Universal Social Skills Interventions: Bringing Research to the

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					Universal Social Skills Interventions:
Bringing Research to the Real World
  Michael J. Vance, M.A., Elizabeth Godbold, M.A., B.C.B.A.,
Keri Menesses, M.A., Jessica Rodriguez, Jeffrey Chenier, M.A.,
Lisa Libster, M.A., Katherine Hunter, Sarah Landry, Emily Patty


              Frank M. Gresham, Ph.D.
               Louisiana State University



                          mvance1@lsu.edu
 • What are social skills?
        – Learned behaviors
        – Enable effective, positive interactions
        – Help avoid/escape unacceptable behaviors that
          would result in negative interactions
        – Not social tasks or competence




mvance1@lsu.edu
    Why are social skills important?
         Academically
         Behaviorally
         Protective against
                Poor problem solving
                Lack of empathy
                Bullying
                Peer rejection
         Students with poor social skills are at risk for internalizing and
          externalizing behavioral disorders




    mvance1@lsu.edu
      RTI
Intensive




            Selected




                       Universal



   mvance1@lsu.edu
     Classwide Intervention Program
•   Universal Intervention
•   3 Developmental Levels
•   Student and Teacher Materials
•   6-step instructional approach




                    mvance1@lsu.edu
                Primary Prevention

• Goal of primary prevention to identify deficits that
  would likely be present in the future
• If there are deficits after elementary school, do they
  just disappear?
• Let’s identify them before they balloon into
  something worthwhile of a secondary intervention



                        mvance1@lsu.edu
            Primary Prevention
• Using this model, we are able to use data
  from the program to identify skill deficits and
  to recommend children to more selective
  interventions




                     mvance1@lsu.edu
   SSIS as Primary Prevention
• Intended to teach those with social skills
  deficits and to prevent problem behavior from
  occurring
• Not intended to fix problematic behavior that
  already exists, but will likely help
• Will also help identify those children who
  have deficits beyond the scope of the SSIS
  for intensified intervention

                    mvance1@lsu.edu
       Classwide Intervention Program
1.   Listen to others                    6. Take turns when you talk
2.   Follow the steps                    7. Get along with others
3.   Follow the rules                    8. Stay calm with others
4.   Pay attention to your work          9. Do the right thing
5.   Ask for help                        10. Do nice things for others




                            mvance1@lsu.edu
                  Participants
• 2008-2009 school year
• Four schools (2 District 1, 2 District 2)
   – $500 compensation
• 3 classes each: Pk, K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
• 22 teachers
   – Received 3 hour training
   – $200 compensation
• Approx. 450 students
                      mvance1@lsu.edu
        Participants
           Number of Classrooms
            District 1      District 2
            1        2      3       4
 Pk         3

 K          3

 1          3

 2                                  3

 3                          4

 4                          3

 5                    1     2

Total       9         1     9       3


          mvance1@lsu.edu
                   Participants
• Teacher Characteristics
  –   100% Female (22)
  –   91% B.A. or B.S. (20)
  –   46% Elementary certification/1-5 (10)
  –   Avg. 7 years experience
  –   Avg. 1 year at current school
  –   Avg. 1 other grade taught previously



                        mvance1@lsu.edu
                        Participants
• Student Characteristics
  –   50/50 MF                        –     7% attrition (33)
  –   PK/K: 27% (123)                 –     11% additions (48)
  –   EE: 49% (222)                   –     2% moved classrooms (7)
  –   UE: 23% (104)                   –     0.01% expelled (2)




                          mvance1@lsu.edu
               Pre Measures
•   Performance Screening Guide
•   Teacher Rating of Targeted Student Concern
•   Teacher Perception of Intervention
•   Classwide Rating of Social Skills




                    mvance1@lsu.edu
               Other Measures
• Collected 3 weeks BL, TX, 3 weeks post
  – Daily conduct grades
  – Absences
  – Office referrals, suspensions, expulsions
• Collected during TX
  – Teacher ratings of each unit
     • Duration
     • Effectiveness
     • Behavioral changes

                       mvance1@lsu.edu
                    Method
• Teachers implemented program
  – October 6 - March 3
• Treatment integrity
  – Lesson specific integrity forms
  – 56% of lessons observed (357)
  – 26% IOA (164)
• Weekly feedback meetings
  – Discuss and graph integrity
  – Assess teacher thoughts on unit
                      mvance1@lsu.edu
               Post Measures
•   Grade level feedback session*
•   Performance Screening Guide*
•   Teacher Rating of Targeted Student Concern
•   Teacher Perception of Intervention*
•   Classwide Rating of Social Skills




                    mvance1@lsu.edu
                    Results
• Grade level feedback
  – Strengths                    – Weaknesses
     • Videos                         • Repetition
     • Role plays                     • Lesson length
                                      • Age appropriateness




                    mvance1@lsu.edu
                          Results
• Grade level feedback
  – Cultural relevance
     • Varied by school




                          mvance1@lsu.edu
                        Results
• Grade level feedback
  – General Suggestions
     •   Layout
     •   Skill steps
     •   Repetition
     •   Videos
  – Suggestions for younger grades
     • Songs, storybooks, younger video models
  – Suggestions for older grades
     • Vary booklet activities and videos
                         mvance1@lsu.edu
                                              Results
                                       Lesson Observations
                                    Average             Mode       Median   Minimum - Maximum

    Teacher Integrity                  78%            100% (36)     81%         13% – 100%

   Steps Completed                      23                19         23           4 – 45

    Steps in Manual                     29                27         29           17 – 45

       Actual Time                    27:26              17:00      26:37      05:21 – 56:04

    Estimated Time                    23:00              23:00      23:00      18:00 – 30:00


note: only fully observed lessons are included




                                                 mvance1@lsu.edu
                                              Results
               Tier 2 Qualifiers              Avg. PSG:PSB Rating                 Avg. IRP-15 Rating
             Pre        Post      Change           Pre       Post    Change       Pre      Post   Change

           18.7%        13%       -5.7%
  All                                          3.25         3.65a    +0.40b       4.74     4.38    -.36
            (84)        (59)       (-25)
District    22%         15%         -7%
   1                                           3.10         3.62a    +0.52b       4.68     4.36    -.32
            (40)        (26)       (-14)
District    16%         12%        -4%
   2                                          3.39a         3.68a    +0.29b       4.79     4.41    -.38
            (44)        (33)       (-11)
note: to qualify for Tier 2, students had to receive a 1 or 2 rating on the PSG

a Significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to math and reading ratings at pre or post (pre, post)

b Significantly higher (p<0.05) from pre to post

                                                   mvance1@lsu.edu
             Year Two
             Intensive




                         Selected




                                    Universal



7/17/2012         mvance1@lsu.edu
            LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY          23
      Tier 2: Selected Interventions
PSG Qualifiers   Acquisition        Performance   Didn’t Qualify
     56              13                     37          6




                          mvance1@lsu.edu
         Tier 2: Selected Interventions

•   Skill Acquisition                     •   Skill Performance
     – Coaching                                – Antecedent-based
     – Modeling                                     • Peer Mediated Strategies
     – Role Playing                                      – Positive Peer Reporting
     – Social Problem Solving                        • Cuing and prompting
     – Performance Feedback                          • Precorrection
                                                   – Consequence-based
     – Generalization Training
                                                     • Reinforcement-based
                                                       Strategies
                                                     • Group-Oriented
                                                       Contingency Systems
                                                         – Good Behavior Game
                                                      • Behavioral Contracts
                                                      • School-Home Notes
                                 mvance1@lsu.edu
      Tier 2: Selected Interventions
• Acquisition Interventions
  –   Goal to teach students more about social skills
  –   Similar to Tier 1 interventions
  –   20 weeks
  –   Two lessons a week




                        mvance1@lsu.edu
      Tier 2: Selected Interventions
• Acquisition Interventions
  –   Small group interventions
  –   Currently running three across three schools
  –   ~four-five students
  –   Meet two times a week 30-45 minutes




                       mvance1@lsu.edu
    Tier 2: Selected Interventions
• Performance Interventions
  – Goal to make appropriate social skills more
    reinforcing to students
  – Aims to increase pro-social behaviors in the
    classroom




                      mvance1@lsu.edu
    Tier 2: Selected Interventions
• Performance Interventions
  – Teacher Consultation
  – Teacher/Graduate Student run interventions
  – Frequent feedback




                     mvance1@lsu.edu
      Tier 2: Selected Interventions
• Performance Interventions
  –   Check in check out
  –   Positive peer reporting
  –   Peer tutoring
  –   Self Monitoring
  –   Response Cost




                        mvance1@lsu.edu
  Limitations and Future Directions
• Students moving in and out of a class
• Having to wait for Tier 3
• Lack of some teacher buy in at second tier




                   mvance1@lsu.edu
Questions?




  mvance1@lsu.edu

				
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