WOMEN IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION & ITS AFTERMATH by G7TLu5x

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         WOMEN IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION & ITS AFTERMATH

I.    WOMEN IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1789-1812
      A.  GENERAL REMARKS
          1.    WHILE POLITICIANS DEBATED CIVIL RIGHTS &
                CONSTITUTIONS
          2.    PEOPLE SUCH AS
                a.    HOUSEWIVES, MARKET WOMEN & WOMEN WRITERS
                b.    CONSIDERING INEQUITIES OF WOMEN;S LIVES
                c.    ONE RESULT
                d.    DENIGRATING OF ARISTOCRATIC WOMAN
                      (1)   INTERESTED IN PLEASURE
                e.    REPLACED BY VIRTUOUS & SERIOUS MOTHER
                      (1)   WHO WAS TO EDUCATE MODERN CITIZEN
                f.    THIS TRUE IN FRANCE & AMERICA
          3.    BY END OF REVOLUTIONARY ERA
          4.    REPUBLICAN IDEAS ON WOMAN'S ROLE BECAME PART OF
                SOCIETAL IDEAS
          5.    WHILE MOST PEOPLE AGREED ON NEED FOR POLITICAL &
                SOCIAL CHANGE
          6.    THEY DISAGREED ABOUT WHICH CHANGES NEEDED
          7.    AT END DICTATOR NAPOLEON ABLE TO ESTABLISH ENOUGH
                POWER TO STABILIZE SOCIETY
          8.    BUT BY INAUGURATING HIS NAPOLEONIC CODE
          9.    IT FORMALIZED REPUBLICAN IDEA OF WOMEN'S ROLE
                a.    RETURN TO STRONG PATRIARCHAL STRUCTURE
          10.   INSTEAD OF LIBERAL CONCEPT OF WOMEN'S RIGHTS

II.   REASONS WHY FRENCH REVOLUTION
      A.   3 ESTATES
           1.    1ST CLERGY - 1/2 OF 1% OF FRENCH PEOPLE
                 a.    OWNED 10% LAND
           2.    2ND ESTATE - NOBILITY
                 a.    NEARLY 2%FRENCH PEOPLE
                 b.    CONTROLLED 20-25% LAND
           3.    3RD ESTATE
                 a.    EVERYONE ELSE 98%
                 b.    PEASANTS LARGEST OF GROUP
                       (1)  3/4 POPULATION
                       (2)  CONTROLLED 1/3 LAND
                       (3)  OWED LAND TAX, INCOME TX, POLL TAX, SALT
                            TAX
                       (4)  IN POOR CROP YEARS STARVATION REAL
                       (5)  USED BACKWARD FARM METHODS - CF TO
                            ENGLAND
                                                               2
          c.    & TOWNSPEOPLE
                (1)   BOTH MIDDLING CLASS, WEALTHY & POOR
     4.   GOAL OF 3RD ESTATE TO DESTROY PRIVILEGES OF FIRST 2
          ESTATES
     5.   1789 PAMPHLET
          a.    WHAT IS 3RD ESTATE? EVERYTHING. WHAT HAS IT
                BEEN IN THE POLITICAL ORDER UP TO THE PRESENT?
                NOTHING. WHAT DOES IT ASK? TO BECOME
                SOMETHING.
B.   FINANCIAL REASONS
     1.   FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF FRENCH TO AMERICAN REVOLUTION
          a.    FINANCIALLY STRAPPED FRANCE
     2.   LOUIS XIV'S WARS
          a.    FINANCIALLY STRAPPED FRANCE
     3.   FRANCE'S LOST HER EMPIRE IN NEW WORLD & INDIA TO
          ENGLAND
     4.   SERIES OF BAD HARVEST LATE IN 1780'S
          a.    CAUSES WIDESPREAD DISTRESS IN FRENCH CITIES &
                COUNTRYSIDE
          b.    SOARING BREAD PRICES
                (1)   SO COULDN'T AFFORD MANUFACTURED ITEMS
          c.    SO WIDESPREAD UNEMPLOYMENT
     5.   EVERYONE REALIZED OUTDATED MODES OF TAXATION &
          FINANCE CAUSES PROBLEMS EVERYWHERE
     6.   WHEN BANKERS REFUSED TO GRANT MORE LOANS TO
          MONARCH UNTIL REFORM OCCURRED
     7.   LOUIS XVI CALLED NOTABLES TOGETHER
     8.   ARISTOCRATS REFUSED TO GIVE UP THEIR PRIVILEGED
          POSITION OF NOT PAYING TAXES
     9.   SO REPRESENTATIVE BODY OF ESTATES-GENERAL
          SUMMONED
          a.    150 YEARS HAD NOT MET
     10.  PEOPLE DREW UP GRIEVANCES & PROPOSALS
     11.  WOMEN TOO MADE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THESE
          a.    THOUGH MINIMAL
                (1)   EROSION OF GUILDS
                (2)   LACK OF POLICE PROTECTION
                (3)   MALE COMPETITION IN THEIR TRADES
     12.  ONE REVOLUTIONARY PAMPHLET CALLED WOMEN
          a.    THE THIRD ESTATE OF THE THIRD ESTATE
     13.  RUMORS AROSE KING MASSING TROOPS TO OVERTURN
          PEOPLE'S ASSEMBLY
     14.  SO WIDESPREAD UPRISING OF FARM PEOPLE AGAINST
          NOBILITY & FEUDALISM
          a.    CHATEAUS & LAND TITLES BURNED
                                                                      3
            15.   JULY 14TH PARISIAN MEN & WOMEN STORMED BASTILLE
                  PRISON
                  a.    SYMBOL OF DESPOTISM
            16.   AFTERWARD MARGUERITE PINAIGRE APPLIED FOR PENSION
                  a.    AS "CONQUEROR OF THE BASTILLE"
            17.   AUGUST 4TH ARISTOCRACY SURRENDERED THEIR
                  PRIVILEGES
                  a.    MANY WHICH DATED FROM MEDIEVAL TIMES
            18.   IN SAME MONTH NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ISSUED FAMOUS
                  DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN
                  a.    NEW CONCEPT OF GOVT
                  b.    NATURAL RIGHTS BELONG TO ALL CITIZENS

III.   WOMEN'S ROLE IN ECONOMY AT TIME OF REVOLUTION
       A.  GENERAL REMARKS
           1.    WITHOUT WOMEN ACTIVE IN ECONOMY FOR PEASANTS &
                 LOWER CLASSES IN TOWNS
                 a.    IMPOSSIBLE FOR FAMILY TO SURVIVE
           2.    MAJOR EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN TOWNS
                 a.    SPINNING WOOL & COTTON &
                 b.    LACEMAKING - DONE BY HAND
                 c.    LACEMAKING EMPLOYED LARGEST NUMBERS AT
                       LEAST IN NORTHERN & CENTRAL FRANCE
                 d.    & IN COUNTRY AS WELL AS TOWNS
                       (1)   RECEIVING PITTANCE FOR LABORS
                       (2)   WOMAN EVENTUALLY LOST HER SIGHT
           3.    POORER WOMEN IN TOWNS
                 a.    CARRIED NIGHT SOIL
                 b.    CARRIED WOOD, FOOD, WATER - ANYTHING
                 c.    LARGE CITIES
                       (1)   SORTED RAGS
                       (2)   REFUSE COLLECTORS
                       (3)   ASSISTANTS TO MASONS & BRICKLAYERS
           4.    WOMEN IN COUNTRYSIDE
                 a.    FARM WORK
                 b.    SALT SMUGGLERS - MAJORITY WOMEN
           5.    IF NO WORK
                 a.    BEGGING
                 b.    THIEVING, DRINKING, PROSTITUTION
                 c.    DIVORCE RATE HIGH BEFORE & DURING REVOLUTION
                       (1)   MEN DESERTED THEIR WIVES AS UNABLE TO
                             SUPPORT THEM
           6.    NO AID FOR PARISHES AS IN ENGLAND (POOR RELIEF)
           7.    SO TACITLY ACCEPTED WOMEN WOULD STEAL, ETC. TO GAIN
                 ENOUGH FOR THEIR FAMILIES TO EAT
                                                                    4
           8.   BREAD OR FOOD RIOTS BECAME MODUS OPERANDI FOR
                WOMEN TO HOLD THEIR FAMILIES TOGETHER
           9.   SAYING
                a.   BREAD RIOT WITHOUT A WOMAN IS AN INHERENT
                     CONTRADICTION

IV.   CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN DURING REVOLUTION
      A.  GENERAL REMARKS
          1.    WOMEN INVOLVED FROM BEGINNING IN REVOLUTION
                a.    BUT IN SMALLER NUMBERS
                b.    ALTHOUGH FROM ALL SEGMENTS OF SOCIETY
      B.  WOMEN'S BREAD MARCH
          1.    AFTER FALL OF BASTILLE,
          2.    SEVERE UNEMPLOYMENT FOR PARISIAN WOMEN
                a.    WHO SUPPLIED THEIR LUXURIOUS GOODS - LACE, ETC.
          3.    BECAUSE OF SEVERAL REASONS
                a.    EMIGRATION OF WEALTHY NOBLES
                b.    SUSPENSION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
                c.    AUSTERE FASHION
                      (1)   STRAIGHT, AUSTERE, UNTRIMMED BY LACE OR
                            RIBBON
          4.    HAD TERRIBLE REPERCUSSIONS FOR FAMILY AS WOMEN'S
                WORK & INCOME NECESSARY
          5.    UTTER LACK OF FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY LEGISLATION ON
                POOR RELIEF
          6.    ENLIGHTENMENT HAD ENVISAGED SOLVING PROBLEMS OF
                POOR & SICK
          7.    MEN CAME TO REALIZE PROBLEM SO IMMENSE COULD NOT
                SOLVE IT
          8.    WOMEN PREOCCUPIED WITH THEIR MAIN CONCERN
                a.    HAVING ENOUGH FOOD FOR THEIR FAMILY
                b.    THEY RIOTED FOR BREAD & PRICE CONTROLS TOO
                c.    THEY SEIZED & LOOTED FOOD & SUPPLIES
          9.    PARISIAN MARKET WOMEN SENT SONG TO THIRD ESTATE IN
                SUMMER 1789
                a.    IF THE CLERGY, IF THE NOBILITY MY GOOD FRIENDS
                      TREAT US WITH SUCH RUDENESS AND DISDAIN LET
                      THEM ALL FANCY THEMSELVES CAPABLE OF RUNNING
                      THE STATE WHILE WAITING, WE WILL DRINK TO THE
                      THIRD ESTATE
          10.   ON OCT 5 - 7000 WOMEN MARCHED 10-20 MILES OR SO
                a.    FROM PARIS TO VERSAILLES
                b.    TO DEMAND ACTION FOR THEIR PLIGHT
                c.    ACCORDING TO ONE EYE-WITNESS ACCOUNT
                      (1)   DETACHMENTS OF WOMEN COMING UP FROM
                                                            5
                    EVERY DIRECTION ARMED WITH BROOMSTICKS,
                    LANCES, PITCHFORKS, SWORDS, PISTOLS AND
                    MUSKETS
11.   MANY HISTORIANS NOW SAY THIS EVENT MAIN REASON
      REVOLUTION WENT FORWARD
12.   WHILE CENTERING THEIR HATRED ON AUSTRIAN QUEEN OF
      KING
      a.     MARIE ANTOINETTE = MADAME DEFICIT
13.   BUT ONCE FRANCE STARTING FIGHTING WITH REST OF
      EUROPE
14.   WOMEN NOT ONLY CONTRIBUTED THEIR ENERGY TO
      ECONOMY
15.   BY GIVING UP THEIR HOUSEHOLD LINEN & CLOTHING
      a.     FOR BANDAGES FOR WOUNDED
16.   WOMEN GAVE UP THEIR WEDDING RINGS TO PAWN
      a.     TO CLOTHE SOLDIERS
17.   BUT PSYCHOLOGICALLY & PHYSICALLY GAVE THEIR SONS TO
      THE CAUSE
18.   WOMEN CARRIED BANNERS READING
      a.     J'AI DONNE UN (DEUX, TROIS, QUATRE, CINQ, SIX)
             CITOYEN(S) A LA REPUBLIQUE - I HAVE GIVEN A
             CITIZEN TO THE REPUBLIC
19.   ARISTOCRATIC WOMEN URGED EACH OTHER TO CONTRIBUTE
      THEIR JEWELRY TO MONARCH
             (1)    AS WAY OUT OF FINANCIAL DILEMMA
20.   WOMEN INVOLVED POLITICALLY AS WELL
21.   "SOCIETY OF REVOLUTIONARY REPUBLICAN WOMEN"
      a.     MAY 1793
      b.     FOUNDED BY PAULINE LEON- CHOCOLATE
             MANUFACTURER
      c.     ACTRESS CLAIRE LACOMBE
22.   PLUS SEVERAL HUNDRED WOMEN INCLUDING POOR
      WORKING CLASS WOMEN
23.   1 OF FIRST ORGANIZED INTEREST GROUPS OF WORKING-
      CLASS WOMEN
24.   FAVORED EGALITARIAN POLICIES
      a.     PRICE CONTROLS
25.   BUT BECAME OBJECT OF SUSPICION UNDER COMMITTEE OF
      PUBLIC SAFETY
26.   BECAUSE WOMEN TRANSGRESSED SOCIAL CONVENTIONS OF
      FEMININE BEHAVIOR
      a.     DONNING RED CAP OF REVOLUTION
      b.     FOR DEBATING POLITICS IN PUBLIC
      c.     DEMANDED THAT ALL WOMEN WEAR REVOLUTIONARY
             RED, WHITE & BLUE COCKADE
                                                                      6
          27.   SO JACOBINS CLOSED IT DOWN OCT 1793
          28.   WHEN JACOBINS RULED THAT ALL WOMEN;S CLUBS &
                ASSOCIATIONS ILLEGAL
                a.    IN GENERAL WOMEN ARE ILL-SUITED FOR ELEVATED
                      THOUGHTS & SERIOUS MEDITATIONS...WE BELIEVED
                      WOMAN SHOULD NOT LEAVE HER FAMILY TO MEDDLE
                      IN AFFAIRS OF GOVERNMENT
          29.   IN LATER REVOLUTIONS OF 1848, ETC. EQUIVALENT POLITICAL
                CLUBS FORMED BY WOMEN
          30.   OTHER WOMEN PETITIONED GOVERNMENT TO BE ALLOWED
                TO BEAR ARMS

V.   INDIVIDUAL WOMEN'S RESPONSES TO FRENCH REVOLUTION
     A.    GENERAL REMARKS
           1.   FEW WOMEN MADE CELEBRATED DEFENSES OF WOMEN'S
                RIGHT TO EQUALITY TOO
                a.    LIBERTY, EQUALITY & FRATERNITY
     B.    OLYMPE DE GOUGES 1748-1793
           1.   BUTCHER'S DAUGHTER
           2.   BECAME PLAYWRIGHT & WRITER
           3.   EARLY SUPPORTER OF FRENCH REVOLUTION
           4.   BUT SOON REALIZED LIBERTY, EQUALITY & FRATERNITY
                ESPOUSED BY MALE REVOLUTIONARIES MEANT FOR MEN
                ONLY
           5.   1790 SHE PUBLISHED - DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF WOMEN
           6.   MODELED ON DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF MAN & CITIZEN
                      1789
                a.    ALL MEN ARE FREE & EQUAL
                b.    LAW EXISTS TO PROTECT CITIZENS RATHER THAN TO
                      RESTRICT THEIR FREEDOM
                c.    FREE SPEECH, EQUAL TAXATION, ETC.
                d.    USED OTHER POLITICAL PRINCIPLES FROM
                      (1)   BRITISH BILL OF RIGHTS
                      (2)   U.S. BILL OF RIGHTS & CONSTITUTION
                      (3)   IDEAS OF ENLIGHTENMENT
                      (4)   IN FACT LAFAYETTE AS WRITER DISCUSSED HIS
                            DRAFT IN DETAIL W/THOMAS JEFFERSON
                      (5)   AMERICAN AMBASSADOR IN PARIS AT TIME
                e.    IN RADICAL MANIFESTO
                f.    SHE CALLED ON WOMEN
                g.    AS MOTHERS, DAUGHTERS & SISTERS,
                      REPRESENTATIVES OF NATION TO CONSTITUTE
                      THEMSELVES A NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
                h.    SHE THEN TOOK OFF ON ROUSSEAU'S IDEA OF GENERAL
                      WILL & SAID
                                                                       7
                 i.   GENERAL WILL IS TO INCLUDE FEMALE CITIZENS TOO
            7.   BUT HER WRITINGS WENT LARGELY UNHEARD FOR NEXT
                 CENTURY AND HALF
            8.   BUT BECAUSE OF HER POLITICAL ACTIVITY
                 a.   GUILLOTINED IN 1793

VI.    WOMEN'S INVOLVEMENT WITH CHURCH
       A.  GENERAL REMARKS
           1.    WOMEN DURING REVOLUTIONARY ERA LEADERS IN
                 SCORNING CHURCH
                 a.    ALTHOUGH THEIR LOCAL PRIEST OK
           2.    BUT ONCE CHURCH LOST POWER AT END OF REVOLUTION
           3.    WOMEN INSTRUMENTAL IN BRINGING BACK ROMAN
                 CATHOLIC CHURCH TO FRANCE
           4.    & HISTORIANS SPEAK OF RENEWED VIGOR OF CHURCH FROM
                 BELOW
           5.    WOMEN FORCED CHURCHES TO BE REOPENED
                 a.    EVEN IN CITIES MOST ANTI-CLERICAL LIKE PARIS
           6.    CATHOLICISM OF 1795 ONWARDS VISCERAL KIND
           7.    WOMEN IN AREAS QUEUED TO HAVE THEIR TONGUES
                 SCRAPED FREE OF CONTAMINATION OF MASSES OF
                 CONSTITUTIONAL PRIEST
           8.    WIFE OF FISHMONGER SCRUBBED OUT PARISH CHURCH WHO
                 HUSBAND HAD BOUGHT FOR SONG AS NATIONAL PROPERTY
                 TO USE AS FISHMARKET
           9.    WHEN YOU HAVE REVOLUTION, WAR, FAMINE
           10.   TO TURN BACK TO A TRADITIONAL WAY OF LIFE
                 a.    THE CHURCH
                 b.    WHERE HALLOWING OF BIRTH, MARRIAGE, DEATH
                       INTEGRAL PART OF LIFE

VII.   OTHER WOMEN & EVENTS OF REVOLUTION
       A.   MARIE ANTOINETTE
            1.   HER EXECUTION & ROLE IN REVOLUTION
            2.   DAUGHTER OF EMPRESS MARIE THERESA OF AUSTRIA-
                 HUNGARIAN EMPIRE
       B.   JOSEPHINE 1763-1814
            1.   WIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
            2.   SHE BECAME EMPRESS OF FRENCH IN 1804
            3.   HER FIRST HUSBAND GUILLOTINED DURING FRENCH
                 REVOLUTION
            4.   WHEN SHE MARRIED NAPOLEON HE LITTLE KNOWN
                 ARTILLERY OFFICER
            5.   BUT SHE BECAME AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT IN HIS RISE TO
                 FAME & FORTUNE
                                                                     8
             6.   IT WAS HER CONNECTIONS THAT MADE IT POSSIBLE

VIII.   NAPOLEONIC CODE - OF 1804
        A.  GENERAL REMARKS
            1.   ONCE LAUDED FOR ESTABLISHING CIVIL EQUALITY AMONG
                 ALL MEN
            2.   FEMINIST CRITICS THEN & NOW HAVE OBJECTED TO MANY OF
                 PROVISIONS
        B.  WHAT PROVISIONS AFFECTED WOMEN?
            1.   MAKERS OF CODE LOOKED BACK ON ROMAN SOCIETY IN
                 REPUBLIC DAYS NOT EMPIRE DAYS
            2.   FELT THAT PATRIARCHY FAMILY ROLE BEST FOR FRANCE
            3.   FOR IN ROMAN EMPIRE DAYS WOMEN POSSESSED EXCESSIVE
                 DOWRIES & INHERITANCES
                 a.    THEREBY CONTROLLED MEN
                 b.    & USING THEIR SEXUALITY TO NO GOOD
            4.   SO FRENCH MAKERS OF CODE FELT ONLY WAY TO SOLVE
                 SOCIETY'S PROBLEM
            5.   WAS TO FORM LAW OF FAMILY AROUND STRONG
                 PATRIARCHAL POWER OF MAN
            6.   SO PROVISIONS MADE REINFORCE THIS IDEA
                 a.    WOMEN ACQUIRED NATIONALITY OF THEIR HUSBANDS
                       UPON MARRIAGE
                 b.    WOMAN HAD TO RESIDE WHERE HER HUSBAND
                       DESIRED
                 c.    WOMEN COULD NOT PARTICIPATE IN LAWSUITS
                 d.    WOMEN COULD NOT SERVE AS WITNESSES IN COURT
                 e.    OR AS WITNESSES TO CIVIL ACTS SUCH AS
                       (1)    BIRTHS, DEATHS & MARRIAGES
                 f.    MEN NO LONGER SUSCEPTIBLE TO PATERNITY SUITS
                       (1)    UNWED MOTHERS PROHIBITED LAWSUITS TO
                              ESTABLISH PATERNITY OF THEIR CHILDREN
                              (a)   THUS DENYING THEM RECOURSE FOR
                                    CHILD SUPPORT
                 g.    OR LEGALLY HAD RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPPORT OF
                       ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN
                 h.    ADULTERY CRIME ONLY FOR WIVES
                 i.    FEMALE ADULTERY PUNISHED BY IMPRISONMENT &
                       FINES
                       (1)    UNLESS HUSBAND RELENTED & TOOK HIS WIFE
                              BACK
                 j.    MAN SUFFERED NO SUCH SANCTIONS
                       (1)    UNLESS THEY BROUGHT THEIR SEXUAL PARTNER
                              INTO HOME
                 k.    WOMEN HAD NO CONTROL OVER PROPERTY
                                                             9
           (1)   EVEN IS SHE MARRIED UNDER CONTRACT THAT
                 ENSURED SEPARATE ACCOUNT OF HER DOWRY
           (2)   HER HUSBAND STILL HAD ADMINISTRATIVE
                 CONTROL OF FUNDS
      l.   WOMEN'S WAGES WENT TO THEIR HUSBANDS
      m.   MARKET WOMEN & OTHERS ENGAGED IN BUSINESS
           COULD NOT DO SO WITHOUT PERMISSION FROM THEIR
           HUSBANDS
      n.   ONCE WOMAN GAINED PERMISSION SHE DID ACQUIRE
           SOME KIND OF LEGAL STATUS
           (1)   BUSINESS WOMAN COULD BE SUED
      o.   BUT HER PROFITS WENT TO HER HUSBAND
      p.   BUSINESSWOMAN'S PROPERTY PASSED TO HER
           HUSBAND'S DESCENDANTS RATHER THAN HERS
      q.   ALL THESE PROVISIONS MEANT THAT WOMEN COULD
           NOT ACT FREELY OR INDEPENDENTLY
7.    ONE POSITIVE PART OF CODE
      a.   EQUAL INHERITANCE BY SISTERS AND BROTHERS
8.    NAPOLEONIC CODE INFLUENCED MANY LEGAL SYSTEMS IN
      EUROPE & NEW WORLD
      a.   NAPOLEON';S VICTORIOUS ARMIES CARRIED HIS CODE
           OF LAWS INTO EUROPEAN AREAS WHERE HIS ARMIES
           CONQUERED
      b.   AFTER ITALY UNIFIED IN LATE 19TH C
           (1)   NEW GOVERNMENT USED NAPOLEON;S CODE
           (2)   NAPOLEONIC LAWS CONCERNING WOMEN
                 AFFECTED EVEN LOUISIANA TERRITORY IN U.S.
           (3)   & OTHER STATE GOVERNMENTS IN U.S.
9.    THUS SET TERMS FOR TREATMENT OF WOMEN ON
      WIDESPREAD BASIS
10.   REACTIONS BY WOMEN
      a.   FROM WAY THE CODE TREATS WOMEN YOU CAN TELL
           IT WAS WRITTEN BY MEN
11.   WOMEN'S PUBLICATIONS PROTESTED SUDDEN REPRESSION
      AFTER DECADE OF MORE EQUITABLE LAWS
      a.   UNDER FRENCH REVOLUTION
12.   WOMEN CONDEMNED CODE FOR DECADES
      a.   PUBLICLY BURNING IT DURING CENTS CELEBRATING
           ITS CENTENNIAL IN 1904
      b.   FRENCH WOMEN SLOWLY REGAINED BACK SOME OF
           RESTRICTIONS OF CODE
      c.   BUT NOT TO 1907 & LATER

								
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