The Airplane

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					      The Airplane

Pilot Ground School 2010 - Lesson 1.1
   The Airplane
   Parts of an Airplane
   Propulsion System
   Landing Gear
   Construction Materials
   Control System
   Loads and Load Factors
   Logbooks and Inspection
   Aircraft Classes and Categories
                    The Airplane
   Aircraft - Any machine capable of flight

   Canadian Air Regulations (CARs) definition of an
    • “Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft deriving its lift in
      flight from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that
      remain fixed under given conditions of flight."

   Some Airplane Classifications:
    • Wing position (high/low/mid wing)
    • Number of engines (single or multi-engine)
    • Undercarriage (wheels, skis, floats, retractable and non-
             Parts of an Airplane
   Essential components of airplane:

    1.   Fuselage (body)
    2.   Lifting Surfaces (wings)
    3.   Empennage (tail section)
    4.   Propulsion System (engines)
    5.   Undercarriage (landing gear)

   Airframe
    • Complete structure of airplane, except for
      instruments and engines
Parts of an Airplane
                1.    Propeller
                2.    Landing Gear
                3.    Wing Strut
                4.    Wing
                5.    Right Wing Aileron
                6.    Right Wing Flap
                7.    Fuselage
                8.    Horizontal Stabilizer
                9.    Vertical Stabilizer
                10.   Rudder
                11.   Elevator
                12.   Left Wing Flap
                13.   Left Wing Aileron
                14.   Door
                15.   Seat
                16.   Windshield
                17.   Engine Cowl
               The Fuselage
   Central body of airplane

   Accommodates crew, passengers, and

   Wings, tail, landing gear, and engine all
    attached to fuselage

   Classed according to construction method
    (truss, monocoque, semi-monocoque)
                 Truss Fuselage
   Steel tubes (Longerons and Girders) form frame

   Principle member = Longerons (lengthwise tubes)

   Covered by fabric, metal or composite materials

   Frame takes all load
         Monocoque Fuselage
   Solid structure (or skin) with no
    internal frame (example: pop can)

   Usually made of composite materials

   Skin takes all load
     Semi-Monocoque Fuselage
   Monocoque structure with internal frame/stiffeners
    (Formers and Stringers), covered with Stressed Skin.

   Principle Member = Formers (AKA Bulkheads)

   Formers and Stressed Skin take load
                       The Wing
   Airplane wings either:
    • Monoplanes - One pair of wings, most modern aircraft
    • Biplanes - Two pairs of wings, older designs

   Wing shapes:
    •   Rectangular
    •   Tapered (from wing root to wing tip)
    •   Elliptical
    •   Delta
                      The Wing
   Wings attached:
    • Bottom of fuselage = low wing
    • Middle of fuselage = mid wing
    • Top of fuselage = high wing

   High wings either:
    • Externally braced (supported by struts)
    • Fully cantilevered (no struts)
                Inside The Wing
   Spars run from wing root to wing tip
    • One spar = monospar
    • More than one = multispar

   Ribs run from leading edge to trailing edge
    • They are cambered (curved) to give wing shape
    • Wing covering attached to ribs

   Compression Struts hold spars in place and take some of
    the load between them
The Wing
                 Parts of the Wing
   Ailerons
    • Control surfaces near wing tips on trailing edge
    • Allow airplane to Roll

   Wing Root = Section of wing closest to fuselage

   Wing Tip = Outer edge of the wing, farthest from fuselage

   Chord
    • Imaginary line between leading and trailing edge of wing
    • Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) is average of chord along wing (if
      wing tapers)

   Span = Maximum distance from wing tip to wing tip

   Flaps
    • Attached to trailing edge of wing, close to fuselage
    • They increase or decrease camber of that section of wing
    The Tail Section (Empennage)
   Four main parts:
    •   Vertical Stabilizer (AKA Fin)
    •   Rudder
    •   Horizontal Stabilizer (AKA Stabilizer)
    •   Elevator

   Horizontal stabilizer is airfoil which balances aircraft, and
    provides longitudinal stability

   Vertical stabilizer is vertical surface which provides
    directional stability

   Elevator
    • Control surface for pitch (up and down motion of airplane)
    • Hinged to horizontal stabilizer, provides longitudinal control
    The Tail Section (Empennage)

   Rudder
    • Control surface for yaw (left and right motion of plane)
    • Hinged to vertical stabilizer, provides directional control

   Stabilator
    • Horizontal stabilizer and elevator combined into one surface.
    • Pivots around point where it’s hinged onto fuselage

   Trim tab
    • Surface fixed or hinged onto control surface
    • Helps pilot by taking pressure off flight controls during various
      phases of flight
          The Propulsion System
   Planes powered by:
    • Piston-engines (props)
    • Turbine engines (turbo-props)
    • Jet engines (jets)

   Most small airplanes in use today have piston engines
    similar to car engines
               The Landing Gear
   Landing gear:
    • Supports aircraft on surface
    • Takes shock of landing

   Landing Gear can be either:
    • Nose Wheel (AKA tricycle)
    • Tail Wheel (AKA tail-dragger)

   Landing gear can also be fixed or retractable (reduces
           Construction Materials
   Aircraft frames must be: light, strong and rigid (stiff)

   Some materials:
    - Steel
    - Dural (aluminum alloy with copper and magnesium)
    - Alclad (dural between two layers of pure aluminum)
    - Magnesium Alloy
    - Honeycomb Construction (metal honeycomb pattern
    between to sheets of metal
    - Composite (fiberglass cloth and epoxy resin molded over
    a foam form)
    - Wood
    - Fabric
   Normally caused by oxidation, which is reaction between
    metal and moisture in the air, causing surface to dissolve
    (Example: Rust)

   Forms of corrosion are:
    •   Oxidation
    •   Intercrystalline
    •   Dissimilar Metals
    •   Stress Corrosion (and Corrosion Fatigue)
    •   Fretting Corrosion
   Stress - Force that can cause a strain

   Strain - Distortion (changing of shape) of an object due to

   5 types of stresses:
    •   Compression (crushing)
    •   Tension (stretching)
    •   Torsion (twisting)
    •   Shearing (cutting)
    •   Bending
               Control Systems
   Three main control surfaces
    • Rudder (controls yaw)
    • Elevator (controls pitch)
    • Ailerons (controls roll)

   Rudder controlled by foot pedals

   Elevator and ailerons controlled by control
    column, which can either be a control stick (or
    “stick”) or a control wheel (or “yoke”). Some
    airplanes may also have side-yokes or side-
   Used by pilot to help take some pressure off flight controls

   Trim Tabs
    • Hinged to trailing edge of ailerons, rudders and elevators
    • May be fixed or controllable

   Some trimming methods:
    - Trim Tabs
    - Anti-servo Tabs
    - Servo Tabs
    - Adjustable Stabilizer
    - Moveable Tail
    - Spring Trim
    - Electric Trim
        Loads and Load Factors
   Wing Loading - Gross weight divided by area of
    lifting surfaces (lb per sq ft)

   Span Loading - Gross weight divided by span (lb
    per ft)

   Power Loading – Gross weight divided by
    engine horsepower (lb per hp)

   Load Factor - Ratio of live load (actual load on
    wings) to dead load (Gross Weight, or aircraft
    weight on ground)
    Logbooks and Inspections

   Aircraft Journey Log
    • Always carried on aircraft during flight
    • Records daily flight time, air time, fuel and oil added,
      maintenance etc

   Aircraft Technical Log
    • Not carried on aircraft
    • Records everything concerning maintenance, repairs and

   Personal Logbooks
    • Logs every flight by pilot
    • Records flight time, airplane, routes etc
    • Also records licences, training info and total flight time
     Logbooks and Inspections
Air Time and Flight Time

   Air Time - Starts when wheels leave ground, ends when
    wheels touch back down

   Flight Time - When aircraft starts moving under its own
    power to when it stops, for the purpose of flight


   Pilots must inspect aircraft before each flight, for general
    airworthiness, fuel and oil etc

   All aircraft must be periodically inspected by a qualified
    maintenance engineer and certified as airworthy in the
    aircraft technical and journey logs
Aircraft Classes and Categories
   Aircraft Categories are general definitions of aircraft, such
    as: Airplanes, Rotorcraft, Gliders, Lighter-Than-Air and

   In each category, there are specific classes, such as single-
    engine, multi-engine, landplane, seaplane, helicopter,
    gyroplane, balloon etc

   Aircraft Types are specific models of aircraft, such as a
    Cessna 172, Boeing 747, Schweitzer 2-33 etc

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