Transporting Dangerous Goods Road Transport

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					OH&S
Occupational Health & Safety




Transporting Dangerous Goods
What every transport worker needs to know
FOREWORD


This booklet is to assist you to carry out your job role
safely when handling, storing or moving dangerous
goods.

Please read it carefully. It has been written in plain
English and targeted for specific job roles.

This booklet is only a guide; please refer to the
Australian Dangerous Goods Code and relevant
legislation for legal requirements.


Alex Gallacher
Secretary
Transport Workers Union




                                                           Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   1
    CONTENTS

    WHAT THIS BOOKLET IS ALL ABOUT                                4       10. EQUIPMENT THAT DRIVERS MUST CARRY
    What are dangerous goods?                                     4           ON THEIR VEHICLE                           13
                                                                              Personal protective equipment              13
    1. WHO IS INVOLVED?                                           6           Portable warning devices                   13
                                                                              Eyewash kit                                13
    2. DUTIES OF YOUR BOSS                                        7           Fire extinguishers                         13

    3. IF YOU DO ANY OF THESE THINGS                              7       APPENDICES                                     15

    4. DUTIES OF PACKERS                                          8       A. DUTIES OF YOUR BOSS: the rules in detail    15
       Marking of packages and unit loads                         8          Shipping documentation                      15
                                                                             Emergency information                       15
    5. DUTIES OF LOADERS                                          9          Packaging and bulk containers               15
                                                                             Packaging                                   15
    6. SEGREGATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS                                        Bulk containers                             15
       IN VEHICLES AND FREIGHT CONTAINERS                         9          Freight containers                          16
                                                                             Unit loads                                  16
    7. DUTIES OF DRIVERS                                        10           Vehicle placarding                          16
       What drivers and supervisors need to know                             Vehicle safety standards                    16
       about the paperwork                                      10           Mixing dangerous goods with food goods      16
                                                                             Segregation of incompatible goods           17
    8. CONTRACTORS WHO OWN THEIR VEHICLES                       11           What does 'incompatible' mean?              17
                                                                             Goods that must not be transported on the   17
    9. LABELS AND PANELS ON A VEHICLE                                           same combination vehicle
       CONTAINING DANGEROUS GOODS                               12           Stowage                                     17
                                                                             Dangerous goods bulk vehicle licence        17
                                                                             Emergency plan                              17




2     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
B. PACKERS:                                           19      F. LABELS AND PANELS ON A TRUCK                               28
   MARKING ON INNER PACKAGING AND                     19         CONTAINING DANGEROUS GOODS
   DIMENSIONS OF LABELS AND SIZE OF                              Definition of ‘placard load’                               28
   LETTERING                                                     Aggregate quantity                                         28
   Marking on inner packaging                         19         Packaged dangerous goods                                   28
                                                                 Size of class and subsidiary risk placard                  29
C. SEGREGATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS IN                  20         Other requirements                                         29
   VEHICLES AND FREIGHT CONTAINERS                               Removal of placarding                                      29
                                                                 Bulk goods                                                 29
D. DUTIES OF THE DRIVER: the specific details         22         Bulk dangerous goods                                       30
   Bulk vehicle licensing and bulk driver’s licence   22         Size of panels                                             30
   Documentation and emergency information            22         Divided panels                                             30
   Stowage, placarding and vehicle                    23         Explanation of an emergency information panel              30
   Procedures during transport                        23         Hazchem emergency action code interpretation               31
   Parking and standing                               24
   Unloading                                          24      G. EQUIPMENT THAT DRIVERS MUST CARRY                          32
   Detaching a trailer from a prime mover or          24         ON THEIR VEHICLE
      combination road vehicle                                   Guide to personal protective equipment and
   Operation of burners                               25         safety equipment on road vehicles                          33
   Emergencies                                        25
   Definition of dangerous situation                  26           ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                         34

E. CONTRACTORS WHO OWN THEIR VEHICLES                 26
   Who is an owner?                                   26
   What is a tanker vehicle?                          26
   Vehicle safety standards                           26
   Equipment                                          27
   Insurance                                          27
   Personal protective and safety equipment           27



                                                       Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know    3
    WHAT THIS BOOKLET IS ALL ABOUT

    This booklet is for road transport
    workers who prepare, ship, load or
    transport dangerous goods – or
    supervise others to do so.

    In recent years there have been
    changes to the rules about
    dangerous goods. This booklet
    gives you an opportunity to see
    whether your knowledge is up to
    date.

    The information in this book was
    accurate at February 2001.


    What are dangerous goods?

    Substances or articles with
    hazardous properties which may, if
    handled incorrectly, explode,
    asphyxiate (choke), burn, make
    explosive mixtures, poison, eat
    skin or metal, pollute the
    environment or become unstable if
    mixed with other products.




4     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Dangerous goods classifications

Each dangerous goods class is represented by a distinctive and specific class label in the shape of a diamond.




                                                      Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   5
    1. WHO IS INVOLVED?


    •    Consignor.                                                         Clearly, while a lot rests on your boss's shoulders,
    •    Driver.                                                            remember that you are also expected to understand
    •    Packer.                                                            what you have to do and know about dangerous goods.
    •    Loader.                                                            There's more about this later in this booklet.
    •    Contractor.
    •    Prime contractor.

    If your boss takes responsibility for consigning
    dangerous goods by road, he or she becomes what is
    known as the consignor. Consignors have major
    responsibilities, including an obligation to inform you as
    a supervisor or driver that the goods are 'dangerous
    goods'. The consignor must also ensure that the
    packaging for the goods is approved and appropriately
    marked. This means that packers and loaders must also
    be told about the goods, and know about aspects of
    the paperwork and how such goods ought to be packed
    and loaded onto trucks.

    If you are a contractor using your own vehicle, you also
    have responsibilities relating to your vehicle's safety
    standards, equipment, insurance and protective and
    safety equipment.

    Your boss is also legally known as the prime contractor,
    that is, the person conducting a business for or
    involving the transport of dangerous goods by road,
    who undertakes to be responsible, or is responsible, for
    the transport of the goods by road.



6       Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
2. DUTIES OF YOUR BOSS                                            3. IF YOU DO ANY OF THESE THINGS


As the consignor, your boss should understand his or              Your boss is responsible to instruct, train and supervise
her responsibilities, and make sure that if you are               you so that in your job you can handle dangerous
supervising work the right things are done in relation to:        goods safely and legally.

•   Shipping documentation.                                       If you do any of these things, you are involved in the
•   Emergency information.                                        transport of dangerous goods:
•   Packages and bulk containers.                                 • Packing dangerous goods or marking packaged
•   Freight containers.                                                dangerous goods and unit loads.
•   Unit loads.                                                   • Consigning dangerous goods.
•   Vehicle placarding.                                           • Loading or unloading dangerous goods into or out
•   Vehicle safety standards.                                          of a vehicle or into or out of a container to be put
•   Mixing dangerous goods with food goods.                            into a vehicle.
•   Segregation of incompatible goods.                            • Placarding (putting labels or panels) on containers
•   Using a segregation device.                                        or vehicles in which dangerous goods are
•   Stowage.                                                           transported.
•   The dangerous goods bulk driver ’s licence.                   • Preparing shipping documentation.
•   The dangerous goods bulk vehicle licence.                     • Maintaining vehicles and equipment used in the
•   Emergencies involving placard loads.                               transport of dangerous goods.
•   The emergency plan.                                           • Driving vehicles and equipment used in the
                                                                       transport of dangerous goods.
There are special rules about each of these aspects.              • Being the consignee (the receiver) of dangerous
They are contained at the end of this booklet to help                  goods.
you understand what is involved. The more you know                • Following the legal procedures in a dangerous
about them the better it will be for you. The law says                 situation.
that, even though your boss is responsible, you also
'reasonably ought to know' about the rules, so it is in           If you're not sure, look in Appendix A under this heading
your interest to read about them.                                 for more details.




                                                          Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   7
    4. DUTIES OF PACKERS


    A packer is a person who packs dangerous goods or                     An acceptable shipping document
    other goods for transport by road who:
    • Puts the goods in packaging.
    • Puts packaged goods in an outer packaging or unit
        load for transport by road.
    • Manages, controls or supervises such activities.

    A packer must not pack dangerous goods if:
    • The packaging is unsuitable or not approved.
    • The package will not be appropriately marked when
        the goods are transported.
    • The markings are false or misleading.

    Marking of packages and unit loads

    A standard marking for a package, when specified in a
    flow chart for a package, is a marking that includes:
    (a) the proper shipping name of each type of dangerous
        goods in the package; and
    (b) the UN Number for each type of dangerous goods in the
        package, prefaced with either “UN” or “UN No.”; and
    (c) a class label for each class of dangerous goods in the            If you're not sure about:
        package; and                                                      • marking on inner packaging; and/or
    (d) at least one each of any subsidiary risk label that is            • dimensions of labels and size of lettering;
        applicable to the goods in the package and that is not            please refer to the heading ‘Marking on inner packaging
        the same as any class label applicable to the goods in            and dimensions of labels and size of lettering’ in
        the package; and                                                  Appendix B.
    (e) the name and address in Australia of the manufacturer
        or consignor of the dangerous goods, or their agent.



8     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
5. DUTIES OF LOADERS                                           6. SEGREGATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
                                                                  IN VEHICLES AND FREIGHT CONTAINERS
In this job you would load dangerous goods or other           Packers, loaders, their supervisors and drivers need to
goods for transport either by:                                know about the characteristics of certain dangerous
• Loading a bulk container, freight container, or tank        goods so that when they are packed and loaded they
     that is part of a vehicle where the goods are to be      do not cause danger.
     transported by road.
OR                                                            Some dangerous goods are too dangerous to be
• Managing, controlling or supervising such activities.       packed with other goods in the same vehicle or freight
                                                              container.
Loaders must ensure that:
• The load is appropriately placarded (has the correct        Most explosives, flammable gases, spontaneously
     labels or panels attached) if required.                  combustible goods, oxidizing agents, and organic
• The placarding is not false or misleading.                  peroxide and radioactive substances are incompatible.
• The load is not placarded if it does not contain            This means that they must not be loaded into the same
     dangerous goods.                                         vehicle or freight container without appropriate
If the packaging is damaged or defective, dangerous           segregation from other dangerous goods.
goods shouldn't be loaded for transport.
                                                              A table contained in Appendix C under the same
                                                              heading as the top of this page illustrates what you
If you would like to know more about placarding, turn to      need to know about a very wide range of dangerous
Appendix F ‘Labels and panels on a truck containing           goods.
dangerous goods.’
                                                              Supervisors and loaders should keep it in a prominent
                                                              place and use it as a checklist.




                                                       Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   9
     7. DUTIES OF DRIVERS


     If you are a driver and you work or propose to work with              If you are a supervisor, you may be asked to supply it to
     dangerous goods, you may require a dangerous goods                    the driver on the consignor's behalf.
     bulk vehicle driver’s licence. The tests that you pass to
     obtain it, and the refresher courses that you undertake               You must ensure that documentation is carried in the
     every three years, will mean that you 'reasonably ought               Emergency Procedure Guide/Emergency Information
     to know' about these things:                                          holder in the vehicle’s cabin. If there is any incident, the
     • The bulk driver’s licence.                                          driver must give this to any emergency services
     • Documentation and emergency information.                            personnel or other authorised person if they ask.
     • Stowage, placarding (labels or panels) and your
          vehicle.                                                         An acceptable shipping document
     • Procedures during transport.
     • Parking and standing.
     • Unloading your vehicle.
     • Detaching a trailer.
     • Operation of burners.
     • Emergencies.
     • Definition of a dangerous situation.

     If you want to refresh your memory, or you are a
     supervisor and wish to find out more about the bulk
     driver’s licence, read about all of these aspects in
     Appendix D.

     What drivers and supervisors need to know about
     the paperwork

     If you are a driver, your boss (the consignor) must
     describe the dangerous goods on a shipping document
     and supply this to you.



10     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
                                                                   8. CONTRACTORS WHO OWN THEIR
                                                                      VEHICLES
Four important points to remember:                                 If you own your vehicle and use it in the transport
1. A separate document must be completed and                       industry as a contractor or subcontractor, there are
   accompany each consignment of dangerous goods.                  some important things you need to know if you work
2. One document may be used for multiple                           with dangerous goods.
   consignments from one consignor when they are
   carried on the same vehicle.                                    These are detailed in Appendix E under the same
3. When dangerous goods and non-dangerous goods                    heading.
   are transported on the same vehicle, the dangerous
   goods must appear first on the shipping document,
   or be on their own shipping document.
4. If part of a load of dangerous goods is unloaded
   from your vehicle, the shipping document should be
   amended after each unloading to provide an
   estimate of the remainder.

To find out more about a driver's duties, please turn to
Appendix D.




                                                           Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   11
     9. LABELS AND PANELS ON A VEHICLE
        CONTAINING DANGEROUS GOODS
     Your boss must know the laws about the labels and
     panels that must be fixed to a truck or trailer containing
     dangerous goods. The attachment of these labels and
     panels is called 'placarding'.

     But the law says that if you do any type of work with
     dangerous goods in the transport industry, then you too
     probably ought to know something about these labels
     and panels. For example:
     • When and where they are to be fixed to the truck.
     • How the type and amount of dangerous goods on
         the load may determine which labels and panels
         should be used.
     • Where they should go.

     A vehicle should be placarded if these quantities are to
     be carried:
     a. the load contains dangerous goods of Class 6.2; or
     b. for another load containing dangerous goods of
         Class 2.1 (except aerosols) or Class 2.3 or
         dangerous goods of Packing Group 1 (potential for
         great danger) — the aggregate quantity of                         Emergency
         dangerous goods in the load is at least 250 kg; or                information panel
     c. for any other load — the aggregate quantity of
         dangerous goods in the load is at least 1000 kg.

     There's a lot more to know, so if you are in doubt, ask.
     If you can't get the answers, the detail is contained in
     Appendix F under the same heading as appears at the
     top of this page.


12     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
10. EQUIPMENT THAT DRIVERS MUST
    CARRY ON THEIR VEHICLE
All drivers must carry personal protective and safety            Eyewash kit
equipment and fire extinguishers if they carry any class
of dangerous goods in a placard load, that is:                   The vehicle must carry an eyewash kit of at least 250
a. the load contains dangerous goods of Class 6.2; or            millilitres, filled and ready for use.
b. for another load containing dangerous goods of
     Class 2.1 (except aerosols) or Class 2.3 or                 Fire extinguishers
     dangerous goods of Packing Group 1 — the
     aggregate quantity of dangerous goods in the load           Vehicles transporting packaged dangerous goods must
     is at least 250 kg; or                                      have at least one 30B stored pressure type fire
c. for any other load — the aggregate quantity of                extinguisher, complying with Australian Standard 1841
     dangerous goods in the load is at least 1000 kg; or         parts 1 and 5, in an accessible position.
d. the load is a bulk load.
                                                                 Vehicles which transport bulk dangerous goods must be
Personal protective equipment                                    fitted with the minimum of a 10B dry powder type fire
                                                                 extinguisher in the cabin, in addition to:
This equipment must be carried in the cabin in a place           • (For vehicles with flammable goods in bulk on a
where it is easy to reach. All heavy items of safety                  vehicle with a capacity greater than 10,000 litres or
equipment (for example, self-contained breathing                      kg): Either two 60B dry powder type or one 80B dry
apparatus) must be secured to prevent them causing                    powder type and one 20B foam type extinguisher.
injury to the driver in the event of an accident.                • (For vehicles with non-flammable goods in bulk or
                                                                      flammable goods in bulk on a vehicle with a
For a more detailed guide of what is necessary, please                capacity less than or equal to 10,000 litres or kg):
read Appendix G.                                                      one 60B or two 30B dry powder type extinguishers.

Portable warning devices                                         Important note
                                                                 An additional towed bulk trailer is treated for these
The vehicle must carry three double-sided reflector              purposes as an individual vehicle and requires an
signs that comply with Australian Standard AS3790.               additional set of extinguishers. They must be readily
                                                                 accessible, remote from hose connection points and be
                                                                 secured by quick-release attachments.


                                                         Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   13
     APPENDICES




14   Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
A. DUTIES OF YOUR BOSS: THE RULES IN DETAIL


As the consignor, your boss should understand his or            part of the load if the load is to be split for transport
her responsibilities and make sure that supervisors,            on different vehicles. The consignor must ensure the
packers and loaders understand and do the right thing           information on the shipping documentation is not
in relation to:                                                 false or misleading. For example, if a person is named
• Shipping documentation.                                       as consignor of the dangerous goods but is not the
• Emergency information.                                        consignor of the goods, that would be false
• Packages and bulk containers.                                 information.
• Freight containers.
• Unit loads.                                                   Emergency information
• Vehicle placarding.
• Vehicle safety standards.                                     The consignor must not consign (intend to deliver) a
• Mixing dangerous goods with food goods.                       placard load of dangerous goods if the required
• Segregation of incompatible goods.                            emergency information is not on the vehicle. Check
• Using a segregation device.                                   Emergency Procedure Guides for fire and/or specific
• Stowage.                                                      substances, or the Australian Standard HB 76.
• The dangerous goods bulk driver’s licence.
• The dangerous goods bulk vehicle licence.                     Packaging and bulk containers
• Emergencies involving placard loads.
• The emergency plan.                                           Packaging
                                                                A person must not consign packaged dangerous
Shipping documentation                                          goods for transport by road in packaging unless the
                                                                packaging is suitable for transport, and is an
The prime contractor is the person conducting a                 approved or permitted container and, if plastic, the
business for or involving the transport of dangerous            packaging is not older than five years, unless
goods by road, who undertakes to be responsible, or is          otherwise approved.
responsible, for the transport of the goods by road. In
many cases this is also the consignor.                          Bulk containers
                                                                Goods listed as too dangerous to be transported in
Shipping documentation must be provided to the prime            bulk are not to be consigned in bulk.
contractor or driver with separate documents for each


                                                        Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   15
     A bulk container used to transport dangerous goods:                   Vehicle placarding
     • Must be approved and constructed from material
         compatible with the dangerous goods.                              The vehicle carrying the dangerous goods load must be
     • Must not be damaged or defective to the extent                      appropriately placarded as required. (If you're not sure
         that it is not safe.                                              about these details, see Chapter 7 of the Australian
     • Must be maintained, tested, inspected, and used in                  Dangerous Goods Code about labels and panels on a
         accordance with the Australian Dangerous Goods                    vehicle).
         Code (ADG Code), Volumes 1 and 2, available from
         Commonwealth Government bookshops. If you                         Vehicle safety standards
         can’t locate a copy, ask your boss to provide one.
                                                                           A consignor must not consign dangerous goods unless
     If it is an intermediate bulk container of liquid dangerous           the vehicle and its equipment complies with vehicle
     goods, it must have a bottom discharge valve and the                  safety standards.
     outlet must be securely sealed with a secondary closure.
                                                                           Mixing dangerous goods with food goods
     Freight containers
                                                                           Dangerous goods of these classes must not be
     Freight containers used to transport dangerous goods                  transported by road with food or food packaging:
     must be:                                                              • Class 2.3       (toxic gas).
     • Suitable for transport of the goods.                                • Class 6         (toxic and infectious substance).
     • Free of any defect.                                                 • Class 8         (corrosive).
     • Clean and dry inside.
     • Free of dangerous goods residues.                                   “Food” includes a substance prepared or intended for
                                                                           human or animal consumption, and (except dangerous
     Unit loads                                                            goods) intended to be an ingredient of food.

     Packaged dangerous goods transported in a unit load                   “Food packaging” means a food container or material
     must be safe and prepared in accordance with the                      designed or intended to be used in a food container or
     Australian Dangerous Goods Code and appropriately                     actually containing food.
     marked.


16     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Segregation of incompatible goods                                 •   Class 6.1 (toxic) that are cyanides, with Class 8
                                                                      (corrosive) that are acids.
What does ‘incompatible’ mean?                                    •   Class 2.1 (flammable gas) in bulk, with Class 3,
Goods are incompatible with dangerous goods of a                      Class 4 being Class 4.1 (flammable solid), Class 4.2
particular type if they are likely to interact with the               (spontaneously combustible), Class 4.3 (dangerous
dangerous goods to increase risk when mixed or                        when wet) or Class 5.1 and Class 5.2 in bulk.
otherwise brought into contact with them.
                                                                  Stowage
If a placard load of dangerous goods must be
transported on the same vehicle with incompatible                 A consignor mustn’t consign dangerous goods unless
goods, it must be segregated within an approved                   the goods are stowed in accordance with the Australian
segregation device in accordance with the Australian              Dangerous Goods Code. Ask your boss for a copy or
Dangerous Goods Code. Ask your boss for a copy or                 call your nearest Commonwealth Government
call your nearest Commonwealth Government                         bookshop.
bookshop.
                                                                  Dangerous goods bulk vehicle licence
For further information on compatibility, see the chart in
Appendix C called ‘Segregation of dangerous goods in              A consignor mustn’t consign dangerous goods in bulk
vehicles and freight containers’.                                 unless the vehicle is licensed.

Goods that must not be transported on the same                    Emergency plan
combination vehicle
                                                                  An emergency plan is a written plan for dealing with any
The following goods must not be transported on the                dangerous situation arising from the transport of the
same combination vehicle:                                         goods. It should contain a list of nominated people,
• Class 5.1 or with subsidiary risk of 5.1 (oxidizing             their contact details and responsibilities. The plan
    agent) or Class 5.2 (organic peroxide) in bulk, with          should be tried, tested and easily enacted, with
    Class 3 or subsidiary risk of 3 (flammable liquid), or        nominated people being fully trained in their
    a Combustible Liquid.                                         responsibilities.



                                                          Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   17
     A person must not consign a placard load of dangerous
     goods for transport by road unless an emergency plan
     has been prepared.

     If a vehicle transporting a placard load of dangerous
     goods by road is involved in an incident resulting in a
     dangerous situation, the consignor must, as soon as
     practicable after being asked by an authorised officer,
     or an officer of an emergency service, give information
     about:
     • The properties of the dangerous goods.
     • Safe methods of handling, containing and
          controlling the goods.
     • Provision of the equipment and other resources
          necessary to control the dangerous situation and to
          contain, control, recover and dispose of the
          dangerous goods that have leaked, spilled or
          accidentally escaped.

     If the prime contractor has the same resources and
     information, it is sufficient for them to provide the
     information or resources.

     Consignors must be aware that packers, loaders,
     prime contractors, vehicle owners and drivers also
     have certain duties if they know or reasonably ought to
     know that dangerous goods are carried. In most cases,
     this knowledge starts from the consignor.




18     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
B. PACKERS: MARKING ON INNER PACKAGING AND DIMENSIONS OF LABELS AND SIZE OF LETTERING


Marking on inner packaging                                        When packages are required to be marked, the label
                                                                  size must be at least the size specified, but the size of
Inner packaging containing 20ml/g or more of Packing              lettering is only desirable, not mandatory.
Group 1 (PG1) substances (defined as having the
potential for 'great danger') must be clearly marked with
the proper shipping or technical name, the appropriate
class label and (if appropriate) the subsidiary risk label.




*   PG II
** PG III     Not a manufactured product
*** PG III    A manufactured product – a manufactured
              product is a mixture of Class 3 dangerous
              goods of PG II or III with at least 10% of
              non-volatile materials such as resins,
              waxes and pigments.




                                                          Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   19
     C. SEGREGATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS IN VEHICLES AND FREIGHT CONTAINERS




     For explanations of what the symbols or numbers mean, please refer to page 21.
     Note: A colour version of this chart is printed on the back cover.




20     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Packers, loaders, their supervisors and drivers need to know about the characteristics of certain dangerous goods so
that when they are packed and loaded they do not cause danger.

Put simply, most explosives, flammable gases, spontaneously combustible goods, oxidizing agents, organic peroxide
and radioactive substances are incompatible. This means that they must not be loaded into the same vehicle or freight
container without appropriate segregation.

What the symbols or numbers in the table on page 20 mean

O means compatible and therefore may be loaded into the same vehicle or freight container.
N means incompatible and must therefore not be loaded into the same vehicle or freight container without appropriate
segregation.

(1) only in accordance with the Australian Explosive Code and State or Commonwealth legislation.
(2) means incompatible when both classes are in bulk.
(3) means incompatible when a Class 6 substance is a fire risk substance, and may therefore not be loaded into the
same vehicle or freight container without appropriate segregation.
(4) means incompatible when a Class 9 substance is a fire risk substance, and may therefore not be loaded into the
same vehicle or freight container without appropriate segregation.
(5) when a Class 6 is a cyanide and Class 8 is an acid.
(6) when a Class 3 substance is nitromethane.
(7) except when one substance is calcium hypochlorite (dry or hydrated) and its mixtures and other substance is any
dichloroieccyanuric acid, trichloroisocyanuric acid, or chloroisocyanurate, or when one substance is ammonium nitrate
and the other is either of the two acids above, or any tetrantromethane, chlorocisocyanurate, chlorite, hypochlorite,
any bromate or any inorganic nitrite.
(8) except when one substance is concentrated strong acid and the other substance is concentrated alkali.
(9) for segregation of undeveloped photographic film, personnel and mail - see requirements of the Code of Practice
for Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances.




                                                      Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   21
     D. DUTIES OF THE DRIVER: THE SPECIFIC DETAILS


     If you are a driver, you 'reasonably ought to know' about             Bulk (in relation to the carriage of dangerous goods) is
     these things:                                                         defined as:
     • The bulk driver’s licence.                                          • Gases (Class 2): in a container having a capacity
     • Documentation and emergency information.                                exceeding 500 litres.
     • Stowage, placarding (labels or panels) and your                     • All other classes: in a container having a capacity
          vehicle.                                                             exceeding 450 litres or in a container having a mass
     • Procedures during transport.                                            exceeding 400 kilograms.
     • Parking and standing.
     • Unloading your vehicle.                                             A dangerous goods bulk driver’s licence is not required
     • Detaching a trailer.                                                when:
     • Operation of burners.                                               (a) The goods are transported in intermediate bulk
     • Emergencies.                                                            containers (IBCs), rigid or flexible portable bulk
     • Definition of dangerous situation.                                      containers designed for mechanical handling, with
                                                                               up to a maximum of 3,000 litres, usually 1,000
     Bulk vehicle licensing and bulk driver’s licence                          litres, that take a form such as a bulk bag or a
                                                                               tank on a pallet.
     A driver must not drive a vehicle carrying bulk                       (b) The IBCs are not filled or emptied on the vehicle.
     dangerous goods unless the vehicle is licensed to carry               (c) The total capacity of the IBCs on the vehicle is not
     dangerous goods. In addition, the driver mustn't drive a                  more than 3,000 litres.
     vehicle transporting dangerous goods in bulk unless he
     or she is mentally and physically fit and possesses a                 Documentation and emergency information
     current dangerous goods bulk driver’s licence.
                                                                           The driver must ensure that a dangerous goods
     The transport of bulk dangerous goods constitutes a                   shipping document is carried, together with any
     substantial risk to the public and the environment.                   necessary emergency information in the holder attached
     Therefore, drivers of such vehicles must have maturity,               to the cabin door.
     special knowledge and expertise to be eligible to be
     granted a dangerous goods bulk driver’s licence.




22     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Stowage, placarding and vehicle                                 Procedures during transport

A driver must ensure that:                                      The driver must comply with all instructions given by
• The goods have been correctly loaded and secured.             the government and the prime contractor regarding
• All packaged dangerous goods are stowed and                   route, procedures, rest stops, etc.
    secured within either a closed vehicle body, freight
    container, or the rigid sides or gates and tailgate of      If a vehicle with a placard load of dangerous goods is:
    the vehicle.                                                • broken down or immobilised;
• In the case of a placard load, the load contains only         • stopped on a road; or
    compatible substances or is segregated (see the             • a traffic hazard;
    details about segregation in Appendix C).                   the driver must do all of the following:
• The appropriate signs are clearly and correctly
    displayed.                                                  •   Alert other road users of the hazard, by operating
                                                                    the flashing hazard lights (if it is safe to do so).
A driver must not drive a vehicle:                              •   Place portable warning devices on the ground 50 to
• With a placard load of dangerous goods if the                     150 metres to the front and rear of the vehicle. One
    placarding is false or misleading.                              should also be placed beside the vehicle on the
• With a load that does not contain dangerous goods                 side closer to traffic.
    but is placarded as if it were a placard load.              •   Operate the battery isolation switch (if fitted) when
• That is not suitable to transport dangerous goods.                the vehicle is car rying bulk dangerous goods and is
• That is not free from any defect that is likely to                left unattended, unless it is necessary to leave the
    create a risk in the transport of the goods.                    lights on to prevent a traffic hazard or comply with
• With any defective equipment, for example, faulty                 any law.
    load restraint equipment. All equipment must be
    suitable for the purpose.                                   The driver must not:
• That carries a placard load without the necessary             • Carry any unauthorised passengers.
    personal protective and safety equipment,                   • Smoke or light or carry any fire or matches or
    necessary fire extinguishers and portable warning               cigarette lighters on the road vehicle and not permit
    devices.                                                        any other person on board to do so if transporting
                                                                    bulk dangerous goods having a principal risk or


                                                        Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   23
     subsidiary risk of Class 2.1 (flammable gases), Class 3               Unloading
     (flammable liquids), Class 4 being 4.1 (flammable solids),
     4.2 (spontaneous combustible) and 4.3 (dangerous when                 The driver must not unload the consignment from the
     wet) or Class 5 being 5.1 (oxidizing agents) and 5.2 (organic         vehicle unless:
     peroxides).                                                           • the consignee (the person receiving the goods or a
                                                                               person acting on behalf of the consignee) is
     Parking and standing                                                      present and receives the goods; or
                                                                           • arrangements have been made with the consignee
     The driver must not park or leave the vehicle standing:                   for the goods to be unloaded into a secure place
     • In a built-up area with public access.                                  and the goods must be unloaded into that secure
     • Within 15 metres of any building in which there is or is                place.
         likely to be a concentration of people (except premises
         for loading and unloading).                                       If some of the goods are unloaded during the journey, the
     • Any other place in which there is likely to be a                    remaining load must be rearranged and secured to comply
         concentration of people.                                          with the Australian Dangerous Goods Code. Ask your boss
     • Within eight metres of another vehicle which is                     for a copy or obtain one from any Commonwealth
         transporting a placard load of dangerous goods.                   Government bookshop.

     A vehicle transporting dangerous goods of Class 2.1, 3, 4             Detaching a trailer from a prime mover or
     or 5 or with a subsidiary risk of 2.1, 3, 4 or 5 must not be          combination road vehicle
     parked or left standing within 15 metres of a naked flame.
                                                                           A trailer containing dangerous goods should not be
     The driver may park or leave the vehicle standing if it is            detached from a prime mover other than:
     reasonable to do so and for no longer than necessary:                 • At a declared vehicle marshalling area where
     • For loading and unloading.                                               loading and unloading is permitted.
     • If the vehicle is broken down.                                      • At a transport depot designed for loading and
     • Because of a dangerous situation involving the vehicle.                  unloading of goods.
     • To comply with the requirement of any law (for                      • For the immediate exchange of trailers between
         example, short logbook rest requirements).                             prime movers.
     • For a brief rest or refreshment break.


24     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
•   In an emergency in the interest of safety provided                    any source of ignition from coming within 15 metres of
    the trailer is correctly supported and secured.                       the vehicle involved (or if a greater distance is
•   In the event of the vehicle being disabled on a road                  specified in emergency information): that distance if
    or street.                                                            there has been as escape of flammable dangerous
                                                                          goods.
Operation of burners                                                  •   Warn or cause to be warned any person in the
                                                                          vicinity who may be at risk.
Burners to heat the load must not be operated when the                •   Prevent or minimise the escape of the dangerous
vehicle is moving. Burners for bitumen sprayers must not                  goods and their entry into drains, sewers or natural
be operated while spraying.                                               watercourses.

Emergencies                                                           The prime contractor and driver must, as soon as
If a vehicle transporting dangerous goods by road is                  practicable after the incident, inform the government about:
involved in an incident resulting in a dangerous situation,           • The time, date, place and the nature of the incident.
the driver must do all of the following:                              • Details of the dangerous goods being transported at
• Report it to the police or fire services as soon as                     the time of the incident.
      practicable.
• Report it to the prime contractor as soon as                        Within 21 days, both the prime contractor and driver must
      practicable.                                                    give a written report to the government about the incident,
• Provide reasonable assistance required by an                        including:
      authorised officer or officer of the emergency                  • Time, date and place the incident happened.
      services to deal with the situation.                            • The nature and the likely cause of the incident.
                                                                      • The dangerous goods transported at the time.
The driver should also take all safe and practicable steps            • Measures taken to control any leak, spill or escape of
including all of the following:                                            the goods and any fire or explosion arising out of the
• Carry out any emergency procedures recommended.                          incident.
• Carry out the procedures set out in any emergency                   • Measures taken after the incident in relation to the
     plan (see the last item at the end of Appendix A                      dangerous goods involved in the incident.
     commencing on page 17).
• Prevent other vehicles, other dangerous goods and


                                                              Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   25
                                                                           E. CONTRACTORS WHO OWN THEIR VEHICLES


     Definition of dangerous situation                                     If you own your vehicle and use it in the transport
                                                                           industry as a contractor or subcontractor, there are
     A dangerous situation is a situation involving the                    some important things you need to know if you work
     transport of dangerous goods by road or rail that is                  with dangerous goods.
     causing or is likely to cause imminent risk of death or
     injury to a person, or harm to the environment or to                  Who is an owner?
     property.                                                             An owner is the sole owner, a joint owner or part owner
                                                                           of the vehicle or has possession or use of the vehicle
                                                                           under a credit, hire-purchase, lease or other agreement,
                                                                           except an agreement requiring the vehicle to be
                                                                           registered in the name of someone else.

                                                                           What is a tanker vehicle?
                                                                           For the transportation of dangerous goods in bulk in the
                                                                           form of liquid or gas, a tanker is a vehicle which has a
                                                                           tank as part of its structure, or a tank attached. A tanker
                                                                           must not be used or permitted to be used unless it is
                                                                           approved; is maintained, tested and inspected as per
                                                                           the Australian Dangerous Goods Code; and is used in
                                                                           accordance with the tank’s compliance plate.

                                                                           Vehicle safety standards

                                                                           The owner of a vehicle must not use or permit the
                                                                           vehicle to be used to transport dangerous goods unless
                                                                           it is all of the following:
                                                                           • Suitable for transporting the goods.
                                                                           • Free from any defect that is likely to create a risk in
                                                                                 transporting the goods.
                                                                           • Clean.


26     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
•   In the case of tank vehicles, free from dangerous       The amount of the insurance or indemnity must be for a
    goods that are incompatible with dangerous goods        sum that is not less than:
    to be transported.                                      • in the case of a road vehicle transporting packaged
•   Fitted with twist-locks or other equipment for              dangerous goods: $1,000,000 per event and;
    securing a container on the vehicle.                    • in the case of a road vehicle transporting dangerous
                                                                goods in bulk: $2,500,000 per event.
Equipment
                                                            The government may require the person to produce
The vehicle owner must ensure that any equipment that       written evidence that the vehicle is insured, or is
is on the vehicle and used in loading and unloading or      otherwise indemnified. This evidence must be produced
transferring bulk dangerous goods to or from the vehicle    within 14 days.
is suitable for the purpose and is free from any defect.
                                                            Personal protective and safety equipment
Insurance
                                                            The owner of a vehicle must not use the vehicle or allow
A vehicle transporting a placard load of dangerous          the vehicle to be used to transport a placard load of
goods must be covered by a policy of insurance or           dangerous goods unless the vehicle is equipped with
other form of indemnity with respect to:                    fire extinguishers and any necessary personal protective
• property damage, personal injury and other damage         and safety equipment. Refer to appendix G.
    (excepting consequential economic loss) arising out
    of any fire, explosion, leakage or spillage of
    dangerous goods in, on or from the vehicle or
    container transported on the vehicle; and
• cost incurred by or on behalf of a government
    authority in a clean-up resulting from any event of
    the above kind.




                                                           Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   27
     F. LABELS AND PANELS ON A TRUCK CONTAINING DANGEROUS GOODS


     A boss or a supervisor must know the laws about the                        dangerous goods (except Class 2).
     labels and panels that must be fixed to a truck or trailer            •    The total capacity in litres of containers of
     containing dangerous goods. The attachment of these                        dangerous goods of Class 2 (except aerosols).
     labels and panels is called 'placarding'.
                                                                           Packaged dangerous goods
     Definition of 'placard load'
     A load of dangerous goods is a placard load if the load               Packaged goods are goods contained in individual
     contains dangerous goods in bulk.                                     containers which have a capacity less than bulk.

     A load of dangerous goods is also a placard load if the               Vehicles carrying a plackard load must display at front
     load does not contain dangerous goods in bulk, or is not              and rear:
     a consumer commodity load, but:                                       • class labels appropriate for the dangerous goods
     • the load contains dangerous goods of Class 6.2                      carried, and
         (Infectious Substance); or                                        • subsidiary risk placard (if applicable).
     • (in the case of another load containing dangerous
         goods of Class 2.1 (Flammable Gas) (except                        A mixed class label may be used if more than one class
         Aerosols) or Class 2.3 (Toxic Gas) or dangerous                   of dangerous goods is carried; alternatively, the class
         goods of Packing Group 1 ('great danger') the                     labels and subsidiary risk labels (if applicable) for each of
         aggregate quantity of dangerous goods in the load                 the classes of dangerous goods carried may be used.
         is at least 250; or
     • (in the case of any other load) the aggregate                       When the vehicle is required to be placarded, the
         quantity of dangerous goods in the load is at least               placarding must be all of the following:
         1,000.                                                            • Securely fixed to the vehicle or placed securely in a
                                                                               frame that is securely fixed to the vehicle.
     Aggregate quantity                                                    • Legible, not obscured and not obscuring other
     The aggregate quantity is the total of:                                   statutory marking, for example, registration plates.
     • The number of kilograms of solid dangerous goods                    • Durable and weather resistant.
         and aerosols.                                                     • Mounted on a part of the vehicle of a contrasting
     • The number of litres or kilograms, whichever is                         colour to the colour of the placard unless the border
         used in the shipping documentation of liquid                          is of a contrasting colour and design.


28     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Size of class and subsidiary risk placard
A class and subsidiary risk placard for use on freight
containers and vehicles must be at least 250mm square.

Other requirements
When a vehicle transporting dangerous goods is required
to be placarded, the following additional items must be
carried:
• Dangerous Goods Initial Emergency Response
     Guide/Emergency Procedure Guides.
• Personal protective and safety equipment relative to
     the classes of dangerous goods being transported.
• Fire extinguishers.
• Reflector signals.

Removal of placarding
All placarding must be removed or covered up when the
vehicle, container or tanks are rendered free from
dangerous goods.

Bulk goods
Bulk is defined as:
• Gases (Class 2): in a container having a capacity
    exceeding 500 litres.
• All other classes: in a container having a capacity
    exceeding 450 litres or in a container having a mass
    exceeding 400 kilograms.




                                                        Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   29
     Bulk dangerous goods                                                  Explanation of an emergency information panel

     Emergency Information Panels (EIPs) must be displayed                 The Class Label and Subsidiary Risk Label
     on vehicles, tanks or containers in which or on which                 Toxic Gas (Class 2) and Corrosive (Class 8)
     dangerous goods are carried in bulk.                                  (Note: number "8" does not appear on Subsidiary Risk)

     This is so that the dangerous goods and the method of                 Proper shipping name for the
     dealing with them in the event of an emergency are                    dangerous goods: Ammonia
                                                                           Anhydrous.
     clearly identified.                                                   The number assigned by the United
                                                                           Nations Committee of Experts: 1005.
     Size of panels                                                        Hazchem Code: 2RE.
     EIPs must be 800mm x 600mm. However, if an
     intermediate bulk container or tank has a capacity of
                                                                           Emergency service to be contacted:
     not more than three cubic metres, half scale panels                   000 Police or Fire Brigade.
     (that is, 400mm x 300mm) may be used.

     Divided panels
     Where a panel cannot be mounted as a whole because                    The name and telephone number must be displayed
     of obstructions, it may be divided in two parts and                   (including STD number) of an organisation in Australia
     mounted either side of the obstruction.                               which is staffed at all times while the vehicle is carrying
                                                                           dangerous goods. An after-hours number may be listed.
                                                                           This service must provide technical advice on hazards,
                                                                           method of control and the vehicle and its equipment.




30     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Hazchem emergency action code interpretation                Note:

The numeral indicates the recommended medium for            (a) Full protective clothing must include, as a minimum,
fire fighting and/or, where appropriate, dispersing             breathing apparatus, protective gloves, appropriate
spillage as follows:                                            boots and a chemical splash suit. In the case of
1. Water jets.                                                  some chemicals, a fully sealed gas suit is required.
2. Water fog. In the absence of fog, a fine spray may       (b) Where breathing apparatus is indicated, chemically
      be used.                                                  impervious protective gloves should be worn.
3. Foam.                                                    (c) ‘Dilute’ indicates that the substance may be diluted
4. Dry agent. Water must not be allowed to come into            with large quantities of water. Whenever
      contact with the dangerous goods at risk.                 practicable, diluted substances should be
                                                                contained and prevented from entering drains and
The first letter indicates as follows:                          water courses.
                                                            (d) ‘Contain’ indicates the need to prevent any spillage
                                                                from entering drains or water courses.

                                                            The letter ‘E’ is added when evacuation of people from
                                                            the neighbourhood of an incident should be considered
                                                            by the emergency service. Actual evacuation is a matter
                                                            for decision by the emergency services personnel who
                                                            take into account all relevant factors.




                                                    Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know   31
     G. EQUIPMENT THAT DRIVERS MUST CARRY ON THEIR VEHICLE


     All drivers must carry personal protective and safety equipment if they are transporting a placard load or if they carry
     any class of dangerous goods in bulk, that is:
     • Gases (Class 2) – in a container having a capacity exceeding 500 litres.
     • All other classes – in a container having a capacity exceeding 450 litres or in a container having a mass
          exceeding 400 kilograms.
     Refer to the guide to personal protective equipment and safety equipment on road vehicles on page 33.




32     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
Guide to personal protective equipment and safety equipment on road vehicles




Note 1:                                                                        Note 2:
Self-contained breathing apparatus if required by other legislation where      Where the dangerous goods may give rise to harmful vapours, gases or
the driver attends to loading or transfer of goods. Otherwise short-term       dust, self-contained breathing apparatus may be required by other
breathing apparatus for escape purposes is required.                           legislation where the driver attends to loading or transfer of goods.
                                                                               Otherwise short-term breathing apparatus for escape purposes is
                                                                               required. Self-contained breathing apparatus is not required for flat top
                                                                               vehicles loaded with intermediate bulk containers or packages only.


                                                                       Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know              33
     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                      DISCLAIMER


     Commonwealth of Australia funded under the                            This guide is intended to help those involved in
     Workplace Language and Literacy Program by the                        preparing, shipping, loading and transporting dangerous
     Commonwealth through the Department of Education                      goods to implement the legislative changes in their
     Training and Youth Affairs.                                           current operations.

     Department of Information and Administrative Services,                The information contained in this guide is an
     Mr John McKenzie, Senior Scientific Officer, Dangerous                interpretation of the above regulation and the new
     Goods – Ph 08 8303 0436.                                              Australian Dangerous Goods Code, Sixth Edition (ADG
                                                                           Code), Vol 1 and 2. It is not intended to replace the ADG
     WorkCover Corporation, Safer Industries Road Freight                  Code but to be read in conjunction with it.
     Transport Committee.
                                                                           In particular, the Transport Training Advisory Board SA
     Transport Training Advisory Board SA Inc: Ms Romana                   Incorporated, its agents, officers and employees make
     Wereszczak.                                                           no representations, express or implied, as to the
                                                                           accuracy of the information and data contained in the
     Queensland Department of Transport, Dangerous Goods                   publication; accept no liability for any use of the said
     Booklet.                                                              information or reliance placed on it; and make no
                                                                           representations, either expressed or implied, as to the
     Safety symbols courtesy of Ron Bath                                   suitability of the said information for any particular
     S.O.S. Safety Signs,                                                  purpose.
     Unit 5/543 Churchill Road KILBURN SA5084
     Phone: (08) 8262 7842.

     Produced by Heaton Consultancies.
     Written and edited by John Bridgland, using the
     Queensland Department of Transport, Dangerous Goods
     Guide to New Requirements as the reference source.
     Printed by Hyde Park Press.




34     Transporting Dangerous Goods What every transport worker needs to know
SEGREGATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS: IN ROAD VEHICLES AND FREIGHT CONTAINERS

				
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