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كتاب مهارات عرض المنتجات_2

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					                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                  ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




       
‫א‬‫א‬

       ٢٥٤
                                                ٢٥٤                                       ‫א‬
    ‫א‬
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬                                



                W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                                                     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                     
‫א‬? ?? ‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                     
   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
                                                                                               K‫א‬
                                                                                                      
          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                            
                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                           ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                         ‫א‬‫א‬
                        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬




١
    ‫א‬‫א‬           ٢٥٤                                        ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬                                  



                                                                          W‫א‬‫א‬
                          W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                            K‫א‬‫١. א‬
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٢. א‬
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫٣. א‬
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫٤. א‬
                               K‫א‬‫٥. א‬
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٦. א‬
                                                                                  
                                                  ٤W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                      
                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬
                                              K‫א‬ .١
                                            K‫א‬ .٢
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬ .٣
                                                                                  
                                                                          W‫א‬
                                                           K‫א‬ W
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                           K‫א‬ W‫א‬




                           -١-
       ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                             
   ‫א‬    ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                                  Concept of product ‫א‬     
                                                                                                     W
              W‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬product‫א‬
                                             K‫א‬J ٤K‫א‬J ٣K‫א‬J ٢K‫א‬J ١
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                               K
                      K?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ?  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
                                                                               K?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬        ?  ‫א‬ Kotler 
                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 :٣‫א‬
                                                             Core product‫א‬ -١
                                    ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                                     K‫א‬
                                                           Formal product ‫א‬‫٢- א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
                                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                              K‫א‬‫א‬??


                                                -٢-
        ‫א‬‫א‬                                                    ٢٥٤                                                  ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                                            ‫א‬‫א‬                                           



                                                              ‫א‬‫٣- א‬
  Augment product
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                      K?‫א‬?

                                                     ‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬

                                                          ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬
                                            ‫اﻻﺳﻢ‬               ‫اﻟﻄﺮاز‬                                                  ‫א‬
                                          ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرى‬                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
                                                              ‫أو‬                                               ‫א‬      ‫א‬
                         ‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎن‬                             ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ‬
                                          ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬
                                                                    ‫اﻟﻌﺒﻮة‬
                              ‫اﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬                                              ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻞ واﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ‬




                                           ‫א‬‫א‬WE١F
                                         
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?    Stanton    K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                ‫א‬

                                                           

                                            ‫א‬WE٢F




                                                                       -٣-
       ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                                                W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                           KKK‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬W           -١
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W            -٢
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W          -٣
                                                     K‫א‬W      -٤
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W          -٥
                                  J ٢          ‫א‬J ١‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  E‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                            K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬W
                              J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬     -١
                                                                         K‫א‬      -٢
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬       -٣
                                                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
   K‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬    
                                                                                            J W‫א‬
                      K‫א‬‫א‬                      J
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                J
                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬                    J
            
  ? ‫א‬         ‫א‬                   J
               K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?،?‫א‬
                              .‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     J


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        ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                   ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                             



                                                                                 J W‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬ J ‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                             J W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                J
                                                               
       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬               J
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬                  J
                                                                     KEF‫א‬
،?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬            J
                                        K??‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬      ‫א‬            J
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
                                      J W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬                J
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                          
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     J
  K‫א‬‫א‬                       J
                                                                        
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬             J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   J
                                                                        
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ? ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
  ‫א‬ ?  ،? ‫א‬ ?      ، 
                                                                                     K?




                                                   -٥-
        ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                      
‫א‬       ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
                                                                         K‫א‬




                                                  -٦-
        ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬              -١
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            -٢
                                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬      -٣
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           -٤
                                                                               K‫א‬       -٥
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬           -٦
                                                                                                      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬                   -١
                                               
 ،  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬   
                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬، W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       -٢
‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  
                                             K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                         
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬                 -٣
K‫א‬،،‫א‬
                       K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                    
K ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                 -٤
                           K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                      
‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬    W‫א‬        -٥
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬     W‫א‬ ‫א‬              -٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
            K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬


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        ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                            ٢٥٤                                          ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬                                             



                                                                                                                                                              

                                                                                   ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻊ اﻟﻤﺎدﻳﺔ‬

                                                      ‫ﺳﻠﻊ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬                                                                ‫ﺳﻠﻊ اﺳﺘﻬﻼآﻴﺔ‬




                                                                                                                                    ‫ﺗﺴﻮق‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺒﺎت وﺁﻻت‬


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           ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺎت اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ واﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬




                                                                                                                                                ‫ﻣﻴﺴﺮة‬
                                                ‫ﻣﻮاد اﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬
                                      ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺎت‬




                                                                          ‫أﺟﺰاء‬


                                                                                  ‫أﺟﻬﺰة وﻋﺪد‬



                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬E٣F
                                                                       ‫א‬ W‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬K
                                                                                                                                                K‫א‬
   E‫א‬F   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬ 
                                                                                                                                      J W
‫א‬‫ א‬ W                                                                       -١
                                                                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬     ‫א‬   W  ‫א‬ ‫א‬                                                                      -٢
                                                   
     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬                                                                        -٣
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬                                                                          -٤
    K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F


                                                                                               -٨-
        ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                           



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬                       -٥
                                                                                    
  ‫א‬   E‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                                             K‫א‬
                                                                                          W‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،        
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬              ‫א‬
                                                                  K‫א‬
                                                                                                       
                                                                                W
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫١- א‬
                       K‫א‬E…F‫א‬‫א‬               -٢
   E‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬                  -٣
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬                     -٤
                                                                                   K‫א‬
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     -٥
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  -٦
                                                                                 KE‫א‬
                                                                                                       
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        ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                          



                                         
                                                                                       
                                                           J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K………‫א‬‫א‬KK…………‫א‬ J 
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                               J ٥         J ٤             J ٣     J ٢         J ١
                           J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                     J ١
                                                                                     J ٢
                               ‫א‬ J 
   …………………………………………………………………………………
                                  …………………………………
                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
            …………………………………………………………
              KK………………………………………………………

                                                                                                
          J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                   ‫א‬J ٣‫א‬J ٢‫א‬‫א‬J ١W‫א‬ J 
                                                                      ‫א‬J ٤
   ………………………………………………..…………………………………
                                                       ……………………………
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٢ ‫א‬ J ١ W‫א‬ ‫א‬    J 
                                                          ‫א‬J ٣
                               ………………………………………………..………
                              …………………………………………………………
                             ‫א‬J ٢‫א‬J ١W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬J ٣




                                                - ١٠ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬                        ٢٥٤                         ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬                   



 ‫א‬ J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ ‫א‬  J ١ W‫א‬    J 
                                                            ‫א‬J ٤
                           …………………………………………………………
        ‫א‬J ٤‫א‬J ٣‫א‬J ٢‫א‬J ١W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                 ……………………………………………..……




                                          - ١١ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                      ‫א‬
                                                                                                  
                                                                      J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                   KJ ٥KJ ٤KJ ٣KJ ٢KJ ١ J 
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬J ٢              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١ J 
                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J 
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J 
              K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ J 




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       ‫א‬‫א‬                                        ٢٥٤                               ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                                ‫א‬‫א‬                           



                            E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
         E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
  
                  
                           
                                         
                                                                        ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                                                                         ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                                                 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫ א‬J ٤
                                         
                                                                                         ‫א‬
                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                                                              ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                 ‫א‬   ‫ א‬J ٨
                                         
                                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                                 ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      




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      ‫א‬‫א‬                                                            ٢٥٤                                                              ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬                                                          



                                        E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       L‫א‬                                                        L‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                   L‫א‬
            ‫א‬٪٨٠L‫א‬‫א‬                                                                     ١٠
          ‫א‬٪١٠٠L‫א‬‫א‬
               ‫א‬                                                             E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                                                                         ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                                                   ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                                                                            ‫א‬
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                          KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                                             
‫א‬




                                                                            - ١٤ -
                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                        ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                    ‫א‬‫א‬
                      ‫א‬
 ‫א‬




٢
  ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                                         ‫א‬
 ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                                   



                                                                                            W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫١. א‬
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫٢. א‬
 KE‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫٣. א‬
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٤. א‬
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬
                                                                                                     
                                                                     ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬
              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                           W‫א‬
                                                                                          
                                                                               K‫א‬ W
                                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                                 K‫א‬        J 
                                                   KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬J 
                                                                          K‫א‬ J 
                                                                                   K‫ א‬J 
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬




                                            - ١٥ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                                   ‫א‬
       ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                             



                                               
    ‫א‬‫ א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
    E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                 
                                                                                 ‫א‬ W
     ‫א‬      ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
    ‫א‬‫א‬KRemind Persuade Inform
                                                  K‫א‬J ٣،‫א‬J ٢،‫א‬J ١W
                                            J W‫א‬
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J
                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬            J
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           J
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬               J
                                                           
                                       KE‫א‬FE‫א‬F‫א‬              J
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J
    ‫א‬  ‫א‬       ‫א‬  
                                                    J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                          W‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                                            
    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬       -١
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬              -٢
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
                                                                      K…‫א‬‫א‬،



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     ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٥٤                                     ‫א‬
    ‫א‬                              ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                                                               W‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                         K‫א‬       -١
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬         -٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     -٣
                                                                                     K
                                                                               W‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                       K…‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                             
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                        J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                           K‫١. א‬
                                                                                           K‫٢. א‬
                                                                                           K‫٣. א‬
                                                                                           K‫٤. א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  
                       K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                       J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 Advertising                      ‫١. א‬
                                                Personal Selling                   ‫א‬‫٢. א‬
                                                         Publicity              ‫٣. א‬
                                                Sales Promotion                    ‫א‬ .٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




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    ‫א‬‫א‬                                     ٢٥٤                                      ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                               ‫א‬‫א‬                                  



                                                                                                                 

                                ‫اﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬
                                      ‫اﻹﻋﻼن‬                             ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﺘﺮوﻳﺞ‬
                             ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
                                      ‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ‬
                               ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬                                    ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ‬
                                      ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎت‬
                                                       
                                                       
                        ‫א‬‫א‬                                 ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                       
                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F
                                              J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                           W‫א‬ J 
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ?  ‫א‬ 
                                                                       K?‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 J W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Non-Personal                                         -١
                                                                                          K‫א‬
                           KPublicity‫א‬‫א‬Paid‫א‬‫א‬                           -٢
   KEJ J J J F‫א‬‫א‬                                      -٣
                                   KPropaganda‫א‬‫א‬                            -٤
                                   
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬                             -٥
                                                                                                K
                                KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬                            -٦
 ،E‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬                             -٧
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      -٨
                                                                                                             



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    ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                             



                                                          Personal Selling ‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                              J W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    J
                                   K‫א‬Face To Face‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        J
                                                                 K
                                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                                K
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                    KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J    J ٦
   ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
   ،‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                              Sales Promotion‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬ Mass Promotion‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                         J W‫א‬




                                              - ١٩ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                      ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                            ‫א‬‫א‬                                



،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬
     K…E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                        
                                                                          Publicity‫א‬ J 
                                                                           J W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                        
                                                                                  J W‫א‬
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .١
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٢
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٣
                                                                                                        
                                                                                       
                               Types of Sales Presentations‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E ‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                        J W(1)‫א‬‫א‬
                                          Stimulus - Response?‫א‬J ‫?א‬ .١
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
                                                              KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
? ? ‫א‬   ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                              K?٪١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                                                                      : ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر ﺑﺘﺼﺮف‬        (١)
C.A. Churchill & Peter, Op.Cit. p. 12.
                                                  - ٢٠ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                     ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                               Need Satisfaction "‫א‬? .٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬        ‫א‬    
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                AIDA .٣
                                      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬AIDA
                                          ActionJ ٤DesireJ ٣InterestJ ٢AttentionJ ١
                                                                              W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J ٢،Attention‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
         E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬Desire‫א‬J ٣،Interest
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Action‫א‬J ٤،‫א‬
                                      Standardized Presentation‫א‬‫א‬‫٤. א‬
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
      
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
                                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬
                                           Organized Presentation‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬
                                                                                             
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٦
         Perfect/Product Comparison PresentationJ       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬K٣
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                                 - ٢١ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                                   ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                                                                         
                                                              W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                            J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                K??‫א‬‫א‬     J
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬       J
                           Selling-Face to- Face "?‫א‬‫א‬‫١. א‬
‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬
                           J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،…‫א‬‫א‬
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬
         K?‫א‬‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬               J
                               Selling over the phone‫א‬‫א‬‫٢. א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ Telemarketing ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                           KE‫א‬٢٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                      K‫א‬،،‫א‬
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                       W‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  E‫א‬F ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W      ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
                                                                                                 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬                   ٢٥٤                                     ‫א‬
‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                           
                                                                               
                           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                              J W‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                            K‫א‬      J 
                        K‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬               J 
                                  K‫א‬        J 
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           J 
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J 
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬              J 
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬          J 
                                                         J W‫א‬ K٢
                                                               K‫א‬       J 
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J 
                                            KE‫א‬F        J 
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬             J 
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬              J 
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬          J 
                                   J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬         J 
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      J 
                                K‫א‬‫א‬            J 
                                         K‫א‬         J 
                   K‫א‬                J 
                                                 KHH‫א‬‫א‬         J 
                                                 KHH‫א‬‫א‬         J 
                                             KHHH‫א‬‫א‬         J 
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬         J 
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    ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                     ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                            ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                                                                                   
                                                                       J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                    J W‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                              J                  J               J 
          J W‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                               J 
                                                                                                J 
                              W‫א‬‫א‬AIDA K٣
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                   
                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                        KK…………………………………………………………
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                        KK…………………………………………………………
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                 KK………………………………………………………
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬K٤
                                                                     K‫א‬
                              KK…………………………………………………………
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
                               …………………………………………………………




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   ‫א‬‫א‬                          ٢٥٤                               ‫א‬
  ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                                                          
                  K??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
                       …………………………………………………………
‫א‬ ?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
                                            K‫א‬
                          …………………………………………………………
                                                          
      K‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬–‫א‬–W‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
                         …………………………………………………………
 ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
                                             K‫א‬J 
                          …………………………………………………………
                                                         
                                                                                          




                                           - ٢٥ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬                              ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                           ‫א‬
                                                                     KEF‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                                     KEF‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                     KEF‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                             ،‫א‬J J W‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                                 KJ ،J 
              J W‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫?א‬ K٥
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J 
                                 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬         J 
             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J 
                      W‫א‬‫א‬AIDA K٦
                             KAttention‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           J 
                        KInterest‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J 
                      KDesire‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           J 
                           KAction‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬             J 
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫ א‬K٧
                                                                                 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬EF K٨
                                                                               K‫א‬
    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬EF K٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٠
                                        K‫א‬
                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬EF K١١
                                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٢
                     K‫א‬‫א‬J ٢??‫א‬‫א‬J ١
?‫א‬?‫א‬J ‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٣
                                                                          
                 K?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
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 ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                     ‫א‬J W‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٤
                                         K‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٥
                                                 K‫א‬J ‫א‬J 
                                                                                             
                                                                          W
   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
        K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                               K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
                             
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                         
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




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    ‫א‬‫א‬                                     ٢٥٤                                       ‫א‬
   ‫א‬                                 ‫א‬‫א‬                                 



                              E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
          E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬
    
                
                            
                                           
                                                                      ‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                                                 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫ א‬K٥
                                          
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬K٦
                                                                 ‫א‬    ‫ א‬K٧
                                          
                                                                                                    ‫א‬
                                                                     ‫ א‬K٨
                                          
                                                                                                      ‫א‬
                                                                       ‫א‬‫ א‬K٩
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     K١٠
                                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬      K١١
                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           K١٢
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      K١٣
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                              



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 ‫א‬‫א‬                                                             ٢٥٤                                                                   ‫א‬
‫א‬                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬                                                               



                                        E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                              L‫א‬                                                                L‫א‬‫א‬
                                            4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                            L‫א‬
   ‫א‬٪٨٠L‫א‬‫א‬                                                                             ١٠
  ‫א‬٪١٠٠L‫א‬‫א‬
              ‫א‬                                                            E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                           ‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
                                                                                          ‫א‬‫ א‬K٦
                                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٧
                                                                             ‫א‬‫ א‬K٨
                                                                                             ‫א‬‫ א‬K٩
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١٠
                                                                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬ K١١
                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١٢
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٣
                                                                                          ‫א‬
  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                      KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
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                                                                                                                                         ‫א‬



                                                                            - ٢٩ -
                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                           ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                          ‫א‬‫א‬
                         ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
     ‫א‬




٣
٢
   ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                       ‫א‬
‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                                 



                                                                                     W‫א‬‫א‬
                                             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .١
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٢. א‬
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٣. א‬
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ .٤
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٦. א‬
                                                                                                     
                                                                      K٤W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                            W‫א‬‫א‬
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                                                                                                     
                                                                                           W‫א‬
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                                               
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                                                              
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W




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           ‫א‬‫א‬                                   ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
        ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                                  


                                                
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                         K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،
                                         J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،…‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  J W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                               K‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫ א‬J
                       K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫ א‬J
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
         KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J
   ‫א‬J W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
  K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J W‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                             K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
   …‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                                                                                                                                                                  K
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J W‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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            ‫א‬‫א‬                                   ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
         ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                                   

                                           J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  KE‫א‬F‫א‬                                                                                                                              J
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                      J
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                      J
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          J
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                       J
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                        J
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                         J
                                                                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                           
‫א‬W ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬ 
         KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
             KE،،،F‫א‬،‫א‬J ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                         KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬ W
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                         
    ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
                                                                                               
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬          
                                                                                                                                                        (2)J W‫א‬‫א‬

                                         .١٢٧-١٢٥‫ﺗﻮم ﺑﻜﻨﺰ "ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ"، اﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺘﺪﺋﻴﻦ، )اﻟﺮﻳﺎض، ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ، ٧٩٩١(، ص ص‬                                                                                                    (٢)
                                                         - ٣٢ -
           ‫א‬‫א‬                                   ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
        ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                                  

                                                                                                         KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                 J
                                                KE……F‫א‬                                                                                                                             J
                 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬                                                                                                                              J
       ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   F ‫א‬  ‫א‬                                                                                                                                J
                                                                                                                                       KE
                     KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬                                                                                                                            J
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                           J
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                  J
                                                                                                                  K‫א‬
                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬L‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                   J W‫א‬‫א‬
                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                            J
                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                            J
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                     J
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
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                                                                                                   J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                            
                                              KE‫א‬F‫א‬                                                                                                                           J
                 K‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬                                                                                                                               J
                                                     K‫א‬                                                                                                                       J
                                       K‫א‬                                                                                                                          J
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                           J
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                      J
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                      J
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                         J

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            ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
         ‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                                

                                                                                                 
                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                   
  ‫א‬     ،    ‫א‬   
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
               
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                           J W
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                               J
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                   J
                                                                                                                                                                                    W‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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                                                                                                                                                            W
                    K‫א‬‫א‬ELF                                                                                                                             -١
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                             -٢
                        K‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                            -٣
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                   -٤
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                              -٥
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                               -٦
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            ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
         ‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                              


                                         
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  
                                                                                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
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                                J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
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                                                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
                                                                                                                                                                                           J ١
                                                                                                                                                                                           J ٢
                                                                                                                                                                                           J ٣
                                                                         J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
                                                                                                                                                                                           J ١
                                                                                                                                                                                           J ٢
                                                                                                                                                                                           J ٣
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           ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
        ‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                            


                                                                                                                                                          J W‫א‬
      J WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                                                         K‫א‬ K٢
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                                                                                 K‫א‬ K٤
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
                                                                             J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                       
                                KE…J F‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                                                              K‫א‬ K٢
  ‫א‬  J  ‫א‬ J ‫א‬F ‫א‬   K٣
                                                                                 KE…‫א‬J ‫א‬
                                                             J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                                                                                                   J ١
                                                                                                                                                                   J ٢
                                                                                                                                                                   J ٣
                               J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                            K‫ א‬K٢
                                                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                                                     J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                                                                                                   J ١
                                                                                                                                                                   J ٢
                                                                                                                                                                          J ٣
                                                                                                                                                                  
                                                  - ٣٦ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                       

                                                        J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                                                                              J ١
                                                                                                                                              J ٢
                                                                                                                                              J ٣
                                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                                                                              J ١
                                                                                                                                              J ٢
                                                                                                                                              J ٣
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                             - ٣٧ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                                    ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
       ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                                  

                            E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                              
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
   
             
                            
                                            
                                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                                          
                                                                                                                                                                                   ‫א‬
                                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                                                                                     ‫א‬ J ٦
                                                                                                        ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                        ‫א‬ J ٨
                                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
                                                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
                                                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١١
                                                                              ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J ١٢
                                          
                                                                                                                                                       ‫א‬
                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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               ‫א‬‫א‬                                                       ٢٥٤                                                                                                        ‫א‬
          ‫א‬                                            ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                          
                                                                          

                                         E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                              L‫א‬                                                                                                                      L‫א‬‫א‬
                                            4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                                                                                  L‫א‬
   ‫א‬٪٨٠L‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                   ١٠
  ‫א‬٪١٠٠L‫א‬‫א‬
              ‫א‬                                                                     E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
                                                                                                                            ‫א‬ K٦
                                                                                                                              ‫א‬‫ א‬K٧
                                                                                               ‫א‬ K٨
                                                                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
                                                                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠
                                                                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬ K١١
                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢
                                                                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬ K١٣
                                                                                                          ‫א‬
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                                                                                        KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
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‫א‬



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                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                              ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                           ‫א‬‫א‬
                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




٤
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                          



                                                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬
                                         W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫١. א‬
                                            K‫א‬‫٢. א‬
                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٣. א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٤. א‬
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬

                                                                   ٦W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                                      W‫א‬
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                    K‫א‬L‫א‬ W
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                                             
                                                                              K‫א‬W




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     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                            W
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                    J W
            KW‫א‬ J 
            (3)J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J 
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ J
      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ J
،‫א‬،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ J
         K…‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ J
                                                                               K‫א‬
   E…  …‫א‬F ‫א‬   K‫א‬  ‫א‬  J
                                                                          K‫א‬
                                     Description of the product‫א‬L‫א‬ W
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
             KJ ٣J ٢‫א‬J ١‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                            J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F              J
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬                   J
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬                     J
   KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  .٣١٤-٣١١‫ﺗﻮم هﻮﺑﻨﺰ: ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ، ص ص‬   (٣)
                                                 - ٤١ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                       ٢٥٤                                               ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              ‫א‬‫א‬                                          



                                                                        K‫א‬                  J
             KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              J
                                                       
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  W   ‫א‬    K٢
،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ J W ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
                                                    K…‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
                                            
 ‫א‬    W  ‫א‬     K٣
                                                                                        J W
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬     F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  J
                                                                                           KE
                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                                     KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                       (4) DemonstrationEF‫א‬‫א‬ W
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
                                                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬                     G
                                                                                              K‫א‬ J
                                                                                K‫א‬EF J
                                                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                           J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                          G
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                            K‫א‬ J

                           .٩٦-٩٥‫د/ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ آﻤﺎل وهﺒﺔ، ﻣﻬﺎرات اﻟﺒﻴﻊ اﻟﻔﻌﺎل، اﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ، اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة، ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺷﻤﺲ، ٢٠٠٢، ص ص‬   (٤)
                                                           - ٤٢ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                                      ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                                



‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J
                                         KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬ J
                            K‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            G
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J
                                                                                      K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J
                                                                         K
               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                             KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                        J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                                             J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫١. א‬
                                                                                     J W
                                                K‫א‬‫א‬               J
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J
          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬             J




                                                  - ٤٣ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                        ٢٥٤                                                   ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ‫א‬‫א‬                                              



                                                                                                                                  
                                      J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٢. א‬
                                                                                                          J W
              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                      J
                                                                              K‫א‬                       J
                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         J
 
‫א‬‫א‬ ، ،F    ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬                                         J
                                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬E…‫א‬
                                                                                                                                  
                                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٣. א‬
                                                                                                          J W
               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                            J
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                   J
                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                                                  
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                   
   K‫א‬EF،‫א‬
                                                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                          EGFW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬ .١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                         J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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                           .(١٩٩٦ ،‫اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺠﺰء ﻣﺄﺧﻮذة ﻣﻦ د. ﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺧﻴﺮ اﻟﺪﻳﻦ وﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ، اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ، )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة: اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪد‬
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      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                          



                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                               K‫א‬
                                                          EKKFW‫א‬‫א‬ .٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  E KKF   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 J W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                         K‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                                  K
                                                                                ‫א‬ .٣
                            
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ E F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                              J WK‫א‬‫א‬
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              K‫א‬
                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬ .٤
                                 
   ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                              
                                    J WK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                        
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
                                                                                     
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  … W‫א‬
                                                                               K‫א‬
                                                                                ‫א‬ .٥
                                               J WK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

                                                    - ٤٥ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                              ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                        



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                  K‫א‬
                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٦
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                           K‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬ .٧
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   
                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                  KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .١
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٢
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٣
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٤
                                                                      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬
                                           K‫א‬
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٦. א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٧
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            K‫א‬ .٨
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٩
                                                                        K‫א‬‫٠١. א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .١١
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


                                                - ٤٦ -
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٥٤                             ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                                                                         
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .١٢
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬ .١٣
                                                                   
            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫٤١. א‬




                                            - ٤٧ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٥٤                                 ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                                                                              
                                                                                ‫א‬W
                           J WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                   K‫א‬ J
                                                                                          
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ J
                                                         
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬               
                                                                           
                                             ‫א‬
                                                                            
                                            E‫א‬L‫א‬F
                                                                           
                                          ‫א‬‫א‬               
                                                                           
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            
                                                ‫א‬
                                                                           
                                            ‫א‬                    
                                                  
                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F



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     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                                                                               W‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
             
    ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                        W
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J ٢
                                                                                     K‫א‬
                                    
                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                               K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
                                             
                                                                                                     
                                                                         J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                              J W‫א‬‫א‬ .١
                                             J                    J              J 
                                                          J W‫א‬ .٢
                                                              J                       J 
                                                              J                      J 
                               J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٣
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                J 
                            J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٤
                                                                                                J 
                                                                                                J 


                                                   - ٤٩ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                     ‫א‬
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                                                                          
 ‫א‬EXF  E√F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ W
                                                                                         J W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .١
                                                               KE     F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                    KK…………………………………………………
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٢
                                  KK…………………………………………………………
                      
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٣
                                                                                    KEF‫א‬
                                                                                                          
                              KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٤
                                  KK…………………………………………………………
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  .٥
                                                                                 KEF‫א‬‫א‬
                                  KK…………………………………………………………

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٦
                                                                   KEF
                                     KK………………………………………………………
      KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٧
                                  KK…………………………………………………………
      KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٨
                                …………………………………………………………
                                                     KEF‫א‬‫٩. א‬
                                …………………………………………………………




                                                     - ٥٠ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                     ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                        ‫א‬
                                     J W‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                       J            J              ‫א‬J 
                                               J W‫א‬ K٢
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J 
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J 
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬           J 
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J 
                       J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            J 
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                   J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                         K
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K٥
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                             K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K٧
                                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K٨
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬


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     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                         



   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K٩
                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٠
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K١١
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٢
                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
            KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬EF K١٣
                                                                                                 




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  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                     ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                             E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                               
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
         E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬
   
                 
                              
                                             
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                                           
                                                                                                ‫א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                                             
                                                                ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                                                 ‫א‬  ‫ א‬J ٥
                                           
                                                                                                
                                                                       ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                           
                                                                                                ‫א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                                         ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١
                                                                ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٢
                                                                            ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٣
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            


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    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                            ٢٥٤                                                              ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬                                                           



                                          E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                              L‫א‬                                                                     L‫א‬‫א‬
                                            4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                                 L‫א‬
   ‫א‬٪٨٠L‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                  ١٠
  ‫א‬٪١٠٠L‫א‬‫א‬
              ‫א‬                                                               E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                                                                                                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                                                        ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                                                                            ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                                                                  ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                                                                                        ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                                                                               ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                                                                                 ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١
                                                                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٢
                                                                                             ‫א‬
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                                       KKKKKKKKKKK
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                                                                                                                                             ‫א‬



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                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                              ‫א‬‫א‬
                                       ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬




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       ‫א‬‫א‬                                    ٢٥٤                                                                                                           ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                            
                                                


                                                                                                                                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬
                                              W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫١. א‬
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٢. א‬
                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٣. א‬
    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٤. א‬
                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٦. א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                  ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                                                                                         W‫א‬
                                                                                                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                                                                         K‫א‬ W
                                                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                                                            
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                                                               
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W




                                                        - ٥٥ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                         ٢٥٤                            ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                              
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                         W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                       
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              J W
                                                                   ‫א‬ J 
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                               J W‫א‬ EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  Product-LinesE‫א‬F ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
                        J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F
            K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬K١
             K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
             K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
               K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        ‫א‬        
                                         K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
                         W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  - ٥٦ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                                      ٢٥٤                                       ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                                     



                                                                                             ‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،
‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
   ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                               J W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                            K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                           
                         K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
   KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
                                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                     
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                            
،‫א‬     ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬   ‫א‬       
                                   (5)J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        J
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                J
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            J
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                      J

                      .٧٥‫د. ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ آﻤﺎل وهﺒﺔ، اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ: اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ واﻟﻄﺮق واﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎت، اﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ، )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة: ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺷﻤﺲ، ١٠٠٢(، ص‬   (٥)
                                                               - ٥٧ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                          ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬                     



       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                J
                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬   J
                                   KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      J
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬         J
                                                                             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                           J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              W‫א‬‫א‬       G
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، E٦F‫א‬
                                                        .‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E




                                   ‫א‬‫א‬E٦F




                                                      - ٥٨ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                        ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬                   



                                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬         *
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،E٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬
                                        .‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                                                                                      
                                                                                                      
                                                                                                      
                                         ‫א‬‫א‬E٧F
                                                                                                      
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     J
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    J
                                                                                      W‫א‬
         J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         J



                                                        - ٥٩ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                          ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬             ‫א‬‫א‬                    



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  J
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،
                                                                                         K‫א‬
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      J
‫א‬‫א‬                         J
                                                                                           K‫א‬
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬               J
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    J
     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    J
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     J WE٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 W‫א‬‫ א‬J 
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                  W‫א‬‫ א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 
E ‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
        K‫א‬‫א‬


                                                       - ٦٠ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                            ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬               ‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                               W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬?‫א‬‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      KIKEA
                                                                          W‫א‬‫ א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                               KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


                                                           ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮح‬



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                                        ‫اﻟﻤﻐﻠـــﻖ‬                             ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺮات‬
                                                            ‫أﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬
                                                            ‫اﻟﻌﺮض‬

                                        ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﺎط‬                             ‫ﻧﻤﻂ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬
                                        ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ‬                               ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬


                                                           ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
                                                           ‫اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬




                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨F

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          ‫א‬‫א‬                       ٢٥٤                             ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                                                                            
                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J W‫ א‬J 
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  K‫א‬
             
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬   J W‫א‬‫ א‬J 
           
    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J W‫א‬‫ א‬J 
                      
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬
                                                          K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J W‫ א‬J 
                       
 ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬     

                                                - ٦٢ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                           ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬             ‫א‬‫א‬                     



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                          K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                
                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                   
   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
E٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                                                   J W
 ‫א‬‫א‬    ،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  J W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ G
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J W‫א‬‫א‬ G
                                                                        K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬FJ W‫א‬‫א‬ G
                                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J W‫א‬ G
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                                                              K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J W‫א‬‫א‬ G
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   J W‫א‬ ‫א‬ G
                  
‫א‬      ،‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬




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          ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                       ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬               ‫א‬‫א‬                  



                                                                                                        

                                                             ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮرات‬
                                                              ‫اﻹﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ‬

                                          ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺎت‬                           ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺼﻘﺎت‬
                                         ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬                           ‫اﻟﺪﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
                                         ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬
                                                             ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬
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                                        ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺴﻤﺎت‬                           ‫اﻟﻼﻓﺘﺎت‬
                                        ‫اﻹﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ‬                            ‫اﻹﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ‬


                                                              ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎت‬
                                                              ‫اﻟﻌﺮض‬
                                                         
                                                         
                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩F
                                                                                                 W‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 ‫א‬ ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                     
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، … ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬
                                                       
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                          K




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       ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                       ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬             ‫א‬‫א‬                  



                                                                                 W
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J ٢
                                                                                 
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  J ٣
                                                                                       K
       K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J ٤
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   J ٦
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                               




                                                    - ٦٥ -
         ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٥٤                         ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬                    



                                             
                                                                                         
        ‫א‬EXFE√F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                                                  J W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                               KE F‫א‬‫א‬
                           …………………………………………………………
   KE F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                           …………………………………………………………
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                                                             KEF
                             …………………………………………………………
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                                       KEF‫א‬‫א‬
                                  …………………………………………………………
                           KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
                                  …………………………………………………………
                                                                                                
                                                                             J W W
         ،KKKK…………‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                                 KKKKKKKKKKKK……‫א‬
                     J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                                                      J 
                                                                                      J 
                                                                                      J 
                                                                                      J 
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                                                      J 
                                                                                      J 
                                                                                      J 

                                                   - ٦٦ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                       ٢٥٤                     ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬                



                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                      J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                          J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                                       
                                                                                       




                                             - ٦٧ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                          ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬           ‫א‬‫א‬                     



                                           ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF J ١
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF J ٢
                                                                                       K
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF J ٣
                                                                              K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J ٤
                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                               K‫ א‬J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬     ،‫א‬
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
                   J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
               
            KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                 K…‫א‬‫א‬  J 
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ J 




                                                  - ٦٨ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                            ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                                                                                 
                                              J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                      KEF‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                                      
                                                   J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 




                                                     - ٦٩ -
            ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                               ‫א‬
     ‫א‬‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬                          



                                   E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                     
        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
  
           
                         
                                      
                                                   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫١- א‬
                                    
                                                                                                      ‫א‬
                                                    ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫٢- א‬
                                    
                                                                                                          ‫א‬
                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫٣- א‬
                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫٤- א‬
                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥- א‬
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫٦- א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٧- א‬
                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫٨- א‬
                                    
                                                                                                          
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٩- א‬
                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٠١- א‬
                                    
                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١١
                                    
                                                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫٢١- א‬
                                    
                                                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   
                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                    




                                                           - ٧٠ -
         ‫א‬‫א‬                                                   ٢٥٤                                                   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                                  ‫א‬‫א‬                                                   



                                        E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             L‫א‬                                                                 L‫א‬‫א‬
                                            4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                            L‫א‬
   ‫א‬٪٨٠L‫א‬‫א‬                                                                             ١٠
  ‫א‬٪١٠٠L‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬                                                             E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               J ١
                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                 J ٢
                                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           J ٣
                                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         J ٤
                                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                          J ٥
                                                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       J ٦
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         J ٧
                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                    J ٨
                                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         J ٩
                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                   J ١٠
                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                  J ١١
                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                   J ١٢
                                                                                    ‫א‬
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                       KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
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                                                                                                                                        ‫א‬




                                                                            - ٧١ -
                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                     ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
                               ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬




٦


                                            - ٥٤ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                       ٢٥٤                               ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬                          



                                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬
                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫١- א‬
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٢- א‬
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٣- א‬
                                K‫א‬‫٤- א‬
                                                                                           
                                                              ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                                  W‫א‬
                                                                              K
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                                                                                           
                                                                                           




                                         - ٧٢ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                           



                                                 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
                                                                                           J W‫א‬
                            KNew‫א‬             G
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           G
                                                                                     K…‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                             J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J
                                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬     J
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬         J
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          J
                                        J W‫א‬
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                                W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       Proactive‫א‬‫א‬‫١- א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                J W‫א‬‫א‬


                                                    - ٧٣ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                           



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       Reactive‫א‬‫א‬‫٢- א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                        
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                                                         K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬…‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ EF
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  W ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  EF
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                     J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                               
                       KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢
                                                J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                         ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫؟‬‫؟‬
                                                  When‫א‬‫א‬ EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                           K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      G
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                               
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     G
                                                                                            K‫א‬

                                                    - ٧٤ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                           ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                             WWhere‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                             KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬            J
                                 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬       J
      KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬               J
              KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬           J
                                 To Whom‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
                                     J W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                            KE‫א‬‫א‬Fearly adopter‫א‬‫א‬        J
                                                   Kheavy users‫א‬           J
                                          KInfluencers‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J
                                   WHow‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF
‫א‬      ‫א‬ EF ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬
                                    J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬     J
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬     J
‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬                 J
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬                J
                K‫א‬Customer Language‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬          J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

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       ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                           



                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
                    J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                  K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
               KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
   ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                KE‫א‬‫א‬
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                                
                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١١
                                    
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٢
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٣
          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٤
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        K




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       ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                           ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                                 W‫א‬
                                                       
،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬ 
                                                                 
  ‫א‬   ،       ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،       ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                              K‫א‬
                                                                                                   
                                                                                     W
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                       K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                          KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                            K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                                                                   




                                                     - ٧٧ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                             ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬                         



                                         
                                                                                                 
                                                                            J W W
                                                                       J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                                              J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                                                         J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                                …………………………………………………
                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                …………………………………………………
                                       J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                              J W٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                                                                                    J 
                       ……….…… ‫א‬ J ٨




                                               - ٧٨ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                      ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬                 



                                                                                       
                                    ‫א‬ J ٩
                                 …………………………………………………
                                                                                    
                              J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                            J 
                                                                                       
                                                                                       




                                              - ٧٩ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                 ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                  ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                            ‫א‬
                                                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                   K‫א‬New J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                          K…‫א‬
                                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                            J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
                                                                        KNew
   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        KNew
                                               J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
     KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                 J W٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                                                     ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                     ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                      ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                               ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 


                                                  - ٨٠ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                           ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬                      



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
                                 K…‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 




                                                   - ٨١ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                                    ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                         ‫א‬‫א‬                            



                            E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                              
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                 K
      E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬
      
                  
                               
                                         
                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫١- א‬
                                                                   ‫א‬‫٢- א‬
                                      
                                                                                              ‫א‬
                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫٣- א‬
                                                           ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٤- א‬
                                      
                                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                           ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٥- א‬
                                      
                                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                          ‫א‬    ‫٦- א‬
                                      
                                                                                              ‫א‬
                                                          ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫٧- א‬
                                      
                                                                                              ‫א‬
                                                          ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫٨- א‬
                                      
                                                                                              ‫א‬
                                                          ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫٩- א‬
                                      
                                                                                              ‫א‬
                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٠١- א‬
                                      
                                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                          ‫א‬‫١١- א‬
                                      
                                                                                     ‫א‬
                                                      - ٨٢ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                        ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                  



                                                     ‫א‬    -١٢
                                     
                                                                       ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                            




                                                 - ٨٣ -
    ‫א‬‫א‬                                                        ٢٥٤                                                         ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬                                           ‫א‬‫א‬                                                        



                                      E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                               L‫א‬                                                                    L‫א‬‫א‬
                              4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                               L‫א‬
               ٪٨٠L‫א‬                     ‫א‬                                             ١٠
                                     ‫א‬
      ٪١٠٠L‫א‬                              ‫א‬
                                     ‫א‬
          ‫א‬                                                    E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١
                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٢
                                                                             ‫א‬
        KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
       KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                          KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                                                                                 
       ‫א‬

                                                                          - ٨٤ -
                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                              ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                            ‫א‬‫א‬
                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




٧
   ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                      ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                                                                            W‫א‬‫א‬
                                             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                   K‫א‬‫١- א‬
                                                                 K‫א‬‫٢- א‬
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٣- א‬
                      K‫א‬‫٤- א‬
          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥- א‬
        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٦- א‬
                                                                                                     
                                                                       ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                           W‫א‬‫א‬
                                        K -١
                                                                       K -٢
                       KE…J ‫א‬F -٣
                                                                                                     
                                                                                            W‫א‬
                                                                                              K
                                                                         K‫א‬ W
                                                                            K‫א‬ W
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬J  W
                                                                   K‫א‬ J 
                                                                   K‫א‬ J 
                                                                 K‫א‬ J 




                                               - ٨٥ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                                 ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                         



                                              
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     ‫א‬ W
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       J
                                         KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬             J
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬         J
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                 J
                                                                               W‫א‬‫א‬
                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      J
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬              J
     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬               J
             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬         J
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        J




                                                 - ٨٦ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                   ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                           



                                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬     J
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬                  J
                                                                                       K‫א‬
                                                   J W‫א‬
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬         J
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     J
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬             J
                                                                          ‫א‬W
                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ -١
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫٢- א‬
                                                                                           K
                             K…‫א‬W‫٣- א‬
 …‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE‫א‬F‫٤- א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W‫٥- א‬
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ …‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫٦- א‬
                                                K‫א‬
                                                                                              
                                       J W‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                                   Branding‫א‬‫א‬ EF
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ Brand‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬EF
‫א‬ Brand Name‫א‬‫א‬
                                                K…،،Bic،،،

                                                   - ٨٧ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                            



   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Brand Mark ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        K?‫א‬‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬√√√،‫א‬
                   
E‫א‬F Brand Trade Mark‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                             K‫א‬،،،GVC،
     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬           
                                                                             J W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                                               
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                                          
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
                                                                 
           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                                                  K
                                                                       
   E‫א‬F ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬   J ٩
                                                                           K
                        
   ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ١٠
                                                                                   K‫א‬




                                                  - ٨٨ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                                   ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                           



                                                                       W‫א‬ J 
                
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                       W‫א‬‫א‬
                                               J W‫א‬
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ -٢
                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      W‫א‬ Ka
E‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬ Convenience‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  -٣
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫٤- א‬
                                         K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫٥- א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                                    J W
  ‫א‬    Self-service ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫١- א‬
…‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                                              K
‫א‬‫א‬  Consumer affluence‫א‬  ‫٢- א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Prestige‫א‬ Convenience‫א‬
                                                                                    K‫א‬
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٣
…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٤
                                                                                     K‫א‬
                                                  - ٨٩ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                         ٢٥٤                                                 ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ‫א‬‫א‬                                          



   ‫א‬  Innovational Opportunity ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫٥- א‬
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                   (6)J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E … J F‫א‬ W ‫א‬‫א‬ -١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ -٢
                                                                          K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                    KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FW‫א‬ -٣
                                    KE…‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬FW‫א‬‫٤- א‬
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥- א‬
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ -٦
             K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٧
   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫٨- א‬
                                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٩- א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٠١- א‬
                                                                                                    K‫א‬
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫١١- א‬
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٢
                                                                                  K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                        



                               .١١٤‫د. ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ آﻤﺎل وهﺒﺔ، أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ، اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول، اﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ، )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة: اﻟﻤﺆﻟﻒ، ٨٩٩١(، ص‬   (٦)
                                                             - ٩٠ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                             



                                                                 J W‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬   -١
                                   K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢
                                                                        K‫א‬
                                     LabelingE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                              K…
                                                                           J W‫א‬
                                                                        
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ -١
                                                                                  K‫א‬ -٢
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٣
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ -٤
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ -٥
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٦
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬ -٧
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
  ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                                       
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬
                                                                               K‫א‬
                                                        J W‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  -١
‫א‬‫א‬،،،‫א‬‫א‬
              K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    - ٩١ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬                             



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢
                                                                         K‫א‬
                                                                   Service‫א‬J 
‫א‬     ‫א‬     E ‫א‬F ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KProduct ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  K …‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                                                  J W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬                        J
                                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             
 K‫א‬‫א‬Good Will‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                          J
                                                                   
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    J
                                                                              W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    Survey Work‫א‬‫א‬‫١- א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       Installation‫٢- א‬
  ،‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   Demonstration‫٣- א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ L ‫א‬   
                                                                       K…‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      Afer-sale services‫א‬ -٤
‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                             K…E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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        ‫א‬‫א‬                          ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬                          



     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  Items ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬            G
                                                                              K
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   G
                                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     Quality ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬                  G
                                                                             K‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   G
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       G
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬                  G
                                                                     K‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     G
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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     ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬                         



                                                                                           W‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬          ‫א‬    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬، …‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                               K‫א‬
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                                                                                W
                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬J ٢
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                             K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                                                              K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                     
                                         K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬J ٩
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٢



                                                    - ٩٤ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٥٤                                ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  ‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                       
                                                                                              
                                                                         J W W
                                           J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                           J W‫א‬ J ٤
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                           …………………………………………‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
                           ………………………………..…………‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
                                                                                             

                                             - ٩٥ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٥٤                              ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                  J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                    J WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                      J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                      J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١١
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                 J 
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
                                                                                             




                                               - ٩٦ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٥٤                                    ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬                             



                                                                                            
                                   J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W
                                   J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                              
                                                                                              
                                                   J W‫א‬‫٢- א‬
                                                                           K‫א‬ J 
                                                                          K‫א‬ J 
                                                                           K‫א‬ J 
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                           J WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫٣- א‬
                                                K‫א‬ J 
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                      K‫א‬ J 
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                              
                                                                   J W‫א‬ -٤
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

                                                 - ٩٧ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٥٤                               ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬                        



                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                               




                                                - ٩٨ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٥٤                                      ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                      ‫א‬
                                            J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                    J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                        K‫א‬ J 
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                K‫א‬ J 
                                                            J W‫א‬ J ٤
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                             KJ ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                                K‫א‬ J 
                                                                                K‫א‬ J 
                                                                             K‫א‬ J 
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
                                                                                                    
                                                                        J W‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
                                                                K‫א‬ J 
                                                                           K J 
                                              - ٩٩ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٥٤                                  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         ‫א‬‫א‬                          



                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
    KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J 
                                        J WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                           KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                          J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
            KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬F‫א‬ J 
                      J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١١
                                                                          K‫א‬ J 
                                                                           K‫א‬ J 
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
                                                                           K‫א‬ J 
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ J  J ١٢
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ J  J ١٣
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ J  J ١٤
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ J  J ١٥




                                                   - ١٠٠ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                                     ٢٥٤                                       ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬                               



                           E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 
             ‫א‬‫א‬√‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                          K‫א‬
             E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬
          
                 
                            
                                      
                                                       ‫א‬‫١- א‬
                                                       ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫٢- א‬
                                   
                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                        ‫א‬‫٣- א‬
                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫٤- א‬
                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٥- א‬
                                                      ‫א‬‫٦- א‬
                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫٧- א‬
                                                      ‫א‬    ‫٨- א‬
                                   
                                                                                           
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫٩- א‬
                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫٠١- א‬
                                                    ‫א‬‫١١- א‬
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        ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   
              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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   ‫א‬‫א‬                                                          ٢٥٤                                                               ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                              ‫א‬‫א‬                                                         



                                       E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                L‫א‬                                                                     L‫א‬‫א‬
                              4 3 2 1L‫א‬                                                                                 L‫א‬
               ٪٨٠L‫א‬                     ‫א‬                                               ١٠
                                     ‫א‬
       ٪١٠٠L‫א‬                             ‫א‬
                                     ‫א‬
           ‫א‬                                                    E‫א‬F‫א‬
                                                                                ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
                                                                                  ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
                                                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
                                                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
                                                                               ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
                                                                                                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٧
                                                                     ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٨
                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٩
                                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
                                                                            ‫א‬‫ א‬J ١١
                                                                               ‫א‬
         KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK……………………………………………W
        KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
                                                                                            KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
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        ‫א‬


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                                ٢٥٤                                         ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
                         ‫א‬‫א‬                                      



                            
             ‫א‬                
              ١ J J J J J J ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
             ١٥ J J J J J J J J J ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
             ٣٠ J J J J J J                  ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
             ٤٠ J J J J J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
             ٥٥ J     ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
             ٧٢ J J J J ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
             ٨٥ J J J J J                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
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                                                                       ٢٥٤                                                              ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬                                                         



                                                                    ‫א‬

             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                   
               ٣J J J J J J J J J J J J                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬ .١
               ٣J J J J J J J J J J J J J                                                     ‫א‬ .٢
               ٨ J J J J J J J J J J J J ‫א‬‫א‬ .٣
             ١٨ J J J                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٤. א‬
             ٤٨ J J J J J J J J                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫٥. א‬
             ٥٨ J J J J J J J J J                                             ‫א‬‫٦. א‬
             ٥٩ J J J J J J J J J J                                                   ‫א‬‫٧. א‬
             ٦١ J J J                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٨
             ٦٤ J J J J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫٩. א‬
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              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

            ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS

				
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