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					Cx >GRESSIONAL RECORD
                                                                                                           SENATE




                                                                                         , 1973   313860-13879
                                                                                                  S13919--13925

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                                        ~:JSr. ROBERT C.
                                       It b-jiy unUeritindta*: »ttet the
                                              — •   • ' s ~ j. ~*j^- '
                                                                  WD.
                                                                      bfll        ttoe

                                       •cnt th»t Ux uhflnkhc
                                                        *
                                       proceed to:thccooiidermUoa of the war
                                       poven billv with the Ain<lei»Undin«- that
                                       »tter?iom» deto»t*. kndfpiM^pc action.
                                       on thkt:blll this aft«nM>oiu-lPjinir;S«nJt-
                                       toc wants'-.tn offer w imittdmentvto the
                                       tufinished tiu(inets.~ the mUilmum ««t
                                       JjlUfXthe leadenhlp: will. accbmmotJitt
                                       «vich 'Senator. b^ahUtltic ibjtcfcTcTthft
                                       minimum ware'btur. ;; '"^ , - "-
                                         "Ih~e PRESITHNO Of VICTOR. ;Thc clerk
                                                                  .   ..
                                       - >Th« tefUI*Uve clerk read M
                                                  No. 40*. 8. 440. » bUl

                                                           by ilic>
        IS, 1973                        CONGRESSIONAL REtUKU—
from West VirilnU? Tlte Chair heirs                 inster.d. the war powers bill seeks to       tory of tlte world titan the actual de-
none. and it 1$ so ordered.                      establish » permanent restriction tor           ptoyment of at^ns. Great Britain, with
 • Mr. GOLDWATER. Mr. President. »               Infinite situations, totally unrelated to       Iter mastery of Uie seas and her willing-
parliamentary Inquiry.                           knowledge of what the Incident at hand          ness to use hcr-fleet. kept.peace, R com-
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen-                will be. The bill sets out only four narrow     fortable peace, for nearly 200 years. On
                                                situations lit which It authortees mili-         the occasions when the United States
   Mr. GOtDWATER. I believe there was            tary defensive *cUotx to commence. If x         has been forced into a show of force, we
 a time limitation screed to. Would Uie          situation does not fit one of Uie imminent      have prevented hostilities on at least five
 Cha!r please state the Ume agreement?           emergencies which the draftsmen of Uie          occasions since -World. War. .It;
   Thi PRESIDING OFFICER. There are              bill have-foreseen, the President Is pro-         Second. U.S. forces cannot be used In
 « hours on the bill, .to be equally divided     hibited from taking any acllor. at all un-      defense against any threat which poses
 between Uie majority and minor-.tr lead-        til Congress so auUiorises him. no mat-         a future. raUier tlun immediate, danger
 ers ajid/'or-thelr dessiites. One hour is       ter how untenable the situation may be-         to the United Slates, eveii it Uie ultimate
 provided for each amendment, the. time          come as a result of our failure to uct,         safety of the Nation Is clearly at stake. "
.to be equally divided, except tor an               Even when the President is allowed to           Tlilrd. The bill endangers Uie entire
 amendment by the Senator from Mis-              act. the bill states that his activity s^all    structure of American mutual security
 souri' O*-..EACIJETOS>. for which 2 hours
               " '                               not continue beyond 30 days voiles Con-         agrecmenti wluch now stand as Uie
                                                 gress grants art extension of his author-       greatest safeguard of global peace
      x MANSFIELD. Mr. President, may            ity. Another ^revision of Uie bill allows          Fourth. Tlie bill rei»eaU outsUhdint;
I surest that Uie disUhfulsbtd Senator           Congress to stop; whatever action Uie           area resolutions, such as Uie Middle East
from Aric>na>have control, at least- for        .President has started even before-Uiese         resoliiUotu
Utt time belng._of -Uifctinie of the minor-                                                         FitthT Ttic- bill blocks U5. huniMilUr-
ity. and I will yield rhy time to U;.t Sena-      Mr. Prudent this kind of legislation           ian rdief missicxis. such as the 1*64 joint
tor from Maine (Mr.-Myskis) *-h*a:he           is unrealistic, unwist and; in my:optnlon.        United- SUM>srAc!gian rescue operation
arrives?                                       uuconstUulvoaaJL It is dangerous front           Jrrlhe Congo."
   Mr. GOLDWATER. That is agrjceable.          lh> standpoint of $afe or intelligent iiliV-         Sixttu •me^biU-.prohlblts aiu- mlliUry
   y statement is not very lone. '             tAry:y»l*kUiing.-lt Is diirup_Uye.of bur en-      acikxx br Uie President desigiiod to der
   Mr. President. I-realJse^tljii is a littte  Ure-mutual,security system- which now             fend' the. over^tas-.ecphoinlc position oC
out of order, for the opponents or legis-      safeguards .world order. And Ifmay .well         .the United States.
latioh to make openlric atatemen^ -be-         lead to war hot-peace by depriving the               Sex-enUu The bill prohibits ^..per-
fore the proponents, but we are faced          President of essential flexibility In meet-       sonnel lix Uie NATO -{ntencnted com-
with » rather unusual situation this           ing unexpected threats.                           mands from exercising atvy luncticns—
afternoon. In that Uie Hesearcli and ••De-        Mr. President, in this, my opening re-         any functions—during a crisis.
velopment Subcommittee of the Armed            marks on the war powers bill. I wish only           EighUu Tlie bill may trigger world
Sendees Commutes •Is-trylng to set its         to'identify the many fallacies of the bill       war HI by causing foreign adversaries
legislation reported, .arid I hkye. to attend  in a.general way. I have compiled a list          to believe the United States will not re?
Utat meeting at 2:30. So I sliall precede      o'f 25 major problems raised by S. 440 and       spohd to Uirents to world peace, because
the distinguished senior Senator from          I will Insert a memorandum documenting            of legislative, restrictions.
Nevr York -JMrl JAVITS). and mate my           each of these unsetUed questions at the             Ninth. The bill compels 9 vote by Con-
opcnlnc'staleinent now.                        end of my remarks. During, ths debate             gress shortly after .each crisis occurs and
 A CIUUXNCX TO srotOftS or WA*                 over the bill. I shall explore Uiese major        might precipitate _.». legislative reacUon
  CUXU-^MCSWXK 33 MOHUCMi XAlSKD >T S. <«•     fallacies In some detail, particularly rcp.n     f at n\ore dongcrtxis Uian the re>;x>nsc
                                               the standpoint'of lae^uhdamental-cbr:-
    Mr. President, once again Use Senate siltutldRal objections whl&'Uie bill pre-
 has before it a bill which seeks to cut sents.                                                 Tenth. ;Q^lti uses. Utrec totally dif-
 the .war-powers of-thc President. This Is •Mr- •president; I might say ut Uils ferent and unexsrfair-ptL-tcrnis to de-
 nothing new. Congress and the President point that I'canV&l underslaml Uje fccl- scribe th?'na;ijre-of Uie ihreoJk which
 have clashed over questions of war and ^hgs;of-.Uie-:proi>d'rient«-pt'the;blH- i .can tuuct-exisc bcfors:tl;o-:PrcslUe»ve''caiKrc-
.peace ever since George Washington Is- well undenilaiid the hope of Uie majority spbiVd 'to foreign -dan'tSs.
 sued a proclamation of neutrality keep- wH6 have gone along as cosponsors of the               ElevenUt. The 3p-day-llmlt of Uie bilh
       the United States from -Joining bill. I can understand Americans across after whicli troops c.Vnnot l>e used, even
       ce in war-with' Great Britain under Uiis country in tlietr attitude of opposing in emergency situations, is .unrealistic
 the French Treaty. In making '-thl? deci- war'.                                             and dangerous.
 sion. Washington beat down vtlis narrow                                                        Twelfth Tlie President could not pro-
                                                  But I
 reasoning that Coniircsc alone had the problemhold. In my arguments, that this tect U.S. llshine vessels against attack
                                                          is not golnr to be solved by ac-
 ultimate "poweV to ttccirte-maucrs of war tion on the'floors                        should in territorial waters clatmed.by another
 or peace by yTrt«c~o"f Its declaration of be solved. If solveof Congress. Itby con- naUon.
                                                                     it we must,
 war -power. CUnlcn Rosslter. Uie well-                                                         nilrteenlh. Tlie bill provides no - au-
                                                                                  makes it
 known lilstorlnn. writes that XVashlnc- stitutional amendment which given the thority for Immediate arUpn designed to
 ton's rejection of this construction is iien- perfectly clear Uiat power how                rescue U5. ciUzens hijacked on an- air-
                                               President as
 enUIy credited with establishing from not—I repeat,Commander In Chief docs craft flying through InteniaUonal air-
                                                                does not—include his
 that time' forward Uie principle of Presi- thority to BO to-war.The:Presldcnt Isau- space.
                                                                                         the
 dential primacy in Uie making of foreign only, lierson in Use country wlfo,can take
 policy.                                                                                        Fourteenth. Tlie President lacks any
                                                                               declare
    Since then there have been numerous. troo"i>55to-war. Congress can not have wa'r aiiUiortty -.under the bill for the protec-
                                                         minutes, but we do             the
 contents between Ute Ercsidcnfjind Con- every of making-war, and I hope I can tion of U.S. citizens on vessels within m-
                                               power
 gress with nearly each President' ha v!n«r nittkc this nbundahtly clearriurlnt;'the tf rtmtlonal stralu.
 been pillortc.1 at one time or another from coursit'or sovenvl speeches T'Shall make           Fifteenth. Tlie 3Q-day Ume restriction
 the forum of Congress, because ••' l\\s onthUsubfccC.                                       on emergency military nctlmw might
 military Initiatives. What -distinguishes,                                                  pressure a 'President to so nil out by re-
                                                  To get
 Uie pending: bill" from these jxistclTortf bill, the 25back to the mistakes In till? sir tine to total u-nr tlurinu the short
                                                            grave, pmctlcal. and coiistitu- pcrioil of t-mw allowed him.
 Is the fact that never before— I repeat. tlontil problems which remain unan-
 never l>cforc--ln the country's history swered by Uie advocate? of the w-ar pow-               I lay parUciilar stress on that, because
 ha* Congress ever seep tabulation which                                                     so.inaiiy Members of Connrcss, In their
 Is so sweeping wici Indexible as S. -HO;' ers bill Include tiic following;                  understandable efforts to seek pence at
 Unlike earlier •chnller.fies- to -the Prisl-      First. The bill prevents "shew of almost any price, forget that we have
 dcnfs prcr.bgaUvcx, \}w war powers bill       force" mid other mere dcployincnu: of a red button In the White House. There
 Is not" CA.it In term* of Uie precise Ume troop? pr arms-                                   Is also a red button in Moscow. If the
 and setting of the r.pccinc foreign policy       t might Inject that the show of force President Is forced to make a decision
 crisis' Involved.                             haft done more to keep peace in the his- that entails the protection of U.S. In-

                                                                 233
                                       CONGRESSIONAL HECORD -r-SENATE                                                      July IS. 1973
terests that he will not be able to pro- Mr. President. I Issu* a. challenge— al- stated. in section i. to keep Cnite-J States
tect In the 30-dar period, he might—I though I should probably say an invita- forces away Irvru hot spoU vh«r« a hoKinty
am not sayin? that he would—but he tion— to the authors of war powers re-             ht casxtc unless Centres Has plvta Hi
 might punch that red button. Many of          strictions. I ash those who favor curbs
 the thincs that those who seek peace at       on the President's war powers to answer         ThU JvV.caUy woutti prohlbU both "Shotcs
 any price mijht say might actually en-        unequivocally each and every one of the or rorce" aad PcJarorcca-.tatau If Aaicriac
courase the use 6,» nuclear weapons,           fallacies in the bill which I am docu- lofves arc sot uudtr threat In tt-lr pr««ni
 whereas today, tte-iae of nuclearTsrea.-      menting .today. Unless the sponsors of p<altlon so long as ihty icttp any rrosi a.
 pons is as far and remote as anythms          the till csLh'come up with r. clear and Uvuf-c spot, the bill pichibiu them from
 can be In anyone's mind.                      satisfactory reply to each of these ob- feeing n-.orttl rInto the crisis area because of
    Sixteenth. The bill attempts to do what                                                 the t!ans« « lt l«"5uis to
                                               jections. -t respectfully suggest that It p'rovlslois vcutd prtr«nt the hoatlUtics. FlcilThlt
 the" Founding "fathers felt they were not     would be most imprudent of the Senate from being redeployed in theC& Sixth     Uedlterrar.ttJX
 wise enough to do. anticipate the un-         16 move forward with UUs legislation.        during tsomenu of criaij, such as Is the
 limited and unexpected variations of fu-         Mr. President, as I said earlier. I atn »!x-<!ay Middle Eait War ot 10€7 vfcea
 ture events when defensive measures           a little bit out of order in r.pptarinsr be- Prtsideat Johsson moved tht Sixth Kecs
 may be needed.                                fore Uie proponents have made their into the -danger crea is order to forestall
    Seventeenth. The-Occlaratior: of \V*r      statements, but I do hax-e an important Russian pressure agalrur. liraeL At that
 clause is an outmoded raid Invalid basis      hearing this afternoon bearing on the tlm«. the United States Itself iras not. di-
 for passing legislation which prevents        Armed Sen-ices and I know that -the rectly U>reate::cd vlth attack by any of the
 Residential defensive reactions against       senitH.- Senator from New. York will adversarial, r.or vas thrre- any -cas." how-
                                                                                            threac-tC:Anier!caA forces. There
                                                                                                                                   tmrnlccni
 foreign dangers.                              understand, my usurping-. ,ln effect, his ever. ah open 'threat maUe by Russls. apaitat
    I remind this body once again that In      prerogative to open this debate.             lirtcl. If it did not rcas« its Cjjhtiy^ itn-
 the nearly: 2tX» years history of ihis           I intend to use Uie time allowed me to medlately. President Johnson's prorr.pt re-
 Republic, we hare had nearly 23C; cases       make a number of very short speeches tpomc would be illegal under S. -HO becatiz?
 where the" President has. In effect, called   on this subject. It Is a subject- which has no threat hart been made against our own.
out the troops-without *• declaration of       interested, me very deeply since 19fi*. forces or country.
 war by Congress, except In rive Instances.                                                   The                     of the bill.
                                               whenYmade a rather unfortunate -deci- Javlu. primary author a purpose of Senator
                                                                                                    •srttd that It U                 the bllfl
•And two of those occurred in one war—         sion. but it was a decision which forced to uppiy to dep'lojir.eR^t <lutin; a colloquy^
World WarH.                                    me to study Uie war powers of Uie Pres- vith Arthur Goldberg ar the October 6. 1971
    The power to declare war was civen to      ident in the hope that I might, some day. hearing on war povers legislation. The ex-
 Congress by the Founding Fathers after        have that responsibility.                    change reads:
 they had lived.through the Continental           Ever since that Uine. S years ago. I         "Mr. Goutyxxc. Widespread deployments of
 Congress and its constant intercession in     have continued to study them. not only troops without v xplicit Congressional author-
 the affairs of George Washington as he                                                     ity raises to
                                               by myself but through Terry Emerson. cause of the me Constitutional questions be-
 led our armies asainst the British—In-                                                                   danger
                                               my legal assistant, through eVevy, living that if covered by of U leading to war. id
 tercession whlcli nearly lost that war.                                                                           Uie
                                               Secretary of SiAte. through every mar. I J*vlU h»x been «rorlc!ng resolution Senator
                                                                                                                         out vrith
                                                                                                                                     Senator
The Founding Fathers very wisely nave          have known in the State Department Eagleton.
 the power "to to to war to Uie President      and out of the State Department, and           "Senator JAVITS. Kight.
 and the power to declare war—which            every cood historian and leical mind in         "Mr. Goio.'uatc. Deployment U a great prob-
 means not much—to the Concress.               America: so Uiat I thlnk-we have com- lem and I beilcve Congrefx is the body to au-
    Eighteenth. The bill erroneously as-       piled Uie best evidence, the best set of tlibrlze substantial deployment of troops. I
sumes that the power "to declare war"          pai>ers on Uie subject Uiat has ever been don't believe that that power Is vested In Uie
 means the same thins as the sole power        prepared in the history of this country. President by his rolt- as Commai.der lii
 "to make war**—which, I just explained,          Mr. President, so Uiat the proponents       Senator Spong. an original coauthor of
 it docs not.                                  of Uie bill may understand better the legislation Identical to S. -HO. ajo argued
    Nineteenth. The Necessary and Proper       •25 specific objections I hive raised to the that this leglsUtlve e<Tc?t *j> provide Cn'it-
 Clause does not give Consress power to        bill and the points that I .have asked- "gfess with a stranger role In foreign policy
define arid restrict the constitutional        they answer. I ask unanimous consent "would 'require that Congress have a voice
 f unctions of the President.                                                               in the deployment, ot trcopt."
                                               Uiat a memorandum of Law and Facts eipUincd. "Tlie "probablU-.y ofSenator Spong
    Twentieth. There is not a single statu-                                                                                    war
                                               Establishing 23 Unanswered Practical reJalr-1-.to Uie deployment of-lroops. U.clusel?Tlie dt-
 tory precedent for war powers controls        and Constitutional Questions Raised. . I'loymenc or i*cbpx often increases Ute I
 covering unnamed geographic areas and         by S. -HO be printed In the RECORD.          chances for ^onveiiUounl •car are- conven-
 unforeseen situations.                           There being no objection, the memo- tions! irar Incrcftjc* tli-5'pr«r.cct. for nuclear
    Twenty-first. Historical usage has con-    randum was ordered to be printed hi the      rpljance."
 clusively established the constitutional      RECORD, as follows:                            The cponsont of the bill cannot hare it
 basis of Presidential defensive reactions                                                                           ettli.»r rewact
                                               MEMORANDUM or LAW Ana FACTS EsTABUSir. all way*. TlieT mus'. ,\.'.'JT the stated Uieic
                                                                                            earlier statements *nn                      pur-
.against foreign dangers on his own au-           INC. 25 U.N-AN.1\Viain> PfJOtiejii. AND COW- pose of tho bill, with conforming chances
 thority and Initiative.                          sTrnrno.s'At. QUESTIONS RASSKD Dr S. -5-10 to the; »•:« of the. legislation, or Adnilr that
    Twenty-second, It is an historical mls-       There art at least 55 grave practical ami the bill does IndeeiV mvcr mcro "sho'v.N of
 iake of monu:ncnUil proiM.-ri.lons to as-     Constitutional problems remaining unan- forc»" nnd outer types or .deployments of
sume the war powers bill would slop            swered In Uic War Poivcrs Bill. S. -HO. re- the armed-foroes.
 future Vietnam, when under Its terms it       ported by the Senate-Committee on Foreign :. trj roncrs CAKMOT nr csm SN1
 would not have prevented Vlctiiftin Itself.   Relations. A detailed statement ot'-lna- anil      ARAtNSTANV TtlnCAT WIIK'It rO«C» A rUTCSC.
    Twenty-third. The bill creates ii. dan-    facts a tAbl tilling each of these question*       BATKKn THAN tUMDIUTC. BANMKJ-. TO THE .-.M-
                                               follow*:
 gerous uncertainty for the country In,        i. "SHOWS OP roncr" AND OTHIUI Mnnn DP-
                                                                                                  TlO.f
 time of crisis by denying to the President                                                       Section 3 of S. -!-<0 rei\tiires Sh.it before the
                                                                or TT.OOW on AIUIS .«rr nto- President takes any t1c!;nslve action there
 any judgment and discretion of his own
 to -determine If an cmercency: -exists                                                        nitut be an actual arhied nttactc on the
                                                  No matter how mud< the sponsors of the Uruled Suu« or our nrmcd forces-pr "tlie
 which authorizes use of military force.       bill notr deny It. the ipceinc text of S, 4-10 direct aiiil'lmmlnerit :hrtnt" o* tuoli an M~
    Twenty-fourth. S. -HO will Incite one      would bar n ihoV of force la crisis areas. Uicic. r.oie»sor Alexuiuler Ul'it-: who 13
 of the gravest constitutional crUes In        The sending of reinforcement* to Uerlln, crc<Kt->J by Die Foreign nelntloiu Commit-
American history without n. means of           for f "ii pic. such as occurred In IDtfl. wwild tee in ats repcrt as olTerun; the iIcHnuive
 resolution, because the Supreme Court         bo b.. fit because It Involves a. definite rUtc tollman/ rcia'ini; to the construction or
 treats the use of troops as a political       of Involvement In hostilities.                  ilio "direct and Imit.ii ent threat" clair>e. dc>
 question not subject to-Judicial decision.       Tlic AaceiNnt; prijIilluUun of tc^tiun .1 fined the pr><tl>i.ui <i» uppljing only u> sun-.
    Twenty-fifth. S. -HO Icnorcs the tnic      restricts the introdiictiun of troopa li.^> ntlons %!.tre an .\Huuk. on tlie United Slates
 purpose of the founding Fathers to pre-       situation* whenever .mmlnent iiicoUcmcnt ml£ht occur UnincU.rtici). Umt, U, tvday nr
                                               In hostilities U clearly Indicated unlciS the tomorrow.
 vent n recurrence of the Interference         nation or our armed forces are already un-         Professor BIckol «Ald. by a-.-iy of explana-
 with military operations which Wash-          der nttnelc or the "direct nnd tmmlt.ent tion. "fio comchod; drop* tin atomic bomb*
 ington experienced with the Continental       threnf* or attack. In addition. It to the ex- p«i Pnrw or noi.inlio^v marches into Pnrln. Itr
 Congress.                                     press ptirposa and policy of the hill, .jii U.X 'hlnk. Conitltntlbiially npen to the I'rct-
                                                                       234
          IS, 1973
           *>                                   .CONGRESSIONAL RECORD —SENATE
  i^vat. aad-I taic- i'. Scaatef .iatit* asr»«» i'. Sait. Rew*.uU\»a, *&!ch declare* that the use                thrca.-. that
  u opea usder aa. bOi. See -fciax to *iv. 'I ol arzecd forces *hi*l »x coasooaat ~wiUi Ute                      »                           L-. the
- tzsw sr&at •*»••. :&c*as, thai oeoaa thai                           ?i the                                     whca our.;                  la tii< NATO Caii^
  tottxro* awcsucj: tscj arc cvou*3> at us. I              , the Mrf<i:
  ara £V£S£ to react, to x&a. ^hrxat* the* **»aj                    authorin the                                                      CS
  aU«r all rresMeat. Keaaedj reat;ed t<x whM                   . fisxet ta hoiulc .Otuav^-a.. tt the             ciVirtj any fuatt»>a> tit all
  was oaiy a tarrat ~ap;*\3- ia ;£;e Cubaa s^tu*                                                                    ritv cii. " K.VX n^^^-Lt. «vti-a
    £«cat\>r Sprwae, the Fives                           •cuVu-F. thea U.ej auoi aUu ad&U tK»X Xhe
 War rowxr* B.a sa lif'.i. aj»» indicated                iCATO oad other trraucj. sth!<a lirei..-^* the
 restrictive the- iJsrx-.-ari isA.i.eu'. threat."        v\.<ils ^iiz* accx rdar*<<c ^xlth                         At trie- -War           . tear»a{-s.
 clivoc a Us tot read, la ar. cxchaaue trith.                                                                                           Burtu a raiuirt
 :i. \vau*a» ». Roc*:* At the Jut: 27. 19TJ                Further2«,re. the
 L^j-I^iup, Scsatoi Spu:^ drca 4 drSaV.* cVj-            rcerc.j «S«Ur«-A "the Calted State* tx frt-
  uuruva bt.arca Ike -v.^> --rea-aeat" a&d                      u» «c arased rcrcev," The C^'l                           ai^i aujuu. tu taa=^t=c jor;a t-i-.-u v-
 •"JUture."                                                                                                            mil ^rtnoio Uir cr« cucntuU iu
    After Mr, Rogrr* ro.uoisieac'cd that *U<                          lhax ~ihe Uatted ST^lc; Is deter-          •tai prev^«4=5 \\tC.C War III — £e
 OOl 4ll«.r tin: rrci-«Ici>i to KceMall an laual-          .'aAd" to txtt ccrtala cteriv NcSti« of               Uoctuc acru. tr.ir
 r.ca'. aUa«X. as, «- a- aa acxua: atsacfc.              U:ci< rca^tiusA jptxincartj prvc,:*; that
 Seaasce Spcas a,«ked. SU.5. >»-sl an. dlsUn-             the Present oJ tl.e Valted Statel Ui au-                         peace Oui (o trar. aa iore^n ad-
 gu^u-j; bna> neat attach frwa fa-.ure av                thonfed x«> «tsp*.oj the armed r«roei.~ os arij
 ta«i.T~ Mr. Rot en rep:.,.X "Ye*." Senator              <.ther laapu^c so ua«qulroeaL Crxleis                   tx-ai ho', rejpotitl to a tnrcat to sontl peace
 Sjrcat: added, ~Xo«. jou vao* tht xcorti •fu-           »rc«R<ed. wcikKi 31-51 trouM repeal both the            Decauic d -^gr-V
 ture" u u$ed sa the Stetuus and Beatsea lej-            Cubaa aad "Mhidte Easl RooJuUoas ai                     ccuuvc.~
 ta^tioa,- Mr. Rwcea laterjccted. "FutJwe                aa'Uuicit:e» To* ctcergeac; use of Aetertcaa               t~ora:t. tTcecr Jipsxiarr ol
 nuclear. I thlnfc." .Senator Sporig rejpoadea.          forces.                                                 \V, Uall alxo XeVUK«d. Uiat ixar jraaxrs te£U-
 -Future <v* AC* He cor. o>— to -epe! vha?                   . tNXTO StATD K                 N tC-IO             lauoa couid UiSiU.i iie.rrxii.oenv u\ tlo-^;
 he Relieve* to be ruiur* I xiunk there It a                  SlONSs. SC^:$ AS                  J.-BTT           wh&v li neccMarj t& atxrvcoa>c luiure. caiii-
 distinction r>e« Imnuaent t too* at aJ foxt•                                                    \ Atr. rso-     troptxc siroua: to ttc waj.iBe Neutraitit Jlc^*
 shins tnuch -aiore l&eiy ta occur.'"                        n:trro                                              tulopted in the aftcheaUi of World Wej- t
    Thus, ac crtsSnnl eoau'^ior aa<J U:t Floor              Secuoa 3(3» provides authority lor the               Tcry prob'al»lv~ laipcded the Uuitcd StaXci
 Maniger oT the \\>r t«owrrs BH1                          renrtc only of American citizens and aa-               from taklaj the <icp» whlcJi -iouM hire
                                                          uonals. S'o speclQc authority Is granted for           tiv«Ked World WatlC
             the Idea, of a. -fature" attacfc            Joint international rescue mlssioas such &3             ?. ox
 Again. ihtore*c»t sponsors »>f S. -MO have              Uie 15<H Oonco rescue clort which saved                    •ntc rt_K. ur Vj>.cit oasts, -rite cni.
 aot retracted theXe eirUer descrtptkeis:" nor           •2.000 perxinx. Including about. CC Araerleanv.            race rrx-n; A cutxxxsuoNAt. tCAonox rut.
 has •K^quitlUJriap dcfialUon of -direct and              who -cere bt*rJip held hoftlapi by rebels. Inso-         KiMX OANQOH1CS. TUAK TttC Z&STOXU1 TUt
 imislnent threat.** been added to the'bkll.              far as the mllluiry operation affected yfr                  nccsccr HAS OIOSSK
    •n<e significance of-the ll-nltat:on Is that         of thc.pe*"I<>ns cracaated. Ic would not. have
 under scet:on .3 the United States cou:d so:                                                                         Profeuor Arthur Schlexlnper tcstlde-i U»
                                                         been lefal under S, 4-W because thexe Indi-             March of this year that the ao-Csy ivqutrc.-
 respond tn an axtact: aj;&iaix e Corelsu na-            viduals were not United States cltizenx Tills           melt uf section S. ticder which Concrcc*
 tion. »uch ^ "Tur&cy.or Israel, uhere the at-            lalcrpretauoa of the provision Jeen-j com-             snust vote on the ure of tlic ttnncd farces in
 tack, b'-r.ot xec4aii>an!ed -by on iaim«d!a:e            pelled because otherwUe the provision ralght
 MUveS.»}n. <^\r nauan or troo->». even though                                                                   hostilities ni-t later than .30 days after the
                                                         autliorfci the rrexlderic to employ troops              outbreak of a crixu. u -fitted u-itri bobbyr
 the- ittfwk youM Kt In motion a chain of                 anywhere In the world under the excuse ol
 event* retain to «r»jisttirer~ttxe United States                                                                trans." AsTX'tor Schlolncer indicate:. .T>P.C
                                                         protecting our citizens, though the a»ln                need go bad: 1:4 further than Use Cti&iA
 la the future-                                          purpose or result, reaches far beyond that              MiMlIe Cmu to recall thac Concrejtro-.ril
 3. TIIC B1U- KNrANUX.1 TJIr. CNTIIUC (CTKCCTf&IC        end. In light of the face ihat failed Sutex             leadcric. •arncK inforeted by Present Ken-
 or AMKCKA:: Mrrcit. *j^rr»rrr AcrJnaiXKra               citizens can be found today !n every other              nedy or the naval (juarar 'nc. felt Uisl he
   •section 3i*3 of !"«c:btUx|i>ms)*: mandate*           nation of the lorld. including OKnmunUt                 should take more fcrccful n
       KtatalDrr uuthorsAAih lor military                 Ctln.v Auumlnc It is not the intent of the             a hillllary attack: or mvnjlotu
       ~lves hy iiie Pr.ri^deut *!ia!t aot'be In-         authors :o so enlarge the PreiWenfouthor-                   jt inuit be rcet^nuej Ui»t U>t
         froni Any cxuttng treaty, nor firm              •Ity. the only reading of the provision one Is          principle. on which the bill UiiiajcJ-
                                                          left wlUj is thai it must prohibit United              uic ITesldcnt must carry -out the
                                                         States patticIpaUon in International hu-                rccllves of Cor.gress m inu l-ilUaU-o %ca
                                                          manitarian niUsiwxs except for the exclusive           pron-cuuoti.bf mliniry hcKUtile^. akit uyVx.
            in.                                          purpose cf stvlnc American Hraj atone.                  i!ie rresidrnt tj»s nri jio*tr •to -csiniravxr.e
        iiC cnif. Xrcaty oVil^arsouJi in a. £toVe of     *    .\NT UKAAKT ACTTOK DCktCNBI ,-» OCTCNO             sxich dircjcive*. THIS u-tbr |iia:n Ic^at "pon-
  pcmitntnt diiubL. X.» Vnj fan tcnctu It the                •nir roo.-«cmic rtwrrro.v or nm utcrrcn             Uoti tii£»n tiy Senauir Oaviut. the )>r)mt
 '.Utit&iri-Stale^ h«-« tlii will to atand by U lii          STATKS ABR.XVD tS MOIllBrm>                         author «>^S. <^0. U- a legal brief ishlch-lic
  tlAtf-or rwttial ilahger or rot.                           io-iJon 4 specifically rolrlcta defcruitv                           cuppori oi the mil at. the itnalc
      rrofe?*or Rlehani U. Murru. nhu-:e>l<tlc<l          tu ilun to iltuauon* a here Uxcre » a.-i a<.^u.al                t; «jS XIaj;i>. ii. t^iJ. AorvtUinc in tay^
  In i.ipport at war • po«.e» le^UIatlun. .tt ttu>        Armrv* attack, upon -he pU>*i.-al LutUd                principle. Uic-M»-ii
  lie.orliif of itnreJi 0. 1371. nexertlxlcst ^r>.l-¥.    S:x\ci. ot upon our ornted forvvc. If an eu*           cuj|a;c t'-c t-:uiitf
  In an afterUxuiielit tu Sei.n:ur EA.:^^ ul              cr.vt jiiv.vitil octuj.j and aeal u(I front Uic fro:   Uiaifiic-ttiuic> u. ,iik> event !
  Ills rears 'liat N'ATO Koald be <5nnin-;Vl-t-\          usjCrt Uic S-.ICS. Canal, or Die SUa.i ui )tt»-                    IrgtwatujW rtirvctni^ i)u-u. he utxe
  Uic bill ic his letter «r.v after )".t. orlfi..?:       hcov. for example, .the United Staiu cuulit                              iuu uiau n«;ftM->piMiavu. A biti
  testimony. Professor MqrrU trariied. *1 nti^ht          hot mjnit d bexAiue Uic hu»t.t!t at-tvoiv li nuV                          un Uio ^^pyVoitwn Uia^ X.OIIT
 mill Umt the effect could tMnccitab'.y Ix:               nn attack jpoiv cvnj actual U:ritori of thr                     i* rrvXC pe-ti>-i'iiu<lt:'t-tli?r. Hie. Mrr.y-
  mlsehleroiis tcere Coij^re**-.nc ti.;» iimc u>                                 viut futx<i nut tu tha          live nia?. to UOtvr icnicnnt'« tei,wnen.
  •let'lile. for example. »Uat-S'ATO'«rai not iclf-                             ^numtut. a>tli<iu^K the             hare iiiibsp'i'i-.ca couiojuciiOi tl,vn, ax »;B*
  exei'iitlnir Such n reiotutloh ml^ht eilcour-                   itprcvM.li an exlremcl. gram                   been «u oiler*. U-e case in vjr Uiiinrr. u t-
  *{r- tlic nnjresilve forces in &irop« iho               XiUIm(v<.rJs to >.Ue n.imomk pm.Ui. t and Die          ill-, congress viu'cli is. seeking »ar •«»•>. ufc
  would no lonc*r »ee in SATO to cXCctfee                •fuudnmenti.l urtfivre of the United Stntrs.            kresideiil restrjwr- _. . .              . •
  deterrent u> Uielr exr>an.siubiti fctna."""             By di« time Conp.tio ml^lit act to grant               JO K. 4id O»a Vl
  4. avrnrrAtntixii AHKA .C.-SR.U.I.-TM:?!!. »»vit A»     ar.thorlty far. a Unt'eit States reaction, we
 TIIIC wnvs-.s c**r itesoct^o,'*; ttut srrutxn            •Mrtilrf be faeru- w'th an aceomnlbliet: fA«x            \<>rt«r >ir>r
     Section 3Mt'prnv;.1<s thnt no pravUlon cf            Mil a. situation In wiith. r ttr-'td b'e f.tr
  Ku- in force ilo\v shall lie ct.nstnieil o> mi-         more dlirioulc .anil tlaȣetviu* u?' at'cr he
                                                                                                                                                     the :>
  thorny for use of in* armeiL fnrees unlcw-it                                                                                     to.reipond. to ";!;•; in
  *«peeincnlly aulliorlan" the Intiotliictlou tit        T. US     PKKtuiltlR. lit T.tK NAIn                     UircJt o. iuacft*- upcii tji<J Sutfni
  troopr in crisis *ittintmns.                              C.IUMANDS AM r^mtarrro fA<)» CSIVX.INC               oz J«» Armed rorrr.v. L<u> .xrtionx 3 U). (?)
                          . -HO nrs«c Uiat nny tan-         ANT rt)24CTTi1NS Vt^VPIC A CXbtS                     nnd i3t rrf<; t<i AM'-iiofi'T for Ui«
                l»w which provides for IH\ Amcrlr^wt        •Section. "Ml OxHj staua that                        ui.-fo.-rj.uut oii.y '^ic direct and jmmi
  response to lie "In ncronlniicc with «.e C«i>-         stAtut^ry auUtortfation i»-n.t|iiire<l for              Uac.ii. <i( iucii AtutcKA. tu CA>iiJ<j'::\a
  ttlttuton.** o» \* (wr.ernlSy u.'*ii I.: our mutual    nslflumpnt .•f^mcmUeri ot-tlic armed *«:•.<»            ter» mirsc. Uic mtrtXueiory inn^
  defence treatl»sc,.meAtU that no ipr<inc au-           of the Cnheil Stales to "command" or ' co-              lu.n J pr<>iiil>iU-Uir introaiKMO1* ol United
  Uirt/ilj- U grsnteti under tills Jnn^iBe.              ordinate" It. U\e movement >l Uir. cnililar;            jttnto trwrp* mv> «n u*uona where muni-
  Applylnc their own Interpretation, la li:o             f»reeA of Attf forcli^ti o>ujiUt. ot H-'ieriinie;iL                             in tUAtn-tics 13 i- early
               bmgunge exinttuncO. ;it Uia Middle        lie-any tinia wh«n then-. exUI« an Imminent
sissw                                              CONGRESSIONAL REGORt)>^SE?S'ATE                                                                  y IS,
  The am *>ct aoi -JeSse xhen aa attack it                 th* tetai -Vountrj- dccc not !ac2u4« latcma-                    la dl>u--«t lu the i»th. Century.
-tasauaeat." but not boA "MSswei as* Inual-                tiocal »^ xutcc. Then-IcTP. tJw'blU j>irov!<t«« that the.rkMbilerx t.*i«tt>elr«» incm- »T
fceaV . S«e *>ts UK kill «Jc3n<c *h*a our is-                                            foe           •           C004SUOCI. Thus, wttvh the OxiitltUtKxiil
volveaacA to hostilities a Iriearlv indicated"                                   The                                               r-x-.o.».-rd the nu-.bvx^y «; OKI-
hut th« threat of, attack. »$alnsi. Aatericaa              actu'oii aircraTt iicbUe It U allt: in                           by aAibmtitatins "lircimr** fee ~Kske
foMes U wK yet "VUrect aad laxauneat,"                     such aircrati has laoiM tA                 wutt'uv.        irr th* fraaaert uadenuod that ra»ax- wira
   Ev*a UtOttfix the terms o? the blU appl; to             by wttkh uinc the. cb»tvx fiw.                          had occurred and cbnM continue id txut
>ttuationi la irhvch U» «U« « «<w.ti«,ot th<               atepi                              "                    withoat. *. <!eclaniu\y:u If th< I\v:a«k<c& ta-
nation aan> Its citizens may be at stave. the                                                                      icadetl-ioc \&e ttcciaraUad cUuic M>toethe-
»;s>a»rs of S. -IW have niaCe so effort to                                                                        *eCe -iray'ln >^lch the United S£»lca could
clarify their u*« or .three diZerenl methods                                                                       er4^e'')a va-v vb>r <:A the Iriratrx u^e a
«f describing "imminent*" hostilities. Tfc'e »u-               INTIXN.VTtONii. STSAtT*                             cttthott trhlcil **» aZreadjr thrn in
the<* cf & 4W Stave sever expUlned why Uvejr                   Agate, jccttoa Jv3J petuUtv orolectlve re- :». i. ««» tx*\xNtov*i,T                            me
use three different terms asd what. meaning                acUotu oaly a» to dtlaeaa oa t&i Jll^h Seax                                                 T«E KAMI;
these diference* are to hav* Ja slmattos*                  *r vuhin another country. Hoi^ver. asakr                    as j
wiere the nation appears threatened by for-                tatcrnaxtiMial :»»-. the UTSJ 'JO                   ~                                            <oT the *C=c-
etra danger.                                               U flvca an catircly iHUrrta- an<t                        lltii L*t^t:                 m'irlhc slxadxrd 4lc-
 it. Tilt 39-9XT UXtT Or TUt B1U, AJTOt                    meaning frosi Uvc ~                                                        br lftri»M Americans
    fkltrcH TXOOM COSSOr »C tSUa. IS CKBui-                                                                                                       J'.uUooal Convention.
    tSTCC ASC3 BANCOtOCS
                                                           13. ^uc tn&srr DAT TVMK iA«rr xtcics viucs-
     Se<ttoa 5 of S. 440 provide* Out the use of                       a r*cft>EKT ivv -.ctoirr ro TOT'*-                     or t» j«x>Un.- Oa the ottier Hand.
  Aaericaa forces In hostilities. evra is emer-                                                                    •no make' «»s dcflnto A' a*ear.l«nc: -to crc-
  gency circttmxtatras. shall sot be sustained                                                                    .avs" "or "to lirtS^ into »nr i^.^xe or cead:-
  Aeyoad 30 tf*rs without spedSe :<jrf»lAtlon                   During the Strati *v>a:ias* an April 23. ."tio:u~'Tb,u*. vSeu'he Ccsnitutiohal .Ciiiti*-
  thereafter e'nac'ed toe that purpose by G»-               1571. Senator Jvrtot. the prime »vith«- ot S.                    "                                   the O»r
  gres*. Jfeary' Brandon, «!eaa of. the intern*-           440. cave as laicMlon. the bill micht lead -de;!arewlt remov*4~frixn CoR£n»C the pc»Vr             In IU p5«ec
  Uoaal journalists corps in Washington.                   to b»til var vhen he admitted tiiiir U' •to iKia£ the counirr 1213 the arjil* oC-.wt;
  writes In his latest book,T?ie fletre*! o/               novh'.Rj; in hU bill to >to|> It. Senator Javiu
  AaRcriciut-./'orcr." "In the care of the War              itaVed, "Couldn~ vuu *xg« a pretty 5°°d scttf left vitfe )t onlr the-jMirrr to proclaim..
  vViTcra Act. the 30-<Uy auihoritiUon porJcxJ.             iar it It itere nuclear. «rt the Pre»ldeaV» it£>urpo*e "of brUitlaj. tiie total recDurcRi pit
 -ifti'r x-hlch-the Pwjlttenl could not conMntw             inur.ctfi.tt* rct?oo3« were iiuclearT" Tkere the aaUoa In <u->pon.cf an exUUrijt «nuvTh^'
  a. .-nlliurr lsr<>lr«nit-:;t; <!oes not souml prac-      u Jtothisj in my bill ihst Jtoas hist /rod 'deciariitiun mi^ht alt* Iiavr. been cbccflvrd
  tical in otir time. It jcould nte&n arguing               rfotsp rket."                                          ac.ihat '•(ia-c aj.lkrinf » method %-irhlcii the
  the c»*e I«ir aoae-Mi-dits In Cbntre**. and                                                                       Un'.ttd Siatei .i^uld enter into -offemlrc
  the coaieqUcReel ol such » dlxeu»tqn on the               :c rr ec ixrostn- K TO rxomcar. as *. <»o war" such as migUt'have txUttd IT the UtUltd
  credlbtlUy or ihteriiatbK&l American com-                     ArrryiTS AU. TJUC iJNCxrccna axa UNUJ*- Sbttes had acted uiider the rrtiicli:;realv in
  raitme'nu U tAiJJy vUaaltMril.-                               mca VAUtVnosi'or rvijrrs Wniar BEn:^{^n•.: 1733 Kv.l^ia.-tTance in war wiUi |C«rsii5 Brl't-
     Xtr. \ViU!»ni U. Roger*, a apcdalUt In In-                          MAT >c NxcccUxv vrtntovr JOVANCX am in»;caJ or taking & potitlon of ntulrtllty.
  ttf&atioha! iii\r. «ho *upport» tegUIxtite                                                                        It Prexldeui U'aakiagtou. had put ifivai fvirccs
  UrclU on war povcrx n:rerth:2eu atiackJ                       KorrM: Under Secretary ot State George in the French isUndx of the Caribbcattlaud
  thV 33-<i.ir provision of the h>U. He tetUR<sl            Jiai: ;*iUd«: atfreha^ hearin;» on Julv 27. repelled British attacks on tho»e ulatxti. "for
  in 19*0 at a Hotue hcirtn; on ix-ar poicers               iy:i. that ~*n>e Icuon one learra from the .ejcamplc. ve voutJ have beeb aciit
  tet&ation. "t think the Javlc* proposal rr-               active practice at ryreign pollcj U hoic orufn iirflf in support of the territoraa
  qulrias the PrcJldeac in eZrcl to (^t out if             and at a-hat critical times the totally un- of an lilly In clrcunutances whcn-
  Cotiprcu doe4 hot act •xlUiln 30 days U dan-             expected c'tnt occun to dominate and trana- no actual attack or threat of attack against
           "                                               forxt the scene.- for tliU reason. Mr. Ball the United -Slates lueif or our QKU-elllacns.
      In. ecence. tbc 30-day llmU provUlon                  tettlAed that Use \Var Po«tr» Act U "an at- In Uicte circumttanecs, as dlxti'^ulshcd
   JwCtl five Canyrcw xomeUilu; tlie Found-                 tempt to do tchAt the Founding Fathers fell from ittuauons vlicre Uie Preildcnt 3uiy de-
  li»;.yaaier» njrer- intended JJ:u> have. » reto           Utey trerr sot arise enough to do ... antici- termine to tuc force to repel «r head <wf.\|gin-
  i>«r tli« . I^ejftftM'i Judgtaout that con-               pate .\t any given moment the unlimited irers Against the UnlCed Stattt. the trK-yrfr. •
  y tiUtvracfcaJive rtit.iiurci arc required alter                          which the future U capable of may tv-tU liave intended for Uie~ct*clarau'un
• 3d Cajv- ConjrttjtSt thereb'y- eiublbhtng; U-                                                                     of irar ctatiMMO apply. The niKROQ of S.-lvJ
"fct;r"ai.»5-Cnmh»ande:» in Clilcf. wliich U                    Sunttariy. Pr»ret»ar Aoram Snayes. who have confiued"oITcnJtlre -war" .from Uie ile-
  not xirhcrc the.CqiatitmVm ve»U 'hat *une-               •upporti the policy oj irar potfvri contruU. fenitvc mrasures whiclt Uie .fnaWrt-t miv
           • " ' •                                                            vigorously opposed in tcttl:nony brine to bear under his independont au'jiu
                               nvt i-ews                                          corin£> wn oar po«er» .eg-»- uj BSsciierer he percexea a to«i|;ij I
                                ic.»is.tf»                                         tliat MC)C b> Iny out a de- uic sccuritj ot the Usiied SIACC* ur
                                      "" pv                 tailed blueprint In advance u> jrovern the
                                                            reiattoni between the PrtitUentmiil ttc Con- :>. TIIC "NtCKaiAar AND rxopnt
    .          1 nr S- ^ l^iltQic* U-.c rrcildent, AU!;    yrcu In tile excrete of Uie national M-ar                   Kor CIVK taxcBsv* tttc rovvsi'Tro.
 Ul> protect w;>i!< cwuiatJhg ciUaeRjL..r.o'tn              po»vr in alt poruibte ointlngeneiet.'*                     AND
 "any aituattoii on iSc :JIlsh Scai" or "any                IT. nit ~onctJutArn>N or w.y«" cuvjt a AK                   rysctiottn or TIIK
                ,35:lcliit»Ss dusenj ar.a ratloualt             OCTMOaxa AN3 ISV^TD B.»3I* CO» RCXT>lcf-               Tiie ,(7a>tet Su-\t«5« Supreme •$p>.trtU«»!i; -in
                   '        '                               - SKC prlrsaa:NTt.t BKrrNsivK REACTION** titc easi Orjtfjc>* v. TM'Uayt&ysfiti: in.
         ' IT U veit-MUted                                                       -7: ouccsti TO THK KAT:OK           CA5S. 127 ct«»t| U»>t pi-i;*f^ cnji-iol -nry
 !aw-Sh5i- thi serm "Hlfih Scu" «JiKsrn6t Jr.-                           Vt>'>!? C. J-atup of the Council im the <xer;;l« of tijc ITwl'lKil.'s iepArat; ,«riir
 Ctude Use wal«» ;kuoir:: 7kiri'ferriwriaj wa-                          :W.v.Ioiu. u-lm was died by Senator era nndet tfc» Nrcciiar; (kin'trrntrttuCtimc n*
      ;" Itirtce'd. clb M:> l^hsw arp Riicii >«it-                    oa Iw\rt; In ixipporrof the XVnr Pow- i»ny other jirayrer. 6r.iet'Jritstie« TtJt •ov.f
                          rtntUoiu iiy tlie-Ucn IDSa        eri Bilt. n*v»ri»tel*i» ttrmte in n Jc'ter l»- tjiat tlitx -f^i'.d ae art<3-3Uio<>tjt^lhc IC<ni-
                          iit on thr High So» a})d          MrteVt .!<: ju'e Sfnaic.lic.irlnpi orAIurcli 2-J.
  «j» •tirripri-jr Kcu. Accord (HBI?. u:* -'iiiu                                                                                             ixtloh to CiVyr«J-«if tluj
                                                             1971 r»»»< _"^bc eonorpr of •declaration of                                *,.?}; tl\e (C            '
 irAvet unexplained r.ow-Usc T*r«it(?l>t                    wnr"          U "now nn .wutaifnled concept," )ts :if Miotlte; ol *V
        .-C U^S. c'.Uwru or .Ciltlii); Tr-jUe               ncMe<t. -Bco.Mwof. my belief alioiifUie Inch                           .
           tt'lthlr. tha Ttfrrllnrial S«u of                of real lejat re:e»tiiie>n of Uie jtcelarstiou in
   o.>4tAl nrvilont vclueh otlcii extend up to                                                                         ITjfi Sui>rc:v_c »Vt;'">. st-/> look
 iw>-l;unUrcd hiltcj-frcn) Uic cotut-                      •ihete timh.'. I VJiilcI 'heiltare w tie ni>tv                W of th-J N'cixtsary UK;;. Proper
                                                            tetfUlatioti -o tl<;liUr " Uie j£fteli\rsr:on o?                      ''
    i?incc tnese u-nim arc nculifr wt^iJn Uih               uiir' i-taiuc ot the* Gnu r.tntloR.**
      ^i Staa" iwrUieioM'nljy-pfopet. Uic Ulli                  Tliv tdea that the only u-jjr tlie Ur.Ucil powrr" but inert-?! nif(«iu tuv. C-fMigi»rvtniif
          br amenrteti to.clcarty nllow proKcU.vn           States OB fv^t IcM Tnf £J l.iru.igij. n il^i- linplenieii; 6ic (.flea's It •l+.A&tneur vesinr
 •if Arr.ciriCTti* \n Hieic ejrcMm.taneet or.elso           ratl/u/ *>>• C-osijres* u n njirtli. Tiic Viut'-ntiir v.tSi u>itt'ur r'fe CrtnVt'.tnwnU Til* na'.'-irt. uiat
                                                            jirlty t,t v*a- bvtlt In Amcrk-nit. rmti-\7eit- ~ -'                -can (VUfuuL l:>viittti,:'|M |i.r~
                                                            e.rn K'lr-i'win UUviry hi»r5..Wn >««-•<> ^rl>-
                                                 /^ cm-     ouc any tte--lA«tlon, TlilA frtci tctu jvell kimau                vras jr-putJraleiV over '.no- yenr ^^ .
                                             » TIIBOUCIC    to the- FoiUjUlnj^PftUieri. " ~                         when Urillu:n Wh^inc e^jir.sellt^l PT»A otnt
                                                                Tiv '.iii' ej^fjfrfevrrr )•>,•««                   .nincclrl Uirir.C;niry>»'la-J:
                             if
 icr; ran-bciproteelecl-phlj while         «jt.i- held In the Western World nnit Ihirtj-Mven.                                                 <iv.ct>»ivc
 cv:\'«t fromitiiy ittu.itlaii "n»-tjie ',        of them strro al'Jioiit any Ji-Jftmtiou of line                                     .»nLrrpn:ia<x.'i -il>« fcito f>-
 w in nnoihtr touhtrr OUvibu-ijT tiie -li:'«h war A>x.tnil<v JlvnlltonV viAtetiwnt In the- of. Cu                                      ii<ii b.-.r«jior$'r;jr ir.t wi ip -J
  " *" ttn not titettiv'cr tho "Wuo Akles" and l^AttAnlltr \f.\i>. ^K -that »TI.TM'»I\ ...«%• of. *na
                                                                   M •t«i«*           >
                                                                                              ..^
                                                                                                                                        timt c«jnj;r>:w jn>y 'net u»
                                                                              236
                                                - £$NlGKE$$10NyAt: RECORD —SENATE
                                                                                                                              t«c\xcc» iiuc t       rxirswr <>*• ttic
                                                                                                                       vr Tti£ usrctrtactcc wrrit MturAsr ortxx-
- i*. :rtJ»Ak-isV»tu>.«.                                          •ttvcre. ace avtcasx twenty-four statute             TtOXS WtttCH X'ASU^CCTOX iartXtXKCUi
  '             >•**•- rwwiau:                                 which Cossreics partftipatcd JoteUy with th«            tvrrtc rite occcnxccrxi coNctzats
                                                              JPrcitiesl la approving United SXatci ao                 GeneraS XVaihlapvot troub\-s wlta 'the
                                                               UvitJcs la Irate-china, the SEATO TreA-.y asd. CVKtUaea&ia OoagrcKS raxux be resttrKbered la
     •S, -U0.1* set xn-xt                    .                 Use Toakta Gulf -rVJolutloa bclrsg oaJy twa aay eZ-»rt to cei aX the purpw ot the Kourxl-
  Adr ttc ajrenyruiiion power ot tWe-                          among acmerous Wter such examples, of loC-Vbilhcrt In vcRlag the rrcsWeai wltto the
  The- )jUl toys tfova brwsd as«! geacral rul                                                                       CXC!US!TC rover «-< Ocoxiaamlrr in Chlet «£
                           ,                                   china, war. The*e statutes, all ot wi£d apccJ- all she Atnerkart arr&ed torces. It. ts uaiver-
                          Ir. a=y way w> Ocagressteaa) aesllr SdentlseA the war In Vletnaai or                                            that frwnl the t^lnnlsj ot
                with respect io fuctfi which may S-mtheas: Asia. wouM have coastttuted the                                                                       iscatal
  be~e«cde<i to Seance salutary operations cow SJKCICC *=»t\iU«y axxthortty called f«>r by S, Aruxy to Use eivd, it was a caestatxt
  c< la.lfce. riittire. A c:o*e and eatesslxx study                                                                 tor George Vashtngtoe-to cvercome th« ob-
 <of authottU'-i >»»« not turned up a s!u$!e                               If r*f> Arthur Scblesicjftr it wa- itac^cJ put la blx way by C^ngrcst. Required
  precedent for this kted of IcglilatHin Li the                                      t la his oaxcrriUort. read* by his co«nmUsloa ~{iu::ctxtaliy to observe aay
  entire hlst«r-«f she VuKetf S»tes Va<:*r                                           or SL -l«0. .that I^esideat sucix onlerj arxl direcUeas- as i;c shouM re-
  the CuaxtituUon. Xoc have the sponsors ot                                       have gotten kit ihe Oaagres- ceive: troei OJajrei*. thea clothed with the
  S. -MO cited any privr statute a» a precedent. sKtaal b!cxc2s( he irjnted at anr point up u> powers or an executive. Washington was har-
  The truth ts S. -MO !*-aa. entirely Unprece- I$«S act! It ^. -KO had becri on the books. "It raxsrd. ascocd-f^ietted. and over-ruled witl\
  dented eKori at. usurping Presldeatlal powers would cothavr arreited -Aasertcaa particlpa- respect tn his mUltarr plaixs and strategy
  over national defense.                                       Uoa in the wan It worUil oaly h»re locked throughout: the VlTar ot Independeacc.
                                                                                                                       A prvsulneat tnllttary hut(>rian has trrHKn,
  21. Mtsroaicu. CSAC-C eosct.wrm.ir OTA»- ConfTTM tfotper Into the ocataUoa piv!lcy~ -The ataount ot harrs. caused by U:e iicwtw
      ustiio TUK .CONS; > m : :us At. *cnto«rri or 24. V 4<« OULTX3. WkSCniOCS OMSSTA1STT UC tailitary osixrol usxirpca by Congress, can
      rKtsncrruit. atonnsTOL KLscrroNS ACJUXST                     tixior cnsa »t bUCTiKCTO ilir rcz»iaccr onlj be UMasured in tenns ot the appallia);
      rotccx- OAXCXU                                              ANT "JvrocMccr AXa ntioumcN" TO omat- sufferings ot Uxe American »o!dlers at Valley
     There have been at least 20* fovelgn mili-                    isirr tr AN oiooaccr rxtrrt wittcit AV- tSnge. wblclx Washlcgton was poxr-rlesi to
  tary hostllltfe* In the history of the Urilletl                  ntoecrs use or uiurAkv roscc                      prevent." T. rVotlilnghaiu. K«jhinc:ox Coet-
  States and only ire ot.thera -were declared.                     Nowhere )n S. 4tO U there may Uapiage XGXdcr li Cft »/ 234 (1S30I.
  A complete tut Identifying *»ch. <« *b<»c-                   provldlnc thax the President, ttxax make an              The sponsors ^.t S. {40 nrouW have xu revert.
  iec:<!«htx u ineluUcti 10 an exhibit. *iUi tay independent. Judgment oi an; kind under to this discredited nslein. Buv. the VSixirwl-
  tenuuony at -the Senate hearing on War the bill. Tb the contrary .a legal brie! Intro- Inj: Father* realced that Congressional con-
  Potttri IjesiaUUon or April 19T3.                           duced In the Senate hearing* by Senator uoi ot rr.Ultary tuttcttoas had very riearlr
     Theie hlitorlcal prectUents dt&blbh «. Javita. the primary autlior' of S. 440. argxxs led. to disaster during the Revolutionary War
  eon»utent practice by vhlch ••Imoct. tjl that the bill rests upon the proposition that For this rxason. Uxc use of the armed'- forces
  American preiidenu hare reipontietl to for- the President Is the mere "executive arm ot In Uxe defense ot American rights and free-
  eign iUnjerx wui whatever loree U^ej ptr- Centres' who must fallow the "policy di- doms was left with Uic President as Com-
  celred to be ncceiaarr *r-'1 tcchao)oclC3LU7 rectives" oT the -Legislative Branch. This mandcr In Chief.
  ara'latte »t Uir particuUtf moment lu time. strict nropunUun allows o! no dlscrcUon oi                               The framcrs had witnessed at firs: hand
  The »r.ci(Jcnu vcrc But lunlleti to Uxc \VoV- Judgment Tor the rresldeat. b«>t mthet eoxi- the terrible IneSlcleney ot th« Legislature
  em HetnUpJiire or to Koall-^cate skirmuhu. templales Uxat the President. U tlghtlx bound. Interfering .with r-llllary operations They
  AMeait 1CJ ot them took place outside the to rerrMn rrom any action unless it U clearly unq>tes*!onabl> nxade up their minds that Uie
  \Vetterc. Hemisphere and one. the Kllipmc consilient, with the directives o: Congress. new government which they formed would
  Iiwurrection. inrotvcc; the employment, ot Under thU posiUon. the President nxxis^ re- have r. Commander In Chief who pos>et3e4
  over JU3.00O Unstcrt .States troop* "' a mr turn to Congress on each occasion when real power to act with promptness, dlrect-
 •'xi^in and tnUn; without any declaration. there Is coxy doxxat over the Congressional . nets, aud unity* of action.
      Thu usage i«_nnclu>»c ut OKte                            purpwc o* language, uxetl tr. S. %-tO. If Uxe bU!        As AicSAixlc: Itomdbun, vro^c In Uxe Fed-
  iutcrpretatio>(. the VnUeU Sia'.ca                           intends lu ^rai.t Hit Prcaidct.t. CesxblHt} ot etaitiV Nu. 74. Gf-»li the cares vt concerns
  ,X>u.T. applu.<v the prmtijwl ot vtn^c a» a Uiterpretatiun. It should apec.Acall*'-sa^ «> ot goxen.mctit* U.c dirccliun of xrar n.uit
  rtcttrnu -ir-u t»ctor~li> X>>tu.titutU>itAl Inter -                                                                pecullarl; drnianu's tl»i« qualities vrhlch dls*
  ]>rc<%t*>^\ in at. IT»I> i«o cues InvoJttnf the                                                                    tlngu'sh the rxereise'of ROw.^r by a alt^le
  po»rty or the rr^iMent Iti relation to G-v\-                     Concrcn should noc create n ertsM by plac- tian^i. ,TTxs dlrecUon of xmr IcjjUlcs Uie <ll-
                Unlfr-l-Slatex v. Ultlttett Qtt Ooci- Inc Um. Supreme Cox:rt.In a position where rectic-n of Uie commcu atrengtli: and the
            K CJ$-4S9 O'StS: on<l Xgerr v.                     It mxtst. take, slites wlUxonc of (he two polit-
             m <;j>\ n iiotti.                                 ical UratXcJ-.es, Tlxe Surtremc Court ha* never mpn »trcf;i;Ui :fi>irrns a ttsxial -aix:! -
      In. ifytn. the Coin, held that                           tlttectlf <coiia;<tefed the nuesuon ot Uic Segai- part l« Uictfc.lhiuonof execv»ivc.Tixithortty" "
            not. slilt(. p-=u» after                                                                                   •It rat tat ctso be recalta.l Umt hi ertxtratf IK;
                                                                                           of trcopa
              a particular pracMcc amt Ixfln «ct- liy or i>ryiil<tentt^l-U£« Court. {l»s durlnc »»y tin litxtt.mal ilefcurc.pcivrrs In Uxc Prest.-tc"itr.
                                                                                     '.e              lilslorlcallr
 -lir.g                    ?>» a l*r*»WsaUal pcv."?!* dclermineil itiskt-lt.u ixovtr.i-ir^nction ot Jl« yic-frahiers wr«r JtiStunced by.Uie wrtUr>Ki
                                                                                                 -
                          SiAil never befcirc overriiileu                                            winch elial- tit tixckv. Nt^Ktc^iiijrii. and IKaricuWne. nil
                                                                                                     wi
  by QtAtuie. etuu. ihougk Uxc practice ):ait Jiuilcurr to.eivu:rui<x .Ua;tvticn w the prixp- fit wJIxiMit.iaxV t!i« »iWkln£ of: ilereii»Jre %-ar
                                                               lengrs iiit t*j;aUty, ilxc -vflWrtm.
                                                               r.<ty-at the
        ; >•> ttir qv.tiUoiv cf war rtc»-rr» hus often tnir-»fiiictt Comaiaatlf r In Cu^f ni                         erty thc-fuiicj!oU.« cKp-Kxecylirii and tVllh
           :MMt«d. r»xit never                                                                                      .wti<y«e -ttTltlilps Uic-liKm^cn at ltlr-C<»isti- '
  IP~ J                                                                                                              tultoiut CoutraU3a?fiv x'no«n to have been
                                                              •ixtld tn lK:p;ain\7 vtUtia U»c'.eKl«islve j>ro-. etoic.'r fnmltl.-xr.
      "Nor         we               . . that iyat.>a.Cori- to. lutt:onl .iiecls:oA» ?infi o/ Jfuitin>i/'i y.           Tlxxis. S 4<P; whlcit U wi etfori to-sclsc-tlia
         .       (ull                          <l Vtitli Hie         san. 71 U^..H7? 4 lMi>); Oet/sji.v. C*n- function of wlllrary commnnq pViirVrt luux
 4yci»uleic«ncc iir.il                         i>t ail -t}ji,          Leather Cc&flfng. M? \>-& »7. 302             Uic fU^Watlve Uraneh. ri>*x» rtl'cctly coxxixier :
  "imnthes ol He RovettxRu-riV.lia*                                                                                  to Uie p'lrjiriae of OirTottndlixg-F^UtVr* tft
  iijr« ^tu>w%.cUn ot Utc Cr.iuUiu                             7H3 lll/nO-. Jfbro'v. iTe.VdB».v^-arir» y^J. OH (iln.-e Uie iCrecllAt) of ^rnr li)to R i|ii|;K' ix^td.
                                                                Il3«7i.and 373 P.ana                                 Uie PresUlitit-ixs'.dHiiriwuiler hKCnkr
                               It U                                                                                                       Iuxnr->f. C«>ttiwATO(,
                                                                                      j proves                                                           l/JT. y<ni»r^. -:
                        vitlv n_«t tliat U»c
                                                               Court will Hut r.w>\ljtr any >lattiie RQI                Mr DOMI^CK- M,r P«sl«Scnt,.tci!l Uic '
                                                               t:ig the President H deployine;4l^.nf^tfoor*.<. If- Senator jtroin: Arizona yield?
                                ht pover» ot
             foreign itVngcn.                                  lie plaoril-lr. .9 bail ^nnstlMitiytJil ntitc ot         Mr.GOIipWATER, lain Iinpju to yield
                 perhaps                                       cnt-xwlrm la Uic vzcM Conifr«i« and Uic to;(iic Senator rroni C^'orado.
                                                               JHrmuknt «oiiti!'l>e b-.-te'i wiiiioiit-niiy nr-         Mr DO.MINICIC. Mr president, the-.
                  ':t«» ..roe fs. Jnq,iiiiry.<)t tins          Uiurui rriotnr Uu\ if^nliiy of S. 110:                dtsUnuiilsliud Senator fririi Arlmnn nnd ;
  H
    lJMl a pcpfil«» gcfmaxs 'Coniututioiv • in                     At Hie Senrxto Jxvaringx of .April S3: 1271. I were oii Uic same s(dr when this lillt
  IxoiV '4iey Iiw ^>ift conpcrixtc nnnej-                      S«ii(itof J.tviU ndmlUed .in.-iv ,iiijl<ajuy wiUi wns debated lost yc^f r »cllcvv Uint xvc
  f^tcvrtcr and Itjttl Uio mon"tiopott.a.t'. »»• me UXIXL vnv.js»upr«me Onirt v'oulrt not con- were Uic-lwo v^rtueliinl opponents at tluii
  ttitvtitj in-a 'Icn.'.T.mUr c-Aninimiiy u in tuc B;Cvt Uu ieuulnUry>. He caiiU • Agree that ttme-ln tryliiB lo talk alwu; It. We were
  r^M-uUv;Jn;j».;i,a.t.pfj:plc ttcnU »>. each <.Ujc[ jiu ^upremck Ct«ui»-|ft I.IHD^ U> ilcni- ^iUx-tt«i^ c-iusiit— I •KIUI. fu'.yvftij, t d.o no', know '
  Uyiucli-JjVlhc-aml ciuipcratlon.**                                                                                 \vhcHior llic .Scnntiir From Arizona was—.
                                        CONGRESSIONAL RECORD— SENATE                                                                 1973
a UtU* unaware at that lime Jh*t the            heard oct this a*tler. partkulariy in view      and the et^ums co?d war. lawyers for
bttt would b* brought up and moved on           ot the mistakes that the Senator from           the President had spun a spurious doc-
tuite a* rapkuy »* it was. *> that we           Colorado has pointed out                        trine of -inherent" Qxnmander-in-
were obviously not *> prepared as we arc           I will add that this bill is shot full or    Chlef powers—broad enough to caver
today bar the excellent presentttton just       mistakes. In fact. 1 am certain that If         virtually every "national security" con-
made by the Senator from Axiaona.               the majority of the people who are co-          tingency Uiat could be thought of. And.
   Mr. -President. I want to associate my-      sponsorinc the proposed legislation would       recently, this nxirious doctrine has been
s*tt with the remarks of the Senator f rota     study its context and listen to the oppo-       found to have developed even a lethal
Arizona, immediately. They are extremely        sition, I do not see how they could ever        mutation—the "national security"* cover
appropriate. They are right on the but-         support a bill that, bi my opinion, the         for criminal acts which as used in th«
ton Insofar as commonsenVe Is con-              President wiU '.save to veto recardless of      Watergate scandal became a political
cerned.                                         how much it Is amended. Not only Is the         Instrument, The now almost unlimited
   For the purposes of the REOO». I In-         bill unconstitutional, but also, it is a        power of the Presidency with respect to
vite attention to the phraseology in sec-       bill that takes the subject In the wrong        matters of "national security" Is a uni-
tion 3 of the bill                              direction. If the bill is psssed and be-        lateral power not. only to defend our Na-
    Sec. X la sis* ftteeaec at a declaration ot coh.« tlie law of the land. I caunot            tion wisely but also a unilateral power
•rar by the Coatrecs. the Amwti FVxccs of the imagine an enemy of the United States             to involve us in the quagmire oTa Viet-
United St»t« »i*v bt Introduce* la hottUl- wantinr anything better than this kind               nam or-even in a thermonuclear holo-
 tlex or In aiiuaUotu where Imminent Involre- of legislation. In effect, it would tie the       caust.
meat Is hostilities li.clearly indicated by the strategic and tactical judgment ot the              The severe imbalance wlifch has de-
ctrcumitancc*. only —                           .President: it would tie the use of troops:     veloped between Use power of the Pres-
    Then It toes on. one. two. litre*, four. it would tie any power he has in foreign            ident and that of Congress has evoked
 and so forth. The first one points out that polky.                                              many charges of "usurpation.*' 'While
 If one. happens to be a soMler. officer, or       I believe the adoption of this measure       "usurpation" is a heady word which may
enlisted man stationed in the United would, in effect, jerk the rug of peace and                lielp to assuage our feelings, a review'of
States, he can specifically not only repel world understanding right out from un-                tlie record of the past 30 years leading up
ah armed attack against him but he der the feet of the United States.                            to our present predicament does not. in
can take necessary and appropriate re-              I hope that sometime during this de-         my judgment, allow us the solace of
 taliatory action.                               bute we can have the Idea—at least the         attributing the result solely to Presiden-
     Under subsection 2. tills wording faint hope—that our colleague* will par-                  tial usurpation. Tlie Congress has given
 -. . . take necessary and appropriate re- ticipate in some way in trying to become             away iU authority—not only by default
 taliatory action" Is omitted from all U.S. bHler acquainted with * subject which                and acts of omission—but also in an
citizens who happen to be stationed my research indicates has received very                     endless series of Kxwely worded and
 overseas.                                       HtUe study in the nearly 200 years of our       broadly drawn- delegations of authority
    That means tint if one is a soldier— it Republic                                             to the President. To cite one example,
                v                                                                                but U*ey are numerous, how m&ny ot
 would seem to me—who was attacked In               Mr. President. I yield the floor.
 Korea, say. the only thine he could do             Mr. ROBERT C.BYRD. Mr. President,            us—including myself—who voted for the
 would -be, to defend himself but he could i suggest the absence of a quorum. I ask              Tonkin Gulf Resolution in INS do hot
 not do anything back, either by way of unanimous consent .that the time be                      feel uncomfortable todty In rereading
 a counterattack or anything else.               charged ag*!nst both sides; equally on the      Its extraordinary language:
     We brbught-.that up th* last time, and bill.                                                 Ttic_XT>.lt«d 5utc* U. therefore, prej>*rc4.
 I specifically mentioned It twice. I liad          The PRESIDING £KFICER. Without              ax -Jin .Pmidcnt determine*, to take alt
 hoped the committee would change that objection. It Uso ordered.                                                 Including th« UK: of. armed
                                                                                                ttc^tiiury tlfpt. r
 wordir.* before we got through. I expect           The clerk will call the roll.               force.
 to offer an amendmen^to take that ac-              The second assistant legislative cleric        Tlie Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave au-
 ilon In Uie.cvcnt ifc li not adopted '-just proceeded to call the roll.                        thority without defining responsibility,
 by voice \-otcor someOilric In the Senate.         Mr. .JAVZTS. Mr. President. I ask           and thus created a situation of desperate
     R makes no sense to me to Hare people unanimous consent that the order for                 confusion over the questions of authority
•ordered overseas; wheUicr recylir. re- the quorum call be rescinded:                           and responsibility ts the Congress sought
 serve?. ar National .Guard. lo defend U.S.         Tlve PRESIDING OFFICER. Without             to wrtatle with the issue oi ending the
 tourists and th*n-sm\>if younet-at. objection. It is so ordered.                               Vieutam war. As a result, the related Is-
 tacked; boys, all you can do Is to .defend         Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, r yield          sue—accountability, the keystone of
 yourself. You.xrannot retaliate."               myself, with the permission of the Sen-        democratic gocernmcnl—never came in-
     That-is, the kind of problem raised l>y ator from Maine (Mr. Musxie). IS min-              to focus.                          _       .
 the bill.             * ' '                     utes.                                             Our. e.N;>erience cf the last y-ycanrof-
     t want to congratulate the Senator             Tlie PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen-            more has demonstrated hcrr niucli iVjrcJ-
 from Arlxona^Ie has done ti magnificent ator L< recoKnjsed on the-lime of Uie                  cr It Is to get put nt an jj'tJdccJjtre^wat
 Job ln-tli6r<MisMy'i>resent}h:r-the consll- Senator from MjUne.                                than 1C U to cet.into one. In -'dexlift;
 Ijitl6r.al problems involretl-ln this mat-         Mr. vTAVrrs. Mr. President. U:cre. b        with the .tltuatlon rctroepecUyely. Con-
 ter,         -                                  no longer nny serious armiinent as to the      g'ress.'has beer, forced" to-rely "solely on
     Mr. GOLDXV.yrni. I thank the Sena- existence o" a constitutional crisis rovcr              Its "power of tjje.pur$e" ox'icr appropria-
 tor from CQlorartor                             tl»e exercise of the Nation's u-nr powers.     tions. We IIAVC jecn hoy difficult ami
     I- recall \Hc-aabate last tlnle nml'the T>;V.pertinent question is: What will thq          unsatisfactory It li for .C-jncreis to try
  fact:Uiatwe-dld.noV-ha.ve much' time. I ConcreiS—and the President— <lo abo\it                to get a meunlnsfu* held -611 tlie Viet-
 ttntjust as tiisnppotniet! as is the Sena- this crls!s?The deep wounds of tlie Vlet-           nam war throuch the funds cutoff route.
 tor froa>Col6rado,ln tht?tact:ll):vt the giioi- esiierlencc inescapably remind i»                  Vet there Is a group of pundits, histor-
 .Committee, on ForciRU Rclatiims^itl not .that Uierf!>.factoc^ncentr.Ulon of plesil-           ians, nnd coinine.-itttors who xvould have
 seemed?ttUow.jxn^opppsliibrivritncuu. •r>6iciitlary-war .jwxvers lii {he hhnds of              us fly directly In the facpof this tortumjs
 J. rer,u.esteiUV<i b^.liejtni before            Uic Ere-.ldcnt l:os subverted the letter       experience and confine nursolvcs to tlie
 .                                               ahd-tbr spirit of U-.e Constitution nnd        funds citloir route. Tliose who would so
  IM heard, so I. have id-tie. 'hcard'-on.      .im 0t|CC{l ui: ntmiit intolerable strain       advUc us nrc-iinwJliJuR' to trjrevetj In-
 jlcor.                                          HIT- our ;|nUonriI {i'j*.- Th& W(ir Powers     sUlutlonnl rcfortn. Tlicy would |iavc tis
     Also, there Is crave doubt in my-n:!nd Act iS. «0>. whir.li Is IdcrUcAl to this             fncc the Presidential war power so often
  HIM. the Foreign ItelnUonx C^mrnUleo                                                          iwcd by Prcildents as a fine tuucdi
  his much to do wlili i]\]s kind of Icgfcj-                                                    subtle, and rfecblvc instrument with &
  Ititlon. I think, lhat before them would                                                      cliitu.iy. Iiltint. nnd obsolescent tool—the
  come Uvs Uom'm!L}ecr pn the Judiefnry. seeks to redrea; tills nbernitfon fiom the                   t.ftitatr remedy—which Lrflicrc now
  because this .nialter Invoiced a nuesUoti ortjln:it intcnt-nnii spirit of the Consti-              i alll iic-tUcre when the ui\r powers
 flf the .Constitution; nm! certainly tl:e tution.                                              U( Incomes law. It can be a. snr.cllon,
  Committee on Asrncd Scniccs shoyld be              For o\\', of the cr|«U of Wot:•! \Vur II   )j!tc ltl> iib^a substitute.

                                                                         238
 July            1973                         CONGRESSIONAL REGORJ> — SENATE                                                                   S 1SS67
     Oxnliic after so ir.any ycsts ot                                                                       lal Co!»sress with Gf»rse \Vasliin^to»». !n
  Clc a»ul «> saany ;>r*cedi»ver.d-l                        ire sUglft. /Jiot be .faced with pur            mind wh>s» S«ex tftdsivxted tlse Presi-
  cScsis in Us* CW«r«&.vthe recent-action current asonldns cUemhau Xtdlswx                                  dent as ~Cco«naj:ct.r ii. ChJef" in article
 •to cutoff funds tor X7-S- beroblns in Cam-:                       hei» UAt tT«>-tJilJds bt $h*            •H, section ±. Tlius. the "icsiriatixTt his-
  bojia on AUSUJL 15 cea&te&'aa <!*sa«nt                      b* »uUior&td-vo nuikc treaUeis of             tory** of-UK cottstSiutJonal conocj>t ot a
 •o'-aniiclinUx. i*w~iUose who seek, to «£ .pea«<: xitsi^uv the concurwiwc- br ^lit                         «o«imx:der-u'i-cJilef teas -the rriatlon-
 store the constitution*.' ba'.arice in war                                                                 slil? of Georse \Vash£nc,tes» as colossal
  powers, thcrb is a vlwd lesson to bt                                                                      cocwiinacr sn ch£tf to the
  te*r»&£ froai Use August*-!? dea&utt                                -          ,
                                                                        Sic rwghi ** icaipted;. "It
  sjeasurr: it proves .tlte hshercrii weak- «£ -snir iSutt uajttfc a treaty «?: « mu-
                                                                 to                                             "I'iist relationship 1$ clearly deilr.cd ut
  ness ant. Indeed vice oi.ihe                                                                               the Commission as ComniajitJer In Chief
  route a&tiie tws to-                                            r. Mauisuu nrilhdrca .his pro-             which was sJvcJV to\\Yaslil:y;toJi on J;ir.e
                                                         l tclihout iiuttlittr. Si lo^-voie.                •19. -ITtS. aiid tfl»!clx was forrijally rc-
                      oi;the f unds-cuioK route                                               iehfied       tunied"bj hlui to -Uic. Coi\th\en;a: Coii-
  ai a vehicle for exercise of tlw war pow- sce ilitir role, ai Coav.Rar.tfcr la Oii*f                      cress on Decctnbcr 23. 1783,
  ers of Congress.enumerated: iiv article 1; eohductn^ a u-ar^as-ihc decisive jiowcr                           1 upuld like to quote UA :h^;.claiuc i'
 -.section » ot cJic Constitution, is laid bare ot the Presides-;'. eresfdersV N'Lwn arUc-                   thts Coiiuu:der in. Chief"* Coniir.tision.
  lor all to sw. The aar-powers, .of Corir ulaicd tlxls vie* ve"rj; precisely, ahen he                       iwuue ItestAbltsned the.relatloi.shkp of
  sress xycre tnieiidcd by"-the Founding sajd in April 137i:                                                 ih* Cqa^res! to the Coniniandec -in
  Fathers lb >>t plesiary rji-na«>re, Tlielr Eacii ot u» tr. Uu-«j Irtes'to-Icarc {the                       Cliief as c:ixHsaccd by the Fbundn:s
  moststrik5D5.diaractcris*.ic Is iiiat they                                                   -             Fiitljers:
 ire so.irolcea as tb-Klvc Cbntrtss the                                                                         Asil xvu ere to regulale rotr conduct .la
  caatrolliiic authority—tar-d- resp<wlbU-                                                                   every -JM^-««- by Uie-rulej aad discipline ot
 il^r-Tbtr'decIdlnE wlieUrer or -not tJie tiic                                                        Bat    •sir. <w herewith gjvea.you) intf puactiullv
  United Swt« slxould fie in xx-ar. TTl»'«                                                                   to obicerve •ad-'oltb-x xuch ordtri ai'd dlicc-
  bclhg.cor.ccix-ed as Uie^crucial policy ce-                                                                tkva rrnnt tlnte Co timt.it you xiutll -receive
                                                           iit" Pr                                           from this or * Juurrc Coajrc3« of ;tie
 clslbn-r-wh'ether.to £n}:l*tc waf-rUic con-
  iUtutibnal war jiowcrs of ConRresis Ji»>>pcsi. -                                                                     Cbioaiex cc » cmnauec o:
                                                                                                                                        '
  liirc—when sli'c will .extsts to exercise
  them-<i "front-e;^ •load" cluiracterls-             -U.ivtm.ost sectns as If proptnehls of-thc                NoheUielcss. out of the 5>»«e and
  tlctbtliem.             ,"                      Presidency- Jfa« ncgtcetcc; in re;td Vhat                 crjiJtic .linpijace of article II. stclioii i
     'ilvisw«(iknea.<>f the funcisicutoS route t!ie"Cbhs«lut:on in fact xays-aboul ^5«.»                    bt-Uic Constitution there-has j:r6wi\ -up
  derlx^ .precisely •from' lii after-thc- war powers. ArUcte -L section- «.-of the                          an extraordinarily bx-erf>!own"dp<:trint cf
  fact. ~tiscr by the toil" nature. Sxi awe- Gonstlluttoh enumerates Uie xvarix>wers                        5on:allcd Commander in Chief powers.
  some Is the momentuht of. war. once- cl'-Cbhstesii Tlie Itst.of-ihese -powers Is                          The outer limits of-thls doclrine. Is cited
  really underxajv ^that. jlie • brakinR de^ botli de_ta.U*a ai'.d cpmpreheml ve :                          TJJ i barrier- against- even the exerc£se,by
  vices pf'oiir "sx-steni of tov-rnn-.eht do         Vrvrtde f-jr ihc commas d?r«cic                        CotiRress of its own. clearly enximeratcd
 ,not work.eltectix-ely—orUy-.thc ,wl;liliold-        To c^-tlcc jtnd pu- Jih                               xwir powers. For instance, in hls-1971 tes-
  Uig of basicTauUiorlty.can do so. Partlcii- Ut4 laer « ^                                                   timony before Uie Seriate Porcjpt-Rcla-
-larly: •w'.thla tht .ftxecutix-e bnuich the          To ralic actf sttpport armies                          lions Committee. Secretary- of Stale
  fever o'f war seems tonceatc the nornial            To ntak« rtUex (or :ht guveftimci                      Rogers approvingly ijuolcd the following
  pjittcrns of restraint thus, hlghlisht- uJatlorLot-U^e land anil r.axnl lorctx                            assertion of Uic Truman .administration:
  tnc -the -Indlspccsabliity" of Congress                           ;
                                                      To provide for calling Jortft the triilV.U to            Ttvt preildeJit, »s Commander In. Chief of
                                                   cxectstc the lawx — Swd «;xl lti«a*loa*.                  the Armed Kt>rcej or ifce United Statej. hit
      Anotlicr .purt of Uie lesson is                 To provide for orcanlilng,                             r«ilt eor.trb: over the xisc thereof.
  rnciithry in :jialure but of cnicinl sub- UclpHnlnf. -Uit hiUIUa. aad for                                    AVc'have reached a-.polnt where-- pro-
  stantive and psycholcsilcaj slKsilflcance. luctvrwl af them u may !><• cn-.pIoycU in the                   ponents of the strong Presidency sncm lo
 The •fcoTjiarprnU'c'*"1 JaU»K of -the Au-                     f the UnlUxl Siar*t
  g;ut ii-icadURe.Icsts.atton— permlUtag                                                                     be claiming ihat tlie power of the Com-
                                                              jKiwcrs ot Concres&.nluch 1 have               mander, in Chief is what he htinscif de-
  6 aililiUoiiaV weeks of abHorrcnt bomlJ- Jtisl listed nre extet\slve and siwclftc. but                     fine^ it to be m any. given arcunvii.-vucv.
  »ns-<lcrlvwl fropi -the desire :t«i av-         •Uic Founding Fathers' went exen furtlier                 •Indeed, testifying fo.r U\c admiiiuiratton
                 '                        -        to buttress Uic'po'Xer of Conr.reis-ln this               on war powerxlr. the Ruusc-on March 13.
     The .•'Cotsslitutfon provides Uiiit.Con- field. They did U.ls b>-<coi.chidin3. arvicte                  I373.-Uie State DcpartmcnL-Acimg Legal
  Brew shait declare war TJifs-rcquJres-a Z.scctiou S with an all-lncliulx'e po*ct—                          Advisei advanced just, such a doctrine.
  simple majority of. both If buses of Con- the "nccessarj' and proper" clansc. xvliich
  {trc«. ;put it takes ura-t!itn& of Ksth- einpox-ers Ccngress :                                                [Ajn cnunmtiUdii lietAillnc Uie precian
                                                                                                             IiypQtheueal slLuaUwix xvfiere Uic rrealJent
  JEfottKs.^ib override a Prcsidenttal veto. (•>                 nil laws xhlch jJi.-vJl be ncccis-irf       nujlit have authority u> »mrr;tt inUltarj
  T;J«U, If. Congress atteinpts to Exercise              .            for cstrrvuig iri:o-e.tcc>iiion the    forces to action . . . U rundame'nMlly ex-
 iCi-toniUiuttanal tesjxitislbllity -of "de- foregoing pow-cr». ixr.it cu nih^rr pou;«J cetttit              tremely difficult, ir not tmpooslble. to do ...
  ciding on war" tlunush 5|tcr-tljc-f.ict. Ity ln.it conjitttuiiuiiMi tnc foit'nmenl of the                  U >i luherei.: In our approach to t;iti eor.-
  funds-cutolt. lcf.tst.\tlbn. lac veto i»ivcr                            cr in »ig department m b;-         nitutlontC problem tliat one un^plv" cnnnot
^Rlvcsjthe Prestd'^it KU-chonnous-'tAeii-                         t. (itattuaa* ,-rt,j                       itenncixtthojc lUtof eircimutniicci ti. vhUMi
  sat advtintaee. In-elTeot. it cimbtcs Uic                                                                  the Pmldenc u-t!l IIIVVD authority or rt:l not
-Hrcsldcjic,tQ •Kaktj-.Wttr tt-ith tlitssiiinnrt Cntjsress so speclt'.cally enuineratcd o!
                                                       And. compared with Uic war powers                            ixiitiiortty.
   of only onciihint of .estlier Hoiuc ot the Cotu'titutioii. let us ex? mine tnc u-nr                 in                  Uie challenge that nuut be met
  -Congress.                                                                                                 by the Conuruis. If this challenge Is not
                                                               nctualty cranted to the President
      •Wluie taking great care to lodce the poivcrsConstitution. These powers nt best
                                                   in Uic                                                    met successfully by the Congress. I do
  .ptaiary power, of deciding on xvar in the can bo- described a* J|>nn;c and cryptic                        not sec how it can prevent the further
  Congress, the Founding F.iUjers did rec- Article II. section 1 suites:                                     erosion of its powers and ultimately to
  ognize the "sudden attack" contingency.                                                                   jeopardize freedom itself.
   ns expressed In Madison's note explain-            The executive >)«n:r slmll lie vested In a
                                                            -nt of 'Me Ounce States of America,                 'Flic re:«l nucstlon is— nnd tlie State
   ing why tile power of Concre*i lo "make                                                                   Department lias thus posed It, independ-
   war" tva^ modified to "dccl.ini war"—               Article II. jcctton Z, A..UM, \\ttliotit              ently of Cor.tjrc^, — to what c.xtciit the
   "leariixg to the Executive the power to further c!.iboratloii.                                            President has the po\\cr to use Uie Armed
   repel sudden Attack*." But from this                Tt*e IlnrAiilciiL a>mtl lit C^iiimaihdct itv          Forces by virtue of hu role <^. Cliief Ex-
   modr^t nud oci.jlblc ru<il c IcdHlmac-j.. Cluct u( the imuy tvlicl i.nij nl tlie Ciulcil                  ecutive, as .Commander In Chief, and in
   nn lllcgltlm.»le pr.ictl(.c ha&',,ro\xn vihich SV,\le>. nnrl at tiv« .nllltU f-f the wvcm'                the conduct of foreign relations. In
   threatens to cuiutimc our whole consti- v'ntn vlien >nll#(l lutii t|ir ai'tunl urvlre or                  pnicUce, Uic question hits been anowcrcd
   tutional sj-stcm.                               tl'o ITnlteii Suites;
                                                                                                             over the past several dccndes. in eiTect.
      It Jamiri M.ulu-on h.id preyed ItU               CliMjli. Uic dr.\ftci* ot tiic                        by no luniU bcniii plnccil uit tt».> IJU\M.I
   poi.it on September 7. 1707. durlnn the ttuu had the cxi>cr)ciicc of the. Cunttncu-                       na Uic Conim.tndbt m Ci.icf *o t...it tl.e

                                                                    239
S13S6S                                     CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SEN ATE                                                        July IS,
President has been »bl*. in effect, to conx-                              rriCK occ TMK VNTTTS       to retain-safccuards against widec esv-
ait the people to extended war.                                         arATts _                     broUaient resulting from incidental at-
    In effect, all he has. asked from Con-         Subsection (1) of section 3 confirms tacks upon U.S. forces, or attacks result-
cress is thai-It provide Uie nioaey and ihe ctaers'encjr authority of. Uic Coai- ing from questionable actions by Socal
the men. But this Is almost an imperial mander in ClUcf to:                                          l»-S- coaimanders. Tlius. for tisUace. an
doctrine, not that any American Presi- roc* 13 xr=x<t MUCJIL upca tS« Called attack upon a Marine guard at an em-
dent so intends it. but !» is driven to it S'jit«. 1U tcrritocl-a *sd poc«cs»!<>:x». to oie bassy would not trigger an authority to
tr ««ne arfill logic if this claim of powcc accr.it try asd »pprojvrt»t« rc^CUtorj acUoos retaliate by seizing the country; UkewJse.
by the Executive is acquiesced i:\ by Con- In ti-,c «rcht oT such, an Mtacfc ami ta focc- for uistiuice. a sneak attack on security
gress arid the XaUon as valid under ttie                                                             guards at one of our airbascs would not
Constitution. It is not valid If the Coa-                                                             trigger an authority to retaliate by
gress chooses to exercise Its "power ui-'Scr        It should be noted that this subsec- launching search and destroy missions.
the-".accessary ar.d proper" clause to'de- tion autltoritts Uie President itot o:ily to                       rcoitciiics C-s. cm=rss ASCOO
fiiie 07 law Uie Frssidenfs and/its own rejjcl an attack upon Uie United States                          Subsection \3V codifies the authority
role in making tear. Add wheu the Pres- and to retaliate but also "to forestall Uie cf Uic-President to rescue U.S. citizens
ident's authority is so deflned. as it will direct and imminent threat o£ such ah and natinnals abroad arid on:th« hijth
be if th£ War Powtrs Act becomes law. attack.- The inclusion of Uie words seas. By defining the circumstances and
then the issue of auUiority is determine*! grants a crucisl element of judgment and procedures to be followed, this subsection
Sn an authodwittve way. and. I luive little discretion to Uie President. -White it *as is a conscious maveaie.it away f roh-. sonxe
doubx wU^be carried out to the best of thought by some Uial the power to "fore- of Uie excesses of~19th century gunboat
his ability In good faith by any Ameri- stall" was inherent in Uie power tpTc- diplomacy.
can President.                                   pcL~ it was decided expressly to include
              rxTANttox orntc sru.                                                                     - The Ughtiy worded language -of
                                                 Uie forestalia»s. power to avoid any »m- provision grants the •)*resid<dt:t the this               au-
    The provisions of this bill govern Uia biciUu domestically or 1 in the eyes of thority only lo reseat ehdangeted Amer?
list of the Armed Forces: "In Uic absence any potential as^ressor.                                    icaii cilfa-ns. He may->iot use the ,dr-
 of. *.•dcclarationoT nirar by Use Congress."       XVhlle the President clearly must app!> cumstar.ce of their ehdaiisered ixMUion
 In this "Jill we are "dealing with un-          Ills discretion and judgment to tlie im- to pursue a policy-objcclivB beyond'-kiife
 declared .rars-r-wars which have come to plementation of tnls auUiortty. it is by and. expedient evacuaUan. Even %fort
•be called Presidential xrars^bccaus* the no means a -Want check." For the Presir Uit President can taki action under subr
 constitutional process of obtaining con- dent to take forestalling sction. Uie section «3V he must ascertain .thst the
gressional authorization lias ixieh short Uircat of attack must be "direct and Im- government of Uie country in question is
 tirctdted.                                      nilnenv." Moreover, he must Justify his eiUier incapable of protecting Americans
    Section. 1 of Uie bill ccatains iu .short judgment on this point under the man- or is itself prescnUng a Uire.it to-tlichi.
 tlUc-rthe^-War Powers Act."                     datory reporting provisions, contained In                         NATION*!. CQU
    Section ± is n. self-explanatory sisort section •;.
.statement of "purposes and policy."                 cerrtt TNX ATTACK os c J. Acuxa roccrl
 stressing: the -intention to "insure tliat         Subsection <2t furtlier defines Uie
 th^ collective judgment of both the Con- cmcrEeucy power of the President:
 gress and Uie President will apply to Use la re|tcl an anr.ca allacj: sj^ltat the Ar=:ct! cnierscncy po'wers oi the President as
 introduction of the Armed Forces of the Forces or Ute United Suites located ouafldc Commander, in Chief. secUoh 3t4"» deals
 United States^ In hosittlUes. or In sltua- of l!ic Ubllcd Suites, lu ternurie* and pox- with Uie ddegntlon by Uie Congress 01
 Uons vrluire imminent Involvement in                  -.-vj. and 'to lorc&ta!: the direct a.id iai- additional authorities widch would ac-
 hostilities is clearly indicated by Use, cir-      lse^l threat of ju;h a                            crue to Uie President as a. result at
 cumstances."                                                                                         sututory action by the Congress :ind
                                                    Tito
     Section 3 consists of four clauses which swiion authority contained i:i Ujis sub- whlcli he does not..or would not. possess
                                                             rcoognlsfs Uie rishc. and duty, of fji Uie balance of such statutory acUon.
 dtflttc the conditions or circumstances Uic Commander in Chief to protect
 under tylikh. In. the absence of a coh- Aniied Forces deployed outside the                              The key phrase In -this subsection !<
 greusfoiiai.declarallen of war. the Armed Utilted Suites. Just as the President contained in itai initial lire words: "Pur-
 Forces o"f Uie United Slates "niay.bc In- would not have to trait until the bombs suant to specific' statutory authoriza-
 troduced in hostilities, or in situations actually started landing on                                 tion." The rest of the subsccUbn Is nn.
                                                                                            soil to
 where imminent Involvement in hostili- .act against an attack upon our United explanation elaboralion- And definition
                                                                                       Uie
 ties U clearly indicated by the circum- States, similarly our forcrs would hot of Uic meaning—for Us<» j>?>n>o3es of the
 stances."                                                                                            bill -cf the words ••pursuant to specific
                                                 hare to wait until enemy bullets and
     The tlrst thrco catcgori-st are cofilfica- mortars hit Uieai before they could re- statutory auUioriaiiipn." In. nn impor-
 Uctns of U:e-itneigcncy powers of the act.                                                            lant-scnsc. thLs.suUcction givciSceiJla.-
 PrKtu'T'tt. ax intended by Uic Pouridsnj                                                             rive effect to Sctiatc llcieblntioti S3. thr
                                                     Nonethricw.
 Fathers and-aa confirmed by subsequent .power to r»prt It wUl ;>e noted that the oCaUonal                            Comnutnichts. ltcsp}uii>>n
                                                                       atlacis upon Uie
 historical practice and Judicial prece- Forces located outside tlie UnitedArnicd adopted by the -Senate on June 25. 1953
                                                                                            States by a vote of 70 to 16 tfh'lc'i states:
 dent. Thus, subsections < I». <2». and' Oi L-r'css co:«prehcnsh-e
 of-sectlon 3 dcl!ne:.te by statute the Im- Uic power » repel in cnc respect th.in
                                                                              attarks .ipon the
                                                                                                          Tti.M A niUi.cai conunuuen: \<f :tic
  plied txiwer of Use Prrsldt.ht. in Ills con- UtiitMl ScvtM itself Wnttc the subsection                           tei to a f.irejjVti po»xt neciisArJl?
 current role as Commander In Chief. contains the auU\oriti-:l6 repel .ind fore-                             cictcaircjy tomu from aitinn.itir>r »c.
 ulUt resjioct to cmcigcncy »i!>e of the stall. it does not Include tiie separate and                         Uk«ti lij Uie execulivi: und tegvautin;
                                                                                                                  of Ui« Coitcd States Government
 Armed Forces.                                    broader power to reUiItatc.                                     meatu W a. Weaty. Ctiavcntlar). or
     Tl»e nuthortty of Congress to make this                                                          o t c r e^Utatln; initrJtncntality *p>i-incnilj-
                                                     The wnrdlng of this provision b meant laiended to ijl.^ e.Tect to su&i a, «w.mtt-
 statutory delineation is contained in the
 enumerated utir powers of Congress in              «Ht                 iMt C3 Wlifnt. JC. 23
  nrtlclc I. section 8. of tlrc .Constitution, ••827),Xartin r.Story spcukl.i,; fur tlie Su-
                                                             Juitko                                       'hit* significance at subjection, *4> U
  and especially -In Uie (ItiaL clait-c of pn;mo Oi'irt itinrm«d 'he coiuaKirlu.i.i: au- multiple. First, It. establishes a. mechan-
  arttcle-f. section 8. •trnntins to Congress thority of Corigr«i u> "pstivtito for caeca of ism by u'hlclt tlie President tind.Uic-Con-
  Uic auiliorlty:                                 imminent ilitn^vrof Invrti^on " lie stated fur- cress toyetliir can act to meet r.ny- con-
    To moke nil tarn whit* shall-be nccesmif Uicr: -In out opinion. Uiere U no crDtitid'tur tlnsency which the Nation might face.
 nn.-l proper for carryiin: Into exrcuilon. Uie a doutit on tins point. ... for die }H>srcr               There is-no-xvny Jo lcclsl.\tc n.itlonnl
  foreipjlnir powvn. and »>' oltisr pow-en «it- .to ppitlde far rtfprlling tnnuiua^ uicluiles
  rU by tla-t CorutituUon In the covcniment of •the ,H>W« '*•> proticte ,-upiiait tho nttempi wisdom but iuhicctii):! • I> docs lum-tilr
  Ute tlnlt«tl-Sute3. or In uny dtpwtnicnt or i»n»t danger if Innuio::. .1* the .•cc'Mnry nnil Intporuint r-rntecJIon. to the American
  oaicer                                         proper rtitpru to e.Tectimtc the object.              people !>y rcrfuiripir. tJiat U»e Congress as

                                                                            240
  July 1$, 197S                                 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                                                       S13S&
   well « the President must participate                  Reo.ue«<s for new aulho"rity pursuant
   in the critical decision to authorize the            to sabsecvion «*. dp t»i ^^tfy Wf                                    Oixc-of the most far-reaching aspects
   use of the Axnwd Forces of tlie United               the "Congressional Priority Vrovisio:»s~                         of subsection «.• . Is Its provisions fit-
   Slates in hostilities, other than hpstlUttes        -co»\Ui\ed "in sccilbu 7. ^Hoveyer. it is                          sikcting treaUcs. Throughout the jwa 2
   arisinc from such ^defensive" emergen-               coiUcayjlated that congressional corisJd-                         decades there has teesi Continuing con-
   cies as an attack upon the United States.            eatson of ncu: subsection «^ granis of                           lusio:i respecting a crucial phrase Uiat
   our Armed Forces abroad. or-upon-U.S.                authority can sencr»U$ be uiyJcrtaken in                          is standard irtour Nation's collective and
   .citizens abroad In dcftncd circumstances.           the • absence of an ithrhhient threat or                          bilateral security tr>»lie». to wit, that
    It proyidsts as much lJe.v.blllty in-Jht na-        emergcncj iiv-a. d^ibcrative way. includ-                         ithptanentatton of such jrea'tfes. as to
    tional security field cs the wit and In-            ing conwnlttce hearinsv "lite point here                          isivolx-CRienl of U.S. forces in hostilities.
   genuity of the President and Congress                is to pJjx-iatc a repetition ot the un-                           will be in accordance with' the "consti-
   may t« jointly capable of constructing.              fortunate ex;Krt:iice of the CongreSs                             tutional processes"* of » tVt sJs:^at<«rJes.'
       There ts-a.clear-precetJwt. for \he ae>          with tbc Tonkin Gulf Resolution. whicS                               In an imiiorwnt sense, subisctioii «•«*
   Won. anticipated ui subsection i<>—the               it xras later realized went throush the                           defines "constUutloaal jirVicc^cs"" lor C»e
   •?area «soli«ttai.~-9vcr the past- two dec-          Congress without enough inquiry in the                            <irst time, r-s it relates to treaty Satple-
   ades. *he Congress, and tit? President               resi>eciiYt-cbinmittccs arid ui tlie related                      incntation by Uje United States. The
   liave -had considerable experience with              r.oor debate.                                                     definition of "constitutional prxicesses'"
   area resoluUonsr-c«me of it good and                                                                                   rejptcUns treaty :?ltple!Kentat;on is both
   seme quite unsatisfactory, 'in its mark-                Last minute "c. .-.iichcs" can fc? avoided                     negHfict aridjpojiiivc.
    up of the \Var Ppwes Act. the Foreigr.              by a renexnil »>f liw carher practice ot                             Subsectto'ii «<»-iRakes.a. fi:id!n?.in laa:
   •Relations Committee considered tWs ex-              cpiitinuinff close cdnsullation oeVoreien                         that no DS: security treaties c?uibeconr
   perience carefully in apprcving the lan-             lilt ;execuUx-e bfajich ahd.Uie, relevant                         sidered. "scif-cxecutUij: in their" own
    guags of siibsectioii. «4 •. Ti;e wpPdlrig ot      '.cowmlttccs of Cojigress. lite Executive                          terave. -\VSUi respect w exisUr.s treaties
   the S£>al ciause-of substcJioh- fi> holds'           wiiS- be obliged tp-maKe t|ie -Cons^ss.
    tlxe. vtUldlty of tliree srea. resolutions cur-     Again. Jts-jv»rt«er In slsajUnr Use' broad.                          No> irfalj- ID forrc at She :Im« 67 the coaci-
    faxtly on the statute books. These are:                                                                                   nt ot this Act JJ^l be coiutrutd
                                                            Jc J«iipnal securi^ ahd fortisii
V- ilie "Fr>rhvosa:Resolution" 'VLS- Rcis. 15S                  of IhV Nation -well iti-jtrtvance of                                              .                    ot
    of Jantiarj' 23i I!>55»; "the "M:dd:e E«st                                                                            tlir "A'rmcd rorecs- ol tS-.e \JnKc<t SXaxo. Iti
    RisbiuUorr iK^T. Res. 117 of>Iarclui5v                                                                                haiUUUci cf jk-uny-weh situation.
    iOS". as amenil^dJ rand Uie"*Cubah Res-
           an- «S.J. Res. 230"of Ctetober 3.                                                                      AildlUonaily. tlie subsection states
                                                                Some havc.-.«njucd that ^*ekl.vs co:^ that auUiorlisiliori for. Introducing:lhe
                                                            gtaBlonal -autlioriiy to .'use -Uic >rmol-
        Th6«jues»ton n»y bt asked: AVteil-js fprcc^ Mih-Yejjjccfc to dcrelopJac ctlsi? •Armed jforccs in hosUlities s'pll noL-be.
     to suArft 'apiinst-tht-.passicc of anptlier a'tuiUans -v.-oald detJrJve the PSssStfwi Inferred               From-»ny treaty litrtsfiej;
     nsoluUon orilxe-Tcnkfn Gulf' Ivyb' Tlie
    ansvEcr :fs -tliat 5r.y ftiturs xrci rfejctu-
    .iioris, to <it«a».fy «»dcr this biil as a.g^u                                                                                                       Sl»tfi tn
  -rtf £«t!ior»ty t* ihtrbducc .the ^Ana                                                                                                              and
  'Sterces In iuutiliifos or.ai sliuaUpus vfliere                                                                                    •      ntroduVtiorl or
   '.•nunlnent, .Ihvolvvr.vent- In hpstiUtiesi -is~
  -clcixrly Intlicitcd ' ~bV tlsft •*'«^«"^««'-"«' »»-
                   "     ^ \ * ^ -• **
                                                                                                                                                   in mind' thst
                                                           : Jcrccs v ^ _ ^           ^ , . . - . _ ,. ..                                              U) tre:xt!e*
                                                           .•h:rR ^Ujfr atiiiwhii' to dp so. Mprcnivcr,
                                                                                 n
                                                           •this icgi<l?V* .Ko>ildr-no&..TnJilti!t Uie
                                or
                                                            " '' "•'' ' •' ~- c;iy to'dcpilov iJiesir|x«id-
    Iii haitllltics oir :il iirfh Wtitfttio;: a'nil .-tpc-
                                                                                    - . -'-•---••---.ol'-Uic
    cihjeasjr'.earmjtbi-'-:^' J«wsS>:t«iiw.'^: >uc>:                                                                                  .
   •Anatil. rtixres iwar compllanc* Vi'ih, iKe                                                                               trcalie*
                                                                                                               . ifprcoycr^ns Ute language .or ihe sub-
       'Jn oilier ircrdt any'iuttw aira :resOr                                                                 section >na'Kti clear, ihe bjt» envisages
    jmfon inuscr.lic a-r^«cf;ls -ynait -of »«>                                                                 Uift adoption ai treaty iinr-!c:ncntati-jn
          '                -       '     ~
    *rc«ce tc ; U»c- bill                                                                                                       ':! jvrrvl It uo.prcof-or
                     '•ex«tipts • » • iroii^ •••yjjsn-                                                         :•> U:e nwil«j- Uiar; j)tw<U anil co
                      thc WoiilsJotJ;? of -ih"{».-Ac£"                                             .           X!ictn-lirU>a; Uaiif^iiu.pajmrc. "XVc
    Is               IK -Insure that the                        Att- inipoclA>:t prpvislOnV of Siibscctlun >wit .cc>utrac r»:<a cu« in p:ty will .
    luicfittift af the araiit if authorftj'                  <-ii '.fci tpiiiajnjsi in itA iirsl -qj'ihlifyuig                             .vut«L frctly
                                                                                                                     _ , . .             .                  .
    c7cAfii; est:U»;:rJserf .with 'ref^rcRce-lo-ie clntise «A». TilS iiuriwstor.itits clriltiC.v; unit t bejlc»c thai nnnc or Ui'e !o>:t?5huoti
    jVhr ?<nve"rs Apt. The exwpiton :coulu-                     icouatentec -tIWf-0|)Jnlpn.•»« {lie-Oflanda • drft'stx tft.tho cnv.rtx aTf^nacn-may wrie a«
                                                                    nsl L.>inl dccbiph -of t}i«j -Second n fttlitl luwn't in ai-fyiVthem -vsr.
                                                                                                                              'iB'iti rtojjort it> 'tPUTUn Uie Sfli.nte rtx-
                                                                                                                           canmendlhi; nppro>nl Af .the X-,rUi AUnntlc
  /o> hs imirh flexibility                                                                                                 Trtiilr. -Oic po'rr.i^.. ^lljrlntion* Committee
  handllsy; 'Of my '.devetopintf crisis .or                                                                                fklAte-.l. ~TUe cosnmlttJi wWiei to enipiinr'l*
                                                                               or-ti^ Vlc'tn&KV wai.                       U\r? tvf.l tbftt ilic jiKiUri-tlvo clause "ill BC-
  siirrdsh emc-rccjuiy as ttth ?i)nK«s tirttl                                                                             .cwitiuien wtft Uwlr icsjiecttvc conilttutloiiiU
  •tl« Rrttildcht rnsty Jolilrju iic^ni p:x\T                                                                              profvMtf' u-Sa plo<.«l-jii.nrt:''-c-lj In.orrtrr-1"
  dent. .                                                                                                                • ICAVR -no ilo'jbt triftt it npp)le.t not '.iilj- to
                                                         It\ attch'K V. frtiAt ib.C C<r No. 7V-13IU                        nritcto 5. for ci»«iii>te. but to e\vry pr-Wlaon
                        ^ _,agpor-Jlte-J»KI.-pqh-'       .\faft.'i 3O. K<?3j iurf£e WyaMvsltt «pci>k.ni;                   Hi tnn trujty. The saie^itard is thru nll-
        i irfli.Ji'uve fo-rcvicivcioicly tifjrllirc*     fnir the C.iurioLj\npr?!i-Jt,xt«!. 'mil* cuttrt                   Irisluaive. .
     x:v rciolm:oi:s which are left stintlins            ciUiri'jCr liu .ri'«ri»»ti»1i»i* fr* ^.^^t-V*'7^ ^n<^ll?_*',y         'flin trtn'j in. no an? n2cct.t ttie U.i«tr.
  *j>*U\c r/rovL<ir>i» pT tubscxXl->7i *^> nud          '                                                                  (tln>!ulV ot («utliotii» t>K<jLTXti li\e ITofleitL
                                                         i/r «•• tit;^'. uii'^'M. i.                                       <iii«l iho Ct>.->v.nrv» tt dcflned Ut ti»c Cun^ti-
    worlc} juiiatiofi cairclullv and '-iku ]\&          irtfitj iippp.v.o^.jC UiC v.T(ni.nuaCv;i                           t<nji»;i In an J.TXJ flijc^ I', jijttr the t-oioti-
                                                   ini nui>V:t tn. 4 f^w-iUcnll, oe
  n«UHfttJ\v~Jn-r6:nlii^'t«j.»nc-Gatir:rcvrw«H or rtrnft nctiftcra to il.tvt wnr                                           tiiitnhnt nslii'».-i>il>lp-tlct»<en Uicn>. tn pn»-.
  - rccQif.inentliUifiitvrcsnci'tir.^thc exlslint: wftrdy opjw^itt-to- riie.vtTvr* oiriu..rn'«rnci.t.                      ticuUV it t'.ot* no; increase, rttcrrnic. or
    (trfa-rcji^utipns^ &t'-Ivdr^or rc£nrjjm«i.                                                                             <ti'nn^e-ilie poorer of Uns*Wesi<Jer.ti-n« .Com-
                                                                                                                           mnnncr-ia-O>:ri irf tljc nrnwsl- torro- or im-
     " "^o,-o for ins .iwv out* wnlcls M;c npI,nJpriAU.iu* null I/it 'ic <ItfUi                                            n».f ' USA full »>iU")Cli j ot Co:ig^«;i\ lo <lr- Ion-
                n;ov           dcsdcit 'ftit pi'r                                                                          anr, (Sfnaic Jivomnc Ilcfiott. ^.. 0, I>UL
               ecurity.
S13S70                                     CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                           July lSt
                as deemed appropriate'- wsd             s *s~Uie Armed For<c* »re tnj»$cd In               tions and of i:iterc«uitie-atxl b
 desirable by ihc Consress ar.d Uic Presi-          circumsunccs go«med by ,-sccUon 3,                    missi-es with Uw ursen* uecessity for
 dent. Such iruplcmenUng legislation                Such additional reports sh.il! be sxtb-               Congress to exercise its coJislituUortal
 would constitute Uic authority "pursuant           miucd at leasi-cvrry fi monUis.                       irandatc a«d duty xiiUi respect to the
 to specific statutory auUiorizaUoa**                 It will be noted that Uie President is              great questions of «ar and jvc^ce.
 called for bj.-sutjscction «"».                    required to rvjx>rt "pronjptiy". This .word;             Tlie choice of 30 day?, in a sense, is
    There are two principal reasons for in-         has been xtsed in prtfercnct to •Im-                  arbitrary. However. It clearly apt>ears to
 ctiidin? these provisions with respect to          mediately- or a possible specific lime                be ah optima! lyneUi of time with re-
 our -collective and bilateral sccurisy             limit such as 2-i hours. The important                sj»ect to baiahchie two vital considera-
 tiwUlfts. First. Is to ensure that both            thins Is that ihe retwrt uiust be pron:pt             tions. First. It is an important objective
 Koikes of Congress must be afiirmativdy            but It must also be cbnipreliensix-e. It              of this bill to brine Uie Congress, in.Uie
 Involved In any decision of Uie United             niishl take a- few day^ for th'e executive            exercise of Its constitutional war powers,
 States to encase In hostilities pursuant           brancli to assemble all the facts, ar.d re-           into any situation involving U.S. forces
 to a treaty. Treaties are ratified by ar.d         ports from the neld. as well as to as-                la hostilities at an early enough moment
 with the consent of the Seriate. But Uie           semble the various Intelligence reports               s> U\at ConRress actions can be mean-
•war powers of Consnass in article I. sec-          and. most Importantly, to prepare an                  ingful and decisive in terms of a na-
 tion S or 'the Constitution are vested in          lnfom:ed judgment on tli£ -estimated                  tional decision respecting the carryin?:
 both Houses of. Congress and not in Uie            sco;>c of such hosUHtles."                            on of war. Second, recosnlzine the ne«;d
 Schatc-^and President—alone. A deci-                  \V1tat is intended Is A full ar.d accurate         for emergency mctlon. and Uie crucLil
 sion to make war inust be a national de-           report of events, combated with an au-                need of Congress to act with sufficient
 cision! Consequently. to be truly a na-            thoritative statement by Uie President                deliberation-and to act oh Uie basis of
 tional decision, and. most Importantly.            of his Judgment about Uie direction in                full ihformaUon. 30 days is «. Unie period
 to be consonant wlUi the ConsUtullon.              which Uie situation Is likely to develop.             which strikes a balance enabling Con-
 It must be a decision iayolving Uie Presi-         The Congress can act .intelligently and               press to act meaningfully as well rtr fn-
 dent and both Houses bl Congress.                  responsibly o'uly wheh it has Uie neces-              deiiendcnUy.
    Second. the provisions with respect to          sary information at Hand.                                 It should be noted further, that the
 treaties are Important so as to remove                The reportinK requirements of the .bill            30-day provision can be extended as
 the.posslbHlly-of future contention such           apply independently of Uie provisions ot             •Cpncress "sees flt—or it can be fore-
 ay arose with respect to the SEA.TO                sections 5. 6. and 7. The President's                 shortened under section 6. The way the
 Treaty and the Vietnam war.                        mandatory report Is not to be considered-             bill Is constructed, however. Uie burden
    TrcjxUesrare not self-rcxecutmic. They          a request for an extension of authority               for obtaining an extension under sec-
 dc not contain authority within the                as might be granted subsequently under                tion 5 rests .on (he President. He must
ttieaninc of section 3\4) to go to war.             section 5. Such a request can only be                 obtain specific, affirmative, statutory ac-
 Thus, by requiring statutory action, in            introduced' by % Member of Consress.                  tion by Uie Congress in this respect. On
 the form ofvimplemenlinsr legislation or              Moreover, it Is entirely possible Uiat             the other hand, the burden for any ef-
 an srca resolution; of the familiar type.         •even a majority of Uie actions taken                  fort to foreshorten the 30-day period
 the NVar Powers Act. performs the impor-           imder Uie President's direction pursuant              rests with the Congress, which would
 tant function of ^efininc that elusive and         to section 3 will be .thorUived. one-shot             have to pass an actor Joint resolution ib
 controversial       phrase— "constitutional        actions completed well wiUihi Uie 30-day              do so. Any such measures 'o foreshorten
 processes"—which is contained in our se-           time period, and thus requiring no ex-                the 30-day period would have to reckon
 curity treaties.                                   tension In tune of Uie auUiority spelled               wiUt the possibility of » Presidential
    Subsection <4> contains oha additional          out in section 3.                                     veto, us his signature Is required, unless
 Important provision. It states:                            30-3AT                                        there Is jufficlent congressional support
    Specific statutory authorization U required       Section 5 fatong with section 3) Is Uie             to dvcrriilgc a veto 'with a two-UiIrd ma-
•for the alignment of members of tiie Arrnert      hcartand core of Uie bill. It Is the crucial           jority.
 IMrcc5 of Uic United States to command.
 coordinate. pA.rtlclpa.te tn the mbvcsheni of.    embodiment of Congressional authority                      The Lttic has been raised, quite prop-
-or accompany' »hr regular or Irregular mill       tn the war powers field, based on the                  erly, as to what would, happen if our
 tory forces of any foreign country or gor.        mandate of Congress enumerated so com-                 forces were still engaRcd in hot combat
 •icarrtcrit wheri »ucli forces are engaged. or    prehensively In article I. section 8 of the            at Uie end of Uie 30th day—and there
 there csUts on Imminent threat tliat such.        Constitution. Section 5 rests squarclyNand             had been on congressional extension of
 forces will become cnjapic!. in hostilities.      securely on Uie words, meaning. ar.d In-               Uic 30-day time limit. The answer is that,
    The purpose of this provision is to pre-       tent of Uie ConsUluUon and Uiui: rep-                  as specified by clause (I*. Uic President
 vent" secret. unauthorized military sup-          resents. In an historic sense, a restora-              would not be required or expected to
 port activities and to prevent a repetition       tion of the constitutional balance wh'ich              ortlcr ths troops to lay down Uicir arms.
 of rrjany-of Uic most controversial and           lias been distorted by practice In our                    The President would, however, be under
 regrettable actions In Indochina. The             history and. climatically. In recent                   statutory cxMipuIsian to beam to dtsen-
 ever deepening izround combat involve-            decades.                                               rcagu in good faith to meet Uic 30-day
 ttieni of the United States In Sou'.h Viet-           Section S provides Ui.it actions taken             time, limit. He \* .Id be undcf Uic injunc-
 nam bcann witli the assignment of U.S.            under the provisions of section 3.                     tion placed upon him by Uic Constitu-
 "advisors" to accompany South Viet-                  Shall t-.ot be ttutAlned beyond UiirtjM!:\T3        tion, which requires of Uie President
 namese tints omconibaC patrols, nnci In           from tr.c dale of the Introduction ot tucli            Uiat. "he shall take care that Uic lan-s
 Laos, secretly nnti wfUiout congressional         Armrd Korea In liottllltles or In »ny auclt            be faiUifiilly executed."
 nuUVoftzatlon.'UJS. "advisors" \vcre, deep-       alluatioti unles.1 (I) Uie Prealdenc det«r-               Tlie wording of section « 5 ) « l > U very
 ly engaged in Uic war In northern. Lnox.          mlnrx and certifies to Uie Congrats in writ-           specific und lightly tlmvw. Ub tn be em-
                                                   ing Ujat unaroldalile military .necessity rc-          phasized. Uiat section <5ui) ^ in no
                                                   upeetlr.g Uie safety of Amietl Force* at Uia
   Sccllon < rcqulres-thc President to re-         C..lt«tl SUitvi cujjasra pursuant \a section           sense to be coruiruoi .'LS A loophole piv-
port "promptly" fn urlUr.r. lo both                3 i l j or 3.3i of '*4U Act rcfi^ire* Uie COH-         lti« Uic PrcsldcntdUcrctionnry aiiUiorily
Houses. of CongrciS any use of :hc Anncd           tlnu«J me nf such AmiJd PUITCS m MiC                   tvlth rcipcctto Uic 30-day tliiciii;;>gcniciit
Forces covered by section 3 of Uie blH.            ronne >if bringing about a prompt dlacn-               requirement. U u addressed cxclur-tvcly
The provisions of this section arc clear           Casernent from »udi homlltlcn, or |3) Can-             to the narrow issue of the security of our
                                                   BTCJ U phyMcaU; unabto '-o meet as a reinlt            forces in Uie process of prompt dlscn-
and simple. In his reiwrc to ConRi'ess.            of an nrm«d attoelc upon Uie Unlteil fiatca:
the President \s required to Include:              or (1) UID continued lue of »nclj Armctl               Bncemcnt. The criterion Involved U Uie
   A f'll* arrmmr of Uic -jirrumaUnan uniJer       Frjn.cj lit jucJl ixntilllles or In •uc!l situation   security of forces under fire and it does
i-hidi        [he lias artc<I{   ttic eltlmaleti   lias been tittUiartecd In apeclflc                     not extend to withdrawn! in conformity
»npe of such Inwtllltl-3 or iltuntton. nnil        enacUtl for Uml [)iir[M»c by Uie                       with some broader strategy or policy ob-
U-.e consbtency at Uie introduction of'sucli       nnd pursuant to Uic provuioivi tliereor               jective. No expansion of Uic 30-day lime
T'.-^ri-ln Jucli !to«uiltl«i or nltu.itlon with        Sortlon 5 resolves the modern dilemma              fmmc li conveyed other than a brief
i..e pruvuion* ot tccuon 3 at tlib Act.
    In addition, the -President Is rwjiilrcil
to mnkc periodic, nddltlounl reporti so
                                                   of reconciling the need of speedy and
                                                   cmerj:cncy action by Uie President in
                                                                                                          period which might be required for the
                                                                                                          most expeditious disengagement con-              242
                                                   Utls ngc of Instantaneous communl. a-                 sistent with security of the personnel en-
  July IS. 19TS                              CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                                    S 13871
           Moreoxxr. it requUxs the Presi-         ambit of the constitutional potters of Uie             members of the UJ5. Armed. Forces
  dent's cenSficaUon in uiithig that suiy          Consress.                                        jvorsuarit to section 3U> could ndfc'by
  such conth^ency itad arisen from "uu-                    ixjtxtNAttoX n:vc TO 39 tAtj.            wason of the NATO Treaty -coRtmaittL
  ax-osdable mlfitary necessity.**                    Sccuon 6 prcxldejs that Uie Congress coordinate. partSdjnte hi the mavis
     Section v5« «i« provides for susjxxision      cast. Uirou^h statutory acuott. fpro- meat of. -or accoujpary- Uie resuk\r--or
  of tlie 30-day dises:snge:aent rwulre-           slibrten l!:e 30-day pro\isio:is ol section irr*suiar forces of a NATO country cu-
  m««t in the event -Congress !s pliysJcally       S.ljisucli ihstaRccs. the Prcstceiitte pro-
  unable to nicet as a result of an-armed          tected by Jus veto poaSir-rcgahUiisfUte             The -hish-icvyl military cosaniaadA"
  atUick upon Use United States,-                  baste 30-day eaierscucy pe'nod^ specified referred to i:i this section arc. understood
     Th* question lias been raised •a.-hether      to lusn xatli r«?i>«:t to the authorities to be Uiose oTICATb. the North Anicrican
  ti'.erc can or sltould be any time hmUa-         coiitair.cd.In sectJosi 3. Clearly, effective
  tioii osx Uie Prcaidonts emergency ait-          congressional action und«ir s>cctibi: 6 United Kstic:is coaimahd 1st -Korea
  thority to repel aii attack apoa Uie             "ccould fce likely iii extracrdmary cJrcuai- tOXC*.
  UiUted Suites and take tlie related uieas-       stanccs whcrciii twb-tliirds p| Iwtli               The overall purposes of the'Vfar Poa>
  urcs speclSed.ln section i3>»li. The.blU         Houses of Congress xvere convinceii that era Act are to codify the vemerscncy'*
  reiecU the liyjxithcsis that the Congress,       tiie Presldtntrhad acted against the na-r powers of the GJnimasidcr in Chief; £rt
  if it were physscnUy able to meet, might         Uwod interest or wstli great inmrovi- the absecrsce of. a declaration, of war. •?<»
  not support fuliy all neccssary-nicasures        deiice. >!u$t as the burden of proof lies introjduw the 'Aniied' Forces ol~ -die-
  to liepel in attack upoti Uie Nation. Re-        tciUi Uie Prcsiceivt- to; persuade Uiat Ids United Stntci In .hostilities." or in.sltua-
  fusal to act affirmatively by the Congress       u$c"of-!he-Arnied Ftorces under-secUon 3: tsons "where imminent involvca;cnf hi
  within the specified time peripd;rcsi>ectr       merits prolongation in Uie national, m- hostilities is ctfariy iacicatcdiy Uie cic4
  ln« emersencV action to repel *n 'attack         tertsi b^yoiid 30 daj-s. the burden ot                          ahtL" very laipcrtshtlyV to
  could only indicate Uie moslserious «iues-       proof. In. effect, lies Vitii-tKe Con«,*ress to
  tloiis about Uie bona. fides or .tlie alleged   •foreshorten Uie 30-darpcrlod.
  Attack or Imminent tlireht of an attack.                                                         \tice -uC-uad^cIucd w^froB&excrcisihjr
' In this context, the admonition articu-                                                           iu cotutttutionni rfespoiiJlbisUiics respecU
                                                      Section. ?.estabUsJ:es procedures .to as- Jng-Uie-awesoiht .£«ftjett.6f imWhjjtht
  lated in 1S-J8 by Abrrui.iniUucoln Is most       sure- priontyacUon in Concress u>-cpn- Saitoh afcwnjr.                                     •
                                                                                                                                      ' " • ' _ ." • ' • '
  pertinent        •                               sider:leglsl«ion "to extend under sectloa          "Mr. President. I rtsd a-'lol oDspeculs.?
     Alloir the rycriiScat to SarvSr a cc!sh\»?- 5. or to fores"hort«n under section-S: U« >tlon .to .the press as to Uie btllXln ttie
 iruf; luLUon. u-hcncvtr he alial! d«ni It ntort- 30-day Ujint-llniit. The provisions"of scc-
 sary to trj:<J in Innslon. and .you ollo-r him Uoo 7 are. Uius. i*. safeguard acainst the other body, it bill .vliSch fe under debate
  so do so. «rh«R«vtr h* slay chodsi to »y li*                                                      also today. 'JCt "gives "me, great cau« for
 drtmn K n««sarj; for n«ch pu:iA»e^-asit possibility that concressionar action concern becaust of Ui»:iengtli.of time 'in
 you mlktv hsni to :naX» irar at plcuure. Sta<l; with respect to sucli measures-cculd'be which-Uie President Is slven.autor.omcus
                                                                                            r
 •<i *ec U you can. fie *nr limit to his pontr obstructed or delayed through a . nif- authority under thxt-bSH— 120 days-rind
 !n tiiU rwpcct ... If. "MXiay. hc'ithould ouster or rbmmittee plseorilinlUip. Sec- because of the danger that even Uiat de-
 clioo«e-u> a»y he thSak»:lt nccctsary to Iti- tion 7 also provides Uiat Uie .respective fect. which I consider 'fatal; will -be fur-
 vad« CmuU. lo prtvtnl the Brilljii rroiu In- Houses o"f Consress can modify Uie prior-
 vadlnj; u>.~ tOw-eouM yoii itop "him?" You. ity ebnslderaUon provisions by majority ther compounded by•amendment, permit-
 may My to him. "I s«c no probability of the                                                        Ung the authority of the 'President to
 BritUh invading u*~ but lie wllL.lay to you votel In UUs way. provision is niade for a continue his warmaklng until It !s cut
 -be silent; I s«e It* It yo« Coat.-               majority of either House to determine -off by Congress. This is really forfeiting
                                                   b« yeas and nays an alternative prose-- the authority of-Congress and^absolHtely
     Section 5i3) prox-idcs for:                  .dure—for instance, directing-- a commit- defeating the purpose and intent of. any
    The continued uxe (beyond thirty day] tee to hold hearings and report back by
 of such Armed Force* In *ueh bostUlUe* or a. certain date. Section 7 Is shaped so its trar powers bill.
 In such ittuatton- |pro;td«d 1*1 hM been->u- to assure that control of" the considera-                Tlie basic element of the. war power*
 thoriscd lr. cpeclnc IceWation enacted tor Uon ot leclsIaUon to extend or fore- bill must be that the authority to act in
 Uiat purpose by the Goajrwa and piiriuini                                                          emergencies must be defined and:ufider-
 lo the prox4s!oni thereof.                       shorten Uie 30-day period Is in the hands stood and It ends unless Concress gives
                                                   of Uie majority and Uiac a minority can- Uie authority to
     It is to be noUd that autliorization to not obstruct the will of U:e majority In emersency period. continue the 'purpose.
                                                                                                                          That is
                                                                                                                                      beyond an-
 continue xisinc the Anned Forces Is to this respect through procedural means. intent, and thrust of the Constitution. It
 com*>-In Uie form .of speciflc statutory It should be noted that requests for is that which has induced such distin-
 action for Uiis purpose. This Is to avoid statutory authorizaUon under section 3 guished Senators as t!>c Senator front
 any ambimiiUes such as possible efforts C4) do not qualify for the priority con- Mississippi (Mr.SrcNKis) — who has been
 to construe central appropriations or sideration provisions of secUon 7 ^ ex- absent from us torso long because of tlie
 other such measures as constituting Uie plained above.                                             terrible blow which struck him down* al-
 necessary authorization for "continued                                                             though he is recovering very welt— the.
 use." Moreover, just as Uie Congress un-                                                                     from Missouri tS.fr. EACIETON-)
 der Uie Constitution is not intended to bility clausecontains a standard separa- Senatbr been of enormous assistance ar.d
                                                      SecUon 8
                                                                   which simply provides Uiat who has
 be under anv obligation to declare war If any provision!; of the bill should be :i plll.ir of strength In the fashioning' of
 against its r. vn better judgment, so un-
 der section 5*3) of the War Powers Act held invalid. Uils of Uie bill. ctfcct Uie tlie proposed legislation: Scnatr/r f roni
                                                                           would not
                                                                                                    front Ohio lMr;TArt» : the
                                                                                                                                    the Seuator
.there Is no presumption, or obligation, validity of the rest                                      Texas f Mr. BCNTSEX> : arid blljor Sena-
 upon Uie Congress to enact legislation                           NOT ix rosr rjicto
 for Uie continued use of Uie Armed                   SecUon 9 has two parts. Tlie first part tors. who have Joined, to be so triiti to
 Forces, as covered b;.* Uie bill, except as makes clear. Uiat Uie bill is not ex post tite basicI principle of the bill. subject.
                                                                                                       \\1jite am dcAlinir with that
  it is persuaded by Uie merits of the case facto legislation respecting Uie Vietnam
 presented to it. and consequent to ap- war. Tlie. second part makes clear that I should like to refer to the resolution
                                                                                                                     the Senator from Illinois
  propriate rellecuon and due dclibcra- Uie provisions of secUon 3i-l> would not introduced by in May 1970. wlilch also
  Uon.                                             require, for Instance. Uie withdrawal of i Mr. Pmev)
                                                                                                    raised this aas»»* problem. I wish to pay
     It is f urUicr to be noted that any "con- U.S. military personnel from NATO com- my tribute to the Senator from Illinois
 Unucd use" which might be authorized              mand headquarters in the event Umt
                                                                                                    for the research and tlioiiRhtfiilncss
 by Uie Congress must be "pursuant Ui forces of other NATO nations became which went into the resolution. It is a
  the provisions- of such authorization.           engaged in hostilities unrelated to
                                                                                                   tribute to him tn.it when our bill came
 The Congress is not faced with an all or NATO, or in hostilities In, which Uie In- along; he saw a as a better course and
 notlilng situation in considering author- trodiicUon of US. forces were not au- promptly joined ns a cosiwnsor and
 ization for "continued use." It can cstalj- thorized under section 3U),3i2) r cr3(3> adopted this jxwitlon.
 ti&U new time limits, provisions for fur- oC this act oc by other specific statutory                 Mr. PrcsJiSeiiV, there will ue amend-
  ther review by Uie Congress, us well M action of the Congre&t. However. In Uie ment* offered to this measure. I would
  other limit* and stipulations within the absence- of specific statutory                           have hoped th.U the measure, u.ucli Is
                                                                    243
S13872                                    CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                      July IS, *97
exactly as one the Senate approved br             keeping amendiuecU: and another.                 to assure that Congress wia ac-
 * rote of Cft?!* on April 13. 1972. would        which unquestionably U a controversial cept, that bunlen in the future.
 so through without amendments. But.'             amendment. I shall co Into at a later      The tendency for »-ho« of us-Jn^l-
 Ur. President, sotne Senators. Including                                                  Ucal life to avoid difficult decisions: is.
our very-derated champion of Ute bill,              Mr. President, some prematurely sug> unfortunately, to be expected. It is a
 the Senator from Missouri (Mr. E»cuc-            jest that the: United States is enterins tendency that should never be conooned.
TOK). feel Uiat they have amendment* to           an era of congressional predominance— but iT «% are to design a process «iiJch-
 Improve the bUL I certainly will examine,        that Uie power of the Presidency is on wiU force Congress to c>\eclc such weak-
-tor r"-vselt. every .amendment Uiat Is           Uie wane. Such prognostications make nesses, we must first urKkrstand what
offered with complete objectivity, in the         rood press, but they do not yet reKeet those weaknesses are.
hope Uiat whatever Is done;by the Sen-            reality.
ate will improve the bllL                              In .the past year the bold attempt by for the failure of our .indochlna^exper-
   The PRESIDING OFFICER. The                      .this administration .to usurp the con- ience. But instead of perceiving ourselves
 Senator's time has expired:                      stitutional powers of Congress has placed ax accountable, we Wanied Uie. President,
     Mr. JAYITS. I give myself 1 more              great stress upon our legal system. Even flrst.Johnson and then Nixon.
•minute.                                           today, at a -time when Congress enjoys               In delineating Uie warrpowers of Con-
     But I very much hope. Mr. President,          some small increased measure of public gress and Uif.President, we are attempt-
  that the Senate -will realize that this          support, we must ftjjiit desperately for ing to establish a mechanism whereby
  bill Is in very fine -balance achieved           Uit^lecUU^ve majorities we require, to Uie American people will be the flna;
  among Senators of very dkerse views,             take positive action."                            judge of Uie question of legal Tesiionsir
  and that Ute balance of the measure, the          , Congress remains weak because it has billty wheni-'tivt United-States .becomes
  luterrelaVionshlp of Us various parts;,Is       Tailed to correct its institutional de- •involved Sri war. The underlying premise
  so. -.important "arid so critical to'ths         ficiencies U:ct inhibit Congress in its ef- of'S. 4*0 is the same premise that under-
  operation of a bill of such vital nature         fort to prrform its constitutional duties, lies Uie Constitution—that Congress and
'Ahat il-witt-i* understood IM. generally          If Congress is to become a positive-force Uie President/should be&eld equally .ac-
  speaking.. tor myself oppose a)l amende          •wltlstn our system—If it Is to recapture countable for the consequences Jf our
  mehts. But I repeat. I stall certaliilV. exr     Its constitutional .prerogatives— thm Nation should again make a commitment:
  imine. diem'and ;hbar ;the ^neunicnts           .Congress must be willins to use Its ulti- -to go to war.
  withUie srttfUKt objectivity." and IT I          mate power^the power to lesUlate—to                  I am pleased again to join wiUi the dis-
  am Jn conscience cowing'thlRt.their-             serve itself in baXUe for coequal status tmsuisbea' Senator from New-York (Mr.
  worth is superior' to what r cpriside'r io       with.tlie executive^branch.                       jAvrrs) -and the distinguished chairman
  be! the reiUy^unbelleyably good balance             .There .is ho^Ino^e Important respon- of Uie Arine~d:3*rvites Committee!War             Seii-
  of U« bill. I sliall certainly maSeUwi'                                                            albr STCNN£s^"iii'-1i!troduclrig the
                                                  sibility aligned ,to Conereis under Uie Powers Act. Each~pf iis has advocated
  clear to Uie Senate. But o'n/the -whole.         Cotistitutton -Uian Ute ircsppnstblUty to
 .1 bcHwe'we would be-better off If we            •.autlipriZ4-,war.-lh the recent past Cori- his own approach to this complex subject,
  adopted" Uie bill as it is. a5 «'t voted il.                                                       and this- bill
                                                   gress:has-.delegaled^thai respoasibililS' to -bined effort*. Ss'Uic result of our com-.
  befpre. wiUiout aniendjne.Vt.-I^rioxt that       tlie'-Presidcnt, .Th* ftrtslatJon we propose                                ""            '."".
  Senator STKXNIS shares that attitude.            today will return to Cfthkfess its right to          Certain aspects .ot the cornprornUt
     The PPJ-SIDING QPFICER. Who                                                                     bill before
                                                   dcterniine wlvch our Nation fides to "war. ;vrou6lft5ome us toda>- were sonicwhst
  yields time?                 '    -                                                                                for nit just as-1 a'rii sure
                                                       It iias:"takcn-ovcr 10 years-.and- over Senaiars rJA'vrrs and Sr»s:xw-would liayt
     Mr. EAGLETON Mr. President, will              50.000" dearttto realize the'co'nsequcnce-.'Of • ..preferred tlijir o'wn approiches to war
  the Senator,from-Maine/yicld-to-me?              our failure to-follo'w-.thc r-ftKess estah- powers legislation. Nonetheless, this bill
     Mr. iMUSKlE." I.'yield the Senator            ILshed by our Founding Fat Jicrs by which Is constslcnt with -my readinc of con-
  from Missouri such .thr.e: as he may re-                                                                                                            .
 :qVirc.                                           our N*aUon-x\-outiidccidc<iue4JOK? °' *'a"' stliutlopal law aiid-lt represents Uie best
                                                   aiid pe?ci Justice "Joseph Storey .CXT effort.tip'date to-reliinv
     Mr. EAGLETON. -Mjr. President. let
  me. extend.1 ".my. comrhendhuoh' to the          pressed'a fuhrtamchuilrprinclple qf-'OiJr: dcdslonrnakinV processour systenuto Uie
                                                                                                                                hitciidetl by
                                                                                                                                               the
                                                   Coristltutidti'in 1R33 wheii-hesdld:              Fjundlng FaUicrs.
  distinguished Senator from New York                                                           <tc-
  (Mr. JAvrrsi. r.ot only for the present*-                 a^ -bxiVnoV V> make .ptacc.
                                                                                                       One.issue that was discussed at ereak
  Uon he has just made on the floor iof                            < i i: nA
                                                                                                     IcngUi-aiiiong Uie-sjxmso'rs u'^r.the :nat»           ^L
  Uie Senate .in- asKss'.ng the. • principal          •O'ir •Is4. ! -* . ' txpcrt^Q demon- ter of recoiinizlng Uie Pre»tdlenfs pox\-er                    ~^B
  thrust arid ,ttieT loaiurcs ot Uie war           straXes m-iraslc 'ter:ns"that-*c reversed to "foreithir1 an attack.r"6n the United                       ^
  powers bill, but also (of the yeoman             Uiat important axloin. When- Congress States or oiv- American "rofccv stationed
 .effort he'has put into tin* piece, of pros-      \vu xikcd'tb authorise our invohchient abroad. Senator Fut.»Ricirr ,-as aeai:i.
  pective legislation, uhluh *fu Uie. first         in ScuUicAs: A-si.\ in thc"'Gulf of Tonkin mlied-thLs lisuc-ln his Additional itcas
  war iKwcrvblll to be introduced 2 or 3            resolution, we authorized" wir too to the committee-fcpo'rt on 5. -HO.
  years, ago In the Senate. After li> iiatl        easily. And when thc'crror of our policy            My orlRlnal ixar tioxvcn bill only rcuos-
  brok"en this 'legislative tec... w to >pcak.     became n>i>.iota..pcAce w.is too diRlctilt nizcd the Commander in.Chief a power to
  other bills have followed, but his -iiis         to. attain.                                       repel sudden attacks-Itdlil ribtspcclflcjil-
  U)e first. His was the primary liilU-.ind            M.iti.v have a.<sti;ncd blmnc-s for the ly ai-kiiowledce-hU power 'to -toTc^^ll
  he 1m been-the prccotinent'Ieadcr m-             crt»iou of coLgrcsitohal war 'lonen to i.uc!> nil attack. Court dct.uionV H««e
  sofar 01 f.ojshiqning tiiu Jc:Ul.iUon ii         Pre&idoali.il a«Bres5ivcneit>. Presidcnto leaned til favor of eratiun'b.auclk ducre-
  concerned. It has been .t dWmct pleas-           h.ue usurped coneressional pjucr. b'ut' lior. but the Lv-uc ri-rii.uni..T. tit .inibtdut
  ure for we to work with Uie Scn.itor             only bcc.xjiC Conercis \ulhnijL< deferred               Ijeinntn -if ' ' " ' " " ' ""'
  from Ncii-r York. iAfr. J«rrii and the.          lu rcipax\iil»UiUci to Uit Crca'.dtVit.
  Senator from Mississippi -Mr. STINK::;>              Tlie crosign of congrcMtunal war the drhjtliu; of .the campromlse bill.
  in fashlohln'c wlint I hrpe Js an accept-        powers u manifested riot prily in ex-                S. WOrdces not^tx~c the "forestall" tlL.
  able piece of,!cKlsInt!o:"j.                     panded U.-unu of Presidential power, but cre;ion vflUiou^tlnnz*. \Uhda't our bill
     As v.ll!.be evident from niy remarks.         aUb in Uie lack of awarcric».s CjjMk:rcv> tlie-burden .4 on •Uic-Prusldcnt'rlo provu
   I do r.ot deem it to be a perfect piece of      h.i-» for. lit, O'AII constttiiltoKhl rcajjoivsl- thrtt an (ii.U.ck U "direct aiul Imminent."
  lesbl.itlori, I darri.iy ho bill u. Stncc the    InliUc^. The recent cic'cuton to gr.int the If ih.ePrcMdcni'f.iiM to dcmonotrajtth.a
  tlaic of the Teh Commandments. I doubt           Prcsidcitl iuiUtui >c> to botiib in Camljuflia hu-ncttcii., AM til jiccird.iiicc »yth the
  If mankind ha* achieved .Tr.iU.ini; Ictts-       unliU Aut'iat l-> <tc!nurtAlrK(cil U^at, dc- prpvLlous, hi.-> luilh'iihly uiii be Ukcn
  I.ittvely that U clo^ to perfection. At a        ^>;tc ihc fiictonc. ionwfln CoTif.tc^. ;.ull atyny b> .Immediate .ictiou of the Con-               .
   later lime. pcYiinps tomorrow, .-I shall        Ijcltevc Uwt Uie President has the pri- Kress.
   take up two or three amendments xyhlch          n-.ao role in the dccUlaii to RO to-war. Tlic oiiCiUoiu-uf nhcthcr io e.xprc^ly
  T think .ire noncoiitrovcr.ini. nnd vyhlch      .jljat Cor.rfrc.ss tuu an cxclusUc rcsp'oriii- prohibit' Uie ProidcriV from Uiltintlnc a.
   I-hope will Ue.acceptable .by tlic Senator      btlly: •lo-ftuUiorl«c unr -a responsibility prccmtilUc niittcat .a;Uck. v,a.> cciiatc^
   From New York nnd'Uje'Senaior frotti             iliat shatttrf never be sulije'ctcd to com- :xl sotrie Icnnth. I flnalb had Va'cpnccdc
. Maine, they betas niovc-or less house-            proinuc Tlic"bill nc consider todaj ji dc- Uiat, in the fln.il anal^ur tU; AD> IcciAla-
                                                                   -        244
     ff IS, 197$                                                          RECORD -.-SENATE                                                               S13S73
.tloit car. expect Ho,achicv<t Jr.        .        t>end dt^Hi such an »usc!ute mechanism. connecl«d,i:lth our fnaVraUoivs and diSr
Prcsldent-lesaU:- -wid sjotijtkaii? .siccouiit.-                                                satisfactions la coriiiectton^vUU.llie war
alte for his actions, The ,c«i»se<s<«tyc-«                                                      in VlcuitaMi. But out of Uiat .effort in :nat
•that Strtulel-follow7*. first strike- nucltar                                                  period has -come what I think is ;a
ait:-xfc-by Ihe United-States ro&d make            lives.                            that 'was rotiiarkably creative" " aiid aino\-siUx e
 t!ie question of political and iesal resifcA-                                        .the bill apY>roach to the problem: of redressiiti:
 sttjilityriibot.                                                                               the smbaJsiice bclfecn Consrtssr a'r.d ilie
    Several .tAm have repressed concern                                                                                  to .t
 over the decree y>* discretion .afforded                                                       power.
 the President ^iider the -Iwestal!                Cambopjja
 clause" have proposed abolishing the               .Toimp-t^.
 akforicati'iii of emergency pavers con-           Jorc. we'-lAvc cheseti ti» luhlt U:e Prcsl-                             has-played'i
.tained in. S. 4*0. Such an approach
 would have. the tin intended effect of prc-       Uye Manner.,by reQulniig* cousrSsiohal                 Mr. KAOI£TOS\ Mr. Eresldcnt. wIU
-sejitlng tlit-President with1 wide discre-        approval-witWh 30 days'lf-^he^wishciiAb-           .the Senator Slcld?
 tion In ail-.maUers^nvplviug Ills excrr           cojitlnuehi4"ai:tJGQ.1[f sacit"approval's             i.tr. MUSKTE: i yield.
 Stpey powers.              ......          ,      not- forthconiingVthor. the ctiicVsenoVac-             >Yr. EAGLErOXvl aw deeply grateful
  . If we fail to delineate Uieaimite of;the       tion must be terni:?"^ * ---•^—--i------           i-U.iiiulsh*''SnbrRia!ii
 rodent's emerpincy power, .then. c                the only exceptionbclnf"that Uic;;?ia4-             <ilr. ileskit) for" llie con;l>limcuV»ry
.invite - t:!c<PresIdent to cbaljnu? to d s        s!ent.would have the rIeUvto protect our           and laucSaiofy remarks Jiehas just
tftne that power any way he sees fit. The
 President. Ojngress. arid UieVAmedcan,'             "The'ch6icc.-of 30 days has beenr.exltl-
•neople must, understand the- Its'. tiAate         clzed.by.sorar as t^.diortTinci-.Jj^others TsiUtee on f
 role of the;,CWnmaliaer in. Chief— and            a^ too Ions'."Adinlt.tcttlyj.lt Is an aVblirary acTAbd to T!                                           ::because
 Uiey must :jLiderstaiid lhat that role            P*fv6d. but-botlv'Uicsc ircumehts can be. in "the. minds-.»»V:i
 dcia not- IncUide..takiiis unilateral mil l-      answered -by"'U)e sanie i"-ocedural ex-
 tiry:Actitxv whec-UicrciS'hp enierceiicy          planation.
 tlirekt {ii'U:e United Suites. Its : forces
 or its cltltens.
    Should the President * exercise his
 emergency powers.; .                .              a period of crisis. AVheti :Memb«rs of
Jum aiid Cotigress-wiiriie for.puVillCL sup-        Cohsriiss are statutori&fbreed to uphold:
 port. ITUie stie&suc of the.",puW?t,Oe^            tlieir responsibiSlty.. I -«xpcct Uiat tijey
 bate wbiefiensucs is UiC^resldciit.s..             wlll\be ;ycrx -leeo; 'of cither.^elcifAtlRi it
 lcy.AhtEi.co«\teS\porary cxperieryce slioi-s.      awiy.too ispon of allowing it to.lSe'ab'usei                                  .Use
 Uuit'tivi- i^resSdent will .Jnex^tibly ^-lii       by Inip'rbpcr-'PrfjiricniJal;acUoii.
 hik.barfe. It Js to clicck. Uil                       ff. theiffore, Con««ss .feejsVa-lonjer      Mr. ^Dres fctnt:. I-. asJt-ujUtf.Jji-.ous .con-
 that this Icslslauori -'ihRisis                   . pcnod.ls needed- to ^consider"-the Prui:- seijt to Jiava.;»rtiVteil al.lfjlx poL-?v.ln'tlie
                                                                                     v    :
 UoVu Tlie more:sihjple Mid                         deiit's reflutst it can txteh<l Uic auU{ci
•Jcnstand. signposts" Uiat ^otisres. cati           Iiatlon"period,-Tor''as .l»n? as..it "wants
 ho!d up ror public inspccUon. Uie .liprc
 likely it wlli- be that Cojigms'caa jite^         slo'n to o/NlaVe^oiraisiv^-war. Ifl'on Uw                                                               WiUwut
 ycnt ,a -Prbsidetit ITroin usurplnjr :Jiis        oilier hand, the President jias cleorly-
 powers—:*rid Uie more -likely 'it ^irlll be       and•blatantly nbuscJ Uis:omergcnty/aa-
 that Congress caa'stasj-hlth. If lie" Mts         ...'!-_...-- ^.--•^^•i---^.^;. art'ta stop- him
                                                                                                         vi.Js
                                                                                                      tloii* Ui
    N'o -nmtter how- tightly . clrcum-              ««d                                                                                             .          .
 scfiSie U:e                  '                       Mr.               il-U uafortusale                          -of. Mil!. I- hcjjo >io sec U:ie\e3'ori* of
.cy -riiJe, -however. .wts^                                                                                         .<»tu. Ccimxor" En^r'ton. -/.jrmcr
 Wy ourselves (lint tuat role ww5d w.vcr                                                                            '
 be aljusitl. ;lJvcn .it Presidents executed                                                          Jj<air.;3;H:tt" in. -'u>t lorm *rf a !»«• or Hie' ja
 tlui provlsJoas of; Uxe War "Po>:ers bill                    There .tno'uMv be little doubt by-
,tfc c«xl ialtii. it \wwld still be. iiossible     now that the gradual erosion of ran-
 for them lo use tlit-discietloii Uicn.riS         Bressio"j2U .wnr powers hits growfi-le rtisis
 taincd- as.Conmi;indc£ iii- Ci\(ct -to move       prb'iiortioiu. If: we fail -.to axA&iyx'. after             c<}..ili3 i..-1-Uxa' ./touilU Ujo,f
 our Nation -from a jfcfeaMyc. conflict to         the tiorrors:or-Vicjtnanv lUveso sli".c«>.                   'p.ci.yeaV I tubmllttd 11 itatehienl;
     .                               oc«:rrc'd
                                            '      ciiiwfQ the dsiificr-cif ftirtiVlduai wo           u> C.c 'forcer. nilAt.'^iu l;c.\r|U[pi rirorlri^.'
                                                                                                      _^-ir_-..'.^— . . - . . . - - . . : .   -.^. jj^jjjjj. jiyaj jutf;
 inadvertcntJy or not. Congress 'must jxjsr        jnajktnc. xve in*;- jji-cr again sec the
 scss- '-the: lcKtsls,tive 'mccijiuilsm *hat       ijucsUbhs of war "anil mince biij'ur decided
 would enable It to protj\:l its owti              by UIQ -*ol)crin^ an-i.'«eir;tratlxif proc-
                                                   esses inherent iu-tiic'coTu^t bt«:o!Jcet{vx
                lone m»Ui nccidrrl whether                              .                                                              : totr. powers bl|l-lMt 1
 \vc-uill.tntcr nivbireiiMve xvar.'AndXfnh-           ;atir. .-XtUSKlB' Mr PrcstdcnU I^hould          JCur !<>• a vuic ut <~> 10. i>n<l li on Uie 7.nx3<>|
 gfbis.nlotic niiist have Uic means to fiti-p      Ifke 16 .ta5\c a ni^ucnt .to express n:y           tiiuU.t: huu.rtu lute, un vliu .same bill. 11
a ProstiSttH \vlicn he moves bcy.ond Uic           appreciation lo lhe-t!Ut.n>;ulshcd Su:.i.-         bftlcvt. a, S> -ilU l:.vt over-50 cocpdhscrs. Tlie |
ntrlctly deferisivc powers Jjc den ves Ircnr       tor .'rom Missouri JM \\iH-i**. the diitliv-       rftMisb>U r.<"»-t;.?li.-\tli;r; /v bill .yrhlclj.
•the CoiislHv.Uoh.                                 KVuiihcd Senr-lor from IfJcw Yprk 'Mi-.                     ':trc<rai;i-tlic Senate bill. Vroulii move In I
   Some have "argued that -the -'power -of         jTAvrrsii foi- tlic K>r.dcr£hip Uiey ,hav:u                  n«as<Vc to «i*jr^ the proper coiutl-l
                                                                                                      uuionnl bntance lielwect.-tlie Coiiurcss niidl
 the pun>c would. lu.SUscir, be iuilltlcril-Vp     shown iii {Jevcloplnif the proposer let;-          the Exccuiiic m the area ofwnr poworj. Itl
 protect Congress .right to declare vvar.          Isi,\t(on xvfjfch I luvc -tlje prJvilrcc to        u .-)i> liupo ,ll>n» tl-.c Jltiusi; ftiid S*:ual« will I
 In- other words, it the Prcsldcjit-.cntcrcil      Jloor mannce and.ijvppbf r                         Ijo ^U:c to ngrcc ci>ft."itroni; bill that wilt I
 an ollcr.&ivc \var ivithont tlic;conscnt .o(          Itji relatively cru> tixl.vj tv be lur tins    i\tnt'.j flcfli.f the jioarrn of Uic Concreu anil]
 Concrws.-wc could tltcii cut bit funds for        conr.cpt anil to be fcr Uils foririij)^. to        iif the Exucuttrc
 that wnraiirttlfas jm'iiose our '\vlll. ."        deal willi thu problnin. A', the tinir thn             I n.ii proinJ to support this bill l>«rnits« Ul
   The pp.Iy prnctlca! -way Coijcrcss ct\w         Senator from Mlssoiu-i amHhe SMVjilor              It nr imporlnnt ilrp by the Oongrcia to i«-l
 iKc its'powcr of the purse, however, is to-                       V.ork— aji»J. rinlch't.ndd. tlio   mime in duty- in representing the people otl
                                                                                                      tin* nation. TDe MISCIIMKHI at tjun *uOJcct-of|
 cut off fundsloc n. narlicular conlllct In a                    fro'.ii Missi^sipt;! <^fr. Srof-     wnr iiuwcrs oltcn Itmum on righU. Hut It
 bill which affects the Ojicralloii of Covr             ' -..fnt;iaU;rt -thlk ' ivhnle titlort. the   iu tat more inipurKj.l U.at we- fee tlirvt 11]
 eniment far t«?yond the. mono c.v>cndrd                                         the                  u.^k Ijiii IICI.UIDC* Inn il ftlil ki^LAl Ihnl 111*
•for the conflict. H we -ic'ic forced u> dc-                    Rt)Q.-lic jo                          Iiir;iitj9l.> <i[ CvliJ,rv»4i lire Al'.'.il.b '.<j i,±XI

                                                                 248
I s l^57*                                                                             RECORD —
v ' X . tinvy.-ijatj'-the dwtr to-nic 'their >>e*t.                                                          cjjot Hf*.       Mr. Prfcslienl.'iiK war powers l*jkla-
' judgmentJii&d to *Ki**. wltH;^ irtr->it*At                                                              w*.i«y cost*. Uou VhicV.we corisider'lwrfc twiay does
                                                                                                                         iiol-«*ic-{.> ilter tiie-^nstitiiUonil bal-
 ; *t*liJ-:;'a-i-«»VIo«v.oa avak»..lb'*«l*;!iloQ Of          wry.
1 -^                                                        ««lJid*a." U So* fti, -urJtcclftTtd wir.- Bret; wke of pbw-tt-.bclwetn ConRress and the
                                                             thoi«;h th* scar »u»,iiaited»r«rjuid'tty6 'peo- P&i!d«ut: .it siatply stxtzlo reslorc'it
                                                             ple Wredi vttcji.- x* Jhiit 'such > strosvt resSfr ? It seeks to restore it to »b?:Mica*.92Uex«d
                                                                          :
    branch. ''ttf: dccrf* .tfc* "•major, .^is'wtSoJi of      vjalr~         \h                                            by tlrf. "framers of U^CoiutiluUonrbut a.
    irliither icriict thU.covutry.a1U"ijo.tp war.                               ..                            - together baltuic-: jince ti;H>C{L-iibl by lltc'cotisclous
  • Cad«?'out Ccn»tSt"utu>n..that 1*-^                      tod v             . >:«• vU:;n6t be able, to do tMs abusVof aT ^-ari'oivEsecuUw. but-by the
                                                                             »•«• ,tr.»i.'Cott£rfes I                     encroachment of i stnesof %eli-rheaninK
   xUe.-As ft p.Sctlcal matter.~l
   ij«ytj\ayi; ft major tote-lii helping 'the Con-           declare. Durl^lh'c-lVtbiUttilred'yeftrs tli'at Executires-onwTan r-rea of power ill-
                                                                            uring Xh'tv two Jsubil
                                                             wt have.btea.W*««rt«i;:iifT ft* ft tuition.- hat-, derlnied and. iitfcecL ill-reco;nized by
     iaslbalty^rttts^iai" the Cotxjrttc.                                                    i;n:si-!iave .arisen          most Mrtihtrs of.$iast Congresses.
    " W^hftx*. ieftc^t TE S*ry"r«eeat"h»iWJ:;tSat                                  iy Ito" tet .eouru                         In the case of >*ot:h?t(oicn Sheet <•
             - not jupported by V                                                                                         Txte CO. v. JTaicyci 3«S.U.S. 579 C1952).
   geoplr. ,eau &ut. lo dAinagt • of                         needs to b*, i "idirtTvcivtoci or :>JVeJi prece- Mr. Justice .,'ackson ^»ke of a "zone of
               ~      "    '     '                           deats. ni*f5r fef vhlcii/CQtifiiet. ,What we seed                          'Vbcypoa^li2 ar'ea of power richt-
                                                             U K restft'unteht of :tii« uw oa. the >vbject.ln
   ' 'ItU"or.iK« utcawt tinpociiftc* :o ih*                  ih'e context of our tlme."This'-j£*x»ctIyv<ivbVt.                                itiK .to the Executire: Uils is
   oT Uib niktlca liut Vt t-.ot »t<-j'ti slic^               Uiis bill doe«; aid 1: V^ntls bri th*t ctVuje                                    r^pc^er in which the Presir
    r Into » *5U"tfc»t docs nc-I h»r* the nibr«l'           •of' our .CW»tttutiba whicb pinivSdes:. •^TH*- -0«ntiu:d Cousress "may have concurrent
          t, »nd;luu»ct!;» cj, it* .                                                                   v...-tp'dtctftre. suUwrity. cr In wiikh its distribution is
               ~"    '*~   ~~     "   ** "
        ^-.    _    -      ,--^              ,   _,                                                                       xinccrtainl" Tills is the are* of power.
  :'•.•'J.'.jIS soj",b.(St«5e-Th»t-*-* will -be «Ji;» 1.6
                                   S» futiure Viihout               Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President. It Is *v- U:iij-zone of twilifht." through wliich
                                    Tt« .Cuiot'.cuU'oa        prosKiate Uut -the slatemtnUby S«ivi- «j;e Ex«uh!ve has moved in its quest of
              *batt*-UK--1Uve»Vfty lo do t)i(«. .by «»-       tor iSrtSwsVsippwir'iit thtf-fortfrant ot uVt.povi.-er lo.make war. Tltis is the area
             hlnc ft QMR&hhnu vwdir -the -nrce«r              this ^ebari. JV»-»U Ttpn^.tiaUliie-can- iri.irhich Uie Executive *-ould lia\-e Uie
   »»r».ftas proper ciiu*e, fo? Ojoirwt knd th»               iwt be here to 'dtiU'er this italbnientiind people believe lies the basis for Upright
  'ftMidect W cji«rct*e tttrir r«p«ulbUttl«                   to I«nd his- liipfwi-t '-"!«                                to make u-ar. And because the richt lo
   te(«t!t*r: <7nltc=-'-D)is U -done. U-4 -preclit               "                 ^                                      c>take.w:xr lies in tills biuy area, the Ex-
             ~ < .r»poc»»)Ulty will retrain uricl<»r.                                                                     ecutive, it is said, must be gi^n a free
                                            '        '        his grocre-j: wid T-.L<: ta
                                                              I h»d the pkatsuca or '-a                                  .hand, for today we live in a world of
                                                                                          ni'ost;                        jnsUnUueous- and dex-astAtin^ attacks
                                                                                                                          rallier than the framers* world of .foot
                                                                                                                          soldiers a.id siinr.c~ 5h!ps. 'Iri today's
                                                                                                                          world: the arj«raesit;f:oes. tills "zone of
                                                                                                                           twilljrhV'-must'be given over to Uie Ex-
                                                                                                                          wutive^:tcr;on!y bi-that branch lies Uie
       Tt.«te>m la the ie;;L>lct!or. iefoct tit Stn-                                     Jxr Mr. ?rcslUeut. r asfc special capacity for fast, efficient, and
              t :js. In lh* dell»eai|b                                                          »t'{n°y-'staif- ,mcm-. decisive response to a determined attack
                        IA whicnT'the'                       ., :v                              xJ..'JiftVc « V e pri- byah enemy.                                 '" -"" ~
             i uratcterall?; 'and thwe                      ^)Jc6e\6t"i{*e floor" «!uhnif-.i!«t nshdenci-                     ,Bt«> Is thfat correct? Does Uiis po'wcr-to'
    prior »ui)iortly by Conf.-e«.-< ii rec'.i:r*\J
                  :
                                                              ^bicJLiuKus of M*ie>VAr vovtn bill, wivilli- make^-ap lie wiUiin the • "jane pf^twi-
   *                       .                                                                                                                                            :
                                                              er :Xo^aJT' iQriiprwI.tr. -or 'Uie next day. Heht" belwe^n the Comm>r.cfer;Jsi Clifer
    1st wb!eh iu« or^:* cauntr?** ara^il iorrw.                     The PRESiittRG OFFSCKJt. With-                        •arid Consr«s? Or has Uie.Eiecutive al-
   •U.ccnUrtnplntnt. Uie rljsii^ii vould be re-                                                                           -r*ady passed>beyon&ithationc and into
    quired. W oxni taCWRrtat iot prior fivsA.-jv             .oirt- eUj-xitos, lt-ij--sft ordered:
   ifty-iiiwier ^pots«i-3(4) of'iht WO•"£«•«-                       in? jipsxre. &«• President, i »sk «.-zoneofthat lies exclusively within the
           f of-lh« PruWtnt u> -jic                           unAJu'raoai' cotiwiic UVat. )ny .admi»ls- realm                             Concrejsr in tiie view of James
            \rithouv prtftr "coi\3KW:«:                        trs-iy« asahUni. Mayntird'.Ton. havt.the MadisO. ilw Usue rra.% quite clear: and
                                     ^ armtd                  pr£vi!eee~of -tljt ••fl.onr rtilrin;^ rt>e co'hsUt- I read'lrpm hts^;')ai>ers:
                                  - cr 'jf.-3gfts. and                                                                        Kvery Jiut rlcwr tlintcan be tnVen-of U-.U
                                                                                                                           subject, .MthohliJtKJ Uiu public .br tlie nec-
               cl^t'xttui fre-n cnnstr abro^I 30*3*                 Tli6 .VRESIptNG .OPPIClvR^ Without essity of a, rl^Wi adiiefsne* W.Uie stmple, tJie
   .n»y, that the Vp«;!fc                                     objwtiftn. It is so c>df red.                                recetwd; •.UieSiundunental -doctrine of tlie
                                                                                                                                                     ;
                                                                    Mr. MUSKEE. ;Mr. ipresJdcni, jf' yield Cotuiutiuloo. tIiat. Uio power to U.-clare r:»r.
                                                              5 minutes to m?. distinguished cailesKue lnc\iidthi; the power-of Judging the cause.',
   Hv*-r3;i''=r*-j:to5lt:c. rill* Ui»t tjiey are XU!1          from. Maine \Mr. KATHAWAV) .                                i>r Mi-=ir. Is fiilly and exclusively veitcd In Die
    deftcHfejiar^Si t^.at It, vlll lie mor* dim-                                                                          -.Legislature; Uintr tlie EMCUtlre lias no rltfit.
   •cult. for a Prtsidfiit fo taVo same type* -or                   Mr. HATHAWAY. Mr. President, J- •In'any eate. to rtecWcMie rjuestlon. wiiether.
    BillltarV »?tl?>ci: <ir.llaUr»lly :h»r. vsuld be           tlmnlc my dlsUn«uishcd cpllcasuc Xrom Uiere Is^ or U not caitte for (Icelitrlng war:
     in' lh» cftie If th* h^l woe not :av. He would            Maine for yielding to me at this time to that the right of convening; anil Informing
    h»v»>> r»k» :ntr,;on3ldcratlon Uit ConcrcB?               speak on what I consider tc bf the moit Congress, whenever such a question xeenu
    ^rwti);« p«^:c.!trtpr««ni3 hcfora InvnlTln);               important issue to come before Cohcreu to call for ft decision. Is nil the rlftht wh:eh
    tli* -nation In. war; and, co»xei|tientlT. 8. c<r-         in Uils session nnd perhaps ih btlicr Uie'Coiutltntloii lio«.\teemol requisite >v:nl
     tiln «ilem«nt pl^autlon Aoii.d fie intHMluceil                                                                        proper?
     Into hit thlnX'lhg,                                       scuions .13 well.
        Restoring' a- proper almra of rcfponslbllltj?               As we all knpw we have- been trying                        Even -Hamilton, thagro-t proponent or
     to Concreia win ttf no incaiii eniMH) M wUc               for some time la con>fflo «pfn* resolution a strong executive branch.-felt bound to
    exereUc. TJsere Is- no nunrance of wlKloin                 of the war ppwcra :)fablem, as to "just siiy-Uiat the war power bclcncs to Con-
     laCciiRresa iny.moro tliuti In Uie l>rcolilcney.          whatihcautlioritr of tl.i: President shall sress.
    •^i rrofoLvJr Alei'ivniltr Dlckel .IIM siid, ''tlie        be and what the authority of CoriorcS;-
     only ftuumnce there U Ilei In process— In.                                                                                'fills brines-m to the purpose of i\\c
     the duty 'to exp'lkln. Justify and persuiulc,             sliall be.                                                  war powers- bill. This purpose Is nzi- to
     to drtlne the nallonnl Interest l>j evoking It,                Lasi.-year or 'the yci\r ^forc. lioth tlie cncronch on Uie power ot^thc executive
     nnd to net by cohsenc' Ennctment of Uie                   House niid Uie Senate passed war- i>o\ver& •branch, or even to limit-that power, liuf.
     wnr powers bill will nnc l>e a p.in.ncea, but 1C          bills, but we were unnble to come to aiiy to define that power.'to make-it nb'.fii-
     will, I licllcvr, rc»ll«n the working* of thin            acrccmeht In conference.*. I aiiv Ifopeful dantly clear to the people nnd to tlie
     government, with tile -Conitltlitlon time                 that Uio bill Miat we will ultimately pn.ii President that in this nrca there Is no
     crenurt it. It Will reduce the chnnee timt.               In the Senate and the' one that wl|l lie "7.otip of twllfch't." tlwl, as James Wll-
     tills nation will again RO to war withouV
     unity , without on cxpn-Jilon of nntioi.ai will           passed In tlie House wilt be close enoiiRlr spn. nho with Madt.son a as tli? grpnt.
     ttimuuh 'CongreMionitl Authorization. It will             so that we will be n»Ie to come up \k-itli ardilttct iff the Constitution, said.
     (tare im back *lcmg t!\; 'right path Wo ar»               some Iccislation In this v^ry                                   MMlnglc mrin icnni ... Involve u« in sreli
      Jtut (nitrglng frohv ft long war thai ho* b*en
                                                                                      246                                  tlUtrcM.
 July           1973                        .CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SE& ATE                                                             S13875
     Yet. Coi\s«ss Is avrare of the              usurpation of tGMKressional prerosaK              cabinet .officers jxr.d Congress if we n«*
-cics of the Riodcrn world. Indeed. Mr.          tn»e Gulf of ToKkiJX-Jxiolution and<.cuc to make itic system viable. If ih"c ptoyJc
  President. Uie aur^ose of tiils bill sltould   present- Ihvylvcmeht in- Vietnam ar* ex- do irpt know what tho decisions arc or
  not be seen as an.effQtVtb ItnUt thc-3Bx?      ahiples vriilcll leap taaaJiwaatcly ^txd what the processes of declstoiir.akins
  ecutive.power. bui.aU effort to Icsitlnxiic    tragically tt»n%)d.'                              arc. tticri the Exccutii-o Is noi held ac-
 IHat jwser xch«n"tt is used to deal with           We tuust -now rc;>air this erosion oif >.hc countable. The niomenious decision? Of
  the emergency sitaatloiis that can arise       dcUctte executivt-lcgislaXivc balance in war and peace must bo made by the
 in our; mcj&srix world of rockeu. bombs.        order to resibtc rcsjwci for the \\iry Inr ciceRsi representatives .of the people.
       -            -                                                    r i » t it i       Uie
                                                 stltutibh.ol govers\triei»t. itts xibl ji;st Uie     In tli<r words of Wba&rotc WRsen we
         ..             t h e w a r .powers billibalai^tc of power that Is, \iial to our •must insist upon: "Ojicri covenants - , .
                                                  s
  i\«>t.«v4ip;ilr.5 cl tUe baiajicc in fa\t>r of survival as, a.democnicy. vrcwust restore ojwjiiy arrived at" it tiv .are lo'protect
  Congress; it is a reesUp-1511141^ of Mlfc      a. balance of tnist."Tl«rc will ix. and our democratic processes.
  IsalMicc oiiUir.«d m the 'Constitution. Sui    .there should bc"dtsagrecii^«Jt bctvcecix            TaJs .proposed Icjislation docs not
  It is a x^estabUsfitnK ^f th'at balance ti     the PrcsldenVand the Consress bul ilicrc chillciice Ihe President's authority as
 •Iteepinjv with the Jieo^slJics and require-    need not be distrust.                             Commander in Chtet i:or his constitu-
  n\ci».ts of thcTriodcrti xvprid. It is a bill to  TlittOfact xhat. a policy £s carried out-tii tlonal right lo conduct the war In -tKe
  hiakciclcaf to a future -Executive that he     secrecy siid.rcmoVciiei&-Soes no*. ne6ss- way he sees fit. It decs nb't Intend to ite           136
  is.xuUxorireil by.'consress to act in a-slt-   sirily insure Its success. The public k;asl- Use President's: hands for wv realize i*
  uatxoii ;of rjcal emcfscncy. but If he        -ucss must be conducted is» an atnios-             there are emerconcy circumstance.1: un-
 sJtould try to move from-thatcniercency         phere of mutual respect arid confidence der which a Presiden; miy'have to ve-
 situaUon'into a iilEiitmarisJi situation        that \vilt.in turn inspire the resKeci-.and sppnd in..defcns& wiiiibut explicit con-
  of wnr vrithout.tiit; consent ot Congress.     confidence of every 'citizen.                     gvica5f6nal.,ny»rorai.aj:d this bill so pro-
 -iipt;only will Ke-havc to ahiise the Con-         If we arc gping U> understand why a vides.
 sjliuttpu: he. will have to violate the         decision & made" and make 'intelligent               But the Congress -would; .be negligent
  i'naridiie of law.                             contributions throiish the legislative o.riti own constitutionalrresjxseisSolllUcs
     I tl'iankmy good friend; the senior Sciv-   process then we must be informed: and If It rel'cgatct! \p osic man tlie decision to
 asqr Irani-Maine, for jicldiiic-to me U»Js      we niust ha\-c access .to the policymakers send our sons to war Wlm confronts us
         -la speak on tlus very inipbrtant       who are responsible In the executive Is one of UicYnos: significant .questions
                                                .branch. Tlits will not only Insure pxuiUc to "emerge from die continuing dc'oate
    3ilr. MUSKIE. I thank my distin- understanding but. greater public sup- over rtie Indochina.-conflict: Tho. ques-
 gaisUtd cbllCJ'euc froni Maine.                 l»rt as well.                                     tip'n of Mriio decides wli'en a«d: where
    Mr. President. -X liow yield 10 mmutes          As a.vteji toward rcstorinBtha-Pecptes America ROCS lo war. There 1$ little-
 Urthe dtst'.hgutsiied Senator- from Texas shaken .confidence in its representative quest ion that'Congress Is vested wl:h the
  '~Mr. BexTSE3?i who also he* boeu one of insllt iiUons, -I siigECst U\at. Cpi'^rcss as- sole right to. initiate war This Is clearly
 the leaders :n» the- development of Ihls suii\e iG, resiwnslbiltty to the electorate spelled oijt hi articl*-!, section's or the
 legislation.                                    aiul indicate lhat wa are prepared .to Constitution! We must neycr^ayAln per-
    Mr. BENTSEN. Mr. PrcssdwiU I Uinnk nioefdur coti>utuUou»l oblijpvUons 'lr. the mit ~an-extended commitment, of Anicrir
 Uie dlstinewslied Senator froin Maine. forhiuiatlon of foreign a'nd domcs'tlc .can lives to lie made unless the reprcr
•1 appreciate thi- leadership 'he has:excr- jKiUcy. We, \\ill not Icav^ vital -dectsion- serilattttis of the people explicitly au-
 clscd on one of the most fundnmental makir.E. solely to t^it Executive. ~w-h.cth.er thorize it.
 issues.that \ve fncc today.                     tliroiiuh default. IncincJcricx. lacK of will        Assumption of cosigriysfonal respon
    1 am pleased agnit: !o join with my orEcecutive xisiirpsittpn.                                 slbility is a burden we must pick ftp
 (ttsimcuishcd collcagiis in sui>;>ort of ti;c      Tlierc are tlitwc uho h:uc iald If we ajpaln for AriUuHii It the Institutions-oT
 war powers bill wjiich I fervently hope •hart been laccti ji»th the issvit pf-wrar or sovcmmchi will-remain in dlsrci.ute. The
 is corn's to pass -iii tiils stoiloii of Con- no 'fear in South Vietnam. thd-Scnatc. democratic process is at staKO l*-caj»r]ot
 Kress.                                         •Congress woultl .have Roufi alonof. That Uirh-c under a-otronp executive xvlUi.ii
    At a.'Ume wtien we have nuciear.ener- niay be llie case, but wliat-U'.c war powers \\-eak Icaislarure any mor?-.sljaii it can
 Cy"; atomic- wjsi|>o:is. atomic missiles and measure. A\ould -Jto would -lie to say that thrive when the executive falters and :he
 laser beams, there are those w!io say. the.Senaie. Conc'rw •nust.fnce.tlwt Issue legislature doinlr.alcs. Tlje-co:>s'.ltiiilon-
 "Is- there a. ploce-for rcprcschtative cpvi aiiuArels . thAi'ft. ? '.ember \vlll not be able ally Btuinmtccd balanre bctvrceli "Hie ex?
 criiment in tiiu. type dccisionninkinK? Is to vi.iflle his position, th.it lie \\1ll haw
 titcre ii.me for-a cqiiserisiis type decision? to li'.lA the. Uullc'c (in'd dcct:ic if he Ls vot-
 Is-thcra a plate -lor a peoples brnnch J;i ms foi Aitturtca'i sons to cb to \var or
 nmvuticviiE this tyjie dcculon?" I tlilnk not. The- Founders of tills country- came en it, thereby rcofXJrjJiIiier the •'tivficl of
 {nnd.iinciicaliy there is because Micro is here ulth the (den. that r>Apne mriiu »o Uie American jKofilo f.nil thc-world In the
•:io morc'jmpcrtnia.decision Uiat nfTccts matter how nUc or bcncvolont hc-intght cnic:.ty .of bur particular .form of ROV-
 thts-KhUpii tliim -.vlicihcr or not our sons be, could decide whether or not ills. son crniiicnt.
 UP to.WHr. V-'e arc nil awnrc o£ tiic-vroslon \\cnt to \\iit, that, tills niust be the col-          Ass:miptlort .of'gjjjc responsibility hMjifi:
 ot the balance pC pcvicn \vit.hm our lective lutlgmcr.i of the :cpre£er»lailves fpretkri .poUcyiriatdi)?„ process Is :i bur-
 Government:                                     of the people.                                    den we-In Consr&w must.plck up ngnlh.-
    tknuw tlicni-a,re.Uiosc who ivoutd try          When Consre&s exercises Its rinhtful
 to.sny tiiRt-Um-baiunce Q( powers is real- powers anci-mceU its full re.si:QiislUtUttc~, •dancvrs Inliercrtt--Jss'tlj6 ciu'feni .-imbal-
 ly not on cihcleni -f ohn of Bpvcrnmcnt; whoti it hul&u on t aJLdclibc'raflbh -nnri r,nce Uotwecn the executive" end the leff-
 but 'I would tiubte .the commcnLs of Jiis- aharlnj in decisions—that Is. 1C flic •LslAtive brjinchcs.
 tice Brntulci-s wlien lie said llwt tho con- proper constitutional procedures arc fol-              ^Ir. Prejidrht. j-uni convinced Uiat Uie :
vcniion bJ nil? really vyos not slrivinc Iovi,-ud— the democratic process Is v.^vr powurs blllls pjic of the niostjie.odeji
fur the nioit cfTiclcnt .form ot povcrnr strcu'i{thcnct{r\.>Ve,iuust rjot.ailow a CMW- pieces of Icals!:\tton ilic} tlijs Seiipic- V'lil
 nwnt. Jjitt by scitir.fr «ip u-.ti three Inc lack of cbr.ncluiicc Ui U:e Institutions coijslrfer thls.yKir, iihd 1 am hiOsi »ileasc<l
brnnciics of government but vms trying of democratic Rox^rtithcnt lo call Into to be Jolnlnc'w'rUi the djsilncuishctl Sen-
 io insure that we tvoiild not, -hnvc nii ciucsUon the .mbllitj of. these institu- ator from Maine, who Ix.i-andilnj; tho h!!l
arbitrary exercise of power.                     tions. We have lifunclarr.ental oWlsntlpn: oh Uic:tloor.
    This lina been the subject of considcr- To keep our Go'vchinicht strong arid                     tfr. fiuSKIB. Tilr. P«sltl«it. 1 yjclt;
abln discussion of Inte nnd indeed of make our Kntlon whole nsnln.                                 myscllla minutes.
 recrimtriation. nuclei, mo point out tlint         It is Impemtive 'that we                          rile J?RE?IPIMG OPFICETifc TJic b>n-
 It is not entirely the fnuIt-pMhc.Ksccur responsiblldy for future foreign yollcy
tivp. CpnitrMi.'to tv large dcarce, Juus not (lecJilnns i> .-^har^d. Dcmiicnitlt Bbvariir                                       .               .
only, stood r.llciUiy by nntl wntciicd 1U ment "dcrt.i-- .ts Jus-t powers -fr^un (lie                       imc to comnlliner.t the tiijslln- .
 powei-? erode; It has nlsb actually swcn        coivsr.nl of liie jioverned."                               Senator from Texas. I mujitsny "I
 its authority away and ncqiucscc<I in                    •yqudt.ton bf-cuinmuiiib.kttou'tic-
                                                                                   r
                                                                                                             oml to be nt-indlhc with him on J
 \-\inoiw cxccuuve ocAijpn* tcndini; toward               Uic^cxecnuvu ln.ui ,U                                               R; closely wfth him ,J
                                                              547
 Sl3S7«r                                      CONGRESSIONAL &KCQ.RD —SENATE                                                             July IS,
   oa other matters .ui- the Senate. I- know                            to gu biti to lt                                                                  It
    ibSt the kind «T effort he Is capable of          lloOJ1                                                             dlScult to und^rj'jiud why the
   producing .ausiiri-weU for the future bi                                  T«IC wn. rcorocs                  Irarncrs were so coac«r:sst AiHHtt withhold- -
    this.lec&ai&n. as wril as for him,                   The war powers bill. S. -MO. __                       lag tb« war pox*r Jwh» th^ cxtcuttv* la
                                                      -p~a;>lc provision for Presidential use of               the
      Mr. BEXTSEN'I r think the- Senator:
      Mr. UUSKIE. Mr. President; the pur-              the Armed Eorces -In a national emer-                        SuVxscclion 4 of Action 3 specifilcs that
  .jjose of the war powers bliL S. -MO. as ex-         gency. Section 3 of the bill defines Uie                 no treaty, existing or future, may be con-
   plklned fiy the report of the- Borelsn              emergency conditions in which..-in the                   strued as authorising use of the Arnicd.
   Relations Coairr.lttce. is not 10 alter the         absence of a declaration-of-xnir "by Con-                Forces xvltliout lmple:ueii\inE: leslslatibru
   Constitution, as- executive branch offi-            Kress. tiie Armed Forces of the United                   Ttie treaty making sx>wer.Nhas beeji held
    cials profess to believe.- but to restore and      Saites may be introduce*, iii hostilities,               not to extend "so far as to authorize
   fulfill the Intent of the Constitution in           or in situations where imminent involve-                 what Use Constitution forbids."* Tim
 'matlers-orwar and-peace, The- essential              ment in hoiUlitles Is indicated by cir-                  limitation Is properly construed as pre-
   purpose cf the blllis to define— more cx-           euiustar.ccs. The conditions under which                 venting the President and" Uie Senate
   aitly to reaffirte-r-the constiiutu -al au-         the President may make such emergency                    from exercislnc by treaty a power vested
   thority of ^Cor-'srssi to tSerlde -icuether         use ot Uie Armed Forces are define1* »uh                  elsewhere by Uie Consl'taUon. The Pres-
   and^-hen our.eouniry wUl go to war. In              a view to reconciling; modern conditions                  ident .and the Senate could not. for In-
   no -sense is this legislation intended to           of warfare and politics with Uie Intent                  stance. use the treaty power to abridge
   encroach upon or to detract from Uie au-            of the framers of Uie Constitution. These                 the Bill of Rights; nor can a treaty be
   thority. of -"Uit: President as-Commander           tmcrgcricy conditions are quite simple.                  used to abridge the war-declaring i>ower.
   in Chief. liieludtnsUijfautlsoriiy to repel         They are:                                                which Is vested not in Uie Senate alone.
   attacks, upori the United States or -Its              JFlrst-, to repel, retaliate acalnst. or               but in" botii' Houses of ^Congress-. The
   Arrncd Forces.                                      forestall an, iiuied attack upon the                      f ramcrs o£ Uic Constitution considered
      It Is sometimes contended :ihat dec-             united States. JliCterritorfi? and posses-r              and rejecled'che possibility of vcstinc-in
 larations of war are obsolete in interns.-            slohs: ... •                                              Hit -Senate alone -the power to -declare
   tiona: .practice, .and that 'because they              Scccad,-to repel or.^oresiali an armed                war. That power was deliberately vested
 ;are. the power of Congress to "declara"             .attack s£alnst Uie Arri;ed Forces of the                  In the Congress as" a rhole: a decision
  .'war 'is -also' obsolete: This . argument Is        JJ:ii{cdStatcs:-.asid
                                                         ;
                                                                                                                 to initiate .war mustbeinadc by boUi the
  apurtbus~ The.frahicrs of our ConsUlu-                  Hxiiti. .to. project _Amcrican citizens               Senate and the. House ot Reprcsentatiyes
   ttori- did not bonfcr upbii "CoTicress. -a,         «id hatlonajs wiille cvacuatthc. tncm as                 and cannot. Uisreloit;. be madirby'trcaty.
 -.power-to use those magical., words •"rtc-           rapldly-ais-ixassible frpsi-any country In                None of our existing 'treaties iii asiy case
  -clare trar"* and no others: tnc power. Uiey         which -their -lives- arc endangered:                      require automatic military action. All
" cShferrccT'iupon ^Congress was to- decide               It -is important "io- specify these con-              specif y that, in- the event of an armed
   •JrtrtUier-er not. and under whjsi circum-          ditions In-advaiice.Mf the" President is                 atlack. each signatorj' will act In ac-
  stances; Uic United States would make               .given a Beheral. 'authority to iise the                  cordance wiUi its constitutional proc-
  war upon "aiioiher sovcrel$n nation. A               Anned Forces ;or a period of time in                     esses—whlcii means. In the case cf Uie
  •Seadlnsr student of the v-tir power hits            Any condition he ^consycrs to be. an                      United Statos. that the matter must be
  ••written: '                                         cmergcncy~5us Is done :k:MVe Hause bill—                  Tdfcrred to Consrcss.
      It iKw                                           Uie ,»cpb|a'5on'icsses-jnos't--bf Its .tceih".               Section 4 of the war powers . hi speci-
            *af* that, the FoundMj;-l -Fathers                                                                  fies that any emergency use of U e Anned
                   . RAtSi«rlt issi tfce t»:!l.:rc<!-                                                           Forces shall be reported promptly In
 buvwittl rcall*.; 1.1 dccidUiJ _;l-Gt asuv.iicr                                                                 writing by Uiii-PrcbldfitttJo the Speaker
 country la oy: c~f?.i} xVa t_VaV a-sc                                   > specific .stA»..apry aur             of the Hbit»4 of Repriseh.taUvcs and the
 rvrm-.il- aar— ahijtud be levied 'tipoa I:             _ --„.-..»." but auUi3£il; :to iise tlia                President of ;thc Cer.s.ta, together with a
        1» no: >»i.ica:ij-rti9'.6c«l or clirVjia
 power 1» no: >»                                      Arracd-.J'prces only -• !>un.u.int to specific            full accpiint of the" circumstance* and
               '                                                                                               .autliority- under \vlUcli action was beins
                                                      statutory autli6h?w>ja';'' but. authority
                                                       .to usc-the Arnie^-i-iirccs Is.uot to be In-              Lakca and Its proj-ictcd scope. Tlie Pres-
                                                        ferred fr^m.^:,.{irovisio.Lot-J.i3:. tncludr           .UciV. would be fu.thcr required to mAc
                                                       ing apivoDiniationi. unlt^i iiicli auUionty              iic-.iodic rcixjits on .inj niillUrj action
                                                       is csnitcU!; prond.cd. -It ha& been.                     naUidc of the United States, and In no
        y.i .: the Anicrtcaii CarJilltutlon           .ai^i^-^ihd.ai IpsAtonc louci court de-                   event Ic-xi often th.iix.cvcrj G morjtli-'..
 ^vcrc^h6Jtilor-hc.>Jt3nt nor \f>sac? in t^elr         cision has mice!'—tliat .tpprcprfaUoiiA                      Along ulth section 3. >nc hcaci and
 .confcrhil of .t£ie wrir jjmror "upon Csh--           /or milltirj opcroiivini constitute Implied              core of the bill ii section 5. ^lucli pro-
 cress.. The rtaso:rtiu: of tiie Fp!.ij\«ii:i:r       .Aliproval of rui act of war In ivl.icK Uic               vides- th.it tha-'.iue oi'tho Arjubd Forces
           .                                           Pre.ldc»;l may be cns&>»x2 nrid tlicrc-                  under any of l-.c emergency condition*
 ilisniaycti-by tlit? .nr                  of.- the    fore. scr.-i'.'is-aiitlsci'rUt.itlbn fo». .It»>con-      sr-cllcd uiit 'a section 3 shall not be sus-
 I3rit|sh. Crown to               tj--c Americati              ~         -        '"
                                                                                                                tained .foi a-pcnuci bej'Oiid .10 daj-s-un-
                           "! 'f^rs.-thry vested
                                      .                                                                               Consrcss adopls Icgiilation ijjccill-
 ihe nutKority to fnlti.in'.a'nr fn the TXKU-
                                '                      fur'Ihp pep.iVlnjait L r                                         autiiorizip.g the continued us? of
 laniiir. transferrir'jjU'.rit poscar, jji-jaffcr-    Js iio ninre art.ayllio.j.J3.Moi'. for a-sprcir.e         the Armsd;Porc'js.
 soirput it. '•'froSi those whoVorc &> spcijd          vhsr than >ls. -tlw npproprtatlon-to ;•«'
  to tho^^- wjio-jirij to par"*-fh •lestihioni*                                                                     Sccttoit G r.o-.nptcmc'its the restriction
                                                      ll.v Prcslrferti*.'; sr>'(£ry, 2n the u-nr«t» of a        spelled out u> icrttou 5 by specifying tlmt
 Ibe'fqrp.Uic-^arcieii rtelu-Uciwr'Commiiuiy           \i6tc\yortl o'.tirllclc Rub!!shpd'«n4hc June             Cjjn-n-ess ir.ay tiii-iiiiiKitc a .m:litao* op»
 Jft-Wpport of S. -l-tO; .Prof RnoulrBerccr             lOGJf p^.'t!oR-6rilie Harsiird r/L:,v Revlev;:          craMon |it>or ti> the- ejid of the 30-day
 of uVs-ltfln".nl-ps.w::Sclj6oVstatc:V*
                            lir. 1C                                                         «Uo.i!tt '          period -liy act or joint resolution. Serious
                p. i»iis vcXf(\. fcy tile Con-        die '-•£ iw-puwcr qC-^p;>reiprlatioix t>o-'uiiter.        t-oiisLJtutionst qiiestior.s tire presentfd'by
           m CuncrcM. not t4ic Prc8                   fuj"voii5cni'"tc-tte-juiuon. Even wjioyo tlicro           atinnptinT w provide -for such tennina-
                                                      b, -iio la\l iK-ep.npjiL If ihe power »<vor appro-        tior, hy a simple concurrent
    SaM T?raTiissor fjprs<if wlili                    prmtloni tint! 'jccct-^lioUQIit. a a:i'J<ciant, 3.1(0-    .ii is j)rovidc<l In Ihc-'iruitAC bill.
           »c no, yi'sr litll mcrclj?
       uio nrlctnal design. It rnunoi J>c 'in-               .                                  tSe-               ' ILitvnnl r.ix Rfvlrvf. Jur.c IDiiB Rupr><-
                                                   forc 'tiie Committee </ji -i-'nrctyn                        tluo.il. in J)<M,nifnt» Kf.laiinij'la the War
                                                   ITS. ^tM>?,tc. 03nt tV'Mgrc". l^C Sewlon.                   Putifr of iJ'ingmi, the rrrxiitmt's Authority
     ',-\rcrlo J. fuj v . Tftr. Way We. Go To War t.\V»al»lin^on. U^. JJuvU Pnn'iiy; OlHi-c.                   iu Com-niimicr.in'K/ii?/ crtit thr War in /r.-
  (Boston. Uo'.ighton Ml.iliu. C>?rnp.injr. I3CO|, 11)73*. p. 2t.                                              dochwet. JUt Coti.snua, 2(1 3csi|.):i. Ojiujulcil
  p. J3S- „ !                                        •Orfnnrfo v. Cntrrf, 317 P. Supp. 1013 lEfl               l>y So:'mtj> Foreign Rrt.itlons Conimlltee
     ' The POJITU <il Thomai'Jaffcnun, 13, tnl- K.Y. 1070), nffd: •»«!'. 3d JJ30 (^IC.f.lBTf).                  i \Va»..iri(jUiu C<iv>. Prmtifif; Orl.-u. I370i.
  wr,if"(.J\t\lM\ P. noytl.siI^Vrtiicnlon: I       cert. rfrn. ji;i.>-flOirt Qr/timfa anrt Caplan v.           p. illt.
 •jijh -Ur.trcralt/ rrtM^JftlVi) vol. 10, p.                         \Vcclc aiflS ti071).                                      v. Rtpji, 133 U3. 258. SOT ttMOt.
July           237,?                        CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—                                                                         smtr
        &sn 7 spell* out mandatory pro-                                                                21 Is U-v pn ^c. Uvu ol tl.« Aas«ricM. prr-
       xwri-tor expeditious su&oa.vtt&n Uw xrar 'i                                                  jw&uei. ___ fou Cv«X feccd int s^.«x a\«hce-
                                                                                                    Uj than tlas. — that u suSS<:*e.t, coa.,i:«Vi
 committees -antf oa the £oor of both
 Houses oi^Conaress rvith r«pect,to any
 legislaUon awlteriilus tUfc .oNilicucd u«                                                                                              ve fccca-xrith-
.T-J Use~,Arcicc Forces, fcevoai Uir 30-Oay                The c<Ka:v.iU« report sumnaaria^ the                        the
                                                        s^iadj srt&tK o: PnsMeMia! ;>oa«r ov«:                juv till, Uic .
 ers.. Kw jviirsrcxse si this. section Is lo iht x«^r«, a. ik«^cai which ha? rkea                                     to rel.cal to iic* awl
 ciur.iuatc -Use -iiss, ei-o:;:»l3iy lacucs lo greatly accelerate^ o\«s K;c bul "three                              rcujtd iw she Vicf«*iC <>! :t*
 prevent or C'ri»j-\vc\«ffKS!^                          decades. It miSoes hcnc to pohit out tl«it.                ^.i a or ux (Xunuod^u Iti ex-
 •with respect to U.-c .u»c -oi. Uie                    is Kiattcii now stand, the Congress exer-                   U. «i*te t.ia *caa<l.x ^; *i»c-
 rtorces.                                               cises no wore Uian a ciarsinal ir.:luehco MfcC& as leg.il arsurncata —ihcj. arc rriore.
     Section S. contains a separabihty on dccSslons as to whether ;!«: Nation in-ihe nalure x»t tvaslons ai-.d atlb:al-
                                                        xdll be cosamitted to
 clacxi. spociruiR UiKt, li any iuavy.»« S. i-JQ L. to draw the war. 'ilie purpose of AssistantSirller this year, for Iust3r.ee.
                                                                                                    isations.
                                                                                              from
 ol trte Dill should be iicKriiivaiKl Ihi re? U« wsriyherr'to: UicCongress back mass ujiAblc.to Secret^ij Will'wm bas»sj:'^ Uic            S^liyan.-fctsi
                                                                               «nler of
 maindcr trbuld not tc affected thtrcsy. •xuucsal area oi drcisiciinaRiiigthis tWs         To
                                                                                                                  esplrJr. «2:c legal
     SccUon 9 spccif.es that Uie b5ii would end It Is neKhsr rafficiciiijwr necepsaty CanSwdiia aoaibins. but he vol w'it«idi
                                                                                                          information. Uiat
 take effect oR'the date of Us enactment for Consrcss to con\e to'uvj SScecutlve 'U:e State Departaicnt "lico latrytr:?"" .aa.                        -fca
 but rould not apply to hosUUMes 2i as ri supplL-ui;. pleading for ar.d rclyii^: ihe                                               »•««; workiiis
                                                                                                    a"a«S constitutional justification. _Ap-
                                                                                                                                   jusijlic
 which the Anacd Forces of the Smiled upon prjMJlscs if ;cansultation. Expert-                                                                'twO'-Jav:-
 States were ihvolrfd prior -Uicreto TI-- eircc lias sliown that such .rnpufc was- yers~ wwildcocStsomctiuug.u^J'Tr^Stil:
 effect of tills prortsscn would be to s Trances are reatey s'tves ijuiiarcly im- Jivan added Uiat ~icr ho>' 3 -»ouid just .-_}
 exempt current military operations in yiementcd. U-Coasross Is to-ricaver its SF :t!\e juslificauon. Is Uie-KcfcsVccV^ _.-
 Indochina from Uie application of the war po.'Kcr. it wnTnavcTto ad Che job for President-Nixon.**"                                   .           -•- . ":
 war powers bill.                                       Itself— lhatis a certainly.
              a. TUT rcsrosn or 5. ««o                                                                 Attorney Gtncrat antf -forrncr Secre-
                                                           The view of the Exccutlx-c—executives. tary of Defense RicHardson.
     The war powers bill Is property regard- I might add. cf both parties —has tyeeu equally at a Ids* to justify llie'hss -been                bambini
 ed as legislation which siiduld not have amply demonstratc-d In the course of.'thc of Cambodia. When Prwidcttv, rciron                                    ;
 been necessary. and would not have been xvar in Indochina, which was preeminent- withdrew the Americah ground forces                                      ;
 necessary if Congress and the President ly a Presidential war. For a time. Uie
 had remained within their respective controversial and unlamentcd Gulf of from Cambodia, hcsaid. oh June 3.1970:
                                                                                                      The only remaining American activity In
 constitutional spheres.                                Tonkin resolution provided at leak a Cambodia after July 1 will be air mlxslonx
     The PRESIDING OFFICER. Tlie Sen- facade of constitutionality for the war. to interdict the movement ot enemy troopx
 ator's time has expired.                               President Johnson himself, however. and material where I And UiaVthU Ix r.cccs-
     Mr. MVSKIE. Mr. President. I yield while maintaining that Uie Tonkin res- iarj to prutcvt the l.xti ana Mcur<l; ol ou:
 myself another 5 minutes.                              olution WAS a valid authorization, also ;orcet In South. Vietnam.
     The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen- maintained U'.at lie needed no authoriza-                          Rcnundcd ot Uns statement. Mr.
 ator from Maine Is recognised for an- tion. He expressed this view In a press Richardson could come up wiUt noUnnc
 other 5 minutes.                                       conference on August IS. I'JCT. statins better than-.Uie asserUqn that Uie Presi-
     Mr. MUSSIE. Mr. President, three dec- Uiat the purpose of the Tonkin resolu- dent now retained the authority to bomb
 ades of tyt.il u.ir. limited war and cold tion hud been to allow Congress to "be Cambodia m order to clear up a "hnKcr-
 :sar have propelled the American politi- Uiere on the takcoll" a* axil as on Uie inc corner of Uic war. On a subsequent
 cal jjstem r.i: .ilong the road to executive "landing.- although Mr. Johnson occasion Mr. liich^rdson told newsmen:
 domination in the conduct of foreign strewed, "we did not think Uie resolution                        What vc are.doing in Cambodia U eon-
 relations. So for has this pioccss of ex- was necessary to do what we did and Miiuing to juppori our ailj-Uierc at?ir.3'- tRc
 panding Presidential power In foreign                  what we're dolnc."                                         eKorti to durupt comiiiunlca-
 jiolitj ad.anccd that, in the Foreign Rc-                 When Uic Tonkin resolution tvas fl-              to UV.AIC P:>r.v»n JfcrUj. \Ve ore cn-
                                                                                                               a;i »'-t»Kci on!) a
 JAUons Committees publicly recorded h.Vils repealed on J.iiiu.irs 1-. 1971. Uie Cambodian ^>rerntr.enc.at the requc-i at. Uic
 view:                                                  repealer went virtually unnoticed —
     It 1 1 f.o longe: Accurate to characterise, our clearly indicating Its insicnlflcanec. The         Tlic reference to Cambodia as an
 guierun-.eiit, in nailer* oj furc>t>n. relation*. Nixon administration did not even boUicr           all> is interesting indeed, since we
 aJi one of ceparated power* chtckeUir.il bnl- to oppose Uie repeal of Uic Tonkin res- •l;avc no trc;ity ai alliance vt;tii Cambc-
  nhced agalur tarts other '                            olution. quite obviously because trie Pres- Uui and Uic Cambodian Goi'cniment h^s
     lu serves no useful purpose lo rccnnu- ident thought himself at liberty to pursue (cpcatcdl> and ^niphcUtollyrcfusctttiie
  natc over how and v\h> the power to im- the war wlshout it The Nixon ndmln's- protection of Uic SEjVTO treaty. No Icui
  ti.itc war v.TMcd outof thi. hands of Con- tratlon explained Uiar it "has not n'Hod puzUinc. ts Mr. Richardson s implication
 gress and into thch.ind^o! the President. on or refermJ to »he Tonkin Gulf resolu- that the request lor air stn'w-j on UK*
 To some degree it was tije result of Presi- tion of August 10 13«. as support for its                      of Ui.s sQ-cal'cil "ally" somehow
  dential usurpation, to some degree it was Vietnam polio' '*                                                tiie President auUiority to take
  the r&»tilt of coi>cic;^-H'i:al l.tSMtudtf (ind          Tlirouchoiit Uic rotirw of Uic Vietnam               a«,U-jii xxiUiput auUionration by
  unQucrttuMtig »uijpo:t of Protdciitial war. ind C5p<x-ialJy aftor Uio nr^al of Cc:-Eresi. TJiuicr this aitcrestins mtcr-
 Icadi.n.hi|i. But mo>t of (ill. it has been the Tonkin rr-oluUon, Uic Nixon ad- prctAtiou ol Uic l.xn. it xvuuld seem tliat
  the rcsu.t of %.ii lUclf. mill of these p:iit minbtrnuon inAintalned Uiat its .author- the Cambodian rcsmie lias supplanted
  thtcc dccuuv* uf cui^t^ut cr^u> and' lis- ity to wupe xvar in Indorhlna xv:« based COIIRJX.VI a., the lauful \\aniiakins au-
  ruptton. Alcxio vie Tocqucisllc. that most upon Its obllsaUon to "protect" the thurit} for the United States.
  Aotutii of ob.-civ«:r^ of American democ- American troops that hnd been placed                       Spfnking on 'Meet Uie Press" on April
  racy, wrote:                                           Uiere by the Johnson ndhilntitratlon. 1. Secretary Rlchartkon wu rupiin
     War rto«»i not ala.iv> glre Ucrrj:«:raljc '..:«:l- Tlie general Uiesls of the Nixon admlnls- tu-ked to explain the constitutional ba:-is
  tite*:*\er (... nu;;tar> ^o-.crtimriit. but it must trutloti was reiterated by Seeretnry of for Uic VoniOinc of Cambodia. lie replied
  invariant? ixnrt itnmcxfurAlit; lurreare Uic Dofoise Laird when he was asked on that he did not think it xvoutd be dim-
  poisrs ef nvll g«vcmm<>nt; It must nlmntt Apr:! 18. 197;!. to explain on what au- cult to supply -,uoh an c-xpanatt^n—"un-
  nu'«>ni.vt-xillv •:on>^n'Titr the direction of thority the President hnd .•cncwcd Uic
  nil tr.fn ar.it the ir-int>v<l of all tltm^t in Uie heavy bombing of North Vit-tnum. The
            j the r-Ti-niKonr If that (!• <~. nnt Secretary answered:                                  ""A Dill to Amend 'Jic
                                                                                                     Aft nf I'JCl.** llr>inn<it Rrltirr. tlif Cii
 men »»n*,lv In tlui         on lay their                                                            on Farfii;* Rrlatu-ns. April in. If'72. p. 341.
                                                       • Alex! itcT-XfiuevilSe.                        " \Vattuny,ttn Pojf. Mnreli 23. r.»73.
                                                     m i New Yi.ric; Harrwr ami Row. Publisher*.        ' KemnrSci «> nexrmen on M.»n-h SB.
   •""ationnl O'lnml'n-.er.f." Report, of C-im- i:.«Wi.V..|.It.Ch Z2.p C23.                          1373. qii./eil I,-, Jn\iti VI. I1un»? in 'nidi-
 a Itteit nt\ Ft-rei),.. nrUixxn to »• • -.nipauj S.   ' E.tc'niivc OmtiiiciiL* u» Uie jif-pv-ol re-           **.-* unt AH'imrr-t to
 Ke> Ui. 9|-« C n.tTT. . l»i te-jMuii i\V.w.h.|,g- peal it the Oulf of T"iikl.i MCVMW,:- ona                   if-e Van* Jm r <. M.xfi ft 2'j.
 t«>n: US.Oovr. PrlnMnpOBI-x. I9i:3|.p.7.            i)U>T rcsoluttntu, Mnrcll >3. 1070,             pp. I. ».
                                                                  249
                                                                                                                                           July            10?$

                                                                                                                                                                          \
S13S7S                                     COXGKESSXQ&At
lc» you are looking for sxse !iae to the            the
CosstuuUon shit deals. spccJi^Clj «Ux               <Mr.     . .                   .                         .                           .   1    <     « v    .«
 this kind oJ situation," That. 61 course.          Quite chiraclerisiSc ol th? coinmiuce.                       ilseir ttrs. «kl -Sift I«wi »<• thtir ciiHUrci ire
                                                                                                                         TJ»; beliews •aie«'liaTe Uw risM to
 Is exactly xcla; tre are. looking' ior and         hovever. thai this should^ave. been .the
what «c ousht to be ItWttns-for— "sorisc            attitude of ii«r Gmlrmia,
llrit la Hit CoastiUitlon that dtab spe-              53. Mr. President, a-piln t'TrtJ   .ex-                    tlxcr^xt:.
          "sTith ttiJi kirta iZ-sUuJJ&ri^ The              my apprec&tJoii to its Sena:;*                                                             cr.d tl :!rcj
        .lnabUSiy of t&evxcoi-t* to'toinc                 ilj^< »\«v ta.c7acrau:late htrh oh
          -anjf *enib!a:ice oi autiionty for                                               ceatx The; beUeix-Uir; h^n-&« ri^K'. U>
                                                           Riuse-i io.cku?jtV>icJi a historic
 its conUnued.s-.ti!itar3' acUvlties lhjndo~                                               x-ii us to wjra ta ti:«,O>sjtltw»;<>ci ia thpi*
.chinas «0y Jtbc Jittst o£ a lone 3*rw? 6X            Atr-   MUSKIE. Mr. P^sdertt. ,?aay I            >r fori cieir cijSarsatJitt lfr*«-cV6
 a-wuaidriscd actions v*~toxvoInVuj»
            tor •^•-»wers li'i&Jasi                                                          tr. X ira.
        oRsrjea ac!?> under 'IS?* nicxc^                                                    unent to
                      " to         sujre,           i^T"-' *uus icsysaswru KIIJCU ii H product.
                                                   "6S tiift <Jy>i!i\t*M:s5avl:Stnator frv*n!'»""                 o     e
                                                                                                                   I Scd thaT; t cana<»; read:my -oopj of the
                                                                                                                 ConiUtuUoa Vlthout ^toc broajhi u? short
              attunue.                                                                                           by Ui>alinpS« phrases wfcteix aasxccr ;
 -Jir jlie: end, advocates of                                       Mr."SfxtnosV and.the Sen-r
         ir \jjfc ij      u                        atofifroai "iltssJUrt iM!r. SACLrrbrci have                       Ttie Cv»as;rcu h»» the ?->»cr »o "pay the
                                                   ax-rtcd :uiru;3Ud tafccilvei; "to produce                           ti «nd .|>ro.:d« 'or Uic oohuaoa delesse
                               rhan arid susii     tblsbliL                                                       acdKcacrxl welfare of. the"United Statics ...
                                     5Cd to v«it      Tc» nie. Jt Js a r*raarltahlej>i5cit of ivcis-              to declare var . . . to ralic asd i«;>por;
                                                   latlprt vchTcu so cireJully defines, "sithouv                 .arm'.cj . . . io prorjdt anil maintain a
the-authenty                  ».-ar.~&o Sccre-                                                                   •Ji3T . . . to tr_\t* rulei/'or- Use poterhaitat
                                                   adding to or charttfinc tlte coustituvional                    and rc^vlatloa ot tiie laatt-and o&ral f orcet
                                                   A)|tl;ortty Ijicsrin? on the °winna£ic);                       ... to pruTtde for callin; torth the :n^:ua. .
 Scv too^ti-.* State iicnaiiment mcmoran-          poxvers It is a remarkable example of                          ... to provide '<*: orcaniang. arauajj, and
 duia.oI.AprH'SO commends the frarc«rs             legislative power, so I pay Uib tribute                       dix^ptiauxc the m^u * .and 'ur (ovcraiog
.of. Ihc Constltuilon for "leaviiis'consid-        again to the Senator from New York.                            such par*, o! Utem ai aiaj «.• «sp!or«J ia the
 erable flexibility for the future play of            N£r. JAVns. -I Uiank my coHeajue                            icrrtcc of the United States . .- ,~ The only
                                                   very mucli.                                                    limitation put upon vhtuc Coa^rc^tonal
 political forces." Pur my own part. I share                                                                      poxcn by the ConxtituUoa Is the require-
.the'view spelled out in the committee re-            Mr. President; C. aik unanimous con-                        ment that :io appropriation ihoutd be for
 port Uiat—                                        sent Um I may suseest the absence of a                         longer than l«t> yean if the money U to
   The Constitution !» aot. a- all tdprecac -a     quorum xri'.h Uie time to be equally                           be KxA'tof rauins and supporting anruc^.
allocating the war powers, on the contrary.        cliarsed acainst both sides.                                      It seems abundantly clear to cvs ihat the-
Uie ConiUtii'ton U quite ipcclflc—tu the              The PRESIDING OFFICER iMr.                                 fraasera of the CoaiUtuUon believed that
frucfrj latrsiikt 1: » be—!n giving Coacrcn        SCOTT of Virginia.. Without objection. 11                      Cua^rcu. .-Uioji'l be vTjpoanbte for tl>e axlm
the authority ta decide oa colng to var tir.d      is so ordered.                                                decision bctvecn «rar and peace, snd that
In giving the Pruldcnt the authority, u               Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I surest                         crcn Congrcu should have to reconsider ex-
Cosun'ander tn Chief, to r«pond to an enter-        Uie absence, of a quorum.                                     penditures for tear ercry two years. They
gcncy and to command the armed forces once                                                                        were quite properly fearful of tbe tempta-
n oonntcx U lindertray. tn brief, the Coniu-          The PRFSIDING OFFICER. Tlie clerk                           tion uncontrolled military poorer mishto-Ter.
tutKvi gave Congreu the authority to Ukc           •xcill call the roll.                                          They wished to make war dUScult and peace
the Nation-Into war. whfcther bv formal dec-          Tltc second assistant legislative cleric                    cos-.
laration of vnr or by other teglilatlrc nseasts.   proceeded to call Uic roll.                                       Clauie-rt'x" famous statentcnt that "W^r is
and Uie President Use aliiUinrUy 1C conduct           Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President, I ask                            Ut« continuation ot politic* by other mcArti."
lt«>                                               unanimous consent that the order for Uic                       would hare been un^crs^nrts''^ to them.
    in orttsr to rcslarc this classical con-       Quorum call be.rescinded.                                      but Uiey «cou!d-Jij\Te prefcrrr ". JC- 'l>l:it. the
                                                      The PRE3IDRJG OFFICER. V.'tUiout                            statement hutcr-|u. Itarref tVhcci^c-niade in
 sttlutlor.ol ilcnnu.on of autliortty. i co:u-                                                                    IOCS: -Politics is t V: t^riUnuat»u an.t niMt-
.mcnd to Uie Senate-Ute adoption of Uic            objccU^n. It L, so ordered.                                    m.itu>n of wnrlllc <!J.nai" l>y other. no
 \YarPoi\ers-Actof 1373.                              Mr. itUSlOE. Mr. President. Uic du-                                   Tnat war ts'e j»al of tiling
    5*r. JAVTTS. ^r.. President. I yleM             tlnsukhcsj Senator from Kcw Mcxfco
 myself l minute.                                   •Mr. MC-NTOYA*. preoccupied .eteewherr.                                            .ittca i^i-l
    t Atioutd like to c-Nprcii rjy grc.i            in the C.\j»ttol tlie*c-d.iy5. haa j^ked isJC                In their e*f.t- rtit u tn tin*' n. f..if to
                                                    to Insert, in tiie Rtxo».a a slalc'ttieht by                 .tcl.at one o-" '•.V *<i called "Oxc-uogi of     ,
 clniior. to the Senator from Maine J.                                                                           -J-.ey. made fi-.t'j ^.yjon c'eiYhi u* tlirougti
 MusKint, ribtiHily for his cloniience. but         him on Otis le^Islation.and I asl; i.nanl-
 also for his erutllatc statement. He has          •nious consen*. for tliac piinxwe.
                                                       The PRESIDING OFFICER Without                                 •JTit report or •Ar-rVmtsn
-not only none to the extent ot jcUln«                                                                           mtttea »->i» S. -HO 4s a" e-vnptniiium <>f .
 i'orth references, but has also chpl.ilned        objection. It Is so ordered.                                  that U»e authors ot sh*' Constlluttor.
 tlicm Jr. cnrcfwl detnll. so thai they max                 SmrrMrsv pr SKNAIV/J MOKI .t*                        atdemi Ui!» deculon nno"X the war
 he careisUJy studied.                                 Tjo'.-xy Uic Sciiiie or Uic United StAto-^                to tie a. >»»•>*. b.-uic element, 'nf Uielr s^-n
     Also, Isho'.:ld.llke to express my apprc-      consiilrrlni; S. -HO. U»e \VatJPowretx'Ai:*, ft bill         •lesion, for rrprci<i\t,-xtlrc /tcn<j-'ACy. Hnm,.-
                                                    whltT. r am ptcaied to cuipouvir.                            ii-n. JvrreiW.lT; Uadlxon. Adi-n-. Monroe.
 ciatlr.t^to the Senator from Arkniuas                 TtiU U tv niMt piv.iiuouj tiuse. for iu to                *s!4v>n. and *-'hn«i of nUie'rs PI.MI.% t* clear
  • Mr F"'rvc:rr>. chairman of t!»e Corn-           Cotiitdcr ttil* IcguUtton. \Vc are. o» A. ^.lUton.           UiV. Uiey lurlicr- a U\o daager ot war wiMiId
 mJttcr on-Fbrelan Rclatiorji. for n.nmlns          )t\ AU oailji^iiutLA ptMt'^nn At, Uiu ntoritcx&v ui          bo t*rvTKued it u<u puvtcr -^crc jMS'-oJL i»
 Senator MCSICIR to handle U»e bill '^n the         rr^ard l<> J>c projicc tuj.lioruj fur bcgiuiini;                       It^idi And i. -v .n UjOac of
 Jloor of Uic Senate. HU prentice atid'du-          anitcnd.ni; !<.>»..;.Ue». \V« ate >u Uie ,->ii»-                        li-rf tlicj reto^..it«it ine i.orvi .oj
  Ur.ctlon a-s a Senator and a- major leader        uf A Oji^vlltitm r»Al dcljxl-) i^iOul the R»:«
 in our country ctvc added wciijlit nnd             maitln.? rej>poriiir.>'lUe> nnd n,.tlti of L»^                                      li -m U»e p>j<tcr 10 do Iliftv
                                                    brancliei of government—Uie C^jccutlve A.I.;                 under ti.«. oirutllution. Uicj gave nli oUicr
  IniRort to the discussion of the bill which       »fto CtKiijres*. We Iiave recently fn-.tMt ,\ Con-           powers to int'-Urn hoitl'lttfj. .4- control Uie- .
 we arc considering This is essentially             iUtutlon.il cTw>u ^Jucxl on ci.\ci4j tlioi dis-              .-unitary to 't*. OHigre:.*. Die^ircsiton of war
 n- matter of importance to me. M Senator           agreeuien*.                                                  ort4-c tttfiarftt Uie; gave W Uie rrr-iilent nt
 FuLnnrcHT If hinuclf for thfe bill but has            It u Kie (rni.jv.-u ot ui.ii. ami)i,Tiii<-; Tii.-ai                        In <-...^.". but oa H.iniiiL»>i. m^d>
 nn amendment to Uic bill of a major na-            U Uio |...rp'jw ot Uiu ic,;ui.iMi'ii. ourvly                        In the Fence... ..v I'.ipcu, Ui-i «»* <;iu»
  ture. I am sure Scr.r.toc Ftn.anicirr real-       Uicrc u nu man in U.u d'Mj «!i(> Ci*-n nit'.                 [to vt/ ft, "notli.Oii m^ti: Jmn Uic command
  izes tetter th.in anyunc cUc that he was          auli l*i f-iiiuvv Umt ciouil 'if douUV, ut Oc-               and dtrrcUon of tiie tnltiur: And J.,-«.ni
                                                    slrr la make Uc.ir -rnitt '*, the pe<jptc at                 forces. i~.flri*Oenerixl nnJ -Jidmlral . . ." Vli*y
 not helpmc iutruclf in setting amend-              UiU luiUnh '>*><t tlie narlil cwrrly how u-:r                Utus put Ui« r.iost cerloiu potrcr — Uie power
  ments throufili by makirur so capable a           goremmno wtit retpon.t to iittaric or'Uiren:                 ,a <le>:!.T-u nint to fund ft ft.ir — in Uie hand*
  Senator and so experienced a debater as           of (\;."-a^k. nnu ^in in OJT ^nretpfnrnt. will               o'a»iaony mo*> a*po«lblc.arin mwideit oUier
                                                    pa: Amertron ini-.\~ n. o cltlie; i\ d^-t                    tr*>>>ns|lillllli<> In rrhat. itemed to Uiem tlio
   " "W*r l*owen regulation.** p. in nml |3.        or unJecUred wnr.                                                  sr\j to pr.t.de for Uie tlefutue of t*i«
                                             CONGRESSIONAL RECORD— SE2*.
        irh'Jc iSAlatainiry Area elrUlaa                    IK a-lli coQX
                                                   Vei for r              «at\ir!«s tiie
                       leu                      ot our O>aKltuU»a
                       heir attiia th           to avc-M Jusi liait
                       roe citiwas to coa'troi
 i'ielf oxa lire* c*p<KU&r :la respect to tear.                                of
 X? •aril aa.iaporutji              '           ol,=iea.
                                                rfiay or u» feert lr» ti* Stsate •artiea tte fWUi
                                                of the >NK>:« Sa their pjreraretar *»a ssa-
                                                q^^iUsedTTier bsUendL 2{r. rreiMcai. O
           either     aUtocr-tk or a            Ahtlr to^raaaeai p-SslertMl their
                                                             l prorided ie«rS;5 far XSc '
                                                     irt;i»la she "•aasioa. Iroen t& uairpatija vi
       to pro:e*VajalaK -'tie iJjus£tc»" which            «r bj- aar-.9ae-.tBxa «•        of *aea.
                                                                                           '
 Iixd beca. *j?i'rpiT<at is. the rule *£ Kinft.                    '
 S;Vc Kies»— **« Pn»ld«aa-T<S<« not always             u^i erer                                the
 Jecelre c.^ »dr!cc rrom tl»!r oira *\far.           American. ptop> dUxrutted
            noi alv&TS-RCehrit-jCr-'the infogtivi-
       irtskil w^j-aSjouId-tiVi.^! U alasou-          de'ntt
              toe ka alt jKurcrfu! ruler—trra            T«v :ve art *- Ahat djiy c«w. There arc
              nicr— lo be htxurKt tiia.t h< it        jo=^; atcs aaa vomea- unlay irho<»a3oi
                  ate *=4 coo-^Icie lar               rrmvaxberVhea people bclkTyiiS»Ct.h« coii-
 or <t!saf»eable-»e«x W« ah^                          xrol of (orrrnmeat'wa* ^ralir:t"iij« haadzrcT
 be surprised »t ihU, -It U the mo»t                  the people through trittr -ieprtjeataUw* la
 sxtf la autocratic rule: a: ?ctr*r                   Oaerisx. *
 and hoaett d«baM xarl&lcc. DU>rnr                       Th« JejUlxtloa x* cctu!deV-to&<r-«UX:SO
                                                      a-loa^ irar tonrd r»*vxiac laat faiUu Mr-
         - "«rror.~ -"a* th*t ultiaat* poorer         rresidtat. rt urouMr^einor* ux from th"e eai-
       aad «ec« oalr a rtaroloa ot-lta                b*rrass>t»at aad .aBblcuUy^of our-prejeat
                                                     -iliu«S<xi acd irouia return Us to the oJiliy-
   Our prefent pomlUoa U Ifie rc*u!t of era-         tut^n a=d 1U hUtoric coat7*2s. It «ou«l *cai-
 Xoa In tb!s eratorj ol Concreaioaal P0***            oaKrate clearly to th* p«>f > uf xkbriijitloa
 «a<! rupORiibUlc^ It U ROt-i new thwth-              astf7tVour°ee!chbon la 'other satkiai. whrr*
 thax thU cnawd a vacuiucijato vhich'Xsec-            tb« authority tor •rar.-jftitz In the Catted
                                                     •Ssxits. lt-TO=M cstabllin a cJear <!cUaea*Joa
    However, oa Maj- 31 or. »Jil» year the Ow-        oC var-povetx. M thafthe PreJirf»nl Wjuld
 ^r«iz made a 3nt ami tra;*ortaacx"                   b* free 10 rt*rtc3id to attack. -or- threat of
 & retarri to ConjtJuiu^nil. !av.                     <tr>'rV. aaii the-'ConcreiK vouid &e-rMcoasl-
 their amfn(t»cnt f.stlirtf o5 fur.il* for           •blc for « .coaUaucUpn o'C that h^UUty be-
 cocUuuailua cj lhc-«r ia rndocJilnx                  yond liiijty n»r«. n»cr tJie-1atcat!oai^>r the
 taade cltcr .tt> the people aM^ to tfc»              founding '.fAthen inxilie be pre»*rcri'at th«
 House i!iat they irould iniUt. oa aa.eai to          MUne :tate thtt ire pr&vfdetf for tlje contla-
 tixas irsrl Th» peopl* uncUc^ood thfr"awaa-          Stairia of* au^car world.
 lap. the Intent, oa'd thej- app!»uila\l the             TKe povti'i of-^both braaehec cC ^ovrra-
                                                     n^n'K via be. enhanced aa£ atrecgthcaed by
     lioxerer. because of a rres!ctrritUl retp ,thU slmpjc relnforcrrofnt atu::rrtnrvronitloa
 •and ta« failure toortrride »aiv*to. «e are of thr spirit aad-th'ft wbrd^of
  itlll !a tie wurkr-sltutiloaVhe^t aej-litr tlon.
  branch of c^vtrnmcnt U clcirtj- rtip<K\iit)lf       I iirjx Ih^-iupjwrt 3i my
  roc tor actions aUltbetnc taken.         '        thli Jicpvrtaat a!id necexury
- Tfte EmSdent. althoxgix reJeetlnR. tft* "i\r»t
  art!oa v>r Gir.prii. accepted a ccoiltromlw
 -tlUcli -pfte a tirne U?a!c on thtr.vir.-lfe Ui'ic
  Mtx^tsd \he t)Hncl;»li-of Cor.srrd4on.-ii coii-
  trol of -Uie »>r-»AVtnp p^cexx-

                                  and

       .^psvcr^ Mr. Prtsldes^, Uiav teu.r»rary
        promlie' dx= nos *i?li{7 nor end i>.o
              tt it!d not uusff. Ute people.
  se«s .M'lr pre»i;nt flu^xlUvn M a
 t>r the tntccurfr •i-lii'-A Uie last few
 of uncieelartt: uri'o: .unexplalaed wsr
 bnv.tghl.to yje'3. They MC that nelUicr Con-
 BTMS n«.-r Shs' l're<:d«nt hr« \wt renfllrmrd
 t!;e ConitltuUon tlirougli a .clerJf statement.
 of re»poa»lhllity and iiuyiijfjty. They know
 that undeclared mid yn«c--otmtitble conrtkt
 afur connict— lome ujxjh and some ceerei—
 haVe been the recorrl of the last ten yrai*.
     I Uilnk 1C N •lihitflcant that In Uilj tame
 •NTHxl'we, hare *ten a !o« cC.,con<lde:.c< by
 Uie Amerlc»e people In thclreorernment. lu
 r>>ke«nen. »«d IU repreM>ntaltres. We hare
 sei»n n cArrripondlni;. growing dbtnut ef our
            .    .
    No one can trytjr «ay today .whether we
 wx "at war** or"At peace."
    :dj lejUJat-x" jrAn point to ttm ConstUuMon
 ^k we Itinl IMJIC for our cufr'nt dllcmtr.*.
 V.v nare o't-vlree blunii« Uic eorumuUoiio;
  '4U.orttr a-irt aeeountAblltty. Without tluit
   -               Uie tatticc of repnsentaUra
   If trv rto-not »ct now to return; brthe nil*
I' r r*-'
              UK c'arirtfrreHnn^ tjtf
               ^ ' ^. _      ".
  TteWBnitftTIQ.6Jf.IUm. TOttiMt
«bjecltaLs)t)»"«o        '
   T*e bttt-vjac ctoltriikr
   A bin (8, 4*»)-i»




ttv thk aftc^MM Uu»nDC«SociriUi UK
VOL I hcp«;lh»l fctidmitti^ltiWfl! bi
                    '
tor M
tine?* dwr rn*«wton « tt» pointe
the Senators *rt nwktac about the
                    ttet
                                        in
km* ICM wocdlfui^ t h*re
      " - t e uk«x

   Mr. Sr^dint, In UJdnc^p U»« War ,
:Pbw«nrAct; t '
                    Invotm
-dittcttlt


               ;;CXiJflr»t
                            II ,r«fi*ctr .MX
fac«-.v*!iii:U>t.dtttrt YM^UM Concm* to
RMinH ,it» -powm lix-:-Ui« w*rmakin«-
procM.and'callrupon^Uvt Pr«ident to"
proviiU'tb* Confreu with that tnfonRa-
UOQ MOMMUT; .to-Diak*' obJecUv*~ ind
•ound deeUiooi Ituthe «V«nt of-U Jl. qtn-
frooUUotu aro\md-the tlob*. Hovtvtr.
vtth careful »tudy-of th« bm.:lt^b my
fMlinc that, u writun, not only U. tht
btll'x con*UtuUonalIty in doubt. tnrmMiy
artM, but it wt'uld TirtuaUy_abitJtaU bur
43 dtfeoM treaties around UM world.
Mvercly limit our rote In NATO and-
UMrtby render NATO 1U*U much wtaker
la the event of a *eriou* confrontation,
would poatibly-deprtve the PrwWent of'
th« authority he need* to carry-on a for-
ward defence, would preclude U.8. forces
from proUcUn«. VA. naUonali on. UM-
 S 13920                                CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                               July 1S> l$7j
        »ta$. and vould severely -limit our    •whal cbtuautance* require, not enlargeU    ». it was said, was not aelf-exccuUns.
           y- with owr.allies.                  Just to n»eet cowcUtuUooal formalism. I    Article 43. whkh provide* «prtsjJy lor
            *re eoiaUta historical prece-       am suegecUnc that there are perftcUy       the coenmiiscent of troops by members in
 dent In the *tlenpt;ot Congress to put         adequate^ constitutional.means for Con-    acconUhw with their .constitutional
 autatory licit? .on mcd codify the:Pml-       .ire» to exerciw* this power short of a     proceoes. bad-been implemented to the
 d«nf« power to depfcr Americaa forces,         formal declaration of war. As Vincent      extent ~«T Oo&cresx auUwrfiini: Uo\x*
 However. '«*ch caic !n the put was »           Davis of the ?*U*r»n School of »pJo-       acreemenU.- but »iac« W> atreetntnts had
  rasipvit V.th vaHabks. coattltuUoe*!          •*acy*t the University ot Kentucky »m-    •been entered intoJ^lt w»s lRoper»;:vt—
'auesUoR marks and "what IT*" that pa=-                        • - • -                     •o wtpt the arpanfnt. Without any
>^« otrapeciftc juWrtlnit t*c»»e >ir-                                                          M treaty auihorizatio^ .the I*rtji-
 tttaUr Hir*«lblf. ami riatutor* Jitnita-
 Uons of this.eavir? have never joClerial-
 latd. Th!s is what we fsct T*th the J»ViU
 proposal. Personallyr i .do not f*eJ-:}i*V                  .                             does *>ot eiter.4 io
 p*mge of this bUtrvouM be uv:the bt»t            riii far (:)       li*           5r*M5> :                 in jauiRbtrx<ran;(inc up
 interest o* the country. even". though -It                                                t     o      '     '     "
•talcht be helpful fc boUterinc the ejo «rf
 the Senate.                                        on tr«»tlM^ But; wtth-ttiytct ta <tt- both bJdes tf the l*w, '<—.     ——
    Th* experience of the Vietnam war has      ^>Tl^ fact**, the C*acrcMle(uI AulbocItf ta kioeal decaU raced- frost JaYi&rV ic
 whet*«d the appetites of most Senators.                                                   April, there "tras ro legal iwluiictv t<>
 af Kit incluctal for ncrt inf«£jn*tion
                                                         •«••» toon- xh •aciirot           »e PreiJdesif* authority:^. li#ht:ot'rte
 apttTwhfch-te Judge the-'prognaic of and                                                 •<UN. ^Charter ot -ihtiepewknt -irf --it.
 moons J<* VJS. troop Jnvo>no>entc}                    w«f-ai« pabc* 'ar
                                                      Maij atparat* ckcu                   K;rsrtl»eles» ji is dear th*t~Cons:ress
 Often. thote of UK on the Araxd Herrice*      Uta b KMom iro*. -XWR viwa                  acquiesced :& th* ?»>«ideirtr£ *c*i£ttr
 Committee find it f ruslraUnc^c diflcdt                                                         ince judicial pKccdcA** are vSt-
•lo aatess «ecurr.UJr the intect and pur-                                                         .conexittent OR. thi* .-point.
 poses .behind abrae, mllitarjr dedatqe*
 without more, extensive and ImoMdisae              2s the will of tl» Congrea >ny Jess be decided Sy" historical :yi
 ^ormaUonTupon wJilch tolvive our Jtric-                                                                  :
Mcnu. However. I doot thtak that this            cteth or l^.purpoae any letis <*rtaIn.;U' Viewed .ta lh!r"Mght^7ceagrei;tonal ac-
                                                                                                                                 <
desire fee ctorejnunediaiie and derailed        ,tt choons-«o authoriae hoatilities or de- quiescencsin Pre«identTniini>n iukUion
 Information should properly extend to          ployment in the .threat of-heStlllUes b> furnUiies st^wac evidence that'thl; :UK
statutory limits on the President's "powers     a nsotuUon or br-^dopUas; a aeries -el of hjipower ac Commiriitr is Chief fas
 as Cotnmandu" in Chief .        ~~~             approprlctkMi cwihsui*: ojeculcaUy -cS*- a proper one. If hlatcry •n&precedent
                                                                                                             :
    S. 440 suies and Tauote thiW-               al«ned to inltiat*. alow Cr~*top a ^£. are:re)evant. it appearm.ihat there is,a
                                                 miutahr confrontation: uistead At a          strong case:ier~be m*ste for. thc.power-of
   if te Uw-yurpM* or-tk* Act-to fulfill Ik*     formal d*clarition? X think not.             theTre»ldeci!to coaurUt American forces
  tfc» Unlttd'SUU* and Uuur*. Ukatr.                To render^udrment properly, whether c&rmd without the ixplldi permission
  tactlvt JvagoMat A'.fcolh the C60CRM          by informal «r formal mtans. fcow^rer. at- Cascrev^ven -theugh- that cbaur.it-
  tti* rrwMtat will »pp!r W «b«                  Coa<rac aho>ild be K^V f ull? iafcrmed aant may lead to wiar. This power is Hot
-ft tkc A»Md Furt**<* titt Unl'jt* SMm bx -as to area* if tenstot}. problems. -which unlimited;, but it •iarnot be easlljr cir-
  >M»U!*CtMl or la •ttiMtfciui wh«» unmliMDt kali M arbt and. in most Instaccff ,wnere cumscrib«0 or eaXly dltptltsed Jiat bc-
   ta*«!^Mtnt to boctUltlts t» cl«*rty ln4k»U<t security.' vauid .not >s . Jcopardntcd, the ^aus« thwe of ut !n Cohgfeic are^Sltter
   kr the elrctia*uaoK.-a&tf t» UU coallauetf 'proposed n^chanlswi by which Use probr about th« UnMf.Avcr the-last 7 years
   tM otvteh. KM In bc*UllU«* '. . .                                                         .in which we were" taken -i>y surp^se or -'
                                                 km will be met.
      Mr. Pmident. coUective Judemcnh to            The locu* of attention Inihe course of were .coofranted-with tabuntinc,. public
                                                                                                                          ;
  BUT mice, is -one thine, while coUective thic debate has been on the power of the and personal opposition .to the Vfttnani
 • dcdsionioakinc In a hostile conf ronUUbn Prwldent as Commander in Chief ,-to war.. "                       ;" •              • ;
- nqutxinc rapid Response is quite another. commit Amfcrtcan forces to bostUiUes                 Now it strikes me-Uiat it Ss.-appro- .
      Bo.onte actln. we are plundnc Into a without the approval of Congress. The priaCe to askrwny the pawcr of the Presi-
                                                                                                      :
   mental exercise in trying to establish the authority of the President to commit dent. in the realm of foreign affairs .hat
   intent of the framers of the Constitution. troops in United conflict has nci: gone          grown so great. Is It tccaute Kxisidentx
      The Const MOK of the United States unchallenged. Congrats hac confronted are usurpers? Or It. It because event*
   has »ervcd UK remarkably veil for nearly an exercise of the utc of this alleged ex- have nectatlUted If? Do the conditions
   two centuriftt. primarily because of IU •cuUve authority more than once. Presi- of the world allow us safely -.16-conduct
   flexibUityluid lu nbUity to accommodate dent Truman's commitment *C troops in our foreign policy on the floor of Cons
   tht nqulreatenU of a technologically ad- Korea in response to r. TJJf. 'resolution tress? Can we safely attempt to sub-
   vianclnc world. With new problems born withov> prior appro\-al of. or subfc<nient stitute, our judgment for that of the
   of a world with rapid communication formal raUncaUoo by. Congress led to President at Umes of Immediate cri&.
   and nuclear power, relevant chance hu the treat debate of ifSI/                             when-circumstances are such that omy
   emerged in the role rjid power of-Con-           Prfttldent Truman had relied upon h5« he can have all the facts available and
   crats in meetinc pressing need*, both authority a* 'Commander .in Chief and only he can promptly act?
   fcreMm and domestic- An exampfe. of upon resotuUpns of the U.NrSecurlty                       I tnow there; is a. belief among some
   this is a chanting interpretation of the .Council declaring that armed aggnni- of my" colleagues Uiat Congress has ab-
   daclaratlon-of-war authority which th* »lon 'existed in Korea and calllnr upon dicated much of its responsibility uvthls
   CoRfress holds under the. Constitution. U^. members to-a«Ut In halUr* {h»^ anH; other matters to the executive
   One hundred years a«o. th.e constquencec aggressioh. He cited the history of ac- branch, but we should not use this bill as
   of issuinr a declaration, of irar were quite tions by the Commari£er in Chief to pro- a vrnt for cur f nutritions—addlijc insult
   different from .those today; For example. Uct American lutcresU" abroad. He to injury u far .as the constitutional
   one practical reason /or Contress' failure characterized the UJf. Charter ac the process It concerned.
   to declare- war in all but four of our cornerstone of our foreijrn -relations sind            I woulcj be the first to support any fea-
   VJS. history is the fact that a formal singled out article 39 which authorize? sible measures wJilch would Iruiirt Uie
   declaration'- could call. Into pUy '.he ac- the Security Council to recommend, ac- COMTCM mors iicmediate Information
    tive belllcerence of advcrsarfts under tion to members to meet armed agicres- upon-which to judsc oiif decisjo^ar con-
  :prpvislons of their treaties ofichlch we .eion.          -                                  cernnlng miliiary' and foreign, policy. *
    may have no knowledge. In ih? Vietnam           The President's opponents noted that .However, as I said tt!orc. t»{C- Senate
    war. we did not know whac secret trea^ .all treaties are not wtt-executinr and ahouid. be extremely cireful not to get
    ties might have existed betveen Hanoi that, until Implemented by Contrt>< so en/ ;d awir with imving-such .Infor-
    and Moscow or Peking. In tht: context. T npnseif-execuUnff        '.treaties .confer Tin mation or with bclnK nnlntecraJ. partner
    believe that risks should be Mlmlled to new autliority or. tn» Presld«r)t> Article in: formulatlcn of our^oreloi and mill-



                                                                      E53
           1SS 197$                          CONGRESSIONAL                                                                                 813921
 ?sry polic;« that we attempt to
 «a;3<lv«$. by stMutc. witti powers
 inicr.c>i to reside in Ihe HalU •a>t ,Cotx-
        « Ihtportar.t* hc*>over. Uxaa Uvt                                     by Uit nature of ji
       tuiilcaality <3uest!<?n 1$ th« -very                                  s attack.—J>y &s *l^
     etical ccsisidcrMSori otiirhe                                                  hcre na tt£.
                                              Evert wisji ,ilie eswticas granted to
        . cvcrt-ia afceiitcd^Kr.^,.» x c«s- .s.vwri-^i-.vV.             - t > - t                  this
           a. Ajid sacoiid. it we give the                                          such actions arjf not
                                                                                           '
 liuilicc;
 Inwvdur allies, their abStt? t»i rely «s
 States.
   ttii- tCie-niosl s                                                                                                                    f f ftluit "Uve
 tiui b4*.-tfJU^v-brtnk up ;*Jvji- Jjrtia.v-lir*'                                                                                       -?M:hr poirit
 i?r£blc£r£s sii. t^ie. o'vcrii' ot ii<i^xi4iiics*
   ix the event of aa attack' i>a ~SA
                                                                                                                         In ai-Sre?. Vlif re hostU-
                                                                                                       itfeV"Art\"~»fhniirienV- could -\wtIJ. « "It
       W-rti{ti:rc: specific cp:i;:ii»iloiu:l* iiir
                                             "      "less cf Achcrc-Ue-wjiy>»«'
' rcsirlciion .        hot                           "-*•." k *. » *. • • .•
                                                                                                       ^ i^fectlyen&s of such aii icJwh ch.our
 •iiricc Ute Senate m jixirj: iti advice aikl                                                          Wr^v* «r^k« not'ipltOTT Cnic'vo deli;Ke'5O>'i'
  coiwtht io-.tne ><3rth Ailahtic Trealv                                                                           the President tc Gke tl:ow
  »w?ycra%s>U;nic4 for ths
  Uicjiuth 6.-iiv-tc in                                                                                of Jwiittv>J Interest^- and poUcy .\ptl
                                                                                                      "iSxe blli'S XtSonsot- staVs^Uils^ nai thr
                                                                                                                                               t
                                                                                                              and -                 : "
              su^5:csv-;hat ts a Jar ditTc                                                                        It tsjintlttCcs to
             ttorii Ui^tii'tras .c5tc»r«ai'i' I?PT-                                                      ivrc.X* »rw>icli avnblsriilty tni'Uie pro'
 i.ited n»J itHcr.dcC? hen tilt Scrvait rutl-                                                                ci.tUl ahil^tha^ compTeteir yp
•ftcA th'al'ircatr. 1 '». lcsu<a:i>c \I^<KS is                                                                     i .         i - '* " "
cic-\r th that the .<u.-c:isth, of the t.re:if, bnl? fco/jbk lu-try ina rsjici'UiCwi :r.lir
•ttA.tcd.Mi tticolisx.iyc tntvaUor-s o* Uie         " A «Vii«ld the U.S. «»to eaff.inar.tlfii be
 stfiuitchcs to Jipond qu:cUv « one.                  ucpit 10 a«ack ttttt tcsicl -ttiai
Oilicnvisc Ujcre-cuuli; Jxj'iiiiJ                          1} Jie miiiitci? \Vqalcl lie bo al-
                                                     •Iquvd to 3VUi-,;k ai\. e.nc:>.5_ ptocl ihu>               for the
•U\ arllclc V. ~that .an arrr.cd attack-              Uttt ".was .-^Jayjr.j; \42ta. tnfonnalion to                activities aiyl there
 aisauu&ohc-.or :aarc of tlicm itt Eiirott?           Uie                                                           f^h tiie past of thrir jicccssjty.
•or NcrtJx Africa vialt-oc wr^-idc.cx! ait                                       .                                  y «t:tcill3cncc nisis?*.'_in ' the;
                         .                                         ft- siitlit; ,»it ear                 Cuban nJ-Psilt crisis should come to ir.lud
     The (.fror«RUi ot -the N'ATO U»>af j. U          to rtcircit. ^ictt • »orci». and • woiild. cwr.-       And Uicjvr wonder hov Uie1::U\trau!d
 •a Utc cuilcvt«Jt; tun^y of the •.ouaioctd           muiitcate to Aay'.jjolcnual s\Ct.\tter the Direct the owmtoil oT U.S. patrols ti)
 UTUcli .-ilinouficti to auj patcuttnl aj-                    ol ilie rt»yoiisc j»;fr Xoict-V             Uic Korear.,DMS; It li uol dear'to me
 r.tVSiur t!,at U: you .-xttaUi^onc of ui yuii               1^ tti}ulai«un*r.iref»ii»rc eivi            .wlulier yifis inxTvliidris of sccllor.'S-sr?
 ^.Vva. in cJ^ccU aUAck«d-tb ail. Tlurte                         to wrf? a cli'c'-l'.-.t ol vc           :»tt5»J{«;aMc or- rioi. sjiii c. although we yri
 t°.;e ticart an«l power o£ n.e. treaty "and          could co n:id 1 an>^&kV Jic "                      lrr a Uitc'C-MUJ'aUpri'anii peace-KtKOtJa-
 U 'tec Picsutcnt were pnxludcd Tiijiii                                                             . tlooi ani continuing, the ^unosphere
 promptly tair.ng Uio^c actions he fsli               he would itolate,'.ornc ptcdra.Mv.-mlc .ot •Uan Is cer'ktfuljF tense.
 \vcrt.ia tht-t-ial Interest ol- t;is Unitch:                                                          ^ Sir. President, iam-fllso disturbed by
 Su-vtcJt'and Uip KATO^rtlllarttc tlic secu-             Mr. PrcKCcnt. wteawvcr Ui?                     .otiiet-'iinEUaKe [Q.:J:ctlo'X.Tll6£ th'e Jirji-
 rity if both i'outd- -tjr scri-^iily eri-           -ident'takcs ail act-ton authorized.' by «.-c- oo<cd «j:H. In pwUcu^ar. r refer tc Die
                                                      Uoii in he mu~st-coK>.e tc^lw Concrc»' use ct ?hc tens "isimlnent .tl«reat" It
     Sue.-. rcstrlcUoru ajt projjoici by the         at, Uiecr.dot 30 i^s.ji> lo Eet a/r.unuaUori vvc a£!.iur.e Uie propeld bill bKatncs Javr.
  bill \\oulrt remove ilic ciiit>on of- Uie lai-     auuion^avun;, if inch is r.ccvjrj!. Sucli docs not Ui^ jiosilblUy arise fjiat If Uir-
  t itue fruni our comnia.-iJcrs. U cuuld             a rciincoun, vould Iv^d to c., s>icccmcal Crealdcht took ai tloa nnder ^crtlon Iir
  x\c!I be. in the iituatlou iinoljl.xtcd. tlmi      c-irategy in ^cnmtcnnn;. an -.tUy.k. or !rt r«*pq:u?i to lili tirerpreralion of an
  tiic Pnaidcnu -Ao.ild uuli to o^uu'.'. \\i\fi       turc-ivof aLtaris. Ihis raiKa llie nuty.lon Inuntnrnt tSirea^ Uic, Consresi cwild
  the Ooiujitoi oil amutu-aly ajiitxd cuiltAC        at- ttlicilict miaiaVj. .ro:niriaiidcRv~otw lo t".«uH;hii.actlu;\i-;ts not btji.? w|tl)!j» IU
  at action. But ,'t toiild juot .vi well iie         inclii4? in oil phuu h. coutin&cnc; tor Intcriirctatlon of "Imminent Uircnt"V
  tiujiit not bo;.iu.bc of the U.ic clcincitl         wtth*<r^f,ai otter 3C Jays. U {urthcs It It nbt possible, bccauw- or UUs dlf-
  vvlil'Ji iitMCisiiatcd untucdiuti: n^ttun Co       •raises JiicpuiaiVnuity U:st                      -fcrcnce of |nteriJ:«td?iin. the
  (ufcttatt ntid jircctudc A f.u n-.jrc scii-         \vuiiid. il ]\c ft en; douSiUul                   (uuld Ufcp other I<»ri -iiic» df.
  oiii situation Iixinx de-.clup;n-,.                auibpn^atic^ )>T>uld be gmnu^ by Uie prohlblt'hir'Jrcr netlou by tJit
     As.nn. Jn Uie NATO nre.1. to^ proiMscd           Congrcj-v adopt an overkill s(w?,csy lix. even before ijie 30 {"ay period h.-«d cx-
  bill would preclude couitnu.iUou In cctn-           Uie hotloti-tntcn—a. strategy that ndcrit ptredr
  mnnd by U.S. olliccr»..-«^ijni.d «                  be f.xr nvrc'tl^au R.ii tfjulred Li J^ar.rtla         Then- lAOii!> ,>/ym I^.r o».-: C.'ii.m.u.cVr
  wlicn an attack was maunVtl                         Uie crisis nt-luad.                               Ih Chief; aotSM. Only onii individual. U:c
                                                                       s
. oilier U..-m (JjB. (urcc». iliu, n^utd litor*          Mr. 'Prcoid ehJ.;iiicre..Mt».v^vcral oUisr rtc.,Itiaiu IUVA Uit f....i-i ;i.iDjjd..ite)y at
                                                                                                                                               v
  ally dc.aitatc ihccntirr. corr.in-u J ^ir^^,.       situations th.\t comft to R>.rui Uvat 1 I'uind not-^—.r! to rtvlcrn.Inc > ..;\t U brat
  Cure of Uic ailiaiicc and «rcaw> Aid any            ffxmld Iiltc tw bring to-J!4ic <^icnti-j:i ol In .1 crUU atuaUuii I»r tt.c national
         svtt will be dlinculi cnougK to make         Uic Senate,                                       security. So oven Ut'»u£h Uie proposed
        command structure fmi'-iur. li. A                            iii-. li.e                         b;H ,-iurvort* t«i i^.itai.iC.c :hc President
          environment. l)r«m».ht on i>t ,ui at-                  U *\. Zjrcwi                            car. t.iKo lliose AitUiib} he Jr.cnu *)riiu-
  tack. let alone hdvia^ AJ*. C^J.                                  on Uio high. x.. An>                »ar>- lit certain Ailu.il.,;~.
 S13922                                                               AL BJEGORD—SENATE                                             July *Sf If
                and ,e                                                                                                   sn.arthic by Yale IAS Prwf.

                              v*ry-inurh cost-                                                              MaJce Bad Lai-" be printed hVlhe Rrrcso.
                                                        acticri »v»thoriacd by;tt« SUl. Es iixusl            There beiag "i;o-oSueci;p:s. Uie a r s e
  lt«L>VT-.*>l^U*^Vt-%k*^-» VUi>Vi»V«V^*^»**J' *.uwwh»» come to thc^GKiirress.At xbt «h5 oi- 30                            !    i i " i : » t3iiiv
-to ^realize ^th* many dangerous CCK^ days io ?es " continued .•dulhorizAUoh.
          v
        " ~ "•.*-*-v^»*- i—-..».» tisTJjrb'vlb-ons- la •
                 s of-socac of \^_-_».-.^.« :VM.'I                    3.^Preslilcr.t.-vKaiia:is .Ufat be               GXIJT CVSTI J3JxcB*a Uvor
                                                                         aixto act b6fi>rs:c«Rbis-to                    tay .Eugeac V;
          .                                       from                    for CurUier autborisaitics.                       W-tec twnedr «C'V!«aaa». a
 "ihi CMigres?. our icRayst,co«nuilUs:tj\ls be" Jescpted -lii-u- ttdstilQ" sJtiation to do
 .under th« -Korxh Atiahtic Tt<a«y. thi some "quidr rfiikini- <or si fa^ier
 ^EATO Tttit?. the; ynSrd Nat Jons Cfcar- .Ihsui he oditrtrisc would Ha\x Inx-sSer to
- ter ahd many: others. Can « lione&ly accoa.H)lisi-.« inltch "is i^ossible bclprr                                to accompit-A. Jthc:: goal «l:!s«uv U»c
   tiles uv>ojv^:e diouJdcw of U:c;Consress congressional «\^x?AVcuW'i:Ercsi4«!si.                                T«=.!c=«rct ^>-t anwifiitorj pro:***. Uj
   nol;6juy~U;c Saftl authority .hi * P«fi- "be teniilad to -lire U:c Cofijrcss iiss.                            ;\lM>.-: olortf i?*J<I en; star perspective*
   <fcnfi dcdsSoiuw deploy troops -to 'the rauier Uuui :addiUounl. £nrbfjnati«i=ber                                       «iscoTcred;ta'-Oie "necasaij aad
   txrnlol iKvsUHtifcs butalsb atteinpt $p btr caiise ct.'Uie necessity Tor'Jitai to avoid
  .come -i&fr repetitive. -.top authority cn-«ll .c««rc»iotvii-iuiiErf£rofs:£? -U'oulA it oat                 Thev a=ert tiat.th*
 -itrcotiate&'XXS. treaty cbjliraltiiKnis.                   more txpedleni for i. Vrc$J*»t to                                                    and
   even alter -the Senate has tiadv<jhe-op-                       aniiounce -that oil the basis of                                                  : pootr.
  rxctiiaUy- to" ratify and consent to the                                              '
                                                                 classified SntcUipcn'ie snaac wai!-               .
  orU&al cegbt isUon ol each ol our stand- able 'tc httn ^ht -yss takine auth«r««!:                          teft:«ia:<s.of 'Mdapley. wai -^s^
 -iai treaties?                                          aiUoiv :under -Ux: blU. .accanpUsh .as              liXy clilrrx Jy>^::u>3. rcidc Krith
                                                                                                             Vlcuuias." Igaer'-HE. tejtfr
       Our allies would soon sain the iaipres- muclt,ii ,poss:b)e"befo« the 30^iay. \imr-                     for Vlctaaax. -tte*c Scbiww *i?         lire In
   sion that ice Were •lncapib"le-ot actlnc ttatich. and -Indeed continue by ni'aki-                         tin »$e of .\isileclarcd war.
  sTrttUy 'under the conditions or <i»ur nitflhg the appearance of hostilities sit'p-                       ,                •           *" .
  Tnutknl sicurity agreements. I am sure. iwsedly justified Ijy classified infornia-                                                         r. lits
   lot example, that our friends In "Western ation? Taking, this «n* step further.                                                           L-i our
  JEuropcTwo«id fttid little -comfort in -th« would » Preiidint be tenured tc prbraV'e                        u<«3l "aysKm ?! •«£«*= aad-' b^Iace^t/ Al-
   fact that under 'this law. Coniress^vrould tlic hostilities lie wultf r.ecd under Xiie                     thougU Senator Jobs. BtMOum. Cocptr hoi
   hai* to rivie its approval before the bill in order, to obtain further authorira-      '"                  ri;hue critlcizwJ Uielr/'tJiswy at » revritiaj;
                                                                                                              of hlLitrey. SenatorVfrits'kad !U* cb'.leagttes
   UruXd States could participate In .NATO                           . .              _
                                                           Another Important point sliould be                 fcr* p'uj&ngVBUl ai;lcl\ la Uieli'-riex could
   command ^activities In the event- o{*n                                                                     correct -ridrSy'-iicb'-hunilred xiojiror jcrrorl
   attack "on" West Gc'rmanjvCan. we justify               ade in conhfetibn wltlx; Uie 3d-d*y hmi-           »trJ(» th? r«iS<Ie"ricy 6t »=ny of-' Its nvo«t.
   creating x situation ir. -which our com-                                                                   e«m:l»I POMS. =uuj restore what the;
   mahdlnc oZcers in NATO cannbl even                                                                         ror.Cy Irr.agtn'e 'vras Uie conultutlonM niodrl
                                                                                                                                                  -
   participate. hi,-iht planning - and-extcu- :
• tion.-oJ'operaUcns.qf'NATO troop&untS!" c senousSy^anttihis'ldnd pf.'approacli.                              lto.'m= one* said that gre^t casts, like
   we tit the Concrete cpRectlve-Ihterp,ri^ to bur mllllniy policy around thif.world                            rd~c»:ei.<lna)cc~ bad Ua-. T!i« Jarlts BIU
    tatldh oi in -Ihaninent tlircKt"? How whea we hivt justbcjRin.ib.enirjre.froni                          conArine Hotme*" -quip more vividly U>an
 \nfihy of o'ir.alHcs trpuld soon- bcsinxto .tKe ridiculous siUittion.or ». limited, cteji-      r
                                                                                                            nny proposal slice the JJrtcker Anwnjaent.
                                                                                                            But'lt Is » more serious itbick on the eon-
"feet thifth'ey jrcrcncl in fact our allies :)>y-s>P. •Jwir sych" as yietnam?" Thb is                       sUittUcn. *hd the cecurity of tlie nation.
   atjill?                                               furllicr. illuminated by theTproijxxf tliat
                                                                                                            Uun xr.r of the BricJrer Amendment pro-
        Many -will say that ncilttKu rec«ir<Jini; ohcir the Cbnsress^at'^citi initial autltbri-
                                                         znlfpn. for Uft .PrcSdcia'i intiroductiOR          pocAU. T7:cy wK^d have required aSnnaUT-:
    o;:r tr<-'»ly conuultK^enti wb.uld be of^troops'in-a: hosUle situation it-could                         Congr<0!oiuxt: iiietlon before trc.\l!« becarm.
                 by tills legislation. Titty wilt                                                           opyvaUrc ikd-Ui': SUJUTR*.'* law of the lirrt.
            -J5»t as o"ur treayof arc nbt-jcJf- conUhuc'ttt.^put;'.lme limits, c-n-hls this           use   Tlic Jcrlu BUI would deprive, the ritaideni.
                   tuid.as most-"coiitalr::a.;c!rtusc of Jhosc'trbopi. •Tliclntroductioiimilitary
                                                         clement, .of Vmccrtalhty into
                                                                                                   b£       oC poven chtch were used, routinely v
                                                                                                            •u/oslilngtan. ' both Adamx*. Jeffcnon. .\radl-
    whjcli rea'ds "in. accordance' S»th bur owii -planning would ,pla$r jJie United States                  Ktn. Uchroe. and'!*; nearly every President
    consHlutlbnat.iirocessdf1" the Senate Ji ia a situairbn of always feeina "tec                           rtnVe— .pb-xeri tA \st or tlireateif to u;c force
   already nuthoriscd to initiate implement^ little top lalc.~                                              tn.«!d "ot illptojiurry which experience, and
    tnelcg.'sIaUor.. Howct^ the facttltaC our                                                               tjir "Supreme Court, have found tnclupena-
   L                                                       •Pc'rliaps
     t«aties-coGtaln U»U pirovisj<>n-H.iw never thL-5 bill Is the most frustratinj: a-spcct of              ub> to ttie etretf*t!v<r runcUonin: of tlie natloa
                                                                       "its utter
    alfircd Uie iTtilily that throughout our stderinc llie merits ofvagucncs. In^con-                       In the a&ciety fir natloss. Tlie armed forces
    liisioiy Cons'refs h« ;pcrfornic'<l an es thfi.lt Is necessary to a proposal sucli as
                                                                                     consider all possi-
                                                                                                            nf the United States have been uied abroad
    >V(t facf« role th thu regard. Tins rcalicy ble interpretations under every conceiva-                   more Uum ISO times since ITB9. only S times
    has conic from a hrtsic recognition on- Uic ble clrcitHjstancc; nhd havtnR done that.                   untler - decianxtlons of war. aad only a fe%*
                                                                                                            diisen tlmca punuant to concrcuionai ac-
    Oart of. rnany cb'naecuticc OinsrcjACss It scetris tb^me that we arc oenllnc wlUi                        tion that could (incuabl; be construed to
    tta't prior consultation «:i:lisnd auUtde-                                                              ixtith'irtze Bliat In fact Uie Praidcnt did. In
                                                                                     at
    izatibn (rj«\v the Coijijrcji cannotrih-rnct a bill which wbjild-bcUie least as iuhject                 this tMp*rr American practice correspond*
    pr6v!d*."Oicrne.ce:Aary prompLrcjpotuc to to-ititenirctatlon oi can count Coniti,tu-  U.S.              to U>A<- <>f all other nations In tlie IHUi. I3u>.
                                                         Uoi; Aiiy time you
    bur treaty cpnVnijtfacnU. ?Jus siiuatiou lawyers on onp -dcit of .x bill as tts many         you can
                                                                                                            and 'JOUi eruturtei Tliere 'J nothing spev.al.
     has no.t prevailed for nearlj' 20* years be-                                                            under either lnten---»tlon.il IAU- or Atnerlean
                                                                                        would be rather
    cause Presidents' have isriorcit'.thc Csn- on-the other, it seems it n-rcnl concensus.                  constitutional 'law. about "undeclared' lim-
     srcss. .rjhsis prcviited for the very^prac- diiHciiU to respond with                                    ited omr in umc of pnvce. or campaigns
                                                                                                             h.v>d:cd lij Uie exccuuve alone, tn the nu>
     tical reason Unit consultation lu. the                 One-keyln thc-vcry nature of Uils bill
                                                                                                             Me.\r Agt. a.t the Cu'ian. >iu»ue cjn-i» and
    .v.ldst of initial libsUiit'.ci. Sluch Uiu-b>ll Is Uie :aimLer.o> times the wonl immi-                   f rcrnl >nlKefl'jCr.l CIMCK (temuiuunie. uir-ie
    \rould in tnaiiy arens rcnuSrc. J^ not only ni*nt" occurs. This word is u.Mi.illv nccom-                 am 'lie ftexlti'e p* aefj U>e uaUuii i.crrli m*« i
     inipracticaLhut sclf-dct Cixtini- Unacr C.c punle'J by the word "hostiltiic.v That is                   If Hieif I* M ii* nry Ii.jpc of avuidiu»; n-i- iruf
    Javiis btl:,.l;o\vevcr. Concrcsji would have till, vcrj' line, but I wish someone would                  tfnr,
     to give leuJsiallv^ aufhorizr-tion. before tell me how we would define these two                           \ViHi nilnilri'<V .T'rt. • Sera'. if J^..^. ..-i
     Mic President cotiM ril5j<aU;lr troiip^ in words ttiihin the-time period hece?sary                     said M-tit tin -"rprvte ,.f liu Dill k to .vt!.,.:c
    accordance with taMly commitments. to ffivc the President Uie authority to                               tlie elective Pre- la. iry «hleh Uie Fmmdini;
    Tlarc t: a vf orld of-dtlTcr*nrc bctutc'vthe respond to a. military Uircar.                              F.tther> were nt piln. to e tnUIUi a^ a rlurd
     «.wo npprbaches and the latter nppi-ourh               Tlie bill should be defeated, out at tlie       autonnmoii* anil co-equal branch "f Hie
     ••ertalnly prccftidcs rapid rcspniwc to un very least it should be rr.icrrcd to the                    lp>vcnimrn(. to the numiile ponurc ot Oeor^e
                                                                                                            \Viul)l:i£ton (Itirlni; Uie RevDlutiou. alien re
    "tiack on allies or fora'ard deploynicr.ts Judiciary. Co.mmltcc to determine its                         f<mrtl"ne<l M Commmnlcr-iii-caiet. ap.
     and rcinforccriicnts to prevent .'ir'. an co:iotitutionatity and to inten'rec its                      pointed Uy Ute C>»Unentnl Con;re\«. n-iii IT,
     attack.                                              meaning.                                           •-rfnturp, nr Ujc crri'ure i.f lu cuniiiu"r>- .
         \Vouiii this bill nccesairlly acwmpllsh             Mr. President, I a^tc unftiiiinous con-         in every respect.
                                                                            255
      y IS, 197S                             CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                                   S 13923
     Congress J*s made sto bid foe supreraacy        tareateard. to use the arced forces oT the         Tlsc scctioa. sees, OR to stale.
  jo boM. asd so Iccelsa to ta« baste W**» of.       nation to persuade rronce to SeaTe Mexico          Specific atatutcry authorization is re-
• ih« Aratrteaa oocjtltutioa. *iae* the lav-         In laCS IBfC. to ar\>ii war with Spain or        quired for the xxjspnmcnt of avtrabers «T the
  l*acaraeai ot Andrew Joaruoa. Ta* legal            Urlta_s, <sx«r; Florida, with. Praacx over Ha-   Armed SrVcces of tae Cnited States to com-
  xttorr oa wakh. the BUI reita would permit         waii, or to scad Cwaracdore Perry oa, ha         mand, coordinate, participate la the move-
  ft p'ealpascrilary Ooagres*. to dominate the        fateful voyage to Japan.                        sseat of. or accompany th« rcsula? or irreg-
  rresSdeacy taad the courts as weU) raore              The Javtta 3U would annul the ain^ary         ular military forces-o: aar forc^a country
  cosapSctclr this tlte Uouse of Corcrsoas p>r-      proiijlorj of aU ou; ouutaadlaK tieatles aad     or government wncn i-^ca Armed Focccs are
  erat Sa Great Srlsdri.                             coasresKoaa! Hoo:utt»ax authortlnj the           eagastd. or there exists aa iraraaitat. threat
     I rjeva isls conclusion aoi as aa advocate      use of force by tie PreiMeat. Including XATO     that sues forces will aecorcc engaged, la
  of Increased rresSdeatia! powrr. but as a de-      and the MMdZe E&ttera ResoluUoa of 19S7.         aottuitics, No treaty la :orce at the urac of
  fender of the eoaKtt«.tioaal palters of «a-        which was renewed la IWl. Equally. It would      the enactment, of Uiis Act snail be construed
   rorecd coofferatfcja between rrciSdeat, aid       anaul all FresMe^Ual commlta>eat». s«ae          ax specSc statutory autnortration lor. or a
  OasTreis we have Inherited, for aU the frir-       of IrameaK «er^s;ui.tT and Irnportaace. of       spectac exemption permitting, the introduc-
  tloa it lR«vltaaly senerates, I disagree with      like e^ect.                                      tion of the Arrac-t Forces of the Caltcd States
  tlse arirumeaa for ealarged PresSdeatlal              The country is in tae ^"^^ o; a profound      A hostilities or in an; sucH situation, w.thia
  power advanced la reccat year* by ilcGeorge        fore^a poUcy cruu. It u not a constitutional     the rneaala; of t?ils ciauic.
  Buady.. James McGregor Bums, Richard Neu-          crisis requiring a. rtdesaluoa of the histori-
  ctadt. and Senator Fulhrlght, arnoa$ others        cal rclauoniiip &<;wcea the Prcildeni and           Mr. Pnu4uent. wliat this means in
  la my-experience, the respective powers of         Coagrcss in the ^*t«^g aad executioa of for-             of NATO xvouM scera perfectly
  •each branch an indispensable If the making        e^n policy, but aa intellectual aad emotion-                 If we liare our troops there
  aad execution of foreign policy are to rc-         al cri»u caused by tfie growing tension be-      and those troops should not be the Direct
  rnala under effective democratic contra!. Our      txeen what we do aad what w« thla\u The
  practice Is strenuous. Sue & quiet life for                                                         focus of attack but our allies shoul.t be
                                                     Ideas that" have shaped our policy since 1M7     attacked, we could not tuko- any action.
  President: or members of Congress it not a         have suddenly :o«? their power to command.
  verj- Important coal of our coastltutioasl         W* can resoire that cnslx only through a         It also proliibits Uie fact Uiat any ot our
  arrangements.                                      disciplined consideration of what foreign pol-   officers could participate In the cotn-
     The corollary of this principle, however. Is    icy is for—aa examination of what, the nation    nuind structure. That means Uiat under
  democratic responsibility, it Is not seemly        must do. given the condition of world poll-      Uiose circumstances Uie enemy could
  for astute aad worldlv men who spoke and           tict. to preserre the possibility of surviving   determine Uiat an attack on Germany,
  Wed for SEATO. th« Toakla Gulf Resolu-             »2 a, democracy at home. That process is ds!-    or German forces, whatever forces might
  tion, aad other legislative steps Into the Viet-   aculr. The relevant Congressional Commit-
  nam War apw to claim that they xere brain-                                                          be Uiere. we could not operate nor could:
                                                     tees, and the Congress as a whole, ahould b*     the command structure of NATO operate
  washed, aad therefore that we—and the              leading the nation la a courteous and sus-
  world—should treat public acts of the United       tained debate, through which we could hope       without specific authorization after such
  Suites as If they never happeaed. Theje men        to achieve a consensus as vital as that which    ail attack.
  were riot brainwashed. They knew everything        sustained the line of policy which started          It just does not seem to me Uiat that
  the executive branch knew. But their argu-         with th» Truman Doctrine. XATO and lu            docs us any good in our foreign policy.
  ment has no bearing on the problem la any          progeny, aad the Point. Four Program.            I do not think it does xny Rood in an
  case. Even If they had been brainwashed,
  their rotes stand. Their claims recall the            Instead, the Senate Foreign Relations Com-    effort to try to reduce our forces uni-
  arguments thai the Ftourttenui Amendment           mittee has thosea to escape from the de-         laterally, with respect to Uie Warsaw
  was a nullity, and could be Ignored, be-           manding but rlalte task of reality by plung-     Pact countries and XATO countries on
  cause, many of the legislatures which rati-        ing Into the Insoluble, and dangerous one        our side, and I do not think it adds in
  fied It voted under circumstances of fraud,        of constitutional myth.                          any way to a deterrent to % Uireat against
  or the coercion or military occupation.               Korea aad Vietnam did not come about          Europe, if there should be a threat.
     The Javlts BUI Is full of paradox. While        because the Presidency arrogated Congress"          We are not dealing, as Uie Senator
  It purports to assure the nation that *            powers over foreign policy The Congress fully
  pacific Confess will staunchly keep future         supported those efforts when they were un-       from Arizona said, in a Viet lam situation
  Presidents from engaging in limited wars like      dertaken. Thos« who no* believe these cam-       or in a Cambodian sltuat', in today. We
  Vietnam, the Bill would not hare prevented         palgna were aa error should recall the pru-      are dealing far down Uie n<id of history-
  the campaign in Vietnam If it had bee- en-         dent wisdom of an earlier time, when the         I would suggest to Senators Uiat it is not
  acted thirty year* ago. The procedures used        Supreme Court left the powers of the Su-         easy to do tliat at Uie very best and is
  to brine Congress and tne Presidency to-           preme Court untouched even after the cat-        certainly not easy to do it in situations
  gether behind the campaign In Vietnam              astrophic error of Ored Scoti. Errors are        as complex as Uiey are in. today's world.
  fully comply with the substantive standards        Inevitable In th* making and execution of
  of the Javits Dill. Our participation in Viet-     policy, both b; "governrrienta and by other         In Uie absence of a declaration of war
  nam was specifically authorized by Elsen-          institutions, la the turbulent and unstable      it provides that—
  hower* SEATO Treaty, and by several sub-           world In wh.ich we live, the strong Presidency     The President can iu< the armed forces
  sequent pieces ot legislation, including Uie       which h.u developed In the crucible of nearly    on.j la protect wline evacuating ciusena and
  Tunitm Gulf Resolution, enabled lor Uic            300 years of Intense experience has never        national* ot the United States from any situ-
  purpose of approving the iuc of nrmed force        been more needed thaa It Is today.               ation on the high «ea* involving a direct and
  to uphold the commitment of the Treaty.                                                             Imminent threat.
  In the erne of Korea, the Jarlu Bill would           Mr. DOMIN1CK. Mr. President* I wish
  have required Truman to oiicain a congnes-         to call to Uie attention of Senators and            What are we going to do In Uie event
  aiunat Rc>Jiuiiun within JO da.va auppurung        those who read the RECORD Uie provisions         someone turns the lap otr or decides to
  the itcl.on he took, tit Korea under Jie United    ot sections 3 and 4. dea.lng with NATO.          intercept tankers we arc using to try to
  N.iUob* Charier. ftMUl h.u U.c i^ua ot a           Thu particular section specifically pro-         eel oil from Uie Middle East so thr-t we
  trcAij In oui Interi.Ai laa Su«.h a Resolution     vides that authority to introduce the            xvlll have Uic nccciwiy energy m Jits
  rjuld surely have been ot-lined »t Hie time,       Armed Forces ot the United Suites m              country? I understand from this meas-
  although the President and Uie Congressional       hostilities, or in situations where immi-        ure 'hat Uiat kind of situation would be
  leaders thought It unwise and unnecessary to
  do so under tne circumstances.                     nent involvement in hostilities is clearly       prohibited. We would not be permitted
     But It the Javiu Dill liod been on the          Indicated by Uic circumstances.                  even in nn emergency to act in that situ-
  boots. It would have prevented Kennedy               Shall not be inferred (a) from any provl-      ation.
  frutn Imndiitg Uie Cuban MiMi.e Cr^ii AA           *Un ot late Lcrc.ir.cr enabled. itiUuding nny       I Mitfgcsl to my fncnd from New York
  he did. by Uie aklllful iu.d minimal deploy-       provision cur.tAlned In any appropriation        under those circiirrstances, with the en-
  ment of our nrmc<l forcet as an Instrument         act. unless such provision speclllcally au-      ergy crisis we have, all we nrc doln? tt
  of uetermnce n:id persuasion, in order to          UiorizA* the Introduction of such Armed          to make It more difficult m getting those
  protect pur interests without a confronta*         Forces m hostilities.
  tion that could have let! 'a limited or un-                                                         Imports and putting them to use in thU
  limited war with Cubs, or Uie Soviet Union,          Then 1C states that It should not be           country.
  or both. Under the Javlts Dill. President          Inferred:                                           There are a lot of other specifics which
  Johnson could not have employed the Im-               From any treaty hereafter ratified unless     I could mention.
  pllcltthreat-ot force to keep Uie Soviet Union     such treaty is implemented by legislation «nc-      I mentioned earlier, when the Senator
  out of me His Day War in 1907. President           ciflcruiy RuUioruunjc the Introduction of the
   Nixon <n>uld not have tued the tnme meUiods       Armed Force* ot the United States in hostili-    from New York wns nor on the lloor. the
   to avert a general wnr In Uic Middle Ca.it m      ties or in such A situation and specifically     specific differentiation that Li made be-
  September. 1070. or to confine and cuntAln         exempting the Introduction of *»eh Armed         tween sections 3'U and 3i2). whereby
   Ui« Indla-p*ktsUn war of 1D73. Similarly,         I'urce* from compliance with the                 tliU country to entitled to repel nn armed
  tarller Prolilents could not have used or                                                           attack on our forces here or in our tcr-
                                                                               256
S13924                                 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD —SENATE                                                    July
rito*ies or possessions .and to retaliate.    the ftwcwlre to tfc* L*s«JiiUTt SxxSj. froa           Criticism has beeu voiced shat
but Uie retaliation phrase Is totally         thc*t *fco arc to »?tevl v> Uicac *fco ic* to                   composed of 535
eliminated la the event the attack comes       pay-                                                     back suSxIcat unity to make
on any forces staUoscd overseas,                 In the era of crisis that h-4 ci^uiclec-                      dcclsioiu ^cces.or> to
   So it Is perfecUx obvious that !f the      isfti. the iatcrn.itw:jaS *}sieia 4i£ec the.                  for the exigencies of
Commander In Chief, or the -Defense De-        late l£H(Vs. this wac approach to the                        I believe, coiivtrsely. thai :ht
partment. 6: .M3:pl> the cc.T;n..»;dcj In      problsai of oar has been replaced bj. the         potential magnitude cf ttic dDastrr of
control sends soscone cither to Okin-         dangerous pracucc vl o^tuas the Exec-              nsodern cohxtntional wai-fare, creates .1
awa. Korea, or Europe, he !s entitled to      utive: almost uncha!lenr,e<i freedom to            greater need fpr-dciifccra^ve racier that
protect himself, mii-he is not. entitled to   determine when and-uacer &hat coadi-               rcaciiv^ decisonihatinj: thaii hoJ been
retaliate in any way rshatsccver until         USES U-S. Armed Forces »iU enjase In              the case is, the ixwt The IdUsnatc In-
Congress has corae to the cor.cluslbn as      hostilities. We have rcapcti. in the Viet-         volvement of Use legislative bras.ch in
to what is going on. and another or not       nam, ccn&ct. the « hirhviiid oi our failure,       Ac decision whether or not to wa£c inr
we. ought to act.                             to »bide by our consUtuubhal principles.           •srill:hope!ul!y result Sn a. reore-sniiguia*
   If we are attackcu oxers-ias, it strikes   However, itout of this tragedy comes the           approiich to ihc xrarhiaklhg issue Uian
me that the fecal 1x03 to protect ourselves   impetus to correct our mistakes, tve may           has teen.lhc case reccntlj- irhcrt OT hay*
would be perhaps to launch an air at-         avoid repeating post follies brought oh.           experienced almost total dependence
tack—that has been part of the strategic      by a, failure to tearalrosi history. Etiact-       upon PresidenUal di^creUon in this area.
study —against the force backing the at-      nicnt of the War Posers Act ml! be one                The PRESIDING OFFICER, The tirae
tacking force. But we &re not allowed to      important iudicaUoa that« po&^c&j. sui~            of Uie Senator, from Massachusetts tios
do that according to tills provision. What    fltient desire to do so.                           expired.
happens to the command structure and             The American people, through thca                   Mr. BROOKE, task for half a minute,
tactics. Insofar as NATO is concerned.        elected Representatives in Congress,                   Mr. JAViTS. Mr. President. I yieM 1
white they wait on Ccnsrcss to decide         must make the ultimate decision to com-            minute to the Senator from Massacliu-
whether this is the opportunity we would      mit Uieir lives and their resources t6:«x-         scus.
like to avoid or whether we ought to to       tended armed conflict. This was Uie. prin-            The PRESIDCJG OFFICER. Tlic Sen-
out to meet It -with full force and effect?   ciple accepted by. Jefferson. It is a prin-        ator is xtcognbed.for'l~:atouie.
I would say people stationed overseas         ciple equally applicable today when war                Mr. BROOKE. In sum. I aai convinced
in those circumstances. are going; to be      has proven increasingly expensive, botli           Uiis legislation will allow both the Con-
put into a great deal of additional dan-      in terms of human suffering and mone-              gress and the Executive to fulfill their
cer.                                           tary cost.                                        respective obligations under • the Consti-
   I have, therefore. Introduced an              In seeking to Implement this tenet. Uie         tuUon.in regard to the decision to enrage
amendment to try to take care of that         War Powers Act reconfirms and defines              :ri and wage war. It represciits a justified
particular phase, which I will bring up       with precision the authority of Congress           reassertion of congressional prcnogatii-es
at a later time.                              to exercise its responsibility to determine        in an area, of -vital concern to our domes-
   Mr. JAVTTS. Mr. President. I yield to      when the United States should go to war.           tic tranquillity and our national security.
the Senator from Massachusetts (Mr.           It also clarifies the way in which this            It merits the flrm and unequivocal sup-
BROOKX) S minutes out of the time allo-       responsibility relates to Uiat oCthc Presi-        jwt oC the Senate.
cated to the. Senator from Maine (Mr.         dent as Commander in Chief.                            I Umik my distinguished colleague
                                                 In an ace of revolutionary change and           from-Ncw Vork for yielding me Ume.
   The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sen-            shifting relationships In the world, pro-              Mr. JAVITS. Mr. Presldcrit. I express
ator from Massachusetts is recognized.        porients of Uie War Powers Act recognize           my deep gratitude to the Senator from
   Mr. BROOKE. Mr. President. I am             Uiat Uie President must possess sufficient        Nfassachusetts (Mr. BKOOICE) for his
pleased to speak in support of S 4*0, the     laUtude to initate military action wiUi-           splendid statement which Is so very help-
War Powers Act of 1973. This bill, and        out prior -congressional consent in cer-           ful In supporting this truly historic leg-
an ideritlal measure passed by the Sen-        tain selected circumstances! Those are:           islation.
ate last year, is Uie culmination of ex-        Pine, to repe*!. retaliate ror. or foreit*!l
tensive and thoughtful efforts to recon-      on nnhed *tu«lc upon Uie United States. 1U
                                                                                                     Mr. PERCY. Mr. President, on Jun*
cile certain of our constitutional prin-      tetritortcs nui poa-eiiloa*.                       23. the President and the Congress
ciples with Uie realtUes of armed con-          Secondly, to repel or forcitall nn Krme<l        reached an agreement to cut. off M
lUct in Uie modem world. It occompluhes       iktuclc against D& force* ouulcc of the            United States combat operations in In-
this coal admirably and deserves Uie          United States. Its umtorles and pocseutonj.        dochina. effective August 15. The Presi-
support of the Congress and the Ameri-           Ar.rt nnMly. w prot«cc the lives'of U^. clti-   dent further agreed not to reinitiate
can people.                                   :ena during emciiatJan of such eltinnj rrom        hostile actions by U.S. forces in Indo-
                                              xltuattoiu «!iere their lives are threatened.      china until and unless he obtained the
   I would be remiss if I did not acknow-
ledge Uie instrumental contribution of            In these circumstances. Uie President          explicit nuihorizatibn of the Congress.
the distinguished senior Senator from          can conUnue military hosUlltle* for a.                Although I regretted that the bombing
New York iMr. Jmrsi. who has labored           period not to exceed 30 dftys unless first.       of Cambodia was not ended Immediately.
lon« and hard to perfect Uits important        Congress authorizes continuation of such          it seemed clear that Uie necessary ma-
piece of legislation. Numerous other           activities, second, Congress is physically        jorities were unobtainable in the Con-
Senators, including the distinguished          unable to meet because of .in armed .it-          gress to override n PresldenUal wto of
chairman of Uie Armed Services Com-            tack upon Uic United Sta.es. or third.            .in Immediate cutoff. Therefore. I UTW
mittee (Mr. STCNNIS*. have also played         Uie President certifies to Congress tli.it a       persuaded that the agreement was n
important rotes m Uie tentative process        furUicr continuation of UJ5. military             sensible xvny out of a consritutionnl
that has produced Uits bill.                   activities is necessary In order to brln;;        crisis affecting other urgent matters
   Mr President, recent history has            about a prompt US. dtscngnccmunt from             Moreover, tin" narcemcnt ckt.iulkhcd
shown that Uie crucial dccUion to go to        such hostilities.                                 an ImporLr.nt precedent by conunittiiig
war is far too great a responsibility to          In enacting this legislation, the Con-          the President for the ftrst lime to n dfl-
place In the hands of one man— Uie             gress will implicitly accept a responsibil-        nltc end of US. combat involvement
President. Nor Is It wise to ignore U»e In-    ity to possess Uie knowledge and exper-            lr. Indochlnn.
sights of our Founding FiUhers who rec-        tise needed to make intelligent decisions            .It Is important noxv tlj.it HIP ^gf^~
ognized that gru.it dancers in here In         rcgnnilng the mnny complex issues cx-              ment of June 23. which n*piv*r*m«! .1
unitary authority to uotli declare and         Uint iii any situation thrc.Ucnlng to cii-        successful ncgotlaUpn brtwcrn t IT .ex-
ivngc wnr. To counter tuts danger, they        tnilf Uie Nation in war. We must take Uie          ecutive and Icsislatlvc? branches, bo fol-
separated Uie war-wagJns from Uie war-         steps .iccessnry to Insure that we can             lowed by enactment ot S -HO; HIP War
 mttiAtmg powers. As Thomas Jefferson          continue U> fulflll Uiis responsibility In         Powers Act. which will reassert tin*
stated:                                        the period Ahead. I refer here to the need        constitutional role of the Congress ti; the
  We have ulrtadr given m example one ef- to have sufficient information gathering                ultimate question of forchn policy.
fectual cheek; to the Dot; or wnr by irnnxfer- capabilities and sti/Hcicnl staff to prot.cs»      whether this Nation will or will not go to
     the powcn of letting him loonc from nnd lusimllate Uie same.                                 war.
,*"* J*fcl aoijitiii&tt» tte»
bill ociu
              r
               /««« went commuted
            OUs &£n:
                         .
    tt ia .dedihMMi QD.«irmiiktn£r M «-;
virioowt l^Uw
                 lite w "note" ttiei:«reifc
                                   to the
                       bUL I
rtiat be'ciiapt 6e In the CtMn^er today
to ariu»;ite merits Z «im p)e*Mid Uttt.Uie.
              ^
sizlnlr Wi loanUniMd' strppqriups>ort:irot
    " *                "" "     "
                    'bejtnr today i» *n
Important one, .wUh.-hl«tortc
DM \ aJMm* » .Hill ;» .
•toted with »*•}«•




                       258

				
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