Low Cost Infertility Treatment by medicyatra

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									                                  Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com



Infertility facts
 affects 1 in 6 married couples of
  childbearing age
 definition: have engaged in unprotected
  coitus for 1 year and haven’t become
  pregnant




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 Infertility Facts
 can be due to:
   – failure to conceive, loss of conceptus
 origin of problem:
   – 35% female
   – 35% male
   – 20% both partners
   – 10% unexplained




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Failure to ovulate
 often caused by low body fat or stress
 GnRH surge may be inadequate




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Tubal blockage
   Due to:
    – Endometriosis, scar tissue from STD,
      previous surgery
 Treatment: surgery
 If surgery unsuccessful, IVF, GIFT and
  ZIFT are best options




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Causes of male infertility
 low sperm count (oligospermia) or
  absence of sperm (azoospermia)
 male may produce antibodies to his own
  sperm
 accessory glands / ducts may
  malfunction




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Intracervical or intrauterine
insemination (ICI / IUI)
 Artificial insemination
 definition: sperm introduced into female
  reproductive tract by means other than
  coitus (near cervix or in uterus)
 sperm can come from donor / sperm
  bank or from husband
 Example of a sperm bank:
    – http://www.spermbankcalifornia.com/buy-
      sperm-online.html Forever
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ICI / IUI, cont’d.
 usually, several ejaculations are pooled
 60,000 babies / year born in US. as
  result of artificial insemination
 often used when male has low sperm
  count or antibodies present in ejaculate




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In vitro fertilization

 “test - tube babies”
 1st performed in 1978 (Louise Joy
  Brown)
 often performed on infertile women with
  tubal blockage



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 IVF Protocol
 GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron) for 7 days
 FSH agonist (follistim, Gonal-F,
  Repronex) until follicles measure 17-20
  mm in diameter (8-14 days)
 hCG given to induce egg maturation
 Egg retrieval (transvaginally) 34-35 h
  later



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IVF protocol
 sperm and ova added to dish;
  fertilization occurs 12-14hrs.
 eggs transferred to new dish and cell
  division occurs
 embryos squirted into uterus (optimal
  stage: blastocyst)
 Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
  (PGD)

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IVF Protocol, cont’d.
 3 to 5 embryos are injected to increase
  chances of pregnancy
 woman given progestagen to prevent
  miscarriage
 Example of prices:
    – http://www.advancedfertility.com/ivfprice.ht
      m


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                                    Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com


IVF Protocol, cont’d.
 new variations / improvements:
   – Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
   – use of frozen embryos
 27,000 attempts made per year; 18.6%
  successful (success rates are increasing)
 http://www.advancedfertility.com/sampleivfcal
  endar.htm




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IVF, cont’d.

   Ethical questions:
    – will it lead to selective breeding?
    – up to what stage can research be done?
    – if embryo dies in vitro, is it abortion,
      murder?
    – what should be done w/ unwanted
      embryos?
    – should government regulate research?

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GIFT and ZIFT
 GIFT = gamete intrafallopian transfer
 useful for tubal blockage
 ova are collected and inserted into
  oviducts below point of blockage
 husband’s sperm are placed in oviduct




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                                     Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com


GIFT and ZIFT
 woman is treated with hormones to prevent
  miscarriage
 28% successful
 ZIFT = zygote intrafallopian transfer
 ZIFT is like IVF, only zygotes (1 cell stage)
  are inserted below blockage in oviduct (24%
  success rate)




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Others

 Ovarian stimulation protocol
 Surrogate pregnancy
 Adoption




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