000/year in Michigan, $66,000 in Colorado, and $36,000 in Pensylvania. More recent studies show this number has increased in the recent years (2008)up to $47,102 for California state In 1990 “Various studies have suggested between 2 percent to 10 percent of the prison population has mental retardation. Denkowski & Denkowski (1985) found that about 2 percent of all inmates in either state or federal prisons have mental retardation (about 14,000 people).” Social functioning assessment General interview of social functioning/ecological inventory - Parent interview - Teacher interview - Child interview Assessment tools: RATING SCALES/VINLAND/ABLLS /BRIGANCE SETTING INTERVENTION: - Select objectives - Identify component skills necessary to reach objectives BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS - ASSESSMENT Functional behavior assessment - Defining behavior – establishing operational definition of behaviors - Identifying setting events, antecedents and consequences OBSERVATION : - Naturalistic observation (ABC observation) - Structured observation (Functional analysis) Summary statement Behavior Intervention Plan Implementation and monitoring ) Common social skills difficulties associated with ASD Difficulties making or keeping friends Difficulties joining an activity Easily taken advantage of Difficulties understanding non-verbal communication or/and abstract language Difficulties maintaining personal space Lacks tact or appears rude Has difficulties understanding emotions and facial expressions (mind blindness) Setting stage for intervention acquisition deficits vs. performance deficits It is imperative to determine if the skill deficits identified are the result of skill acquisition deficits or performance deficits (Elliot & Greshman, 1991) Skill acquisition deficit refers to the absence of a skill or behavior. Performance deficit refers to a skill or behavior that is present but not demonstrated or performed. Strategies that promote skills acquisition Thoughts, feelings and interests (teaching facial expressions, if-then statements, interests inventory, etc.) Reciprocal interaction games Video modeling and video self modeling Social problem solving Interaction/conversation planning Task analysis Virtual reality training Strategies that enhance performance Reinforcement/contingency strategies Gaming skills Environmental accommodations Increased social opportunities/live practice Disability awareness and peer support strategies Priming social behavior (cognitive priming, behavioral priming) Selection of appropriate goals that are functional (taps into the motivational component) Matching the political arena Supporting Chicago’s bid to host the 2016 Olympics Evaluating and monitoring progress Social performance should be measured at the beginning of the social skills program (base line) and at the end of the intervention with regular checks in between (ideally every month) in order to check for adequate progress Social performance may be monitored via: - Observation (naturalistic or structured) - Interviews (parent, teacher, student) - Standardized or nonstandardized rating scales of social behavior Types of recording systems Frequency recording – counting the number of times a behavior occurs Duration recording – recording the length of time a behavior is performed from beginning to end. Time sampling procedures - whole time recording (a behavior is considered to have occurred only if it is performed through the entire period) - Partial interval recording (behaviors are considered to have occurred if they are performed at any time during the interval) - Momentary time sampling () Latency recording – the amount of time elapsed between a stimulus and a response Social validity Social validity refers to the social significance of the treatment objectives, the social significance of the intervention results (Greshman & Lambros, 1998) - Social validity is the equivalent of what we commonly know as consumer satisfaction - Our consumers: parents, teachers and the child NO SOCIAL VALIDITY: - less likely to be implemented without social validity - Social skills targeted during the intervention do not have real life equivalent and will be quickly extinct Partnership with parents and other professionals. Discussion There is little amount of research about how to work with your parents, teachers, speech therapists, occupational therapists, etc. Communication and systems of communication are common concepts and usually professionals have opportunities to meet and talk However, most of the time approach is very narrow and the students is progressing at a very slow rate There are a lot of factors involved in determining why the system is crippled : - Professionals relying too much on acquiring all the developmental levels before getting to a certain skill (children are getting locked in an unnecessary bubble of what is called “pre-requisite skills”); research shows that children with mental disabilities can be successful at acquiring meaningful skills without meeting all developmental levels - Professionals relying to heavily on a “bag of tricks”. - Poorly conducted assessments - Being reactive and not proactive (Not following the accommodations as listed in the IEP ) - Decisions are not driven by data - Large caseloads – teachers cannot manage efficiently - Lack of administration support in implementing interventions/accomodations/BIP (Behavior Intervention Plan) - Administrators not knowledgeable or not willing enough to know what is going on in the special education classroom (as long as there are no problems) How to resolve these problems: 1. Parent involvement 2. Meaningful goals 3. Data driven decisions 4. Adequate training for staff working with this population References Elliot, S.N. Racine, C.N.., & Busse, R.T. (1995) Best practices in preschool social skills taining In A. Thomas & J Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in preschool psychology (3rd. Ed., pp. 1009-1020). Washington DC: NASP Humme, K., Bellini, S., & Pratt , C. (2005) The usage and perceived outcomes of early intervention and early childhood programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Topics in early Childhood Special Education, 25(4), 195-207 Boyle, M.H., & Offord, D.R. (1990). Primary prevention of conduct disorder. Issues and prospects. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 227-233 Smaeroff, A.J., & Seiffer, R. (1983). Familial risk and child competence. Child development, 54, 1254-1268 Ladd, G.W., & Mize, J. (1983) A cognitive social learning model of social skill training. Psychology review, 90, 127-157 APA: How to stop bullies (2009). how-to-stop-bullying.com/index.html: “Stop bullying” Retrieved on November 5th , 2010 from: http://www.how-to-stop-bullying.com/index.html Tantam, D. (2000). Psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism , 4, 47-62 Zigler, E., Taussing, C., & Black, L. (1992) Early childhood intervention. A promising preventive for juvenile delinquency. American Psychology 47, 997-1006. Denkowski, G.C., & Denkowski, K.M. (1985). The mentally retarded offender in the state prison system: Identification, prevalence, adjustment, and rehabilitation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 12 (1), 53-70 Eliot, S., & Gresham, F. (1991). Social skills intervention guide. Circle pines, MN: American Guidance Gresham. F.M., & Lambros, K.M. (1998). Behavioral and Functional assessment. In T.S. Watson & F.M. Gresham (Eds.), Handbook of child behavior therapy (pp. 3-22). New-York: Plenum Press.
Pages to are hidden for
"Social skills interventions"Please download to view full document