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Effective Communication

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									Effective Communication:

Writing Sentences and Paragraphs
              Major Roadblocks
                       that many of you face

1.   Specificity: Instead of giving a general idea of
     what you mean, spell it out for your reader!

        “He”, “she”- If there is any chance that your
         reader won’t know which “she” or “he” you
         mean, tell them! Write out the name!

        “It” - Don’t use it! Describe or tell exactly what
         you mean.
         (i.e.) “Senator McCarthy worked to get rid of it in our
              government”
              “Senator McCarthy worked to rid our government of
              Communism.”
             Major Roadblocks
                     that many of you face

2.    Making connections between support and
      position.
        Every time you try to prove your position (with
         data, prior knowledge, CDV, etc.), be sure to
         explain your reason for choosing this
         evidence.

     “This supports my position because…”
         *You may get tired of writing this sentence, but
         you’ll know that you’ve fully answered the
         question by showing the connection!
               Major Roadblocks
                          that many of you face

3.       Subject-Verb Agreement
         Read your essay out loud to yourself when you
          have finished - this will help you catch little
          grammatical errors.

     “President Truman should not have fired General
         MacArthur. The president were too sensitive to
         their personal disagreements and didn’t act in
         a professional way.”
             “Were” should be “was”! “Were” needs at least two
              subjects, but the only person who is sensitive in this case
              is President Truman.
               Major Roadblocks
                         that many of you face

4.       Academic Language v. “Crew” language
         The way you speak with your friends (and
          maybe your family) is informal; the language of
          an essay is formal.
             The goal is to impress your reader - or at least
              communicate your intelligence and knowledge.

     ASK YOURSELF: Would Ms. Lessard say this
        word in class or in an essay?
               Very commonly used non-academic language:
          Ain’t            Stupid          Wuz      Cuz
          Are not/Is not   absurd          was      because
Other grammar issues to think about…
Compound Sentences


 Two (2) independent clauses,
 each of which can stand alone
 are combined into one (1)
 sentence
Example:
The armies fought for two weeks. There
 was no clear winner.
…becomes
The armies fought for two weeks, but
 there was no clear winner.
Complex Sentences

   An independent clause - which can
    stand alone - is combined with a
    dependent clause, which cannot
    stand alone.

   Use conjunctions like when, after,
    and before
Example:
Unsafe working conditions all
…becomes
The armies fought for two weeks, but
 there was no clear winner.

								
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