APUSH- Chapter 8: Varieties of American Nationalism, Terms and Review- KEY
Terms to Know: Define these terms and demonstrate why each person, event,
concept, or issue is important. Include page numbers please!
1. Second Bank of the United States = (Pg. 220) After the BUS charter ran out in 1811,
numerous banks started to issue notes. Notes were not always backed by gold and were
only as reliable as the bank’s reputation. Congress tried to solve the currency problem
by making a 2nd BUS. Essentially the same as the first, but with more money to start
with. The national bank could not forbid state banks to issue currency, but its size and
power enabled it to dominate the state banks. It could compel them to issue only sound
notes or risk being forced out of business.
2. Protective tariff = (Pg. 221) After British products came flooding into American ports,
protectionists in Congress won passage of a tariff law that effectively limited
competition from abroad on a wide range of items, among the most important of which
was cotton cloth. Passed in 1816 to protect the “infant industries” of the Union.
a. Textile Industry: Lowell, in Massachusetts, and the power loom.
3. National Road = (Pg. 221) Need for a better transportation system. Construction began
in 1811 at Cumberland (MD) and by 1818, this highway was as far as Wheeling (VA) on
the Ohio River. Goal was to help transport goods for trade.
4. Steamboats = (Pg. 221 – 222) Steam-powered shipping was growing on the rivers and
Great Lakes. Robert Fulton. Main carriers of cargo along the Mississippi.
5. Turnpikes = (Pg. 221) Toll-roads. Built by private companies instead of national
6. Fur traders and trappers = (Pg. 224 – 225) Fur traders created a wholly new commerce
with the west. Started by pelts from Indians, but white trappers entered the area and
hunted beaver. “Mountain men.” Aster’s American Fur Company, Rocky Mountain Fur
Company. Relied on the market; earned a salary in exchange for supplies, needed
companies for credit, sold furs for cash. Most lived peacefully with Mexicans & Indians,
but there were still skirmishes.
7. Stephen Long’s Expedition = (Pg. 225) In 1819 & 1820, he was sent off by the War
Department to find the sources of the Red River. Failed to find source, but after going
up rivers, wrote a report on his trip, including an assessment of the region’s potential
for future settlement and development. Explored the Great Plains area, although he
called it “the great American desert.”
8. First-Party System = (Pg. 226) Dream of the day in which partisan divisions and factional
disputes might come to an end. Monroe hoped that could happen during the postwar
9. The “Virginia Dynasty” = (Pg. 226) When a succession of Presidents were from VA.
Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe. Annoyed some of the Northerners.
10. James Monroe = (Pg. 226 – 227) Became President in 1816. Hoped to end the factions/
political party squabbling. Chose former Federalist John Quincy Adams as his Secretary
of State. Appointed many northerners, southerners, easterners, westerners, Federalists
and Republicans into cabinet/ government positions. “Era of Good Feelings” president.
Greeted cheerfully during his goodwill tour of country.
11. John Quincy Adams= (Pg. 227) 6th President of the US, son of 2nd President. Monroe’s
Sec. of State. Considered his most important task the promotion of American expansion.
Under Monroe, he had to deal with FL. In 1817, Adams began negotiations with the
Spanish, in hopes of getting the entire FL peninsula.
a. During his presidency (Pg. 232-233): Haunted by the “corrupt bargain” that got
him into office; it hindered his ability to pass legislation/ work with Congress.
Had diplomatic frustrations, lost a case over Indians with Georgia, Tariff of
12. Henry Clay = (Pg. 227, 232) Speaker of the House during Madison & Monroe. Declined
Monroe’s offer to be Sec. of War. Ran for President in 1824 to promote the “American
13. John C. Calhoun = (Pg. 227) Very outspoken man. Appointed Monroe’s Sec. of War.
Ordered Andrew Jackson to “adopt the necessary measures” to stop continuing raids on
American territory by Seminole Indians.
14. The Seminole War = (Pg. 227) Attempt to stop Indians raids, turned into an invasion of
FL. Led by Andrew Jackson.
15. Andrew Jackson = (Pg. 227, 232 – 233) Had orders from Calhoun to “adopt the
necessary measures” to stop continuing raids on American territory by Seminole
Indians. He used that as an excuse to invade Florida, seize the Spanish forts at St. Marks
& Pensacola, and order the hanging of 2 British subjects on the chare of supplying and
inciting the Indians. Ran for President in 1824; received more popular and electoral
votes than any else, but not a majority. Due to 12th amendment laws and Henry Clay,
Adams was elected President instead. Came out triumphant in the 1828 Election.
16. Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 = (Pg. 227) Jackson’s raid proved to the Spanish that the US
could easily take FL by force. The Spanish minister, Luis de Onis, worked on a treaty with
J.Q. Adams in which Spain ceded all of FL to the US and gave up as well its claim to
territory north of the 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return, the American
government gave up its claims to Texas.
17. Panic of 1819 = (Pg. 227 – 228) Economic crisis that followed a period of high foreign
demand for American farm goods. Rising food prices had stimulated a land boom due to
easy-to-get credit. In 1819, the national bank began calling in loans & foreclosing
mortgages. This set off a series of failures of state banks. Six years of depression
followed. Many blamed the national bank.
18. Missouri Compromise = (Pg. 228 – 229) Averted a sectional crisis for the first time
(North v. South). Issue over free v. slave states. Finally agreed that Maine would be
admitted as a Free State and Missouri as a slave state. Amendment to Compromise Bill,
that slavery boundary was set at the southern boundary of Missouri (360 30’ parallel).
19. The Marshall Court = (Pg. 229 – 230) Supreme court led by Chief Justice John Marshall.
Molded the development of the Constitution: strengthening the judicial branch at the
expense of the executive & legislatives, increased the power of the federal government
at the expense of the states, and advanced the interests of the propertied and
a. Fletcher v. Peck (land grants = valid contract), Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(Contract clause) – gave Supreme Court power to override the decisions of state
courts. Reinforced by Cohens v. Virginia.
b. McCulloch v. Maryland confirmed the “implied powers” of Congress. Gibbons v.
Ogden strengthened Congress’ power to regulate interstate commerce.
i. The Marshall Court decisions established the power of the federal
government over the states in regulating economy and opened the way
for an increased federal role in promoting economic growth.
20. Worcester v. Georgia = (Pg. 230) 1832. The Court invalidated GA laws that attempted to
regulate access by US citizens to Cherokee country. Only the federal government could
do that. The tribes were sovereign entities in much the same way GA was a sovereign
a. Gave Indians a place within the American political system: had basic property
rights, sovereign entities not subject to the authority of state governments, but
the federal government had ultimate authority over tribal affairs, although
“limited” since the government was obligated to protect Indian welfare.
21. Monroe Doctrine = (Pg. 230 – 231) By 1815, US proclaimed neutrality in the wars
between Spain and its colonies; however US sold supplies to the revolutionaries. In
1823, Monroe announced his new policy. The American continents are no longer open
to colonization, the US would consider any foreign challenge to the sovereignty of
existing American nations as an unfriendly act & would go to war if necessary, and the
US would not interfere in European affairs. “Stay out of our area & we’ll stay out of
a. Primarily the work of J.Q. Adams, not Monroe.
22. Election of 1824 = (Pg. 232) Had multiple candidates running: William H. Crawford, J. Q.
Adams, Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. Jackson obtained the most votes, but not a
majority. Had to be decided by the House of Representatives.
23. The “Corrupt Bargain” = (Pg. 232) Due to 12th Amendment, House of Reps must choose
among the 3 candidates with the largest number of electoral votes. In 1824, Clay was
out (4th place) & so was Crawford (sick), so it was between J.Q. Adams & A. Jackson. Clay
was Jackson’s biggest rival, so he supported Adams. Others followed his lead and Adams
won the election. Once President, Adams named Clay as his Sec. of State. Jackson’s
supporters were outraged and thought that this was a corrupt bargain just to get Adams
the presidency; haunted Adams throughout his presidency.
24. Tariff of Abominations = (Pg. 233) Tariff on imported goods in 1828. Was supposed to
help northern woolen manufacturers, but to win support for the bill, the administration
had to accept duties on other goods. Angered the South who gave it the nickname.
25. Election of 1828 = (Pg. 233) 2-party system had emerged out of the Republican factions:
supporters of J.Q. Adams called themelves the National Republicans and the followers
of Andrew Jackson took the name Democratic Republicans (Jacksonian Democrats).
Election campaigns were full of slander/lies on both sides. Jackson’s victory was
decisive, but section (NE went to Adams). Start of the “age of the common man.”
Chapter Objectives: After Reading the Chapter you should be able to discuss following:
The effects of the War of 1812 on banking, shipping, farming, industry, and
The Era of Good feelings as a transitional period.
The causes of the Panic of 1819 and the effects of the subsequent depression on politics
and the economy.
The Northern and Southern arguments during the debates over the admission of
Missouri and how they influenced sectional attitudes.
The ways in which the Marshall court changed the status of the federal judiciary and
how the court’s decisions altered the relationships between the federal government and
the states and the federal government and business.
The reasons why President James Monroe announced his “doctrine” in 1823 and its
impact on international relations at the time.
Presidential politics in the Era of Good Feelings and how they altered the political
The reasons why Andrew Jackson was elected in 1828 and the significance of his victory.
Discussion Questions: As a class we will discuss the following concepts
Did the War of 1812 create an expanding economy?
Explain why westward movement was the most important development of the
How did the term “Era of Good Feelings” reflect the rising spirit of nationalism?
Free Response Questions: Choose ONE of the following and write a short response.
1. How were sectionalism and nationalism able to exist at the same historical time?
2. What caused the Era of Good Feelings? What were the reasons for its demise?
3. What were the reasons for the dramatic surge in westward expansion in the years after
the War of 1812? Once Americans moved to the west, how was life different on the
northwestern and southwestern frontier?
Sample Multiple Choice Questions
1. The experience of American banking during the War of 1812 revealed the need for
A. another national bank.
B. more state banks.
C. a reduction in gold and silver reserves.
D. an increase in the number of bank notes in circulation.
E. currency backed by both gold and silver.
2. Which of the following statements about American currency and banking in this era is
A. Counterfeiting was a serious problem.
B. The national bank forbade state banks from issuing their own notes.
C. Congress rechartered the Bank of the United States in 1816.
D. Vast quantities of varying bank notes created confusion over currency.
E. The second Bank of the United States had more capital than its predecessor.
3. As a result of the War of 1812,
A. politicians spent less time on questions of national economic development.
B. American banking was stabilized.
C. America’s internal transportation system proved its worthiness.
D. American shippers experienced a financial boom.
E. the growth of American manufacturing was stimulated.
4. Francis Cabot Lowell’s contribution to American textile mills included
A. the invention of the cotton spindle.
B. improving the power loom.
C. dramatically expanding the textile industry in the South.
D. improving the cotton gin.
E. organizing his workers by task into a primitive assembly line.
5. The first American mill to carry on the processes of spinning and weaving under a single
roof was located in
A. Boston, Massachusetts.
B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
C. Newport, Rhode Island.
D. Springfield, Massachusetts.
E. Waltham, Massachusetts.