Job Aids to Accompany by 15sKCNk

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 22

									                             Job Aids to Accompany

            Smith & Ragan, Instructional Design, 3rd Edition


Included in this set are eight job aids. These simple forms may help you in completing
various phases in a design project. They are intended to be used in a word processing
format and modified with your own content. As well, it is perfectly appropriate to modify
the structure of the job aid to best suit your situation and preferences.

Job aids are provided for the following tasks:


                                                        page

     1. Context Analysis                                2
         a. Needs                                       2
         b. Learning Environment                        5
     2. Describing the Target Audience – Learners       6
     3. Goal Identification and Task Analysis           8
     4. Assessment Design                              10
         a. Item Specifications                        11
         b. Instrument Blueprint                       12
     5. Organizational Strategy and Media Overview     13
     6. Planning the Organizational Strategy           14
     7. Formative Evaluation                           19
     8. Sample Instructor Guide Form                   20
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                              page 2



                      Job Aid 1: Analyzing the Context
You can use the following job aid to help you analyze the context of the learning
environment for an instructional design project at the course level. This analysis may
involve citing information that is currently available to you, plus planning to obtain
information that is not currently available to you.

A. Establishing or validating the instructional need

1. Goal identification:

    Are instructional goals currently identified for this course?

         Yes
          • Who developed them and when were they developed?


           • How and when were these goals last validated?



           • Are there circumstances that suggest that these goals may
               no longer be valid?


           • What are the procedures that you would use to validate these
              goals?


           • Are the statements of these goals available to you?

                   Yes
                     Attach them to this form.

                 No
                   Where can a statement of these goals be obtained?

    No
2. Goal development (see next page)

(2. Goal development, continued)

   • Who are the people that should be involved in the development of
     instructional goals for this course?
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                       page 3



   • What procedures would you use in getting these people to help you identify
     relevant goals?




   • How would you validate that these goals are the critical ones?



   • What is the desirable level of attainment of these goals?




3. Gap identification

    • What is the level of attainment of the goals of those learners completing
       the course? (If this information is not currently available, what procedures
       would you follow in determining the answer to this question?)



    • What is the level of attainment of the goals of those learners before they
       enter the course? (If this information is not currently available, what
       procedures would you follow in determining the answer to this question?)



    • Is there evidence that the course is necessary?

    • Is there evidence that the goals are being reached to the desirable level as
        a result of instruction?

           No
           Which goals are not being reached to the desirable level? List them
           here. Move to step 4.



     Yes
     Is there evidence that this level is being achieved with a suitable level of
     efficiency in terms of time and costs? (If this information is not currently
     available, what procedures would you follow in determining the answer to
     this question?)
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                         page 4




           No
           Which goals seem to be related to inefficient instruction? List them
           here. Move to step 4.




      Yes (If yes, conclude the needs assessment here)

4. Prioritize goals.

    • Which individuals should be involved in prioritizing the unreached goals?



    • What criterion (criteria) should be used in prioritizing the unreached goals?



    • Using these criteria, list the goals in order of importance.




5. Instructional need.

    • Of the prioritized goals, which currently are not included in instruction?

      Of these goals, which appear to be reachable via instruction? Explain
      why.


    • Of the prioritized goals, which currently are included in instruction?

      • What evidence do you have that these are instructional needs?



      • Is there evidence that these gaps are due to non-instructional problems?
        Explain this evidence. In cases where sufficient information is currently
        unavailable, describe how you would go about obtaining the information.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                           page 5



B. Analyzing the Learning Environment


    1. Describe the teachers or trainers for the course: range of experience,
       interests, backgrounds, preferences.




    2. Describe the existing curricula (scope and sequence) into which this
       course fits. Include the philosophy, strategies, or theories underlying this
       curricula.




    3. Describe the instructional hardware that is currently available.



    4. Describe the classes (in general, detailed learner analysis will be
       conducted in the next chapter) and facilities that will use the course.




    5. Describe the school or organization in which the learning will take place.
       Attach any organizational charts to this form. Include description about
       how decisions regarding which instructional materials are selected are
       made.




    6. Describe the community in which the school or organization resides.
       Specifically identify any characteristics which might influence the
       acceptability of the instruction in this content area.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                                  page 6


                   Job Aid 2: Describing the Target Audience
Complete the following form to organize your description of the learners for the
instruction of any project. If it is clear that knowledge of a particular characteristic is not
important to this particular project, identify the characteristic with the notation NA. If
information regarding a particular, relevant characteristic is not available to you currently,
specify how you would go about obtaining this information. Space has been left for you
to add characteristics that may be unique to your particular population.

1. Cognitive characteristics

    a. General characteristics

       • general aptitudes

       • specific aptitudes

       • developmental level, such as Piaget's levels of cognitive development

       • language development level

       • reading level

       • level of visual literacy, ability to gain information from graphics

       • cognitive processing styles–preferred and most effective

       • cognitive and learning strategies

       • general world knowledge

       •

    b. Specific prior knowledge

           •


2. Physiological Characteristics

               • sensory perception

               • general health

               • age

               •
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                        page 7



3. Affective Characteristics

        • interests

        • motivation

        • motivations to learn

        • attitude toward subject matter

        • attitude toward learning

        • perceptions of and experience with specific forms of mediation

        • academic self-concept

        • anxiety level

        • beliefs

        • attribution of success, i.e., locus of control

        •


4. Social characteristics

        • relationships to peers

        • feelings toward authority

        • tendencies toward cooperation or competition

        • moral development, such as Kohlberg's stages of moral development

        • socio-economic background

        • racial/ethnic background, affiliations

        • role models

        • other

5. Design Implications

    •
Smith & Ragan Job Aids   page 8



    • (more as needed)
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                              page 9


Job Aid 3:
                 Goal Identification and Task Analysis

      A. Write the instructional goal of the course, unit, or lesson in
      performance terms. (Remember, you may omit the standards at this time.)




      B. What kind of learning outcome does this goal represent?



      C. List the 3 - 12 information processing steps that an expert would use in
      completing this goal. (Remember you may wish to write a representative
      test question to guide this analysis.)




      D. (Optional) Represent the information processing analysis graphically.




      E. For each step in the information processing analysis, indicate the
      prerequisites.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                            page 10




      F. (Optional) Represent the prerequisite analysis in graphic form.




      G. Write a performance objective for the instructional goal, each step in
      the information processing analysis, and each prerequisite in your
      instructional analysis.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                    page 11


                                Job Aid 4:
                            Assessment Design
1. Identify the purpose of your assessment instrument and the type of model
that you will follow in its development.



2. List the kinds of assessments (entry assessments, pre-assessments, etc.)
that are necessary and where they should occur in the instructional strategy



3. Write the item specifications for each objective which you determined in your
task analysis (see Job Aid 4a).



4. Write an instrument blueprint for each of the assessments identified in #2
(see Job Aid 4b).



5. Write complete instruments using item specifications and blueprints as a guide
(this goes beyond specifications to development of actual instruments).
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                              page 12


Job Aid 4a: Item Specifications
                                                 Page_____ of _______
for
                (project name)

Objective:
Supply the objective to which
these specifications apply


Description of Test Form:
Describe the form of assessments
to be used for this objective.


Sample Item:
Provide a sample assessment item
that is appropriate for this objective.
Include directions for the item.


Question Characteristics:
Describe any relevant characteristics
of the question or assessment
situation to be provided. These
characteristics will delimit
and describe the tasks that are
appropriate for this objective.


Response Characteristics:
Describe any relevant characteristics,
of the responses or activities of
learners who engage in this assessment.


Number of Items:
Prescribe the number of items of the sort
described which will be needed to assess
learning of this objective.


Mastery Criteria:
Describe, preferably in quantitative terms,
how well a learner must perform in order
to reflect mastery of this learning objective.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                           page 13


Job Aid 4b: Instrument Blueprint
Instructions: complete the instrument blueprint by supplying information requested in
order to guide construction of the assessment instrument. You should have available to
you the Item Specifications for each objective before you begin.

  Objective (number): Copy from Item Specifications
  Form: Format of item(s) for each objective. Copy from Item Specifications
  Number of Items: The number of items are described in Item Specifications for each
    objective needed to adequately assess each objective. Copy from Item
    Specifications.
  Criterion Level: How well the learner should perform on these items. Copy from Item
    Specifications.
  Proportion: What proportion of the overall test will be devoted to assessment relating
    to this objective? Total should be 100%.


                                    Number           Criterion
                     Form           of Items         Level                Proportion


Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____

Objective _____
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                                page 14




       Job Aid 5: Organizational Strategy and Media Overview

In completing this Job Aid, a good technique is to develop part 1, then, in
developing part 2, if changes or improvements in the overall approach described
in part 1 become apparent, go back to part 1 and revise it. Do the same with
development of parts 3 and 4, going back and forth to incorporate improvements
that the process assists you in making.

1. Provide a paragraph description of the approach this instruction will take. Describe
basically how it will go. Include in the description as needed any media (such as print,
video, AV devices, and so forth) or delivery systems (such as the Web, classroom,
laboratory, and so forth) that will be used.




2. Provide a rationale for this approach with regard to context: Why is this a good
approach to facilitating learning in the particular context that the instruction will be
within?




3. Provide a rationale for this approach from the standpoint of learners: Why is this an
appropriate approach to facilitating learning for the intended learners?




4. Provide a rationale for this approach from the standpoint of learning task(s): Why is
this approach a good one for the learning task(s) at hand? Pay close attention to the
cognitive demands of the type(s) of learning involved and how this approach provides an
environment in which they may be generated and as needed, supplied.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                           page 15



Job Aid 6: Planning the Organizational Strategy


      I. Course and lesson organization plan

      A. Diagram of how this lesson fits within course or unit




      B. Macro-Organization of course or unit
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                             page 16


       Lesson Organization Strategy Plans


      A. Sequencing and grouping of lesson objectives




      B. Introduction Strategy

             1. Deploy attention to lesson




             2. Establish instructional purpose




              3. Arouse interest and motivation




             4. Preview lesson




      Objectives for Grouping ______ (Must be repeated for each cluster)
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                             page 17


      C. Body
            5. Recall Relevant Prior Knowledge




             6. Process information and examples




             7. Focus attention




              8. Employ learning strategies




      Objectives for Grouping ______ (Must be repeated for each cluster)

             9. Practice
Smith & Ragan Job Aids               page 18




             10. Evaluate feedback




      Conclusion


          11. Summarize and review




          12. Transfer learning
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                            page 19




          13. Remotivate and close




      Assessment


          14. Assess performance




          15. Evaluate feedback and seek remediation




                    Job Aid 7: Formative Evaluation

1. Describe design reviews and resultant revisions.




2. Describe expert reviewers, reviews, comments, and revisions.
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                                            page 20




3. Describe one-to-one evaluations

       a. Questions to be answered


       b. Characteristics of materials


       c. Learners' characteristics


       d. Procedures followed


       e. Data gathered, interpretations, and revisions


4. Describe small group evaluations

       a. Questions to be answered

       b. Characteristics of materials

       c. Learners' characteristics

       d. Procedures followed

       e. Display data gathered

       f. Interpretations and revisions



When instruction includes instructor-led or teacher-led elements, a relatively specific
guide is generally appropriate, especially when instruction has been designed by someone
other than the person doing the teaching. This form is one of many possible ways to
organize a lesson plan that is suitable for instructional design projects. This form is an
adaptation of that used at one time by the United States Air Force Academic Instructor
School.

                Job Aid 8: Sample Instructor Guide Form
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                                         page 21


Lesson Title:

Course:

Instructor:

Lesson Goal:


Terminal Objective:


Desired Learning Outcomes:




Purpose of lesson:


Equipment needed:


Materials needed:


Time required:

Location:

Synopsis of Lesson:

Lesson Plan                                                page no. ____

Desired Learning                Student Activity   Instructor Activity
Outcomes
Introduction   (time required: ________ )
Smith & Ragan Job Aids                       page 22



Body            (time required: ________ )




Conclusion      (time required: ________ )

								
To top