breakthroughs by jennyyingdi


                                           Science News from P&G Beauty & Grooming VOL. XVIII

                                           For nearly a century, scientists have          A razor with multiple blades replicates
2 MOISTURE BREAKTHROUGH:                   sought to enhance the shaving experi-          this process and gives a measurable
  IT’S MORE THAN JUST WATER                ence, from improving formulations of           improvement in closeness; however it
  Understanding women’s hair               shave gels, balms and creams to enhanc-        can also introduce new challenges. Stud-
  texture needs                            ing the efficiency and comfort of the razor    ies show that when a multi-blade razor is
                                           itself. Today, a myriad of razor options       used to shave the face, skin is forced up
3 STRANGELY BEAUTIFUL                      are available. What’s a consumer to choose     and between the blades in small bulges.
  The fibers of face masks                 and is there really a difference between       This can create drag and discomfort and
                                           one blade, three blades and five blades?       can result in skin irritation.
3 MYTHS & FACTS                            Scientifically speaking, there is.
  Truth about shaving
                                           “People are always surprised when I tell
                                           them my sole area of focus is the science of
  Antiperspirant efficacy
                                           shaving,” says Graham Simms, Research
                                           Fellow at P&G Beauty & Grooming.
                                           “Every day, I’m in the lab applying phys-
  Research Fellow Graham Simms             ics, geometry and biology to help men
  P&G Perfumer Awards                      have a better shaving experience. And
                                                                                          Scientist uses a scanning electron microscope
                                           I’m not alone, hundreds of scientists have     to look at a component from a five-blade
                                           been studying this area for years.”            cartridge.

                                           As early as 1929, an inventor striving for
                                           the perfect shave saw the benefit of a five-
                                           blade razor and patented it. However,
                                           the invention never reached the pub-
                                           lic because this five-blade razor irritated
                                           and cut the skin. For the next several
                                           decades, the single-blade razor remained
   DID YOU KNOW?                           the gold standard. Then, in 1971, Gil-
                                           lette scientists were successful in creating   P&G Beauty & Grooming scientist studies facial
   P&G Beauty & Grooming makes             a two-blade razor that demonstrated a          skin and beard hair at high magnification using a
                                                                                          video microscope.
   sustainability a core consideration     closer, more comfortable shave than the
   of every initiative. In fact, Olay ®    long-standing single blade. In 1998, the
   Total Effects, Olay’s highest selling   three-blade razor, which built on the two-     Simms and his scientist colleagues
                                           blade improvements, was introduced.            addressed this problem through rigorous
   line of anti-aging and moisturizing
                                                                                          study of new technologies and materi-
   products, sold in more than 50
                                           Research has demonstrated the ben-             als as they designed the five-blade razor.
   countries around the world, has
                                           efit of multiple blade razors. The first       First, scientists discovered that by mov-
   reduced the plastic in its pump to      blade engages the hair and extends it          ing each of the five blades closer together,
   save 800,000 pounds of plastic per      out of the follicle so that the subsequent     the bulge height was significantly reduced
   year, equivalent to the weight of       blade, if accurately placed, cuts the hair     and a more uniform stress was placed
   a Boeing 747.                           further down the hair shaft before it          on the skin, translating to less drag and
                                           can fully retreat back into the follicle.      a safer, more comfortable shave. P&G
breakthroughs: Science News from P&G Beauty & Grooming

Beauty & Grooming scientists also sought        narrower blade supports. By thinning           a scientist as we were creating this latest
material improvements on the stainless          the material under the blades, they            advance. I’m eager to be presented with
steel blades. These blades, that are sharper    allow more room for shave gel and hair to      the next problem to solve.”
than a scalpel, are enhanced with a             be washed away.
diamond-like carbon coating and a
telomer anti-friction layer, which dramat-      Through decades of scientific study and
ically enhance the blade’s performance          experience, P&G Beauty & Grooming
with less tugging and more comfort.             scientists have made a 1929 inventor’s
                                                dream of the five-blade razor a reality.
But scientists still had one more hurdle.       “We were able to apply years of incre-
While the closely-packed blades provided        mental advances, and multiple disciplines
an improved shave, they also caused the         of study to make this come to life,” says
razors to clog easily. Simms and his col-       Simms. “I felt as much like a detec-             Scanning electron micrograph of beard stubble
leagues solved this last problem with           tive solving a complex problem as I did          emerging from the irregular skin surface of a
                                                                                                 man’s face.

Many women are looking for ways to              verified that the water level of the 80 per-   both shampoo and conditioner felt more
make their hair feel more moisturized.          cent RH sample was significantly higher        “moisturized.” “These findings are signifi-
However, hair with high moisture content        than that of the 15 percent RH sample,         cant steps toward dispelling the myth of
can actually lead to a “bad hair” day. Scien-   which sharply contrasts with the panelists’    ‘moisturized’ hair,” says Davis. “By edu-
tists have observed that moisture increases     sensory assessment of “moisture.”              cating women about the importance of
friction between hair fibers and decreases                                                     conditioning, we will empower them to
tensile strength, which leads to an increase    These findings, presented at the 2008          get the hair texture they want.”
in hair frizz and styling difficulties.         Asian Dermatological Congress, allowed
                                                P&G Beauty & Grooming scien-                                         Relationship Between Moisture and Perceived Hair Attributes

P&G Beauty & Grooming scientists con-           tists to confirm that “moisturization”                               15% Relative Humidity
ducted an experiment to understand the          correlates with tactile characteristics such
                                                                                                                     80% Relative Humidity
                                                                                                                     No Difference

meaning of “moisturized” hair, as defined       as smoothness, degree of tangling and hair                  80

by women. Specifically, blindfolded pan-        damage, rather than actual water con-
                                                                                               % Response

elists were asked to assess their percep-       tent. “These findings allow us to better
tion of “moisture” in two hair samples.         target women’s hair care needs,” explains                   40

One sample was equilibrated at 15 per-          Michael Davis, P&G Beauty & Groom-
cent relative humidity (RH) and the             ing Senior Scientist.
other was equilibrated at 80 percent RH.                                                                     0

Seventy-five percent of the panelists char-     A second sensory experiment performed                             More “Moisturized”   Smoother        More Tangled     More Damaged

acterized the 15 percent RH hair samples        by P&G Beauty & Grooming has helped                               Relationship Between Hair Conditioning and Perceived Hair Attributes

as feeling more moisturized, smoother,          women understand how to achieve the                                  Shampoo & Conditioner

less tangled and less damaged, while less       desired feeling of “moisturized” hair. The                  100      No Difference

than ten percent found no difference            panelists felt two damaged hair samples,                     80

between the samples.                            one treated with shampoo and another
                                                                                               % Response

                                                treated with shampoo and a conditioner                       60

A novel microwave resonance measure-            containing bis-aminopropyl dimethicone,                      40

ment determined the actual water con-           a modified silicone conditioning agent.
tent of each sample. This assessment            Panelists determined the hair treated with                   20

                                                                                                                  More “Moisturized”    Smoother        More Tangled     More Damaged

STRANGELY BEAUTIFUL                              These fibers (pictured directly below) are                                 rayon. The non-stretchable fiber (pictured
                                                 designed to disentangle more easily than                                   directly below) is highly tangled, limiting
Massage, whether it is gentle stroking or        traditional masks, creating a contoured                                    the mask’s elasticity and ultimately its
strong kneading, is recognized as one of the     face mask. This superior fit enhances blood                                ability to fit the face.
oldest methods of healing. P&G Beauty            circulation and allows the ingredients in
& Grooming scientists have developed             the mask to penetrate deep within the skin.                                The snug fit of “splitable fibers” provides
a technology for facial masks that builds on     Traditional masks are constructed with a                                   the full coverage necessary for noticeable
the fundamentals of massage. The unique          non-stretchable fiber, such as cotton or                                   skin benefits.
technology uses a stretchable underlying
layer, or substrate, to apply a gentle,
massage-like pressure to the face.
The mask’s special substrate is enhanced
with “splitable fibers” that increase cover-
age on the uneven surface of the face.

MYTHS & FACTS                                        LAB NOTES
Shaving makes hair grow back thicker.                Antiperspirant Delivers Prescription-Strength Wetness Efficacy
                                                     Without Severe Irritation
MYTH: Shaving does not change hair tex-
                                                     Often prescription-strength
ture. P&G Beauty & Grooming scientists                                                                             Sweat Remaining After Evening Antiperspirant Application
                                                     (Rx) antiperspirants are
have found that shaving does not cause                                                                       250

                                                     recommended for patients
hair to grow back thicker, darker or faster.
                                                                                      Remaining Sweat (mg)

                                                     with severe perspiration.
However, when a shaved hair begins to                Though efficacious, these                               150

re-grow, the tip shape is different from an          products with aluminum                                                                                                   Day 7

unshaven hair. This changes how the hair             chloride can irritate the skin
                                                                                                             100                                                              Day 9

feels initially, but if left to re-grow com-         forcing patients to discon-                             50

pletely, it will return to its former texture.       tinue use.                                               0

                                                                                                                      OTC-Men       Rx-Men      OTC-Women     Rx-Women

The shave gel and the razor are essen-               P&G Beauty & Grooming
tial partners.                                       scientists addressed this issue by studying perspiration and skin irritation when
                                                     using a new (or specially formulated) over-the-counter (OTC) antiperspirant or a
FACT: Through years of shaving research,             prescription-strength wetness protection product.
P&G Beauty & Grooming scientists have
                                                     Clinical trials were conducted to compare the underarm performance of a “soft
learned that the ideal complement to a
                                                     solid” OTC antiperspirant (containing 20 percent aluminum zirconium trichlorohydrex
state-of-the-art razor is the right shav-
                                                     gly) with a prescription-strength antiperspirant (containing 6.25 percent active alumi-
ing gel. It allows sharp blades to cut close         num chloride). Every evening for ten nights, male panelists applied 0.6g of product
while minimizing the risk of irritation by           and females applied 0.4g of product. A qualified clinician assessed skin irritation
providing a protective anti-friction layer.          among female panelists. Researchers quantified underarm sweat from all panelists
Quality shave gels contain advanced lubri-           on days seven and ten.
cants to enhance razor glide from the first
                                                     Data from these trials, presented at the 2007 and 2008 American Academy of
stroke to the last and help protect against
                                                     Dermatology conferences, demonstrate similar efficacy for the OTC antiperspirant as
nicks, redness and tightness.
                                                     compared to the tested Rx product containing 6.25 percent active aluminum chloride.
                                                     However, clinician assessments suggest the OTC antiperspirant delivers this efficacy
                                                     with significantly less skin irritation.

breakthroughs: Science News from P&G Beauty & Grooming

IN THE SPOTLIGHT                                            Prior to joining P&G Beauty & Groom-                      Best Hair Care Fragrance Mass
Graham Simms, Research Fellow                               ing, Simms worked at British Aerospace                    Pantene® Pro-V Color Expressions
                                                            and invented navigation systems for mili-                 Shampoo
                 P&G Beauty & Groom-                        tary aircrafts, ships and missiles. “I moved
                 ing recruits experts with                  from designing products that I hoped                      Best Body Care Fragrance Women’s
                 diverse specialities to                    people would never use,” notes Simms, “to                 Secret® Clinical Light & Fresh Scent
                 develop      the    most                   designing products that I hope consumers
                 advanced and effec-                                                                                  Best Body Care Fragrance Men’s
                                                            will use every day.”                                      Old Spice® After Hours Deodorant
                 tive shaving technolo-
                 gies. Graham Simms,                        Acclaim for P&G Perfumers                                 Best Fragrance Line Extension Specialty
                 Research Fellow at the                     At the 2008 annual meeting of the Ameri-                  The Herbal Essence® Series
Gillette Technology Centre in Reading,                      can Society of Perfumers, P&G perfum-
U.K., is a Chartered Mechanical                             ers were awarded nine Perfumer Choice                     Resources
Engineer who has worked in the                              Awards for best in-market fragrances. In        
Grooming division for 19 years.                             the 20 year history of these awards, no                   (American Academy of Dermatology)
His reputation for being an enthusi-                        company has ever swept more than a third
astic innovator is bolstered by the fact                    of the awards in a single year—until now.       
that 17 patents, ranging from razors to                     More than 200 perfumer peers chose the                    (American Society of Perfumers)
writing instruments, carry his name.                        winners based on a blind sampling of
He has made significant contributions to                                                                    
                                                            products in 25 categories. Of the nine
the development of many system razors                                                                                 (Eighth Asian Dermatological Congress)
                                                            awards received by P&G, four awards were
such as Venus Divine and M3Power.                           for products in beauty care categories. Zer-
Simms created the Future Technologies                       lina Dubois and Stacy Hertenstein, P&G
                                                            Beauty & Grooming perfumers, accepted
department at Reading to scout the world
                                                            the awards.
for novel technologies that could be used
in new razor prototypes. He also led the                    The following coveted awards recognize
multi-disciplinary Concept Engineering                      the superior fragrance science and design
Team that overcame tough technical chal-                    that P&G Beauty & Grooming provides
lenges to make five-blade razors a reality.                 to the world’s consumers every day:

P&G Beauty & Grooming Science has more than 1,800 scientists and technical employees working at nine                  To talk to a P&G Beauty & Grooming scientist
global technical centers with an unparalleled commitment to technology development. Company scientific                or to learn more about ongoing research
efforts have resulted in over 10,000 patents. This allows P&G to develop products uniquely suited for differ-         at P&G Beauty & Grooming Science, contact:
ent types of hair and skin, and tailored to different cultures and climates.
                                                                                                                      Heather Cunningham
P&G Beauty & Grooming products help make beauty dreams real for women worldwide and help men look,                    P&G Beauty & Grooming Science
feel and be their best every day. With more than 100 brands available in nearly 130 countries, P&G’s beauty and       +513-626-2606
grooming products delivered sales of nearly $28 billion in fiscal year 2007/08 , making it one of the world’s larg-
est beauty and grooming companies. P&G Beauty & Grooming offers trusted brands with leading technology to
meet the full complement of beauty and grooming needs, including Pantene®, Olay®, Head & Shoulders®, Max
Factor®, Cover Girl®, DDF®, Frederic Fekkai®, Wellaflex®, Rejoice®, Sebastian Professional®, Herbal Essences®,
Koleston®, Clairol Professional®, Nice ’n Easy®, Venus®, Gillette®, SK-II®, Wella Professionals®, Braun® and
a leading Prestige Fragrance division that spans from point of market entry consumers to high end luxury with
global brands such as Hugo Boss®, Lacoste®, and Christina Aguilera®. (NYSE: PG)
Please visit for the latest news and in-depth informa-
tion about P&G Beauty & Grooming and its scientific developments.


To top