Teaching Techniques

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Teaching Techniques Powered By Docstoc
					Welcome back to the
  ExCEEd
Teaching
Workshop
             Steve Ressler
                and the
             ETW Faculty
ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
                                COURSE SCHEDULE
       SUNDAY       MONDAY       TUESDAY     WEDNESDAY       THURSDAY        FRIDAY
     You Are       Admin & Gift Admin & Gift Admin & Gift Admin & Gift Admin & Gift
 8:00 Here                                                                 Seminar XIII
                     Demo                                                  Interpersonal
                     Class I    Lab III Lab IV Lab V                        Rapport
                                                                             ASCE
10:00
                   Teaching &   Practice Practice Practice                 Programs
                    Learning
                                Class 1                                      ETW
                                         Class 2 Class 3                   Assessment
                   Objectives
                                                                           Graduation
12:00                             Lunch
                    Lunch        Teaching
                                               Lunch          Lunch
                                Assessment                    Design of
                                 Demo Lab IV
                    Planning                                 Instruction
 2:00                A Class
                   Chalkboard   Class II (continued)         Gender and
        Intro                   Communi-
                                          Demo                Influence

 4:00 To ETW     Lab II           cation Class III
                                             Instructional    Making It
                Objectives         Skills                      Work
      Seminar I                              Technology
        Learning
        To Teach   Working
 6:00
                   Dinner                                    Hudson
         Lab I     & Class                                    River
         Team-      Prep                                     Cruise
        Building
   Demonstration Class I
The Class:
   Instructors: Al Estes
   Course:        EM302 Statics & Dynamics
   Topic:         Truss Analysis 1
   Location:      Room B-19
Admin:
   EM302 Study Notes are in your notebook.             6
   Bring your notebook, and take notes.
   Bring a calculator.

     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
        Group Activity

(1) What strengths did the two
classes have in common?
(2) What specific aspects could
be improved?

   ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
           Seminar II
    Principles
        of
Effective Teaching
   and Learning
              Steve Ressler
  ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
 Define “Effective Teaching”
Two Approaches:
 Focus on teacher performance
 Focus on student learning




    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
What Constitutes Exemplary Teaching?



   What one word best
    characterizes the
   demonstration class
      you just saw?
     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
What Constitutes Exemplary Teaching?
  Intellectual Excitement                 Lowman
     Technical Expertise                 Chapter 1
     Organization
     Clarity of Communication
     Engaging Presentation
     Enthusiasm
  Interpersonal Rapport
     Interest in students as individuals
     Interest in students’ learning
     Receptive to students’ preferences about
      assignments and policies
        ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
 Descriptors Associated with
 Lowman’s Two Dimensions
Intellectual Excitement
  1. Enthusiastic                  4. Humorous
  2. Knowledgeable                 5. Interesting
  3. Inspiring                     6. Clear
Interpersonal Rapport
  1. Concerned                     4. Encouraging
  2. Helpful                       5. Challenging
  3. Caring                        6. Available

    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
         Lowman’s Two-Dimensional
            Model of Teaching
                            INTERPERSONAL RAPPORT
                            Low         Moderate           High

                        6. Intellectual 8. Exemplary   9. Complete
INTELLECTUAL




                 High
 EXCITEMENT




                          Authority        Lecturer     Exemplar
                                                       7. Exemplary
               Moderate 3. Adequate 5. Competent
                                                         Facilitator

                 Low    1.Inadequate   2. Marginal      4.Socratic
                Lowman’s Model:
Implications for Faculty Development
Both intellectual excitement and
  interpersonal rapport are required for
  excellence in teaching.
Focus on intellectual excitement first.
        “Unless traditional teaching skills
                 are mastered first,
   structural innovations are unlikely to lead to
               exemplary instruction
           or optimal student learning.”
                                   -Joseph Lowman
       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Define “Effective Teaching”
Two Approaches:
Focus on teacher performance
Focus on student learning




     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Research-Based Guidelines for
   Improving Student Learning
Students learn more when they:
 Spend as  much high-quality time on task
  as possible.
 Engage actively in       their academic work.
 Receive regular, timely, specific         feedback.
 Connect new     information to prior knowledge.
 See real-world applications of their work.

       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Research-Based Guidelines for
   Improving Student Learning
Students learn more when they:
 Work regularly and productively with  faculty.
 Work regularly and productively with other
  students.
 Organize what they are learning in personally
  meaningful and academically appropriate ways.
 Pay attention to their ways of working.
 Set and maintain high but realistic standards.
      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
         The “ExCEEd Model”
 Structured organization
    Based on learning objectives
    Appropriate to the subject matter
    Varied, to appeal to different learning styles
                                                      Teacher
 Engaging presentation
    Clear written and verbal communication
                                                        As
    High degree of contact with students              Role
    Physical models & demonstrations                  Model
 Enthusiasm
 Positive rapport with students
 Frequent assessment of student learning
    Classroom assessment techniques
    Out-of-class homework and projects
 Appropriate use of technology
                        Why?
It works!
It is consistent with well-established principles
  of teaching and learning
   Lowman’s Model
                                         Wankat & Oreovicz
   Wankat’s Compendium of                   Chapter 1
    Learning Principles
It provides a solid foundation for:
   Development  of your own individual teaching style
   Continued growth

      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
         The “ExCEEd Model”
 Structured organization
    Based on learning objectives
    Appropriate to the subject matter
    Varied, to appeal to different learning styles
                                                      Teacher
 Engaging presentation
    Clear written and verbal communication
                                                        As
    High degree of contact with students              Role
    Physical models & demonstrations                  Model
 Enthusiasm
 Positive rapport with students
 Frequent assessment of student learning
    Classroom assessment techniques
    Out-of-class homework and projects
 Appropriate use of technology
   Classroom
   Assessment
  Technique #2

Muddiest Point
   Paper
           Seminar II
 Principles
      of
  Effective
  Teaching
and Learning
                     5
ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
           Seminar III

An Introduction to
Learning Styles
              Steve Ressler


  ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Learning Style Dimensions
      (Felder’s Model)
Perception                   sensory - intuitive

Input                           visual - verbal

Organization              inductive - deductive

Processing                    active - reflective

Understanding               sequential - global
     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
How Do Most Faculty and
Students Prefer to Learn?
   sensory - intuitive
     visual - verbal
 inductive - deductive
    active - reflective
   sequential - global
 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
                                        Undergrads   Faculty
Learning Style Preferences     Sensing     59%        36%
                              Intuitive    39%        61%
                                Visual     73%        73%
                               Verbal      25%        26%
                             Inductive     37%        58%
                             Deductive     63%        40%
                               Active      50%        38%
                             Reflective    47%        60%
                             Sequential    75%        70%
                               Global      24%        27%
 How Do Most Faculty Teach?
Most Engineering Instruction Favors:
        sensory - intuitive
          visual - verbal
      inductive - deductive
         active - reflective
        sequential - global
     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
         Consequences of
Teaching-Learning Mismatches
Students taught only in their
 less-preferred mode can’t learn
 effectively.
Students taught only in their
 preferred mode won’t develop
 balanced learning skills.

     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
               Conclusions
You’ll find students of all learning
 styles in your classes.
We need all types in the
 engineering profession.
We need to address all styles in our
 classes, not just one!
           We’ll discuss specific
           applications soon...
    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Classroom
  Assessment
 Technique #3

Minute Paper
         Seminar III

An Introduction to
Learning Styles
                      5
 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
    Seminars IV & V
Organizing a Class

             Steve Ressler
               Al Estes

  ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Coming Soon! The Big Picture!
           Seminar XII
Organizing a Course:
 Systematic Design
   of Instruction

   ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  A Structured Methodology for
       Organizing a Class
Formulate learning objectives.
Develop in-class learning activities:
   Prepare a lesson outline.
   Prepare “board notes.”

Develop out-of-class learning activities.
   Selectreading assignments.
   Develop homework assignments and projects.


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     A Model Instructional Strategy
 Provide an orientation:
    Why is this important?

    How does it relate to prior knowledge?

 Provide learning objectives.
 Provide information.
 Stimulate critical thinking about the subject.
 Provide models.
 Provide opportunities to apply the knowledge:
    In a familiar context.

    In new and unfamiliar contexts.

 Assess the learners’ performance and provide feedback.
 Provide opportunities for self-assessment.
         Seminar IV
    Organizing a Class #1

   Learning
   Objectives
            Steve Ressler

ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
   Formulate Learning Objectives
Describe what students should be
 able to do after:
  Studying  the reading assignment
 Attending the class
 Doing the assigned homework or
  project
                            Wankat & Oreovicz
Typically 1 - 5 per class     Chapter 4

      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     What are
Learning Objectives
    useful for?


 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     Learning Objectives
       Are Useful For:
Lesson planning
   Identify critical material
   Identify extraneous material

Communicating expectations
Assessing student learning
Writing exams
Assessing the course
     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Bloom’s Taxonomy of                             For the
  Educational Objectives                         Cognitive
                                                  Domain
      Evaluation
  judge, critique, justify,           Synthesis
verify, assess, recommend
                                create, construct, design,
                               improve, produce, propose
       Analysis
compare, contrast, classify,         Application
 categorize, derive, model
                                   calculate, solve,
                                   determine, apply
   Comprehension
   explain, paraphrase               Knowledge
                                       list, recite
  Writing a Good Objective
Use measurable action verbs.
Why don’t these verbs work?
 Know
 Learn
 Appreciate
 Understand
TEST: If an objective is well written, you
 should be able to use it as an exam
 question, without modification.
    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
             Bloom’s Taxonomy:
                    So What?
      Evaluation
  judge, critique, justify,           Synthesis
verify, assess, recommend
                                create, construct, design,
                               improve, produce, propose
       Analysis
compare, contrast, classify,         Application
 categorize, derive, model
                                   calculate, solve,
                                   determine, apply
   Comprehension
   explain, paraphrase               Knowledge
                                       list, recite
              So What?
Undergraduate education tends to focus
 on the lower level thinking skills.
 (knowledge, comprehension, application)
Ideally, all levels should be addressed in
 every course
Ideally, all levels should be assessed in
 every course


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Communicating Objectives
Provide to students at the start of the
 semester.
“Preposition” on the chalkboard in
 class.
Reinforce during class, in
 homework, and on exams.

     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Are There Negative Consequences
      of Using Objectives?
 Learning Objectives promote “spoon-feeding.”
 Learning Objectives inhibit  creativity.
 Students need to be able to figure out what is
  important. If the instructor tells them what’s
  important, they’ll never learn to do it on their
  own.
        These claims are not
    supported by research results.
       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     Seminar IV
Organizing a Class #1

 Learning
 Objectives
                     5
       Questions?
ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     Seminar V
Organizing a Class #2

Planning
 a Class
             Feedback
                on
              CAT #1

             Al Estes

ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
             Don’t Forget…
Start working on the Workshop
 Assessment now.
Value: How valuable was the event for
 your development as an educator?
Conduct: How well was the event
 organized and conducted?

                          11
      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  A Structured Methodology for
       Organizing a Class
Formulate learning objectives.
Develop in-class learning activities.
   Prepare a lesson outline.
   Prepare “board notes.”

Develop out-of-class learning activities.
   Selectreading assignments.
   Develop homework assignments and projects.


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  A Structured Methodology for
       Organizing a Class
Formulate learning objectives.
Develop in-class learning activities:
   Prepare a lesson outline.
   Prepare “board notes.”

Develop out-of-class learning activities.
   Selectreading assignments.
   Develop homework assignments and projects.


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
 Prepare a Lesson Outline
Identify major topics to be covered or
 learning activities to be performed.
   Typically5 - 8 per class.
   Should address the lesson objectives.

Determine the hierarchy of concepts.
Determine a logical sequence.
Plan visual aids and demonstrations.

    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Example Outline: Trusses 1
 Review Relevant           Prior Material
      2 Force Members
      Concurrent/Non-Concurrent Force Systems
 Trusses
      Definition
      Assumptions/Characteristics
      Examples
        • Types of trusses  Vu-graphs: roof and bridge
        • Haupt Truss  Classroom model
        • Real world examples  Powerpoint presentation
 Solve for Internal        Forces
      External Forces
      Method of Joints       Do an Example Problem
      Method of Sections

       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  A Structured Methodology for
       Organizing a Class
Formulate learning objectives.
Develop in-class learning activities:
   Prepare a lesson outline.
   Prepare “board notes.”

Develop out-of-class learning activities.
   Selectreading assignments.
   Develop homework assignments and projects.


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Background on Board Notes
 Evolved from USMA’s segmented blackboards.
 Can be    used for any classroom presentation
 media:
   Other   types of chalkboard
   Whiteboards

   Transparencies

   PowerPoint

         “most effective” by previous ETW and
 Cited as
 T4E participants.
      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Prepare “Board Notes”
The entire classroom presentation
 recorded accurately on paper
Generally one board per topic
Plan use of colored chalk:
              hierarchy of ideas
   Illustrates
   Enhances clarity, especially for graphics
   Adds distinctive character to the class


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Blank “Board Notes” Sheet
                        9
Example Board Notes
    Content of Board Notes
All lesson content that you intend to
 discuss in class
May include:
   Administrative announcements
   Visual aids and demonstrations

   Questions

   Transitions



     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  Using “Board Notes”
Preparation:
   Facilitateslesson organization.
   Serves as a rehearsal for class.

Use for reference during class.
   Frees up your hands.
   Frees up a lot of RAM.

Use as a record of what you taught.


     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
            Why Are
     Transitions Important?
Integrate discrete topics into a coherent
 whole.
Establish relationships between topics.
Establish relationships between a given
 topic, prior knowledge, and the “big
 picture.”


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
           Classroom
           Assessment
          Technique #4
Approximate Analogy
Board Notes are to a Class Presentation
as ___________ is to ______________
How Can We Apply
Learning Styles Theory as the
Basis for Organizing a Class?
Perception       sensory - intuitive

Input              visual - verbal

Organization    inductive - deductive

Processing       active - reflective

Understanding    sequential - global
               Some Ideas
 For sensory learners, include practical example
  problems (with real numbers).
 For visual learners, use sketches, graphs, pictures,
  demonstrations, and video clips.
 For inductive learners, work a problem or show an
  application first, then develop the theory.
 For active learners, use small group exercises in
  class, and allow students to collaborate on
  homework.
 For global learners, discuss the relevance of the
  subject and relate it to concepts from other lessons
  and courses.
      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  A Structured Methodology for
       Organizing a Class
Formulate learning objectives.
Develop in-class learning activities.
   Prepare a lesson outline.
   Prepare “board notes.”

Develop out-of-class learning activities.
   Selectreading assignments.
   Develop homework assignments and projects.


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
      Prepare Out-of-Class Activities
    Some Thoughts:                                      Lowman
                                                       Chapter 8
 Time on task is critical to learning.
 Integrate in-class and out-of-class learning activities.




         ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     A Model Instructional Strategy
 Provide an orientation:
    Why is this important?
                                                In class
    How does it relate to prior knowledge?        or
 Provide learning objectives.                out of class?
 Provide information.
 Stimulate critical thinking about the subject.
 Provide models.
 Provide opportunities to apply the knowledge:
    In a familiar context.

    In new and unfamiliar contexts.

 Assess the learners’ performance and provide feedback.
 Provide opportunities for self-assessment.
      Prepare Out-of-Class Activities
    Some Thoughts:                                   Lowman
                                                   Chapter 8
 Time on task is critical to learning.
 Integrate in-class and out-of-class learning activities.
 Reading assignments:
   Ensure that they are relevant.

   Hold students responsible for doing them.

 Homework and projects:
   Include opportunities to apply knowledge in new contexts.

   Full benefit is only attained with constructive assessment
    and feedback.

        ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
           Classroom
           Assessment
          Technique #4

Approximate Analogy
Board Notes are to a Class Presentation
as ___________ is to ______________
        Seminar V
 Organizing a Class #2

Planning
 a Class
                    5
               Al Estes
ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
         Seminar VI
Instructional Technology #1:

   The
Chalkboard
              Ron Welch

 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
  The Chalkboard
     “The inventor or introducer
           of the blackboard
deserves to be ranked among the best
contributors to learning and science,
           if not among the
    best benefactors of mankind.”
                           Josiah Bumstead, 1841

   ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     Group Activity
Why is the chalkboard
uniquely effective as a
medium for classroom
    instruction?
(List the top three reasons)

ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Why is the Chalkboard Effective?
Self-pacing
Information remains visible and can be used later
 in the class
Allows flexibility, spontaneity, and non-linearity
Can be used to develop students’ drawing skills
No broken parts, burned out bulbs, power loss…
Can be used with lights on


       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
 But it’s only effective…
…if you know how to use it.
“The most important props in most
 classrooms are the blackboard and
 overhead projector. Though
 commonplace and easily taken for
 granted, both need to be used effectively.”
                           Wankat & Oreovicz, Ch. 6


      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
          Ron,
   why are you using
  PowerPoint to teach
people how to write with
         chalk?


 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
            How to Write
 Write     BIG.
 Write legibly.
   Use consistent format and case.
   Put space between words.
 Write boldly.
   Press hard on chalk.
   Press the edge of chalk (should form a point).
   ATTACK the blackboard (should hear chalk).


       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Posture Is Important!
Shoulders       facing blackboard
Hand    directly in front of shoulder
Move  your body
 as you write
Bend  at knees when
 writing low

   ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Organization & Emphasis
Indentation
Grouping
Underlining
Clouds
Color


   ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
   Why Five Colors?
Show  the hierarchy of ideas.
Add visual life to material.
Enhance clarity of drawings.
A trademark!


         Use a consistent
          color scheme.
    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Are you ready to rumble?!?


               Let’s do
                some
              chalkboard
               aerobics

   ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
       Do not write...
Lengthy      definitions/descriptions.
Anything unimportant.
Large amounts  of prepositioned
 information (unless review
 material or handout material).
             Writing takes time.
          Time is a priceless asset.
    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
    What if You Don’t Have
       Chalkboards?
Get chalkboards, or…
Apply these same techniques with
 other media.
              We’ll talk about
       Transparencies and PowerPoint
               in Seminar XI.


       ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
          Seminar VI
Instructional Technology #1:


   The
Chalkboard
                      5
             Questions?
 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
     What Next? Lab II
Move to designated classroom.
Activities:

                                                       7
   Develop   lesson objectives for your
    first prepared class.
   Write objectives on the blackboard.

   Discuss.

Mentor’s Wrap-Up at 1700.
And then…

    ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
 Tonight: Preparation for Lab III
Mentors will  be available.
Working dinner
Develop a complete set of board notes for
 your first prepared class:
   Compose  at the chalkboard.
   Then transfer to paper.

   “Rehearse” as you write.



      ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
Tomorrow Morning: Lab III
Meet in 444 Thayer at 0800.
See schedule for order of rotation.                    1
 Teach the first 25 minutes of your first
  prepared class.
 Focus on organization:


                                                        7
   Board notes
   Transitions

   Writing

30-minute Assessment by Mentor

     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
   If you didn’t do a
Journal entry yesterday,
  please do one now.



 ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001
                                  COURSE SCHEDULE
        SUNDAY      MONDAY         TUESDAY     WEDNESDAY       THURSDAY        FRIDAY
                   You Are
                   Admin & Gift   Admin & Gift Admin & Gift Admin & Gift Admin & Gift
 8:00
                    Here
                     Demo                                                    Seminar XIII
                                                                             Interpersonal
                     Class I      Lab III Lab IV Lab V                        Rapport
                                                                               ASCE
10:00
                   Teaching &     Practice Practice Practice                 Programs
                    Learning
                                  Class 1                                      ETW
                                           Class 2 Class 3                   Assessment
                   Objectives
                                                                             Graduation
12:00                              Lunch
                     Lunch         Teaching
                                                 Lunch          Lunch
                                  Assessment                    Design of
                                   Demo Lab IV
                    Planning                                   Instruction
 2:00                A Class
                   Chalkboard     Class II (continued)         Gender and
        Intro                     Communi-
                                            Demo                Influence

 4:00 To ETW     Lab II             cation Class III
                                               Instructional    Making It
                Objectives          Skills                       Work
      Seminar I                                Technology
        Learning
        To Teach   Working
 6:00
                   Dinner                                      Hudson
         Lab I     & Class                                      River
         Team-      Prep                                       Cruise
        Building
           Today: Lab III
Your first practice class!
See schedule for order of rotation.                    1
 Teach the first 25 minutes of your first
  prepared class.
 Focus on organization:


                                                        7
   Board  notes
   Transitions

   Writing

20-minute Assessment by Mentor

     ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 29 July – 3 August 2001

				
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