الجزء الثاني - ملخصات الكيمياء by gomoo

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									                                                                                                                            ‫وا‬               ‫دروس ا‬                                                                                                        ‫ما‬   ‫دة : ا‬
MISSOURI Mohamed                                                                                     (                 ‫ءا‬          ‫ء )ا‬          ‫ا‬                                                               ‫م‬                ‫ر‬       ‫آ‬                 ‫ى:ا‬        ‫ا‬
                                                                                                                            ‫ول ا‬            ‫لا‬                       ‫ا‬
                                             ‫ء‬ B‫ة‬     ‫ا‬                                     ‫ا‬                  :2‫ل‬                  ‫ا‬                                                        ‫ء‬       ‫ا‬            AH                          ‫ا‬                  :1 ‫ل‬    ‫ا‬
           B + H 2O                      BH + HO −    +                                                         ‫د ا‬                                                                                                                                          ‫ر‬      ‫ول ا‬
                         ‫ل‬                       ‫دة‬        ‫ا‬        ‫آ‬                   ‫م‬        ‫ا‬                                                   AH + H 2 O                          A− + H 3 O +                                                             ‫د ا‬
                                                                                                                                ‫ا‬                                                   ‫ل‬              ‫ا دة‬                  ‫آ‬                ‫م‬        ‫ا‬                       ‫ا‬

 ni = CV                     ‫و‬                        0             0                           0                                            ni = CV                                 ‫و‬               0                    0                       0
  CV − x                     ‫و‬                    x                 x                        x                                                CV − x                                 ‫و‬               x                    x                    x
 CV − x f                    ‫و‬                   xf                xf                       xf                                               CV − x f                                ‫و‬              xf                   xf                   xf
                                                           :   pH                           ‫ا‬        ‫ر‬             ‫ا‬           ‫درا‬                                                                               : pH                         ‫ا‬        ‫ر‬         ‫ا‬             ‫درا‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                 n ( H 3O + )                     n ( A− )
                                                           n ( HO               )               n ( BH             )
                                                                            −                                 +                                              +                  −
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            xf
                                                                                                                               xf             H 3O  =  A  =
                                                                                                                                                   f  f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          =                       f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       =         = 10− pH
              −                          +
         HO  =  BH  =
            f      f                  =                                         f                                  f
                                                                                                                           =                                                                             V                                V                 V
                                  V                V                                                                           V          x f =  H 3O +  .V
                                   −14                                                                                                                  
                      Ke       10
         HO −  =
               f  H O +  = 10 − pH = 10
                                            pH −14
                                                                                                                                          CV − xm = 0 ⇒ xm = CV
                    3 f                                                                                                                                                                                                             :                ‫ما‬              ‫ا‬
                                                                                                                                                                                +                                    +
                                                                            :                        ‫ما‬                ‫ا‬
                                                                                                                                                     xf                H 3 O  .V  H 3 O 
                                                                                                                                                                             f           f 10− pH
x f =  HO −  .V
                                                                                                                                          τ=                   =                =           =
                                                                                                                                                     xm                     CV          C        C
CV − xm = 0 ⇒ xm = CV                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ‫آ‬                        ‫ا‬    τ ≺1
                     −
               HO  .V  HO                                  −                                                                                                                                                                                       ‫آ‬               ‫ ا‬τ =1
     xf              f          f 10 pH −14
τ=         =                =         =                                                                                                                                  n ( AH ) f              CV − x f
       xm          CV           C           C                                                                                                [ AH ] f            =                       =
          n ( B ) f CV − x f
                                                                                                                                                                            V             V
[ B] f =           =                                                                                                                                                                 +
                                                                                                                                                                         CV −  H 3 O  .V
                                                                                                                                                                                      
             V           V                                                                                                                                       =                                           = C −  H 3O + 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                         −                                                                                                                                                          V                                                             f
            CV −  HO  .V
                           = C −  HO − 
          =                              
                                                                                                                                                     (               ‫آ‬                       ‫ا‬               )‫ازن‬             ‫ا‬                             ‫رج ا‬
                     V                                                                                                                                                      +            −                                +       2
    (     ‫آ‬                          ‫ا‬                    )‫ازن‬          ‫ا‬                                ‫رج ا‬                                                             éq   éq  H 3O  éq
                                                                                                                                                                  H 3O   A 
                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                            Qr ,éq =                                =
                                                                                                          2
                                                                                                                                                                      [ AH ]éq          [ AH ]éq
                        BH +   HO − 
                              éq     éq  HO 
                                             
                                                   −
                                                     
        k = Qr ,éq   =                     =                                                                  éq                               xf
                                                                                                                                          τ=             ⇒ x f = τ .xm = τ .C.V
                              [ B ]éq          [ B ]éq                                                                                         xm
              xf                                                                                                                                          x     τ .C.V
        τ=         ⇒ x f = τ .xm = τ .C.V                                                                                                  H 3O +  = f =
                                                                                                                                                   éq V              = τ .C
              xm                                                                                                                                                   V
                            τ .C.V                                                                                                                     CV − x f
         HO −  = f =
                éq V
                      x
                                    = τ .C                                                                                                [ AH ]éq =              = C −  H 3O +  = C − τ C = C (1 − τ )
                                                                                                                                                                                
                               V                                                                                                                           V
                                                                                                                                                     (τ .C )
                                                                                                                                                             2
                   CV − x f                                                                                                                                      τ 2C
        [ B ]éq =           = C −  HO −  = C − τ C = C (1 − τ )
                                          
                                                                                                                                          Qr ,éq =             =
                                                                                                                                                   C (1 − τ ) 1 − τ
                     V
                (τ .C ) = τ 2C
                                 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                    :                         ‫ا‬               ‫ا‬    ‫ر‬             ‫ا‬             ‫درا‬
  k = Qr ,éq =                                                                                                                                                                                               (                 ‫لا‬                 )‫ل‬             ‫ا‬
               C (1 − τ ) 1 − τ
                                                                                                                                          σ = λH O  H 3 O +  + λ A  A − 
                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                             +
                                                                                                                                                                                       −
                                                                                                                                                     3



                         :   BH +                                  ‫دو‬                                     ‫ا‬                                H 3O +  =  A −  =
                                                                                                                                                                 x
                                                 B                                                                                                   V
                                       Ke 1 − τ
                                                                                                                                                         (                          )V
                             Ke
                   K=           ⇒ Ka =   =      Ke                                                                                        ⇒ σ = λH O+ + λ A−
                                                                                                                                                                                     x
                             Ka        K τ 2C                                                                                                                     3


                                                                                                                                                                                        x     σ
                                                                                                                                          ⇒  H 3O +  =  A −  =
                                                                                                                                                                                      =
                                                                                                                                                                                        V λH O+ + λ A−
                                                                                                                                                                                                         3
                                                                                            ‫وا‬          ‫دروس ا‬                                                                                                                 ‫ما‬   ‫دة : ا‬
MISSOURI Mohamed                                                         (             ‫ءا‬        ‫ء )ا‬        ‫ا‬                                                                      ‫م‬               ‫ر‬           ‫آ‬               ‫ى:ا‬        ‫ا‬
                                                                                            ‫ول ا‬        ‫لا‬                 ‫ا‬
 (       )
n M ( S ) = nx                           :         ‫نه‬            ‫ا‬   M ( S ) ‫دة‬                  ‫آ‬      ‫ل‬              ‫ء‬       ‫ا‬                                        AH
                                                                                                                                                                                            ‫ء‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ‫ل‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ‫ا‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ‫ة‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ‫آ‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           :3 ‫ل‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ‫ة‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ‫ا‬

                                    n ( e− )                                                                                                                                                                                             ‫ر‬    ‫ول ا‬
                (
             n M (S ) =     )         m
                                                   :                     ‫د‬     ‫ا‬                                           AH + HO −                       A− + H 2 O                                                                       ‫د ا‬

                                                         ‫ و‬n ( e− ) = mnx ‫إذن‬
                                                                                                                                    ‫ل‬          ‫دة‬          ‫ا‬            ‫آ‬                               ‫م‬             ‫ا‬                              ‫ا‬
                                               :                                                                                                                                0               0                    0
                                                                                                                           CaVa                    CbVb
                   Q I ∆t I ∆t      I ∆t
         n ( e− ) = =    =      ⇒x=                                                                               CaVa − x                CbVb − x                              x               x                    x
                   F  F    N Ae     mnF
                                                                                                                 CaVa − x f              CbVb − x f                         xf              xf                      xf
                                                             :‫ت‬                   ‫آ‬
                                             :( ‫ت‬            ‫دا‬              ) ‫ا دة‬              ‫آ‬                                   CbVbE − xm = 0 ‫ و‬CaVa − xm = 0                                                                      :               ‫ا‬
              m( X )                                                                                              ⇒ xm = CaVa = CbVbE
     n( X ) =
              M (X)                                                                                                              xm    CaVa     CbVbE
                                                                                                                   ⇒  A−  =
                                                                                                                        f V +V = V +V = V +V
                N
     n( X ) =                                                                                                                  a    bE a   bE a a   bE a
                Na                                                                                                                  ‫ل‬          ‫مو‬                               ‫تا‬                  ‫آ‬                                    ‫ل 4: ا‬                  ‫ا‬
                V (X )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ‫ر ر‬                   ‫ا‬
     n( X ) =
                 Vm                                                                                         CaCO3 + 2 H 3O + → Ca 2+ + CO2 + 3H 2O                                                                                           ‫ا‬       ‫د‬
                                                                     :                 ‫ا‬    ‫آ‬    ‫ا‬                                                                                                                   ‫م‬           ‫ا‬
                                                                                                                                     ‫ل‬             ‫دة‬          ‫ا‬            ‫آ‬
           n ( A)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ‫ا‬
        C=                                                                                                        ni                      C.V                       0                   0                   0                 0
            Vs
                                                                                                                 ni − x              C.V − x                        x                   x               3x                   x
               n( X )
        [X ] =                                                                                               ni − x f               C.V − x f                      xf               xf              3x f                  xf
                  Vs
                                                                                                                                               ‫ و‬ni ( H 3O ) = C.V :
                                                                                                                                          m
        Cm =
               m
                                                                         :             ‫ا‬    ‫آ‬    ‫ا‬          ni ( CaCO3 ) =                                +
                                                                                                                                                                           ‫ما‬      ‫ا‬
               Vs                                                                                                                        M
             m                                                                                                                           ni ( CaCO3 ) − xm = 0 ‫ أو‬ni ( H 3O + ) − xm = 0
         ρ=                                                          :                 ‫ا‬         ‫ا‬
             V                                                                                                                                                                              m
                                                                                                                                                                    ⇒ xm =                              ‫ أو‬xm = C.V
             ρ                                                                                                                                                                              M
         d=                                    :‫ء‬                                                ‫آ‬
            ρ eau                                                                                                                                                   :               ‫او ا‬                    ‫ا‬             ‫ر ا‬                    ‫ا‬           ‫درا‬
                                                                                                                                     :   ‫د‬             ‫ا‬                ‫ن‬            ‫نا‬                 ‫ا‬                ‫أوآ‬                 ‫ز‬
             M
        d=                                             :‫اء‬                         ‫ز‬             ‫آ‬                                                                                       PCO2 .VCO2 = n ( CO2 ) .R.T
             29
                                                                                                                                                                            PCO2 .VCO2
                                                                                                                                     x = n ( CO2 ) =
                                ‫ا‬                       ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬                                                                                                       n ( CO2 ) .R.T
                        ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬                        CH 4                                                                                                                                                   ‫د‬                        ‫ل 5: درا‬                ‫ا‬
                        ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬                       C2 H 6
                        ‫و ن‬     ‫ا‬                       C3 H 8
                        ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬                      C4 H10                                                                  mN ( S ) + nM (m +) → mN (nS+) + nM ( S )
                                                                                                                                              aq
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ‫ا‬       ‫د‬

                        ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬                      C5 H12                                                                       ‫ل‬          ‫دة‬          ‫ا‬            ‫آ‬                                                ‫م‬           ‫ا‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ‫ا‬
                    ‫ن‬           ‫ا‬                      C6 H14                                                     n1i                    n2i                            n3i                             n4i                          0
                        ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬                      C7 H16                                           n1i − mx                   n2i − nx                n3i + mx                         n4i + nx                                 x


                                                                                                                                    N naq 
                                                                                                                                         +
                                                                                                                                               m                    (  +
                                                                                                                                                               ni N (naq )          )
                                                                                                                                    ( )
                                                                                                                                                = V +V ' =
                                                                                                                                                                C 'V '
                                                                                                                   Qr ;i =                         i

                                                                                                                                    M m+ 
                                                                                                                                    ( aq )  i
                                                                                                                                               n            m+
                                                                                                                                                    ni M ( aq ) CV (                )
                                                                                                                                                       V +V '
                                                                                                                                                 n+
                                                                                                                                    N ( S ) → N ( aq ) + ne − :   ‫و‬    ‫ا‬                                                             ‫د‬           ‫ا‬

                                                                                                                            M (m +) + me− → M ( S )
                                                                                                                               aq

								
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