AP Biology Fall Final Review

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					                                                          AP Biology
                                                        Fall Final Review

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Read each question carefully and                        5. What are the maximum number of covalent
select the BEST response                                                    bonds an element with atomic number 16 can
                                                                            make with hydrogen?
      1. Which of these is not one of the procedures
                                                                              a. 5
         used in Southern blotting?
                                                                              b. 2
          a. DNA microarray assay
                                                                              c. 3
          b. hybridization
                                                                              d. 1
          c. restriction fragment preparation
                                                                              e. 4
          d. electrophoresis
          e. autoradiography
                                                                         6. Molecules capable of interacting must first
                                                                            overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as
      2. In a hypotonic solution an animal cell will                        the reaction's
          a. experience turgor.                                               a. activation energy.
          b. shrivel.                                                         b. free-energy content.
          c. lyse.                                                            c. heat content.
          d. lose water.                                                      d. entropy.
          e. neither gain nor lose water.                                     e. endothermic level.

      3. Which of the following is an example of                         7. What kind of chemical bonds are found
         polymorphism in humans?                                            between paired bases of the DNA double helix?
          a. variation in intelligence                                        a. ionic
          b. variation in fingerprints                                        b. covalent
          c. variation in the number of fingers                               c. phosphate
          d. the presence or absence of a widow's peak                        d. sulfhydryl
          e. variation in height                                              e. hydrogen

      4. Darwin was able to formulate his theory of                      8. Water's high specific heat is mainly a
         evolution based on several facts. Which of the                     consequence of the
         following facts was unavailable to Darwin in the
                                                                              a. inability of water to dissipate heat into dry
         mid-nineteenth century?
          a. Natural resources are limited.
                                                                              b. small size of the water molecules.
          b. Characteristics are inherited as genes on
                                                                              c. absorption and release of heat when
                                                                                 hydrogen bonds break and form.
          c. Individual organisms in a population are not
                                                                              d. high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen
          d. Most populations are stable in size.
                                                                              e. fact that water is a poor heat conductor.
          e. All populations have the potential to

 Judith S. Nun o                                       AP BiologyFall Final Review                                               2004
     9. Each element is unique and different from other                12. For a science fair project, two students decided
        elements because of its                                            to repeat the Hershey and Chase experiment,
         a. atomic weight.                                                 with modifications. They decide that labeling
                                                                           the phosphates of the DNA wasn't good
         b. atomic number.
                                                                           enough. Each nucleotide has only one
         c. mass number.                                                   phosphate, whereas each has two to five
         d. Only A and B are correct.                                      nitrogens. Thus, labeling the nitrogens would
         e. A, B, and C are correct.                                       provide a stronger label than labeling the
                                                                           phosphates. This experiment will not work
   10. A new organism is discovered in the deserts of
                                                                             a. radioactive nitrogen has a half-life of
       New Mexico. Scientists there determine that
                                                                                100,000 years and the material would be
       the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from
                                                                                too dangerous for too long.
       the new organism has 68 amino acid
       differences from humans, 62 differences from a                        b. amino acids (and thus proteins) also have
       gibbon, 24 differences from a rat, and 6                                 nitrogen atoms, thus the radioactivity would
       differences from a frog. These data                                      not distinguish between DNA and proteins.
         a. were collected to determine the type of                          c. there is no radioactive isotope of nitrogen.
            blood in the new organism.                                       d. Meselson and Stahl already did this
         b. show that the new organism is best                                  experiment.
            adapted to an aquatic habitat.                                   e. although there are more nitrogens in a
         c. indicate that the new organism may be                               nucleotide, labeled phosphates actually
            closely related to frogs.                                           have 16 extra neutrons, so they are more
         d. suggest that the new organism is closely
            related to humans.
                                                                       13. Which of the following may explain genomic
         e. suggest that the new organism evolved from
            gibbons but not rats and mice.
                                                                             a. retrotransposons
   11. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be                          b. DNA methylation
       used to amplify DNA from which of the                                 c. microsatellite DNA
       following?                                                            d. post-translational modification of proteins
         a. a fossil                                                         e. oncogenes
         b. a fetal cell
         c. a virus                                                    14. All of the structures listed below are associated
         d. B and C                                                        with movement in cells or by cells except
         e. A, B, and C                                                      a. flagella.
                                                                             b. cilia.
                                                                             c. dynein.
                                                                             d. myosin.
                                                                             e. peroxisomes.

Judith S. Nun o                                       AP BiologyFall Final Review                                              2004
   15. Which of the following does not occur during                       19. What are ribosomes composed of?
       mitosis?                                                                 a. two subunits, each consisting of rRNA only
         a. separation of the centrosomes                                       b. mRNA, rRNA, and protein
         b. separation of sister chromatids                                     c. two subunits, each consisting of several
         c. spindle formation                                                      proteins only
         d. replication of the DNA                                              d. mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, and protein
         e. packaging of the chromosomes                                        e. both rRNA and protein

   16. What are the two classifications of                                20. Dog breeders maintain the purity of breeds by
       prokaryotes?                                                           keeping dogs of different breeds apart when
         a. Domain Bacteria and Domain Eukarya                                they are in season. This kind of isolation is
                                                                              most similar to which of the following
         b. Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea
                                                                              reproductive isolating mechanisms?
         c. Domain Eukarya and Domain Archaea
                                                                                a. reduced hybrid fertility
         d. Domain Archaea and Kingdom Monera
                                                                                b. mechanical isolation
         e. Domain Bacteria and Kingdom Monera
                                                                                c. hybrid breakdown
                                                                                d. habitat isolation
   17. In terms of the hierarchical organization of life,                       e. gametic isolation
       an amoeba is __________ level of organization,
       whereas a dog is at the __________ level of
       organization.                                                      21. In the following branched metabolic pathway, a
         a. only at the tissue ... multicellular organism                     dotted arrow with a minus sign symbolizes
                                                                              inhibition of a metabolic step by an end
         b. only at the organelle ... cell and
            multicellular organism
         c. only at the organelle ... unicellular organism                     Which reaction would prevail if both Q and S
         d. at the cell and organism ... multicellular                         were present in the cell in high concentrations?
         e. only at the cell ... organism

   18. Which of the following is an example of a
       hydrogen bond?
         a. the bond between two hydrogen atoms
         b. the bond between C and H in methane
         c. the bond between Na and Cl in salt
         d. the bond between the H of one water                                 a. O ¬ P
            molecule and the O of another water
                                                                                b. L ¬ N
                                                                                c. M ¬ O
         e. the bond between Mg and Cl in MgCl 2
                                                                                d. L ¬ M
                                                                                e. R ¬ S

Judith S. Nun o                                          AP BiologyFall Final Review                                            2004
   22. Which statement is most consistent with the                       27. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
       natural theology that was prevalent in Europe                           a. lysosomeπprotein synthesis
       and America during Darwin's life?
                                                                               b. nucleolusπribosomal RNA
         a. God is nature.
                                                                               c. nucleusπDNA replication
         b. To love God is to love nature.
                                                                               d. cytoskeleton πmicrotubules
         c. God can be discerned only through the
                                                                               e. cell membrane πlipid bilayer
            study of nature.
         d. God is all-natural.
                                                                         28. The DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1
         e. Nature reflects God's intelligent design.
                                                                             phase of the cell cycle is measured (see
                                                                             Chapter 12 in the textbook). If the DNA content
   23. There are __________ subgroups within the                             is x, then the DNA content of the same cell at
       domain Archaea.                                                       metaphase of meiosis I would be
         a. one                                                                a. 0.25x
         b. two                                                                b. 0.5x
         c. three                                                              c. x.
         d. four                                                               d. 2x.
         e. five                                                               e. 4x.

   24. What are the basic "building blocks" of DNA?                      29. Which of the following can best be explained by
         a. 20 amino acids                                                   continental drift?
         b. protein                                                            a. The scarcity of eutherian (placental)
         c. four nucleotides                                                      mammals in Australia.
         d. carbohydrates and lipids                                           b. The relative age of fossils.
         e. 26 nucleotides                                                     c. The Chicxulub crater.
                                                                               d. The Cretaceous extinctions of 65 million
                                                                                  years ago.
   25. Changes to the nucleotide sequence within a
       gene can occur through which process(es)?                               e. The evolution of aquatic reptiles, such as
         a. crossing over
         b. mutation
                                                                         30. Energy enters most ecosystems as
         c. independent assortment
                                                                               a. chemical energy.
         d. Only A and B are correct.
                                                                               b. heat and chemical energy.
         e. A, B, and C are correct.
                                                                               c. light.
                                                                               d. light and chemical energy.
   26. Antibody diversity is due to
                                                                               e. heat.
         a. alternative splicing.
         b. genetic recombination and combining of
         c. the attachment of acetyl groups to histone
         d. the presence of thousands of enhancers.
         e. the cell's ability to make rRNA.

Judith S. Nun o                                         AP BiologyFall Final Review                                            2004
   31. Theoretically, the production of sterile mules by                  35. Which of the following characterizes the
       interbreeding between female horses and male                           sodium-potassium pump?
       donkeys should                                                           a. Potassium ions are pumped into a cell
         a. eventually result in the formation of a single                         against their gradient.
            species from the two parental species.                              b. Sodium ions are pumped out of a cell
         b. reinforce prezygotic isolating mechanisms                              against their gradient.
            between horses and donkeys.                                         c. A and B
         c. cause convergent evolution.                                         d. A carrier protein undergoes conformational
         d. weaken the intrinsic reproductive isolating                            change.
            mechanisms between horses and donkeys.                              e. A, B, and C
         e. result in the extinction of one of the two
            parental species.                                             36. In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the
                                                                              most direct source of energy that is used to
   32. __________ first appeared during the                                   convert ADP + P i to ATP?
       Precambrian era.
                                                                                a. energy released from movement of protons
         a. Amphibians                                                             through ATP synthase
         b. Dinosaurs                                                           b. energy released as electrons flow through
         c. Reptiles                                                               the electron transport system
         d. Mammals                                                             c. No external source of energy is required
         e. Cyanobacteria                                                          because the reaction is exergonic.
                                                                                d. energy released from substrate-level
   33. The two ring forms of glucose (a and b)
                                                                                e. energy released from ATP synthase
         a. arise when different carbons of the linear
                                                                                   pumping hydrogen ions against their
            structure join to form the rings.
                                                                                   concentration gradient
         b. arise because the hydroxyl group at the
            point of ring closure can be trapped in either
                                                                          37. In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and
            one of two possible positions.
                                                                              fertilization results in
         c. include an aldose and a ketose.
                                                                                a. sporophytes.
         d. arise from different linear (nonring) glucose
                                                                                b. clones.
                                                                                c. spores.
         e. are made from different structural isomers of
            glucose.                                                            d. somatic cells.
                                                                                e. zygotes.
   34. Which of the following statements about the
       domains of prokaryotes is not true?                                38. The general name for an enzyme that transfers
         a. Of the two groups, bacteria are more                              phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is
            closely related to eukaryotes.                                      a. ATPase.
         b. Bacteria include the cyanobacteria.                                 b. phosphorylase.
         c. The lipid composition of the plasma                                 c. phosphatase.
            membrane found in archaea is different from
                                                                                d. protein kinase.
            that of bacteria.
                                                                                e. protease.
         d. Both archaea and bacteria have cell walls,
            but the walls of archaea lack peptidoglycan.
         e. Archaea and bacteria probably diverged very
            early in evolutionary history.

Judith S. Nun o                                          AP BiologyFall Final Review                                            2004
   39. All of the following statements are true except:                 42. CAM plants can keep stomates closed in
         a. Mitosis and cytokinesis are required for                        daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can
            asexual reproduction.                                           do this because they
         b. The mitotic spindles in prokaryotic cells are                     a. fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath
            composed of microtubules.                                            cells.
         c. Mitosis may occur without cytokinesis.                            b. use photosystems I and II at night.
         d. Mitosis produces new nuclei with exactly                          c. use the enzyme phosphofructokinase,
            the same chromosomal endowment as the                                which outcompetes rubisco for CO2.
            parent nucleus.                                                   d. fix CO2 into pyruvic acid in the mesophyll
         e. All cells come from a preexisting cell.                              cells.
                                                                              e. fix CO2 into organic acids during the night.
   40. Which of the following responses would be
       expected in myxobacteria when nutrients are
       scarce?                                                          43. A 0.1% frequency of recombination is observed
         a. Cells secrete an a-factor and an a-factor                         a. on unlinked chromosomes.
            signal that releases new nutrients.                               b. for any two genes on different
         b. Cells would cannibalize each other unless                            chromosomes.
            they secrete a chemical signal telling the                        c. on genetic maps of viral chromosomes.
            other myxobacteria they are alike.                                d. only in sex chromosomes.
         c. Starving cells secrete a chemical signal                          e. in genes located very close to one another
            that simulates other cells to aggregate in                           on the same chromosome.
            the soil and form spores.
         d. The starved cells secrete a signal to other
            cells that it is time to move to another
         e. Both C and D are expected responses.

   41. During oxidative phosphorylation, H 2O is
       formed. Where do the oxygen atoms in the
       H2O come from?
         a. molecular oxygen
                                                                                            Figure 4.12
         b. pyruvate
         c. glucose                                                     44. Which of the molecules shown in Figure 4.12
         d. carbon dioxide                                                  would be the strongest acid?
         e. lactate                                                           a. B
                                                                              b. A
                                                                              c. C
                                                                              d. D
                                                                              e. E

Judith S. Nun o                                        AP BiologyFall Final Review                                              2004
                                                                    Use the following information to answer the question below.
                                                                    Albinism (lack of skin pigmentation) is caused by a
                                                                    recessive autosomal allele. A man and woman, both
                                                                    normally pigmented, have an albino child together.

                                                                         47. The couple decides to have a second child.
                                                                             What is the probability that this child will be
                              Figure 4.3                                     albino?
                                                                               a. 0
    45. The two molecules shown in Figure 4.3 are
                                                                               b. 3/4
        best described as
                                                                               c. 1/2
          a. radioactive isotopes.
                                                                               d. 1
          b. structural isomers.
                                                                               e. 1/4
          c. nonisotopic isomers.
          d. geometric isomers.
                                                                    Use the following information to answer the questions
          e. enantiomers.                                           below. Thomas Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae
                                                                    with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing
The following questions refer to the following simple               different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light.
metabolic pathway:                                                  He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas
                                                                    the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups
                   enzyme a                enzyme b                 were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue
           A                  B                   C

                                                                         48. What did he conclude about the congregation
    46. One strain of a diploid organism is homozygous
                                                                             of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
        for a recessive allele coding for a defective
        enzyme a. Another strain is homozygous for a                           a. Bacteria congregated in these areas due to
        recessive allele coding for a defective enzyme                            an increase in the temperature of the red
        b. Crossing those two strains will result in a                            and blue light.
        strain that would grow on which of the                                 b. Bacteria congregated in these areas
        following?                                                                because these areas had the most oxygen
          a. a minimal medium supplemented with A                                 being released.
          b. a minimal medium supplemented with both                           c. Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in
             A and B                                                              these areas.
          c. a minimal medium supplemented with B                              d. Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light
                                                                                  and thus these wavelengths are more
          d. All of the above will support the growth of
                                                                                  reactive than other wavelengths.
             the new strain.
                                                                               e. Bacteria congregated in these areas due to
                                                                                  an increase in the temperature caused by
                                                                                  an increase in photosynthesis.

 Judith S. Nun o                                        AP BiologyFall Final Review                                              2004
Use the information given here to answer the following
questions. Feather color in budgies is determined by two
different genes that affect the pigmentation of the outer
feather and its core. Y_B_ is green; yyB_ is blue; Y_bb is
yellow; and yybb is white.

    49. Two blue budgies were crossed. Over the
        years, they produced 22 offspring, 5 of which
        were white. What are the most likely genotypes
        for the two blue budgies?
             a. yyBB and yyBb
             b. yyBb and yyBb
             c. yyBb and yybb
             d. yyBB and yybb
             e. yyBB and yyBB

Use the list of chromosomal systems below to answer the
following questions.

        A.    haploid-diploid
        B.    X-O
        C.    X-X
        D.    X-Y
        E.    Z-W

    50. What is the chromosomal system for sex
        determination in birds?
             a. A
             b. B
             c. C
             d. D
             e. E

 Judith S. Nun o                                     AP BiologyFall Final Review   2004
Answer Key

     1. Answer: a                                39. Answer: b
     2. Answer: c                                40. Answer: c
     3. Answer: d                                41. Answer: a
     4. Answer: b                                42. Answer: e
     5. Answer: b                                43. Answer: e
     6. Answer: a                                44. Answer: a
     7. Answer: e                                45. Answer: d
     8. Answer: c                                46. Answer: a
     9. Answer: b                                47. Answer: e
   10. Answer: c                                 48. Answer: b
   11. Answer: e                                 49. Answer: b
   12. Answer: b                                 50. Answer: e
   13. Answer: b
   14. Answer: e
   15. Answer: d
   16. Answer: b
   17. Answer: d
   18. Answer: d
   19. Answer: e
   20. Answer: d
   21. Answer: b
   22. Answer: e
   23. Answer: b
   24. Answer: c
   25. Answer: d
   26. Answer: b
   27. Answer: a
   28. Answer: d
   29. Answer: a
   30. Answer: c
   31. Answer: b
   32. Answer: e
   33. Answer: b
   34. Answer: a
   35. Answer: b
   36. Answer: a
   37. Answer: e
   38. Answer: d
Judith S. Nun o                 AP BiologyFall Final Review      2004

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