Parkinson's Disease Tremor Prediction with On Demand Driven Deep by ANjU5x2

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									 Prediction of Parkinson’s
Disease Tremor Onset Using
 Artificial Neural Networks




        Kevin Warwick
                  Road Map
 Parkinson’s     Disease (PD) and
  Treatments
 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Treatment
  on PD Tremor
 PD   Brain Data Analysis
 Artificial   Neural Network Prediction
 Future   Research
             Parkinson’s Disease
   What is Parkinson's Disease (PD)?

   Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

       Tremor, Slowness of movement, Rigidity,

        Poor balance

   How is PD caused in theory                    Sir William
                                                  Richard Gowers
       Substantia nigra                          (1886)

       Dopamine
               Current PD Treatment
   Drugs – Various forms of Levodopa (L-dopa)

        Advantage – effective for early PD patients, cheap


        Disadvantage – kyskinesias, unpredictable on-off switching
                                                                      Levodopa
         and freezing, chemical side effects.


   Surgical

        Radio frequency Lesioning – non-reversible


        Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) – blocks nerve traffic
PD Patient’s Brain Data Gathering
                  Road Map
 Parkinson’s     Disease (PD) and
  Treatments
 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Treatment
  on PD Tremor
 PD   Brain Data Analysis
 Artificial   Neural Networks Prediction
 Future   Research
         DBS Treatment on PD
 What    is Deep Brain Stimulation?
          a connecting cable and
 Electrode,
 Neurostimulator
 Video   (Dana Centre)
              Research Project
 What    is wrong with current DBS?
     Large amount of battery usage
     Continuous stimulation – overrides brain
     Open-Loop
     Side Effects?

 Create   an intelligent DBS system which
 can predict PD tremor onset using
 Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
                  Road Map
 Parkinson’s     Disease (PD) and
  Treatments
 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Treatment
  on PD Tremor
 PD   Brain Data Analysis
 Artificial   Neural Networks Prediction
 Future   Research
PD Patients Brain Data Plot
Frequency Domain Analysis
                  Road Map
 Parkinson’s     Disease (PD) and
  Treatments
 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Treatment
  on PD Tremor
 PD   Brain Data Analysis
 Artificial   Neural Networks Prediction
 Future   Research
ANN Design Principles
MLP Results
                  Road Map
 Parkinson’s     Disease (PD) and
  Treatments
 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Treatment
  on PD Tremor
 PD   Brain Data Analysis
 Artificial   Neural Networks Prediction
 Comments       & Future Research
                  Comments
   Aim is to accurately predict tremors and then
    apply stimulation in order to stop them
    occurring
   Only stimulate when prediction indicates
   Needs research into nature of stimulation –
    frequency/magnitude/time prior for
    effect/generality with different people
    Doesn’t matter so much if false positive
    predictions
   Does matter if false negatives
          More Comments
 Every PD case is a little bit different
 Not everyone can benefit from
  stimulation
 Probably not everyone will benefit from
  our prediction + stimulation (subset)
 Doesn’t have to be neural network
 Hybrid methods probably best
 Neural net good for nonlinearities though
           Future Research
 More   Tests on resting data – no false
  calls
 Test on a broader range of patients to
  assess general results with our current
  MLP (male, female, age difference)
 Test on other problems
  (Epilepsy/Tourette’s/Emotional)
 Apply feedback loop (MRC project)
                 Surprise
 Biggest   shock has been the prediction
  time
 15/20 seconds seems typical
 But this means we know for sure what
  will happen in the human brain 15/20
  seconds before it happens
 How long could this time be?
 What else could we predict this way?
            Other Points
 Developing  here an AI brain within the
  human brain
 Use for other diseases – not just PD
 Could be used for emotional
  changes/control
 Ethical concerns:
 What should predictor/stimulator be used
  for in humans?
 What about responsibility/murders etc?

								
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