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Water Quality

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 27

									                                                           	
  

                                                           	
  

                                                           	
  




                                                                                                    	
  



                           Water	
  Quality	
  
        Report	
  on	
  Water	
  Quality	
  at	
  the	
  University	
  
         of	
  New	
  Brunswick	
  Fredericton	
  Campus	
  
                                                           	
  
                     ENR	
  2114	
  Water	
  Sustainability:	
  Practice	
  and	
  Technology	
  
                                              29	
  November,	
  2010	
  
                                                          	
  
                                                         By	
  
                                                          	
  
       Hannah	
  Bradford,	
  Bailey	
  Brogan,	
  Amos	
  Champion,	
  Monique	
  Goguen,	
  Cynthia	
  
             Hawthorne,	
  Jennifer	
  Nicholson,	
  Alison	
  Smith,	
  and	
  Ben	
  Wallace	
  
                                                           	
  
	
  

	
  
	
  

                                                                 TABLE	
  OF	
  CONTENTS	
  

                Introduction....................................................................................................................2
                Overview.........................................................................................................................3
                Water	
  policy ...................................................................................................................4
                Methods..........................................................................................................................5
                            Metals	
  Sampled ...........................................................................................................6	
  
                            Lead .............................................................................................................................7	
  
                            Iron...............................................................................................................................7	
  
                            Manganese ..................................................................................................................8	
  
                            Cadmium......................................................................................................................8	
  
                            Copper .........................................................................................................................8	
  
                            Zinc...............................................................................................................................9	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Results........................................................................................................................10
                Attitude	
  survey.............................................................................................................13
                            Survey	
  Overview ........................................................................................................13
                            Survey	
  Parameters.....................................................................................................14
                            Results........................................................................................................................14	
  
                            Discussion ..................................................................................................................15
                            Survey	
  Conclusion......................................................................................................16
	
  	
  	
  Media	
  campaign............................................................................................................17	
  
                            Posters .......................................................................................................................17	
  
                            Brunswickan	
  Article ...................................................................................................18	
  
                            Social	
  Media...............................................................................................................18
	
  	
  	
  	
  Discussion.....................................................................................................................18	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  Conclusion ....................................................................................................................20
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  References ...................................................................................................................21	
  
                	
  Appendix	
  A ..................................................................................................................23	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Appendix	
  B……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….24	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  Appendix	
  C……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….25	
  
	
  

	
  




	
  

                                                                                  1	
  
	
  
	
  

Introduction	
  

	
          Attitudes	
  towards	
  drinking	
  water	
  often	
  conclude	
  that	
  bottled	
  water	
  is	
  safer	
  and	
  cleaner	
  
to	
  drink	
  than	
  tap	
  water.	
  The	
  purpose	
  of	
  this	
  project	
  was	
  to	
  educate	
  the	
  students,	
  faculty,	
  and	
  
staff	
  at	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  New	
  Brunswick	
  (UNB)	
  Fredericton	
  campus	
  that	
  water	
  straight	
  from	
  the	
  
fountain	
  or	
  hydration	
  station	
  is	
  as	
  clean	
  and	
  safe	
  as	
  bottled	
  water.	
  In	
  addition	
  to	
  informing	
  the	
  
campus	
  that	
  tap	
  water	
  is	
  clean	
  and	
  safe,	
  we	
  want	
  to	
  emphasize	
  that	
  using	
  a	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  
container	
  will	
  reduce	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  disposable	
  water	
  bottles	
  from	
  reaching	
  the	
  landfill	
  or	
  
becoming	
  litter.	
  
            The	
  city	
  of	
  Fredericton	
  draws	
  all	
  of	
  its	
  drinking	
  water	
  supply	
  from	
  a	
  large	
  groundwater	
  
aquifer	
  located	
  directly	
  beneath	
  the	
  city’s	
  downtown	
  area.	
  	
  This	
  aquifer	
  provides	
  naturally	
  
filtered	
  water	
  which	
  requires	
  very	
  little	
  treatment	
  before	
  being	
  distributed	
  around	
  the	
  city.	
  The	
  
water	
  treatment	
  facility	
  filters	
  the	
  water	
  to	
  remove	
  manganese,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  adds	
  a	
  small	
  amount	
  
of	
  chlorine	
  to	
  protect	
  the	
  water	
  quality	
  (1).	
  	
  The	
  water	
  is	
  tested	
  through	
  a	
  quality	
  monitoring	
  
program	
  before	
  it	
  leaves	
  the	
  facility.	
  	
  This	
  clean	
  groundwater	
  is	
  an	
  excellent	
  resource	
  for	
  
Fredericton	
  residents	
  and	
  has	
  a	
  quality	
  as	
  good	
  as,	
  if	
  not	
  better	
  than,	
  water	
  transported	
  from	
  
other	
  locations	
  in	
  disposable	
  plastic	
  bottles.	
  	
  
            The	
  benefits	
  of	
  using	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  containers	
  far	
  outweigh	
  the	
  drawbacks.	
  
According	
  to	
  the	
  Container	
  Recycling	
  Institute,	
  a	
  non-­‐profit	
  environmental	
  group,	
  “for	
  every	
  ton	
  
of	
  plastic	
  bottles	
  recycled,	
  another	
  four	
  tons	
  are	
  being	
  wasted”	
  (2).	
  Studies	
  have	
  shown	
  that	
  
often	
  bottled	
  water	
  is	
  the	
  same	
  or	
  worse	
  than	
  tap	
  water	
  (3).	
  Additionally,	
  water	
  in	
  plastic	
  
bottles	
  has	
  the	
  potential	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  higher	
  chemical	
  content	
  due	
  to	
  leaching	
  from	
  the	
  plastic	
  
container.	
  Water	
  in	
  plastic	
  bottles	
  costs	
  between	
  240	
  to	
  10,000	
  times	
  more	
  than	
  water	
  from	
  
the	
  tap	
  (4).	
  The	
  initial	
  cost	
  of	
  a	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  container	
  might	
  seem	
  high	
  compared	
  to	
  the	
  
price	
  of	
  a	
  bottle	
  of	
  water,	
  but	
  it	
  will	
  quickly	
  pay	
  for	
  itself	
  by	
  savings	
  with	
  repeated	
  use,	
  and	
  will	
  
reduce	
  the	
  environmental	
  costs.	
  	
  
            Plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  also	
  have	
  numerous	
  detrimental	
  impacts	
  on	
  the	
  environment.	
  To	
  
begin,	
  plastic	
  is	
  an	
  accumulative	
  pollutant,	
  meaning	
  that	
  it	
  does	
  not	
  break	
  down	
  easily	
  and	
  
accumulates	
  over	
  time.	
  Plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  can	
  take	
  up	
  to	
  1000	
  years	
  to	
  biodegrade	
  which	
  

                                                                                2	
  
	
  
makes	
  the	
  effect	
  of	
  their	
  presence	
  on	
  the	
  environment	
  increasingly	
  unfavourable	
  (5).	
  There	
  are	
  
nearly	
  30	
  million	
  water	
  bottles	
  per	
  day	
  that	
  end	
  up	
  in	
  the	
  garbage	
  or	
  as	
  litter	
  (6).	
  This	
  implies	
  
that	
  nine	
  out	
  of	
  ten	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  are	
  incorrectly	
  disposed	
  of	
  (5).	
  If	
  we	
  could	
  recycle	
  a	
  
greater	
  number	
  of	
  bottles,	
  it	
  may	
  help	
  in	
  some	
  ways.	
  For	
  all	
  those	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  that	
  end	
  
up	
  in	
  the	
  litter,	
  many	
  things	
  can	
  happen	
  to	
  them.	
  Mostly,	
  they	
  begin	
  to	
  break	
  down	
  overtime,	
  
especially	
  the	
  bottles	
  that	
  make	
  it	
  into	
  the	
  oceans.	
  In	
  the	
  oceans,	
  these	
  bottles	
  break	
  down	
  into	
  
smaller	
  pieces.	
  These	
  small	
  pieces	
  are	
  often	
  confused	
  for	
  food	
  by	
  fish	
  and	
  birds,	
  which	
  is	
  a	
  
known	
  cause	
  of	
  their	
  deaths	
  in	
  various	
  areas	
  of	
  the	
  oceans	
  (7).	
  In	
  addition	
  to	
  effects	
  on	
  wildlife,	
  
the	
  amount	
  of	
  resources	
  that	
  are	
  needed	
  to	
  produce	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  is	
  more	
  than	
  can	
  be	
  
taken	
  back	
  from	
  recycling	
  these	
  bottles.	
  	
  
            In	
  2005,	
  there	
  was	
  an	
  estimated	
  38	
  billion	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  sold	
  in	
  the	
  United	
  States	
  
alone.	
  To	
  produce	
  that	
  amount	
  of	
  bottles	
  would	
  require	
  over	
  900,000	
  tons	
  of	
  plastic.	
  To	
  make	
  
all	
  this	
  plastic	
  would	
  require	
  around	
  1.7	
  million	
  barrels	
  of	
  oil	
  which	
  would	
  create	
  nearly	
  2.5	
  
million	
  tons	
  of	
  carbon	
  dioxide.	
  If	
  it	
  was	
  possible	
  to	
  recycle	
  every	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottle,	
  only	
  60	
  
percent	
  of	
  the	
  energy	
  and	
  resources	
  used	
  to	
  make	
  the	
  bottles	
  could	
  be	
  recovered	
  (8).	
  
            Overall,	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  have	
  negative	
  impacts	
  on	
  the	
  environment	
  not	
  only	
  after	
  
they	
  are	
  used,	
  but	
  also	
  during	
  their	
  production.	
  The	
  only	
  solution	
  to	
  this	
  problem	
  is	
  to	
  reduce	
  or	
  
stop	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  non	
  reusable	
  plastic	
  bottles.	
  
	
  
Overview	
  
            In	
  an	
  effort	
  to	
  increase	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  containers	
  used	
  on	
  campus,	
  
water	
  quality	
  testing	
  was	
  done	
  at	
  various	
  drinking	
  water	
  fountains	
  around	
  campus.	
  The	
  water	
  
was	
  tested	
  for	
  certain	
  metals	
  (lead,	
  iron,	
  copper,	
  zinc,	
  manganese,	
  and	
  cadmium)	
  based	
  on	
  
their	
  possible	
  effects	
  to	
  human	
  health.	
  The	
  expectation	
  was	
  that	
  these	
  samples	
  would	
  return	
  
acceptable,	
  proving	
  that	
  the	
  direct	
  tap	
  water	
  on	
  campus	
  is	
  just	
  as	
  clean	
  and	
  safe	
  to	
  drink	
  as	
  
purchased	
  bottled	
  water.	
  To	
  understand	
  current	
  attitudes	
  on	
  campus	
  about	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  
containers,	
  a	
  survey	
  of	
  100	
  students	
  was	
  completed.	
  Posters	
  were	
  also	
  placed	
  near	
  fountains	
  
and	
  hydration	
  stations	
  to	
  promote	
  reusable	
  containers	
  in	
  hopes	
  of	
  decreasing	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  plastic	
  
water	
  bottles.	
  	
  


                                                                              3	
  
	
  
Water	
  Policy	
  
            The	
  responsibility	
  for	
  ensuring	
  the	
  safety	
  of	
  drinking	
  water	
  in	
  Canada	
  is	
  shared	
  by	
  all	
  
levels	
  of	
  government;	
  federal,	
  provincial,	
  and	
  municipal.	
  	
  The	
  Guidelines	
  for	
  Canadian	
  Drinking	
  
Water	
  Quality	
  is	
  published	
  by	
  Health	
  Canada	
  on	
  behalf	
  of	
  the	
  Federal-­‐Provincial-­‐Territorial	
  
Committee	
  on	
  Drinking	
  Water.	
  	
  The	
  guidelines	
  set	
  out	
  the	
  maximum	
  acceptable	
  concentrations	
  
of	
  microbiological,	
  chemical,	
  and	
  radiological	
  substances	
  in	
  drinking	
  water	
  and	
  are	
  designed	
  to	
  
protect	
  the	
  health	
  of	
  Canadians.	
  	
  They	
  are	
  however	
  just	
  guidelines,	
  and	
  thus	
  are	
  more	
  like	
  
voluntary	
  targets	
  than	
  binding	
  standards.	
  It	
  is	
  up	
  to	
  each	
  province	
  to	
  create	
  its	
  own	
  legislation	
  
for	
  drinking	
  water	
  management	
  and	
  standards.	
  	
  This	
  legislation	
  may	
  simply	
  reference	
  the	
  
guidelines,	
  or	
  implement	
  a	
  standard	
  that	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  guidelines	
  (with	
  some	
  variability).	
  
Thus,	
  the	
  guidelines	
  are	
  not	
  legally	
  binding	
  unless	
  their	
  referenced	
  in	
  provincial	
  legislation.	
  
            	
  In	
  New	
  Brunswick,	
  the	
  Potable	
  Water	
  Regulations	
  (9)	
  created	
  under	
  the	
  Clean	
  Water	
  
Act	
  govern	
  drinking	
  water	
  standards	
  and	
  practices.	
  	
  With	
  regards	
  to	
  testing	
  for	
  water	
  quality,	
  
the	
  regulations	
  state	
  that:	
  
            7(1)	
  An	
  owner	
  of	
  a	
  regulated	
  water	
  supply	
  system	
  shall	
  
                        	
  (a)	
  	
  have	
  a	
  sampling	
  plan	
  that	
  is	
  approved	
  by	
  the	
  Minister	
  of	
  Health,	
  and	
  
                        	
  (b)	
  ensure	
   that	
   the	
   water	
   in	
   the	
   system	
   is	
   collected	
   and	
   tested	
   in	
  	
  	
  
                        accordance	
  with	
  the	
  sampling	
  plan.	
  
A	
  "regulated	
  water	
  supply	
  system"	
  refers	
  to	
  a	
  system	
  that	
  is	
  owned	
  or	
  operated	
  by	
  a	
  
municipality	
  or	
  the	
  Crown.	
  	
  Fredericton’s	
  water	
  supply	
  system	
  is	
  owned	
  by	
  the	
  city.	
  	
  The	
  city’s	
  
water	
  treatment	
  plant	
  samples	
  the	
  potable	
  water	
  it	
  provides	
  to	
  city	
  residents	
  in	
  accordance	
  
with	
  an	
  approved	
  sampling	
  plan.	
  While	
  water	
  leaving	
  the	
  treatment	
  plant	
  is	
  clean,	
  the	
  same	
  
water	
  flowing	
  out	
  of	
  a	
  household	
  tap	
  or	
  water	
  fountain	
  on	
  campus	
  may	
  carry	
  contaminants	
  
picked	
  up	
  on	
  the	
  way.	
  	
  As	
  described	
  in	
  the	
  results	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report,	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  test	
  results	
  
from	
  water	
  fountains	
  at	
  the	
  UNB	
  campus	
  came	
  back	
  showing	
  amounts	
  of	
  lead	
  at	
  levels	
  
exceeding	
  the	
  NB	
  health	
  advisory	
  level	
  (HAL),	
  the	
  highest	
  being	
  21	
  µg/L	
  (HAL	
  =	
  10	
  µg/L)	
  (10).	
  
Lead	
  can	
  enter	
  drinking	
  water	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  leaching	
  from	
  lead-­‐based	
  pipes	
  and	
  plumbing.	
  The	
  
problem	
  generally	
  occurs	
  because	
  of	
  the	
  age	
  of	
  the	
  pipes,	
  which	
  is	
  a	
  nationwide	
  issue.	
  	
  	
  




                                                                                4	
  
	
  
               In	
  Ontario,	
  the	
  Safe	
  Drinking	
  Water	
  Act	
  requires	
  all	
  municipalities	
  to	
  test	
  water	
  taken	
  
directly	
  from	
  residents’	
  taps	
  a	
  minimum	
  of	
  twice	
  per	
  year	
  (11).	
  	
  Where	
  elevated	
  lead	
  levels	
  are	
  
found,	
  home	
  and	
  non-­‐residential	
  facility	
  owners	
  are	
  given	
  advice	
  on	
  corrective	
  actions	
  to	
  
reduce	
  the	
  health	
  risks.	
  There	
  are	
  corrosion	
  control	
  techniques	
  which	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  limit	
  the	
  
amount	
  of	
  corrosion	
  taking	
  place	
  in	
  the	
  pipes,	
  but	
  the	
  best	
  method	
  of	
  prevention	
  is	
  to	
  replace	
  
aging	
  lead	
  pipes.	
  	
  	
  	
  
               The	
  legislation	
  in	
  Ontario	
  could	
  offer	
  a	
  model	
  for	
  other	
  jurisdictions,	
  including	
  the	
  
province	
  of	
  New	
  Brunswick.	
  Besides	
  Ontario,	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  comparable	
  program	
  of	
  tap	
  water	
  
testing	
  for	
  lead	
  elsewhere	
  in	
  Canada.	
  What	
  responsibility	
  does	
  UNB	
  have	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  the	
  
drinking	
  water	
  provided	
  to	
  students	
  and	
  faculty	
  is	
  safe?	
  	
  Since	
  drinking	
  water	
  quality	
  is	
  the	
  
responsibility	
  of	
  the	
  provincial	
  and	
  municipal	
  governments,	
  UNB	
  is	
  not	
  required	
  by	
  law	
  to	
  test	
  
the	
  quality	
  of	
  the	
  drinking	
  water	
  provided	
  on	
  campus.	
  That	
  being	
  said,	
  a	
  voluntary	
  proactive	
  
approach	
  to	
  test	
  drinking	
  water	
  quality	
  could	
  be	
  taken	
  by	
  the	
  university	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  its	
  aging	
  
infrastructure	
  is	
  not	
  having	
  negative	
  impacts	
  on	
  the	
  health	
  of	
  students,	
  faculty,	
  and	
  staff.	
  	
  
	
  
Methods	
  
               In	
  order	
  to	
  investigate	
  whether	
  the	
  tap	
  water	
  on	
  campus	
  is	
  better	
  or	
  as	
  good	
  as	
  water	
  
coming	
  from	
  non-­‐reusable	
  plastic	
  bottles,	
  several	
  drinking	
  fountains	
  on	
  campus	
  tested.	
  These	
  
samples	
  were	
  tested	
  at	
  the	
  Department	
  of	
  Environment	
  Water	
  Quality	
  Testing	
  laboratory	
  in	
  
Fredericton.	
  The	
  testing	
  sites	
  were	
  chosen	
  based	
  on	
  location	
  (dispersion),	
  popularity	
  (number	
  
of	
  people	
  that	
  might	
  visit	
  the	
  fountain	
  on	
  a	
  daily	
  basis),	
  and	
  age	
  of	
  building.	
  The	
  sites	
  were	
  
numbered	
  as	
  follows:	
  
       0-­‐ 2nd	
  floor	
  fountain	
  Old	
  Forestry	
  Building,	
  back	
  hall	
  
       1-­‐ Near	
  forestry	
  lounge,	
  fountain	
  on	
  2nd	
  floor	
  Old	
  Forestry	
  Building	
  	
  
       2-­‐ 3rd	
  Floor	
  Old	
  Forestry	
  Building,	
  fountain	
  at	
  top	
  of	
  stairs	
  
       3-­‐ Fountain	
  in	
  the	
  basement	
  of	
  New	
  Forestry	
  Building	
  
       4-­‐ Science	
  Library	
  area	
  hydration	
  station	
  
       5-­‐ Harriet	
  Irving	
  Library	
  1st	
  floor	
  fountain	
  near	
  ladies	
  washroom	
  
       6-­‐ Harrison	
  House	
  1st	
  floor	
  fountain	
  	
  	
  	
  


                                                                              5	
  
	
  
       7-­‐ Student	
  Union	
  Building	
  hydration	
  station	
  (near	
  SUB	
  Styles)	
  
       8-­‐ Bailey	
  Hall	
  fountain	
  near	
  greenhouse	
  entrance	
  
       9-­‐ Bailey	
  Hall	
  fountain	
  near	
  staff	
  washroom	
  212	
  
       10-­‐ Purchased	
  Aquafina	
  water	
  from	
  machine	
  near	
  financial	
  services	
  
       12-­‐ Head	
  Hall	
  main	
  floor	
  fountain	
  near	
  elevators	
  
       13-­‐ McLaggan	
  Hall	
  fountain	
  on	
  main	
  floor	
  	
  
       	
  
       All	
  sampling	
  recommendations	
  given	
  by	
  the	
  New	
  Brunswick	
  Department	
  of	
  Environment	
  
Laboratory	
  were	
  followed,	
  except	
  for	
  one.	
  The	
  instructions	
  for	
  water	
  sampling	
  indicated	
  that	
  
each	
  fountain	
  should	
  be	
  flushed	
  for	
  5	
  minutes	
  before	
  collecting	
  the	
  actual	
  water	
  sample	
  (21).	
  
This	
  was	
  not	
  done	
  for	
  the	
  first	
  round	
  of	
  testing,	
  as	
  it	
  is	
  assumed	
  the	
  average	
  fountain	
  user	
  is	
  not	
  
flushing	
  the	
  fountain	
  for	
  5	
  minutes	
  before	
  drinking	
  from	
  it	
  or	
  refilling	
  their	
  reusable	
  container.	
  
The	
  water	
  fountain	
  was	
  run	
  for	
  5	
  seconds	
  before	
  the	
  samples	
  were	
  taken,	
  to	
  indicate	
  a	
  more	
  
reasonable	
  amount	
  of	
  time	
  people	
  may	
  run	
  the	
  fountain	
  before	
  use.	
  Further	
  instructions	
  for	
  
sampling	
  included	
  not	
  rinsing	
  the	
  bottles	
  and	
  not	
  touching	
  the	
  inside	
  of	
  the	
  bottle	
  or	
  the	
  inside	
  
of	
  the	
  cap	
  when	
  it	
  was	
  taken	
  off	
  to	
  fill	
  the	
  bottle.	
  The	
  samples	
  were	
  to	
  be	
  kept	
  in	
  a	
  cooler	
  which	
  
contained	
  ice	
  or	
  ice	
  packs.	
  The	
  bottles	
  were	
  also	
  labelled	
  corresponding	
  to	
  a	
  submission	
  form	
  
which	
  included	
  the	
  date	
  and	
  time	
  of	
  the	
  sampling.	
  	
  
       The	
  results	
  from	
  sample	
  locations	
  2,	
  8,	
  and	
  9	
  returned	
  with	
  concentrations	
  of	
  lead	
  
exceeding	
  the	
  New	
  Brunswick	
  HAL	
  regulations.	
  A	
  second	
  sampling	
  of	
  these	
  particular	
  fountains	
  
was	
  preformed	
  taking	
  into	
  account	
  time	
  intervals.	
  This	
  method	
  included	
  sampling	
  using	
  time	
  
intervals	
  of	
  5	
  seconds,	
  2	
  minutes,	
  and	
  5	
  minutes.	
  
	
  
Metals	
  Sampled	
  
              Due	
  to	
  cost	
  restraints,	
  the	
  water	
  was	
  tested	
  for	
  six	
  metals	
  that	
  were	
  deemed	
  significant.	
  
These	
  six	
  metals	
  were:	
  lead,	
  iron,	
  copper,	
  zinc,	
  manganese,	
  and	
  cadmium.	
  In	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  
determining	
  which	
  metals	
  to	
  sample	
  for,	
  an	
  environmental	
  technician	
  at	
  the	
  New	
  Brunswick	
  
Department	
  of	
  Environment	
  Laboratory	
  in	
  Fredericton	
  was	
  consulted.	
  	
  Literature	
  searches	
  were	
  




                                                                                 6	
  
	
  
then	
  completed	
  for	
  each	
  of	
  these	
  metals	
  and	
  information	
  was	
  found	
  supporting	
  why	
  these	
  
metals	
  would	
  be	
  important	
  in	
  regards	
  to	
  human	
  health.	
  	
  
	
  
Lead:	
  
                Lead	
  is	
  a	
  metal	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  found	
  in	
  many	
  older	
  products	
  such	
  as	
  toys,	
  plastics,	
  and	
  
paint;	
  it	
  is	
  also	
  associated	
  with	
  industry	
  and	
  found	
  in	
  water	
  (12).	
  Water	
  sitting	
  in	
  pipes	
  can	
  
accumulate	
  lead	
  from	
  lead	
  based	
  solder.	
  Ingesting	
  lead	
  is	
  very	
  harmful;	
  therefore,	
  it	
  is	
  
dangerous	
  for	
  a	
  person	
  to	
  be	
  exposed	
  to	
  lead	
  for	
  increased	
  amounts	
  of	
  time	
  (13).	
  Short	
  term	
  
exposure	
  to	
  high	
  levels	
  of	
  lead	
  can	
  result	
  in	
  vomiting,	
  convulsions,	
  coma,	
  diarrhea	
  and	
  even	
  
death	
  (13).	
  Symptoms	
  of	
  being	
  exposed	
  to	
  low	
  levels	
  of	
  lead	
  are	
  less	
  severe:	
  appetite	
  loss,	
  
abdominal	
  pain,	
  constipation,	
  fatigue,	
  sleeplessness,	
  irritability,	
  headache	
  and	
  anaemia	
  (13).	
  
These	
  symptoms	
  can	
  be	
  confused	
  with	
  other	
  illnesses	
  like	
  the	
  flu,	
  and	
  can	
  go	
  unnoticed	
  for	
  a	
  
long	
  time.	
  Long	
  term	
  exposure	
  to	
  lead	
  can	
  cause	
  kidney	
  damage.	
  	
  Ways	
  to	
  avoid	
  consuming	
  
lead	
  from	
  drinking	
  water	
  is	
  to	
  replace	
  old	
  pipes,	
  or	
  using	
  only	
  cold	
  water,	
  as	
  it	
  contains	
  less	
  lead	
  
than	
  hot	
  water	
  (12).	
  Flushing	
  pipes	
  regularly	
  can	
  also	
  decrease	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  lead	
  in	
  water	
  
(12).	
  The	
  maximum	
  acceptable	
  concentration	
  of	
  lead	
  in	
  drinking	
  water	
  is	
  10	
  µg/L	
  (10).	
  With	
  
concentrations	
  higher	
  than	
  this,	
  the	
  more	
  severe	
  symptoms	
  mentioned	
  above	
  are	
  more	
  likely.	
  
	
  
Iron:	
  	
  
                Iron,	
  an	
  essential	
  mineral	
  that	
  benefits	
  humans,	
  can	
  be	
  harmful	
  when	
  exposed	
  to	
  high	
  
concentrations.	
  	
  Iron	
  is	
  a	
  dietary	
  requirement	
  for	
  humans;	
  men	
  require	
  7	
  mg	
  of	
  iron	
  per	
  day,	
  
whereas	
  women	
  require	
  11	
  mg	
  (13).	
  	
  Human	
  bodies	
  absorb	
  most	
  iron	
  needed	
  from	
  food,	
  
(around	
  25%),	
  but	
  it	
  is	
  also	
  obtained	
  from	
  water	
  (13).	
  Iron	
  is	
  found	
  in	
  water	
  from	
  the	
  
weathering	
  of	
  metals	
  and	
  rocks.	
  The	
  allowed	
  amount	
  of	
  iron	
  in	
  drinking	
  water	
  is	
  200	
  ppb	
  (ug/L),	
  
but	
  when	
  this	
  amount	
  is	
  exceeded;	
  it	
  can	
  be	
  detrimental	
  to	
  human	
  health	
  (10).	
  If	
  a	
  person	
  
consumes	
  too	
  much	
  iron	
  it	
  is	
  stored	
  in	
  the	
  liver,	
  pancreas,	
  spleen	
  and	
  heart	
  which	
  can	
  cause	
  
damage	
  to	
  these	
  major	
  organs	
  (12).	
  	
  	
  
	
  




                                                                                 7	
  
	
  
	
  

Manganese:	
  
            Manganese	
  is	
  naturally	
  according	
  and	
  is	
  found	
  in	
  groundwater	
  at	
  low	
  levels.	
  However,	
  it	
  
can	
  be	
  increased	
  by	
  various	
  underground	
  pollution	
  sources.	
  Water	
  containing	
  high	
  levels	
  of	
  
manganese	
  becomes	
  a	
  rust	
  brown	
  colour	
  and	
  can	
  also	
  contain	
  small	
  black	
  deposits	
  (15).	
  This	
  
becomes	
  noticeable	
  at	
  approximately	
  50	
  µg/L,	
  which	
  is	
  the	
  allowable	
  concentration	
  under	
  the	
  
Guidelines	
  for	
  Canadian	
  Drinking	
  Water	
  Quality	
  (10).	
  At	
  this	
  point	
  the	
  water	
  develops	
  an	
  
unpleasant	
  odour,	
  colour,	
  and	
  taste	
  (13).	
  In	
  general,	
  if	
  there	
  is	
  too	
  much	
  manganese	
  in	
  drinking	
  
water,	
  it	
  can	
  affect	
  infants,	
  people	
  with	
  liver	
  diseases,	
  and	
  people	
  who	
  exceed	
  the	
  
recommended	
  eight	
  cups	
  of	
  water	
  daily	
  (13).	
  	
  
	
  
Cadmium:	
  	
  
            Cadmium	
  is	
  a	
  heavy	
  metal	
  and	
  is	
  seriously	
  toxic,	
  posing	
  severe	
  threats	
  to	
  human	
  health	
  
(15).	
  Cadmium	
  is	
  commonly	
  used	
  in	
  industrial	
  processes	
  such	
  as	
  nuclear	
  power	
  plants,	
  
fabrication	
  of	
  nickel-­‐cadmium,	
  and	
  in	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  batteries	
  (17).	
  There	
  is	
  nearly	
  7000	
  tons	
  
of	
  cadmium	
  produced	
  annually	
  across	
  the	
  globe	
  (16).	
  Cadmium	
  enters	
  drinking	
  water	
  by	
  
leaching	
  into	
  ground	
  and	
  surface	
  water	
  (17).	
  The	
  Guidelines	
  on	
  Canadian	
  Drinking	
  Water	
  
Quality	
  states	
  that	
  the	
  maximum	
  acceptable	
  concentration	
  in	
  drinking	
  water	
  is	
  0.005	
  µg/L	
  (10).	
  
Generally,	
  cadmium	
  will	
  cause	
  nausea,	
  vomiting,	
  diarrhea,	
  and	
  muscle	
  cramps.	
  Concentrations	
  
at	
  a	
  higher	
  level	
  can	
  produce	
  problems	
  with	
  the	
  digestive	
  and	
  pulmonary	
  systems,	
  liver	
  
damages,	
  and	
  softening	
  of	
  the	
  bones	
  (17).	
  Also,	
  cadmium	
  can	
  cause	
  kidney	
  damage,	
  
reproductive	
  damage,	
  and	
  it	
  is	
  believed	
  to	
  be	
  carcinogenic	
  (16).	
  	
  
	
  
Copper:	
  	
  
            Copper	
  is	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  commercially	
  important	
  metals,	
  as	
  it	
  is	
  easily	
  shaped	
  and	
  
molded	
  and	
  is	
  often	
  used	
  in	
  water	
  pipes.	
  Copper	
  compounds	
  are	
  also	
  used	
  as	
  an	
  agricultural	
  
pesticide	
  and	
  to	
  control	
  algae	
  in	
  lakes.	
  Copper	
  can	
  be	
  dissolved	
  in	
  water	
  and	
  high	
  levels	
  are	
  
likely	
  to	
  affect	
  human	
  health.	
  High	
  levels	
  of	
  copper	
  occur	
  when	
  corrosive	
  water	
  comes	
  in	
  
contact	
  with	
  copper	
  plumbing	
  and	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  copper	
  increases	
  with	
  the	
  length	
  of	
  time	
  it	
  


                                                                           8	
  
	
  
remains	
  in	
  contact	
  with	
  the	
  plumbing	
  pipes	
  (18).	
  Effects	
  of	
  drinking	
  water	
  with	
  high	
  levels	
  of	
  
copper	
  include	
  vomiting,	
  diarrhea,	
  stomach	
  cramps	
  and	
  nausea	
  (18).	
  	
  The	
  seriousness	
  of	
  these	
  
effects	
  can	
  be	
  intensified	
  with	
  increased	
  copper	
  levels	
  and	
  length	
  of	
  exposure.	
  Copper	
  is	
  an	
  
important	
  element	
  in	
  our	
  everyday	
  health	
  and	
  the	
  average	
  daily	
  intake	
  is	
  1	
  000	
  µg	
  per	
  day,	
  with	
  
drinking	
  water	
  contributing	
  to	
  less	
  than	
  5%	
  of	
  this	
  intake	
  (18).	
  Excess	
  levels	
  of	
  copper	
  may	
  be	
  
noticed	
  by	
  a	
  metallic	
  taste	
  and	
  also	
  blue	
  or	
  blue-­‐green	
  stains	
  around	
  sinks	
  and	
  plumbing	
  
fixtures	
  (14).	
  To	
  reduce	
  the	
  copper	
  levels	
  in	
  drinking	
  water,	
  it	
  is	
  recommended	
  to	
  let	
  faucets	
  
run	
  for	
  2-­‐3	
  minutes	
  to	
  flush	
  out	
  standing	
  water	
  from	
  the	
  pipes	
  (16).	
  	
  The	
  aesthetic	
  objective	
  
level	
  for	
  copper	
  is	
  a	
  maximum	
  of	
  1000	
  µg/L	
  (10).	
  	
  
	
  
Zinc:	
  
            Zinc,	
  like	
  most	
  metals	
  occurs	
  naturally	
  in	
  the	
  environment.	
  Excess	
  levels	
  are	
  usually	
  
found	
  because	
  of	
  human	
  activities	
  such	
  as	
  mining,	
  smelting	
  and	
  steel	
  production.	
  Zinc	
  is	
  
commonly	
  used	
  to	
  prevent	
  rust	
  and	
  erosion.	
  Zinc	
  is	
  an	
  essential	
  nutrient	
  for	
  human	
  health;	
  it	
  is	
  
used	
  during	
  growth,	
  development	
  of	
  bones,	
  metabolism	
  and	
  wound-­‐healing	
  (18).	
  Too	
  little	
  zinc	
  
in	
  human	
  diets	
  can	
  cause	
  loss	
  of	
  appetite,	
  decreased	
  sense	
  of	
  taste	
  and	
  smell,	
  slow	
  growth	
  and	
  
slow	
  wound-­‐healing	
  (19).	
  A	
  short	
  term	
  illness	
  called	
  metal	
  fume	
  fever	
  can	
  result	
  from	
  high	
  
levels	
  of	
  airborne	
  zinc,	
  which	
  usually	
  lasts	
  from	
  24	
  to	
  48	
  hours,	
  causing	
  chills,	
  fever,	
  excessive	
  
sweating	
  and	
  weakness.	
  Consuming	
  too	
  much	
  zinc	
  in	
  a	
  short	
  period	
  of	
  time	
  can	
  cause	
  stomach	
  
cramps,	
  nausea	
  and	
  vomiting.	
  Ingesting	
  zinc	
  over	
  long	
  periods	
  of	
  time	
  can	
  cause	
  anemia,	
  
nervous	
  system	
  disorders,	
  damage	
  to	
  the	
  pancreas	
  and	
  lowered	
  levels	
  of	
  “good”	
  cholesterol.	
  
The	
  aesthetic	
  objective	
  level	
  for	
  zinc	
  is	
  a	
  maximum	
  of	
  5000	
  µg/L	
  (10).	
  
	
  




                                                                               9	
  
	
  
	
  

Results	
  
	
            Of	
  the	
  six	
  metals	
  tested,	
  two	
  were	
  below	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  quantification	
  (LOQ)	
  in	
  all	
  samples:	
  
cadmium	
  and	
  manganese.	
  The	
  other	
  four	
  metals	
  (copper,	
  iron,	
  lead	
  and	
  zinc)	
  were	
  present	
  in	
  
detectable	
  quantities	
  in	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  samples.	
  Lead	
  was	
  the	
  only	
  metal	
  found	
  to	
  be	
  in	
  levels	
  
exceeding	
  the	
  Health	
  Advisory	
  Level	
  (HAL)	
  (Figure	
  1).	
  	
  These	
  samples	
  were	
  collected	
  from	
  the	
  
water	
  fountain	
  on	
  the	
  third	
  floor	
  of	
  the	
  Old	
  Forestry	
  building	
  and	
  the	
  two	
  water	
  fountains	
  
located	
  in	
  Bailey	
  Hall.	
  	
  The	
  other	
  metals	
  were	
  all	
  below	
  the	
  HAL	
  (Figures	
  2	
  and	
  3).	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  

                                                             25	
  
                              Lead	
  Level	
  (ug/L)	
  




                                                             20	
  
                                                             15	
  
                                                             10	
  
                                                               5	
  
                                                               0	
  
                                                                               0	
        1	
      2	
        3	
             4	
             5	
        6	
       7	
       8	
      9	
     10	
   12	
   13	
  
                                                                                                                                              Site	
  Locator	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        	
  
Figure	
  1.	
  Levels	
  of	
  lead	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  thirteen	
  sampled	
  drinking	
  water	
  sites,	
  the	
  red	
  horizontal	
  line	
  
represents	
  the	
  Health	
  Advisory	
  Level	
  (HAL).	
  
	
  

                                                             0.12	
  
                              Metal	
  Level	
  (mg/L)	
  




                                                               0.1	
  
                                                             0.08	
  
                                                             0.06	
  
                                                             0.04	
                                                                                                                                          Iron	
  

                                                             0.02	
                                                                                                                                          Zinc	
  
                                                                       0	
  
                                                                                  0	
      1	
     2	
     3	
        4	
             5	
        6	
      7	
     8	
      9	
   10	
   12	
   13	
  
                                                                                                                                Site	
  Locator	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        	
  
       Figure	
  2.	
  	
  Levels	
  of	
  iron	
  and	
  zinc	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  water	
  sampled	
  from	
  water	
  fountains	
  at	
  UNB.	
  



                                                                                                                                              10	
  
	
  
                                                             1	
  




                          Copper	
  Level	
  (ug/L)	
  
                                                          0.8	
  
                                                          0.6	
  
                                                          0.4	
  
                                                          0.2	
  
                                                             0	
  
                                                                     0	
     1	
     2	
     3	
        4	
              5	
     6	
     7	
        8	
     9	
     10	
   12	
   13	
  
                                                                                                                         Site	
  Locator	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                              	
  
Figure	
  3.	
  	
  Copper	
  levels	
  found	
  in	
  water	
  sampled	
  from	
  water	
  fountains	
  at	
  UNB.	
  
	
  
	
          After	
  finding	
  levels	
  of	
  lead	
  in	
  excess	
  of	
  the	
  HAL	
  in	
  three	
  of	
  the	
  water	
  samples	
  these	
  
three	
  sites	
  were	
  sampled	
  again	
  for	
  confirmation.	
  	
  This	
  second	
  round	
  of	
  sampling	
  included	
  three	
  
time	
  trial	
  samples	
  at	
  each	
  site.	
  This	
  was	
  conducted	
  to	
  determine	
  if	
  this	
  had	
  any	
  effect	
  on	
  the	
  
level	
  of	
  metals	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  samples.	
  During	
  this	
  second	
  round	
  of	
  sampling	
  only	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  
three	
  sites	
  (Bailey	
  Hall	
  -­‐	
  basement)	
  was	
  found	
  to	
  have	
  levels	
  of	
  lead	
  above	
  the	
  HAL.	
  	
  Allowing	
  
the	
  water	
  to	
  run	
  longer	
  allowed	
  the	
  lead	
  levels	
  to	
  drop	
  below	
  the	
  HAL	
  (Figure	
  4).	
  	
  	
  

                                                          20	
  
                          Lead	
  Levels	
  (ug/L)	
  




                                                          15	
  

                                                          10	
                                                                                                            Forestry	
  3	
  

                                                            5	
                                                                                                           Bailey	
  0	
  
                                                                                                                                                                          Bailey	
  2	
  
                                                            0	
  
                                                                             1	
                                2	
                              3	
  
                                                                                                     Time	
  Step	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                              	
  
Figure	
  4.	
  	
  Levels	
  of	
  lead	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  three	
  sites	
  re-­‐sampled	
  because	
  of	
  high	
  lead	
  levels.	
  
	
  
	
          As	
  with	
  the	
  first	
  round	
  of	
  sampling,	
  cadmium	
  and	
  manganese	
  were	
  not	
  found	
  in	
  levels	
  
above	
  the	
  LOQ.	
  	
  Copper,	
  iron	
  and	
  zinc	
  were	
  found	
  in	
  detectable	
  levels	
  as	
  with	
  the	
  first	
  round	
  of	
  
sampling	
  but	
  all	
  were	
  found	
  below	
  the	
  HALs.	
  	
  Iron	
  was	
  not	
  found	
  in	
  levels	
  above	
  the	
  LOQ	
  in	
  the	
  
Old	
  Forestry	
  Building	
  but	
  was	
  detected	
  in	
  the	
  other	
  two	
  sites.	
  	
  In	
  the	
  re-­‐sample	
  taken	
  from	
  the	
  

                                                                                                                        11	
  
	
  
2nd	
  floor	
  of	
  Bailey	
  hall	
  the	
  results	
  followed	
  the	
  expected	
  decrease	
  in	
  level	
  over	
  time;	
  however,	
  
in	
  the	
  sample	
  taken	
  from	
  the	
  basement	
  of	
  Bailey	
  Hall	
  they	
  did	
  not	
  (Figure	
  5).	
  	
  

                                                           0.016	
  
                                                           0.014	
  
                          Iron	
  Level	
  (mg/L)	
        0.012	
  
                                                            0.01	
  
                                                           0.008	
                                                      Forestry	
  3	
  
                                                           0.006	
  
                                                           0.004	
                                                      Bailey	
  0	
  
                                                           0.002	
                                                      Bailey	
  2	
  
                                                               0	
  
                                                                               1	
              2	
            3	
  
                                                                                        Time	
  Step	
  
                                                                                                                                            	
  
Figure	
  5.	
  	
  Levels	
  of	
  iron	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  three	
  re-­‐sampled	
  sites	
  over	
  time.	
  
	
  
	
          In	
  both	
  of	
  the	
  other	
  metals	
  detected	
  in	
  measurable	
  quantities	
  (copper	
  and	
  zinc)	
  the	
  
levels	
  followed	
  the	
  expected	
  trend	
  of	
  decrease	
  as	
  the	
  water	
  was	
  allowed	
  to	
  run	
  for	
  a	
  longer	
  
period	
  of	
  time	
  (Figures	
  6	
  and	
  7).	
  

                                                           0.5	
  
                          Copper	
  Levels	
  (ug/L)	
  




                                                           0.4	
  
                                                           0.3	
  
                                                                                                                        Forestry	
  3	
  
                                                           0.2	
  
                                                                                                                        Bailey	
  0	
  
                                                           0.1	
  
                                                                                                                        Bailey	
  2	
  
                                                              0	
  
                                                                       1	
                   2	
              3	
  
                                                                                       Time	
  Step	
  
                                                                                                                                            	
  
Figure	
  6.	
  	
  Levels	
  of	
  copper	
  found	
  in	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  re-­‐sampled	
  sites	
  over	
  time.	
  




                                                                                                     12	
  
	
  
                                                         0.07	
  
                                                         0.06	
  




                           Zinc	
  Level	
  (mg/L)	
  
                                                         0.05	
  
                                                         0.04	
  
                                                         0.03	
                                                              Forestry	
  3	
  
                                                         0.02	
                                                              Bailey	
  0	
  
                                                         0.01	
                                                              Bailey	
  2	
  
                                                            0	
  
                                                                    1	
           2	
                 3	
  
                                                                            Time	
  Step	
  
                                                                                                                                                 	
  
Figure	
  7.	
  	
  Levels	
  of	
  zinc	
  found	
  in	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  re-­‐sampled	
  sites	
  over	
  time.	
  
	
  
Attitude	
  Survey	
  
Survey	
  Overview	
  
	
          An	
  attitude	
  survey	
  was	
  performed	
  on	
  a	
  sample	
  of	
  100	
  UNB	
  Fredericton	
  students	
  who	
  
live	
  on	
  campus.	
  	
  It	
  was	
  performed	
  on	
  a	
  door-­‐to-­‐door	
  basis	
  in	
  two	
  of	
  the	
  co-­‐ed	
  residences,	
  to	
  get	
  
a	
  general	
  sample	
  of	
  the	
  student	
  population	
  as	
  residences	
  have	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  personality	
  types	
  
coming	
  from	
  various	
  locations.	
  	
  The	
  purpose	
  of	
  this	
  attitude	
  survey	
  was	
  to	
  gain	
  an	
  
understanding	
  of	
  what	
  portion	
  of	
  UNB	
  students	
  use	
  reusable	
  water	
  containers.	
  	
  Information	
  
was	
  collected	
  on	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  these	
  students	
  purchase	
  non	
  reusable	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  
and	
  their	
  reasons	
  for	
  doing	
  so.	
  The	
  questions	
  posed	
  in	
  the	
  survey	
  are	
  as	
  follows:	
  
	
  
1.	
  Do	
  you	
  use	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  regularly?	
  
2.	
  Do	
  you	
  not	
  use	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  because	
  of:	
  
                  •      Convenience	
  
                  •      Do	
  not	
  care	
  
                  •      Do	
  not	
  own	
  one	
  
3.	
  Have	
  you	
  purchased	
  a	
  non-­‐reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  week?	
  
	
  




                                                                                     13	
  
	
  
	
  

Survey	
  Parameters	
  
	
          Parameters	
  were	
  set	
  before	
  the	
  survey	
  was	
  conducted	
  to	
  ensure	
  consistent	
  results.	
  	
  For	
  
question	
  1,	
  regular	
  use	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  using	
  the	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  3	
  or	
  more	
  times	
  weekly.	
  	
  	
  	
  
For	
  question	
  2,	
  convenience	
  also	
  consisted	
  of	
  the	
  student	
  not	
  liking	
  the	
  taste	
  of	
  water	
  in	
  
Fredericton.	
  	
  Parameters	
  for	
  question	
  3	
  were	
  based	
  on	
  purchasing	
  non	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  
only.	
  Purchases	
  of	
  alcoholic	
  beverages,	
  juice,	
  pop	
  or	
  milk	
  were	
  not	
  included.	
  	
  It	
  was	
  also	
  stated	
  
that	
  there	
  only	
  had	
  to	
  be	
  one	
  purchase	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  week.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Results	
  
	
          The	
  attitude	
  survey	
  was	
  conducted	
  by	
  surveying	
  100	
  individuals.	
  	
  The	
  first	
  question	
  
involved	
  asking	
  the	
  individuals	
  if	
  they	
  used	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  regularly	
  (Figure	
  8).	
  	
  The	
  
surveyed	
  individuals	
  were	
  then	
  asked	
  if	
  they	
  had	
  purchased	
  water	
  contained	
  in	
  a	
  non-­‐reusable	
  
container	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  week	
  (Figure	
  9).	
  	
  Finally,	
  those	
  individuals	
  who	
  had	
  answered	
  that	
  they	
  did	
  
not	
  use	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  container	
  were	
  asked	
  why	
  they	
  did	
  not	
  use	
  one	
  (Figure	
  10).	
  	
  	
  
	
  



                                                                     37	
  
                                                                                                                 yes	
  	
  

                                                                                        63	
                     no	
  



                                                                                                                               	
  
Figure	
  8.	
  	
  Percentage	
  of	
  those	
  surveyed	
  who	
  use	
  a	
  re-­‐usable	
  water	
  bottle	
  regularly	
  (≥3x	
  /	
  wk).	
  
	
  

                                                                                                   Convienience	
  
                                                                 5	
  

                                                                                                   Don't	
  Own	
  
                                                        10	
                                       One	
  
                                                                              22	
  
                                                                                                   Don't	
  Care	
  

                                                                                                                                	
  


                                                                                       14	
  
	
  
Figure	
  9.	
  Percentage	
  of	
  individuals	
  who	
  did	
  not	
  use	
  a	
  re-­‐usable	
  water	
  bottle	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  week	
  
based	
  on	
  reasoning.	
  



                                                                               29	
  
                                                                                                                                      yes	
  	
  
                                                                                                                                      no	
  
                                                                                                71	
  


                                                                                                                                                    	
  
Figure	
  10.	
  	
  Percentage	
  of	
  those	
  surveyed	
  who	
  had	
  purchased	
  a	
  non-­‐reusable	
  water	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
bottle	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  week.	
  
	
  
Discussion	
  
	
             This	
  survey	
  shows	
  that	
  approximately	
  40%	
  of	
  the	
  UNB	
  residence	
  population	
  does	
  not	
  
currently	
  use	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles.	
  This	
  result	
  could	
  be	
  assumed	
  to	
  be	
  declining	
  as	
  our	
  society	
  
becomes	
  more	
  environmentally	
  friendly.	
  	
  The	
  survey	
  also	
  shows	
  that	
  27%	
  of	
  this	
  population	
  
that	
  does	
  not	
  use	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  because	
  they	
  simply	
  do	
  not	
  own	
  one,	
  which	
  allows	
  the	
  
assumption	
  that	
  once	
  they	
  acquire	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  they	
  may	
  use	
  it.	
  	
  The	
  results	
  of	
  the	
  
attitude	
  survey	
  are	
  disappointing	
  as	
  the	
  sample	
  was	
  from	
  a	
  young,	
  educated	
  population.	
  	
  
Methods	
  on	
  how	
  to	
  increase	
  use	
  of	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  can	
  be	
  gathered	
  from	
  question	
  2,	
  
which	
  is	
  portraying	
  it	
  as	
  more	
  convenient.	
  
	
             Convenience	
  appears	
  to	
  be	
  the	
  biggest	
  factor	
  for	
  why	
  students	
  choose	
  to	
  not	
  use	
  
reusable	
  water	
  bottles.	
  The	
  image	
  needed	
  is	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  easier	
  to	
  fill	
  a	
  water	
  bottle	
  you	
  already	
  
have	
  on	
  hand	
  instead	
  of	
  going	
  into	
  a	
  store,	
  waiting	
  in	
  line,	
  and	
  buying	
  a	
  new	
  one.	
  Tactics	
  to	
  
market	
  this	
  could	
  include	
  weighing	
  the	
  cost	
  of	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  against	
  the	
  cost	
  of	
  non-­‐
reusable	
  ones.	
  	
  A	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  costs	
  between	
  $10-­‐15	
  whereas	
  choosing	
  to	
  use	
  non-­‐
reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  can	
  cost	
  anywhere	
  from	
  $200-­‐400	
  per	
  year.	
  Educating	
  students	
  with	
  
facts	
  like	
  this	
  could	
  easily	
  make	
  the	
  budget-­‐conscious	
  student	
  body	
  aware	
  of	
  the	
  benefits	
  of	
  
using	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles,	
  not	
  only	
  for	
  the	
  environment	
  but	
  for	
  themselves	
  too.	
  	
  Another	
  
option	
  is	
  suggesting	
  them	
  to	
  write	
  a	
  reminder	
  in	
  their	
  room	
  “Don’t	
  forget	
  your	
  reusable	
  water	
  
bottle!”.	
  	
  This	
  could	
  be	
  effective	
  because	
  university	
  students	
  have	
  a	
  lot	
  on	
  their	
  mind	
  and	
  there	
  

                                                                                               15	
  
	
  
is	
  a	
  great	
  probability	
  that	
  other	
  things	
  will	
  be	
  higher	
  on	
  their	
  priority	
  list	
  then	
  remembering	
  to	
  
bring	
  along	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle.	
  	
  For	
  those	
  students	
  who	
  fall	
  under	
  the	
  sub	
  category	
  within	
  
convenience,	
  stating	
  they	
  do	
  not	
  like	
  Fredericton	
  water,	
  suggesting	
  the	
  purchase	
  of	
  a	
  water	
  
filter	
  may	
  change	
  their	
  opinion.	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
           	
  Another	
  way	
  to	
  increase	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  use	
  is	
  by	
  targeting	
  first	
  year	
  students.	
  	
  
Before	
  arriving	
  to	
  UNB	
  residence	
  students	
  get	
  a	
  letter	
  with	
  suggestions	
  on	
  what	
  to	
  bring	
  to	
  
university,	
  including	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  or	
  water	
  filters	
  on	
  this	
  list	
  would	
  not	
  only	
  be	
  a	
  good	
  
reminder	
  for	
  the	
  students,	
  but	
  also	
  for	
  their	
  parents.	
  	
  Creating	
  a	
  stigma	
  around	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  non-­‐
reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  from	
  the	
  start	
  of	
  their	
  university	
  career	
  may	
  have	
  the	
  biggest	
  effect	
  on	
  
the	
  student	
  body.	
  	
  Plastic	
  bottles	
  should	
  be	
  viewed	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  way	
  we	
  view	
  smoking,	
  a	
  bad	
  
and	
  unnecessary	
  habit.	
  	
  	
  
             The	
  third	
  question,	
  which	
  asked	
  if	
  a	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottle	
  was	
  recently	
  purchased,	
  gives	
  
surprisingly	
  mixed	
  results	
  for	
  the	
  survey.	
  	
  Although	
  the	
  majority	
  said	
  they	
  used	
  reusable	
  water	
  
bottles	
  regularly,	
  they	
  also	
  stated	
  that	
  they	
  have	
  recently	
  purchased	
  a	
  non-­‐reusable	
  water	
  
bottle.	
  	
  A	
  factor	
  in	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  people	
  purchasing	
  plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  may	
  be	
  that	
  each	
  of	
  
the	
  students	
  surveyed	
  are	
  in	
  possession	
  of	
  a	
  meal	
  card,	
  which	
  has	
  a	
  set	
  amount	
  of	
  money	
  for	
  
the	
  year	
  and	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  at	
  most	
  stores	
  on	
  campus.	
  	
  This	
  allows	
  students	
  to	
  not	
  think	
  about	
  
how	
  much	
  money	
  they	
  are	
  spending	
  because	
  they	
  never	
  see	
  it.	
  	
  Meal	
  cards	
  may	
  even	
  
encourage	
  superfluous	
  spending	
  because	
  if	
  a	
  student	
  does	
  not	
  spend	
  all	
  of	
  their	
  money	
  by	
  the	
  
end	
  of	
  the	
  year	
  they	
  lose	
  it.	
  	
  There	
  is	
  nothing	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  done	
  about	
  the	
  availability	
  of	
  plastic	
  
water	
  bottles	
  on	
  campus,	
  as	
  UNB	
  recently	
  renewed	
  a	
  7-­‐year	
  contract	
  with	
  Pepsi,	
  but	
  having	
  
haunting	
  signs	
  across	
  campus	
  about	
  the	
  negative	
  impacts	
  of	
  using	
  plastic	
  bottles	
  could	
  deter	
  
more	
  people.	
  
             	
  
Survey	
  Conclusion	
  
	
           The	
  results	
  of	
  the	
  attitude	
  survey	
  give	
  a	
  good	
  direction	
  on	
  how	
  to	
  increase	
  reusable	
  
water	
  bottle	
  use	
  across	
  campus.	
  	
  Marketing	
  its	
  use	
  as	
  a	
  more	
  convenient	
  practice	
  than	
  
purchasing	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  should	
  result	
  in	
  good	
  behavioral	
  changes.	
  	
  Even	
  with	
  meal	
  
cards	
  and	
  their	
  seemingly	
  endless	
  money	
  supply,	
  there	
  are	
  many	
  ways	
  to	
  make	
  buying	
  a	
  plastic	
  


                                                                               16	
  
	
  
water	
  bottle	
  unfavorable.	
  	
  This	
  will	
  mainly	
  be	
  through	
  persistent	
  marketing,	
  and	
  should	
  result	
  in	
  
an	
  attitude	
  change	
  revolution.	
  
	
  
Media	
  Campaign	
  	
  
Posters	
  	
  	
  
               The	
  human	
  tendency	
  to	
  forget	
  is	
  often	
  a	
  contributing	
  factor	
  to	
  why	
  we	
  do	
  not	
  practice	
  
sustainable	
  behaviour.	
  By	
  simply	
  remembering	
  a	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottle	
  daily,	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  
disposable	
  bottles	
  purchased	
  and	
  wasted	
  would	
  drop	
  significantly.	
  In	
  order	
  to	
  remind	
  people	
  to	
  
carry	
  their	
  reusable	
  bottle	
  a	
  tool	
  called	
  a	
  prompt	
  can	
  be	
  used.	
  According	
  to	
  Fostering	
  
Sustainable	
  Behaviour	
  by	
  Doug	
  McKenzie-­‐Mohr,	
  prompts	
  are	
  visual	
  or	
  auditory	
  aids	
  that	
  remind	
  
people	
  to	
  carry	
  out	
  an	
  activity	
  in	
  which	
  they	
  might	
  otherwise	
  forget	
  (20).	
  A	
  prompt	
  that	
  was	
  
used	
  for	
  this	
  project	
  was	
  a	
  set	
  of	
  posters	
  that	
  remind	
  students	
  and	
  staff	
  to	
  fill	
  up	
  their	
  reusable	
  
bottles.	
  The	
  posters	
  were	
  placed	
  near	
  water	
  fountains	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  vending	
  machines	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  
remind	
  thirsty	
  students	
  to	
  stay	
  away	
  from	
  disposable	
  water	
  bottles.	
  They	
  state	
  things	
  such	
  as	
  
“Is	
  it	
  really	
  that	
  different?”	
  and	
  show	
  a	
  picture	
  of	
  water	
  from	
  a	
  fountain	
  entering	
  a	
  non	
  reusable	
  
bottle	
  (Appendix	
  A).	
  Language	
  and	
  pictures	
  such	
  as	
  these	
  are	
  meant	
  to	
  get	
  people	
  thinking	
  
about	
  what	
  they	
  are	
  truly	
  consuming	
  and	
  to	
  think	
  more	
  about	
  changing	
  their	
  behaviour	
  for	
  the	
  
good	
  of	
  the	
  environment.	
  	
  
               Prompts	
  are	
  used	
  to	
  remind	
  people	
  to	
  change	
  their	
  behaviour;	
  however,	
  the	
  prompt	
  
must	
  also	
  catch	
  the	
  attention	
  of	
  the	
  audience.	
  If	
  the	
  prompt	
  is	
  dull,	
  unexciting,	
  and	
  the	
  person	
  
walks	
  by	
  without	
  noticing,	
  the	
  prompt	
  is	
  ineffective	
  and	
  the	
  person	
  may	
  continue	
  the	
  
unsustainable	
  behaviour.	
  The	
  posters	
  distributed	
  for	
  this	
  project	
  are	
  highlighted	
  with	
  bright	
  
colours	
  and	
  are	
  hand	
  drawn.	
  It	
  is	
  important	
  to	
  make	
  them	
  simple	
  and	
  eye	
  catching	
  because	
  
people	
  are	
  generally	
  in	
  a	
  hurry	
  and	
  do	
  not	
  have	
  time	
  to	
  read	
  a	
  large	
  amount	
  of	
  text,	
  or	
  try	
  to	
  
understand	
  something	
  complicated.	
  The	
  area	
  in	
  which	
  the	
  prompt	
  is	
  placed	
  is	
  also	
  important.	
  
Putting	
  the	
  prompt	
  in	
  an	
  area	
  where	
  the	
  behaviour	
  takes	
  place	
  is	
  vital	
  for	
  the	
  change	
  of	
  the	
  
particular	
  behaviour	
  (20).	
  If	
  the	
  prompt	
  was	
  in	
  a	
  place	
  that	
  was	
  completely	
  unrelated	
  to	
  the	
  
behaviour,	
  then	
  the	
  person	
  may	
  stop	
  and	
  read	
  the	
  sign	
  but	
  forget	
  about	
  it	
  by	
  the	
  time	
  they	
  go	
  
to	
  complete	
  the	
  behaviour.	
  It	
  is	
  necessary	
  that	
  the	
  prompt	
  be	
  placed	
  correctly	
  so	
  that	
  the	
  


                                                                               17	
  
	
  
person	
  sees	
  it	
  as	
  they	
  are	
  about	
  to	
  complete	
  the	
  behaviour,	
  and	
  thus	
  immediately	
  thinks	
  
otherwise.	
  	
  
            Prompts	
  are	
  a	
  subtle	
  but	
  effective	
  way	
  to	
  help	
  alter	
  a	
  specific	
  behaviour.	
  In	
  this	
  case,	
  the	
  
project’s	
  aim	
  was	
  to	
  remind	
  people	
  not	
  to	
  buy	
  disposable	
  water	
  bottles,	
  and	
  to	
  fill	
  up	
  their	
  
reusable	
  bottles.	
  The	
  prompts	
  used	
  for	
  this	
  project	
  should	
  aid	
  in	
  the	
  reduction	
  of	
  disposable	
  
plastic	
  water	
  bottles	
  around	
  the	
  UNB	
  campus.	
  
	
  
Brunswickan	
  Article	
  
            Three	
  group	
  members	
  (Hannah	
  Bradford,	
  Amos	
  Champion,	
  and	
  Jennifer	
  Nicholson)	
  
were	
  interviewed	
  by	
  the	
  Brunswickan.	
  This	
  article	
  was	
  published	
  in	
  the	
  5	
  January,	
  2011	
  issue.	
  
The	
  purpose	
  of	
  this	
  was	
  to	
  raise	
  awareness	
  of	
  our	
  project	
  in	
  the	
  university	
  community.	
  Our	
  
sampling	
  results	
  were	
  discussed,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  recommendations	
  to	
  UNB	
  for	
  improving	
  water	
  
quality	
  on	
  campus	
  (Appendix	
  B).	
  
	
  
Social	
  Media	
  
            To	
  help	
  raise	
  awareness	
  about	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  container	
  use,	
  a	
  page	
  was	
  created	
  on	
  
the	
  popular	
  social	
  media	
  website,	
  Facebook	
  (Appendix	
  C).	
  The	
  page,	
  called	
  “Ban	
  the	
  Bottle	
  on	
  
UNBF	
  Campus”	
  aims	
  to	
  inform	
  people	
  about	
  the	
  waste	
  plastic	
  bottles	
  generate,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  
reiterate	
  that	
  tap	
  water	
  is	
  just	
  as	
  safe	
  and	
  healthy	
  to	
  drink	
  as	
  bottled	
  water.	
  Each	
  day	
  a	
  fact	
  is	
  
displayed	
  on	
  the	
  page,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  web	
  links	
  containing	
  news	
  stories	
  and	
  other	
  relevant	
  
information	
  pertaining	
  to	
  the	
  topic.	
  The	
  hope	
  is	
  to	
  get	
  many	
  users	
  to	
  frequently	
  visit	
  this	
  page	
  
and	
  change	
  their	
  behaviour	
  to	
  stop	
  or	
  decrease	
  their	
  disposable	
  water	
  bottle	
  purchases.	
  	
  
	
  
Discussion	
  
            The	
  results	
  of	
  our	
  water	
  quality	
  testing	
  were	
  not	
  all	
  positive;	
  however,	
  it	
  is	
  still	
  
important	
  to	
  promote	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  container	
  use	
  for	
  the	
  environmental	
  and	
  financial	
  
benefits	
  as	
  outlined	
  earlier.	
  Opportunities	
  to	
  promote	
  fountain	
  and	
  hydration	
  station	
  use	
  are	
  
apparent,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  some	
  opportunities	
  for	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  New	
  Brunswick	
  Fredericton	
  
campus	
  to	
  ensure	
  the	
  quality	
  of	
  pipes	
  that	
  incoming	
  water	
  flows	
  through	
  is	
  more	
  than	
  


                                                                               18	
  
	
  
adequate.	
  As	
  the	
  water	
  is	
  guaranteed	
  safe	
  and	
  drinkable	
  by	
  the	
  water	
  treatment	
  plant	
  when	
  it	
  
leaves	
  (23),	
  the	
  issue	
  of	
  lead	
  in	
  the	
  water	
  is	
  likely	
  caused	
  within	
  the	
  piping	
  system.	
  	
  
            Based	
  on	
  the	
  water	
  testing	
  results	
  from	
  numbers	
  4	
  (hydration	
  station	
  near	
  science	
  
library),	
  7	
  (hydration	
  station	
  near	
  SUB	
  Styles),	
  and	
  10	
  (purchased	
  bottle	
  of	
  Aquafina	
  from	
  the	
  
vending	
  machine	
  near	
  financial	
  services)	
  some	
  interesting	
  conclusions	
  can	
  be	
  made.	
  All	
  levels	
  of	
  
metals	
  tested	
  for	
  were	
  well	
  below	
  the	
  HAL	
  for	
  all	
  of	
  these	
  samples,	
  and	
  all	
  were	
  the	
  lowest	
  
levels	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  samples.	
  This	
  indicates	
  that	
  water	
  from	
  the	
  hydration	
  stations,	
  which	
  have	
  a	
  
filter,	
  is	
  just	
  as	
  safe	
  and	
  healthy	
  to	
  drink	
  as	
  purchased	
  water	
  in	
  a	
  disposable	
  bottle.	
  We	
  would	
  
recommend	
  that	
  UNB	
  take	
  notice	
  and	
  consider	
  the	
  installation	
  of	
  additional	
  hydration	
  stations	
  
around	
  campus,	
  particularly	
  in	
  areas	
  where	
  higher	
  levels	
  of	
  metals	
  tested	
  for	
  were	
  found.	
  Also,	
  
the	
  filters	
  within	
  the	
  hydration	
  stations	
  should	
  be	
  maintained	
  to	
  ensure	
  optimal	
  water	
  quality.	
  
For	
  the	
  fountains	
  tested	
  in	
  Bailey	
  Hall	
  with	
  lead	
  amounts	
  over	
  the	
  HAL,	
  we	
  would	
  recommend	
  
that	
  the	
  pipes	
  be	
  flushed	
  on	
  a	
  daily	
  basis	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  there	
  is	
  not	
  a	
  high	
  lead	
  content	
  in	
  the	
  
short	
  term.	
  In	
  the	
  longer	
  term,	
  the	
  pipes	
  should	
  be	
  looked	
  at	
  and	
  consideration	
  could	
  be	
  made	
  
on	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  replacing	
  these	
  pipes	
  is	
  feasible	
  or	
  the	
  installation	
  of	
  an	
  in-­‐pipe	
  filter	
  system.	
  	
  
            Shortcomings	
  of	
  this	
  analysis	
  include	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  fountains	
  tested.	
  Not	
  all	
  fountains	
  
could	
  be	
  tested	
  in	
  all	
  buildings	
  on	
  campus	
  due	
  to	
  financial	
  constraints,	
  so	
  there	
  may	
  be	
  
information	
  missing	
  as	
  to	
  what	
  other	
  fountains	
  may	
  have	
  high	
  levels	
  of	
  unsafe	
  metals	
  reported.	
  
Our	
  hope	
  is	
  still	
  to	
  promote	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  containers,	
  but	
  also	
  to	
  raise	
  awareness	
  
of	
  the	
  water	
  quality	
  issues	
  on	
  campus.	
  In	
  raising	
  awareness	
  of	
  the	
  water	
  quality	
  in	
  cases	
  where	
  
the	
  results	
  indicated	
  that	
  metals	
  in	
  the	
  water	
  exceeded	
  the	
  HAL,	
  we	
  still	
  want	
  to	
  encourage	
  the	
  
use	
  of	
  reusable	
  water	
  bottles;	
  however,	
  flushing	
  of	
  these	
  fountains	
  prior	
  to	
  filling	
  your	
  reusable	
  
bottle	
  is	
  recommended	
  until	
  the	
  problem	
  is	
  properly	
  addresses	
  by	
  UNB.	
  	
  
	
          In	
  respect	
  to	
  promoting	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  containers,	
  research	
  was	
  done	
  to	
  look	
  into	
  
what	
  other	
  University	
  campuses	
  have	
  done.	
  At	
  the	
  Washington	
  University	
  in	
  St.	
  Louis,	
  Missouri,	
  
they	
  have	
  joined	
  a	
  campaign	
  called	
  “Ban	
  the	
  Bottle.”	
  This	
  unique	
  campaign	
  discourages	
  the	
  
purchase	
  of	
  bottled	
  water,	
  and	
  is	
  gaining	
  recognition.	
  Currently,	
  bottled	
  water	
  is	
  not	
  available	
  
for	
  purchase	
  anywhere	
  on	
  the	
  Washington	
  University	
  campus,	
  and	
  students	
  and	
  faculty	
  are	
  
encouraged	
  to	
  bring	
  their	
  own	
  reusable	
  drinking	
  containers.	
  In	
  an	
  article	
  they	
  state	
  that	
  


                                                                                19	
  
	
  
“Because	
  of	
  concerns	
  about	
  the	
  environmental	
  impact	
  of	
  bottled	
  water,	
  the	
  University	
  has	
  
ended	
  sales	
  of	
  the	
  product,	
  and	
  administrative	
  offices	
  will	
  no	
  longer	
  offer	
  bottled	
  water	
  at	
  
events	
  and	
  meetings.	
  Instead,	
  faculty,	
  staff,	
  students,	
  and	
  guests	
  are	
  encouraged	
  to	
  drink	
  tap	
  
water	
  and	
  use	
  reusable	
  water	
  containers”	
  (22).	
  Ban	
  the	
  Bottle	
  has	
  become	
  a	
  movement	
  and	
  
many	
  other	
  universities	
  are	
  banning	
  bottled	
  water	
  on	
  their	
  campuses	
  as	
  well.	
  	
  
	
  
Conclusion	
  
             In	
  conclusion,	
  we	
  feel	
  that	
  this	
  project	
  could	
  be	
  an	
  ongoing	
  process	
  repeated	
  from	
  year	
  
to	
  year	
  by	
  the	
  Water	
  Sustainability	
  class.	
  Follow	
  up	
  and	
  expansion	
  could	
  continue	
  by	
  promoting	
  
reusable	
  water	
  bottles	
  and	
  improving	
  water	
  quality	
  on	
  campus.	
  We	
  recommend	
  more	
  
promotion	
  of	
  the	
  issue,	
  getting	
  residences	
  involved,	
  putting	
  up	
  more	
  posters,	
  and	
  possible	
  
screening	
  of	
  the	
  film	
  Tapped,	
  an	
  exposé	
  of	
  the	
  bottled	
  water	
  industry.	
  These	
  kinds	
  of	
  actions	
  
can	
  go	
  a	
  long	
  way	
  in	
  promoting	
  water	
  sustainability,	
  promoting	
  individual	
  health	
  in	
  the	
  form	
  of	
  
less	
  chemical	
  consumption	
  from	
  plastic	
  bottles,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  preventing	
  additional	
  wastes	
  from	
  
entering	
  landfills.	
  Eventually	
  we	
  hope	
  that	
  in	
  the	
  future	
  UNB	
  will	
  phase	
  out	
  the	
  sales	
  of	
  bottled	
  
water.	
  	
  
             	
  
	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  
                                                                           	
  




                                                                         20	
  
	
  
                                                                References	
  

       1. City	
  of	
  Fredericton.	
  2010.	
  City	
  of	
  Fredericton	
  -­‐	
  Water	
  Utility.	
  Retrieved	
  November	
  14,	
  
           2010	
  from:	
  http://www.fredericton.ca/en/environment/waterutility.asp	
  
       2. Container	
  Recycling	
  Institute,	
  “Report	
  shows	
  plastic	
  bottle	
  waste	
  tripled	
  since	
  1995,”	
  
           Sept	
  2003.	
  Retrieved	
  from:	
  http://www.container-­‐
           recycling.org/media/newsrelease/plastic/2003-­‐9waste.htm	
  
       3. Ferrier,	
  Catherine.	
  (2001).	
  Bottled	
  Water:	
  Understanding	
  a	
  Social	
  Phenomenon.	
  World	
  
           Wildlife	
  Fund.	
  P.	
  5.	
  Retrieved	
  from:	
  
           http://assets.panda.org/downloads/bottled_water.pdf	
  	
  
       4. Clarke,	
  Tony.	
  (2007).	
  Inside	
  the	
  bottle:	
  An	
  expose	
  of	
  the	
  Bottled	
  Water	
  Industry.	
  Polaris	
  
           Institute,	
  Ottawa.	
  p.	
  27.	
  
       5. Howard,	
  B.	
  C.	
  (2010).	
  Message	
  in	
  a	
  Bottle:	
  Despite	
  the	
  Hype,	
  Bottled	
  Water	
  is	
  Neither	
  
           Cleaner	
  nor	
  Greener	
  than	
  Tap	
  Water.	
  Retrieved	
  October	
  27,	
  2010,	
  from	
  
           http://www.emagazine.com/view/?1125	
  
       6. Reuseit.	
  (2010).	
  Fast	
  Facts	
  on	
  Disposable	
  Bottles.	
  Retrieved	
  October	
  27,	
  2010,	
  from	
  
           http://www.reuseit.com/learn-­‐more/top-­‐facts/plastic-­‐bottle-­‐facts	
  
       7. Amos,	
  A.	
  F.	
  (2010).	
  Pollution	
  of	
  the	
  Ocean	
  by	
  Plastic	
  and	
  Trash.	
  Retrieved	
  November	
  14,	
  
           2010	
  from	
  http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Po-­‐Re/Pollution-­‐of-­‐the-­‐Ocean-­‐by-­‐
           Plastic-­‐and-­‐Trash.html	
  
       8. Worldwatch	
  Institute.	
  (2007).	
  Bottled	
  Water	
  Issues	
  Summary.	
  Retrieved	
  October	
  27,	
  
           2010,	
  from	
  
           http://www.a2gov.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/public_services_water_a2h2o_FAQs_2
           007_12_12.pdf	
  
       9. Government	
  of	
  New	
  Brunswick.	
  2006.	
  Potable	
  Water	
  Regulation	
  -­‐	
  Clean	
  Water	
  Act.	
  
           Retrieved	
  November	
  1,	
  2010	
  from:	
  http://www.gnb.ca/0062/regs/93-­‐203.htm	
  
       10. Health	
  Canada.	
  2008.	
  Guidelines	
  on	
  Canadian	
  Drinking	
  Water	
  Quality.	
  Retrieved	
  
           November	
  8,	
  2010	
  from:	
  http://www.hc-­‐sc.gc.ca/ewh-­‐semt/pubs/water-­‐
           eau/sum_guide-­‐res_recom/chemical-­‐chimiques-­‐eng.php	
  
       11. Government	
  of	
  Ontario.	
  2002.	
  Safe	
  Drinking	
  Water	
  Act,	
  O	
  Reg.	
  170/03.	
  Retrieved	
  
           November	
  14,	
  2010	
  from:	
  http://www.e-­‐
           laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_02s32_e.htm	
  
       12. Lenntech.	
  2009.	
  	
  Water	
  Treatment	
  Solutions:	
  Iron	
  and	
  water.	
  	
  Lenntech	
  Water	
  
           treatment	
  &	
  purification	
  Holding	
  B.V.	
  Retrieved	
  November	
  1,	
  2010,	
  from	
  
           http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/iron/iron-­‐and-­‐water.htm	
  
       13. Heath	
  Canada.	
  (2008).	
  It’s	
  your	
  Health.	
  	
  Government	
  of	
  Canada.	
  Retrieved	
  November	
  1,	
  
           2010,	
  from	
  http://www.hc-­‐sc.gc.ca/hl-­‐vs/iyh-­‐vsv/environ/lead-­‐plomb-­‐eng.php	
  
       14. Government	
  of	
  the	
  Northwest	
  Territories.	
  (2010).	
  Chemical,	
  Physical	
  and	
  Biological	
  
           Parameters.	
  Retrieved	
  November	
  2,	
  2010,	
  from	
  
           http://www.maca.gov.nt.ca/operations/water/WWMeasure.htm	
  
       15. Wisconsin	
  Department	
  of	
  Health	
  and	
  Family	
  Services.	
  (2007).	
  Human	
  Health	
  Hazards:	
  
           Manganese	
  in	
  Drinking	
  Water.	
  State	
  of	
  Wisconsin	
  



                                                                      21	
  
	
  
       16. Johannes	
  Godt,	
  Franziska	
  Scheidig,	
  Christian	
  Grosse-­‐Siestrup,	
  Vera	
  Esche,	
  Paul	
  
           Brandenburg,	
  Andrea	
  Reich,	
  and	
  David	
  A	
  Groneberg.	
  (2006).	
  The	
  toxicity	
  of	
  cadmium	
  
           and	
  resulting	
  hazards	
  for	
  human	
  health.	
  Med	
  Toxicol,	
  1:22	
  
       17. Canadian	
  Council	
  of	
  Ministers	
  or	
  the	
  Environment.	
  (2009).	
  Cadmium.	
  Retrieved	
  
           November	
  2,	
  2010,	
  from	
  http://www.ccme.ca/sourcetotap/cadmium.html	
  
       18. Damgaard,	
  M.	
  (2003).	
  Copper	
  and	
  your	
  Health.	
  Retrieved	
  November	
  1,	
  2010	
  from	
  
           http://dnr.wi.gov/org/water/dwg/copper.htm	
  
       19. Illinois	
  Department	
  of	
  Public	
  Health.	
  (2009).	
  Environmental	
  Health	
  Fact	
  Sheet	
  	
  
       20. McKenzie-­‐Mohr,	
  D.	
  and	
  Smith,	
  W.	
  (1999).	
  Prompts:	
  Remembering	
  to	
  Act	
  Sustainably.	
  In:	
  
           Fostering	
  Sustainable	
  Behaviour:	
  An	
  Introduction	
  to	
  Community-­‐Based	
  Social	
  Marketing.	
  	
  
           New	
  Society	
  Publishers,	
  Gabriola	
  Island,	
  B.C.	
  p.	
  61-­‐70.	
  
       21. New	
  Brunswick	
  Department	
  of	
  Environment	
  Laboratory.	
  (2008).	
  Inorganic:	
  Sampling	
  
           Protocol	
  for	
  Inorganics.	
  
       22. Bosque,	
  T.	
  (2009).	
  Washington	
  University	
  Ends	
  Sales	
  of	
  Bottled	
  Water	
  on	
  Campus.	
  
           Retrieved	
  from:	
  http://www.banthebottle.net/school/washington-­‐university-­‐ends-­‐sales-­‐
           of-­‐bottled-­‐water-­‐on-­‐campus/	
  	
  
       23. R.	
  Larley,	
  Pers.	
  Communication.	
  Fredericton	
  Water	
  Treatment	
  Plant.	
  November	
  2010.	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  
                                                                          	
  

                                                                 22	
  
	
  
                     Appendix	
  A	
  

                              	
  




                                                          	
  




                                                          	
  
       Posters	
  Prepared	
  by	
  Alison	
  Smith	
  
                              	
  
                              	
  
                              	
  
                              	
  


                            23	
  
	
  
                                                        Appendix	
  B	
  
                                                                 	
  
       The	
  Brunswickan	
  interview	
  was	
  origianlly	
  published	
  in	
  the	
  5	
  January,	
  2011	
  issue.	
  
                                                                 	
  




                                                                                                                               	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  
                                                                 	
  


                                                               24	
  
	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
               	
  
       Appendix	
  C	
  
               	
  




             25	
  
	
  
                	
  




       26	
  
	
  

								
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