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ENTERTAINMENT JOBS

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					Module 5: Entertainment Jobs
As the saying goes, there is no business like show business. Day in and day out
the movies, television, music, video games and other forms of entertainment
generate thousands of jobs. And of course not all jobs are in front of the camera
and not everyone can be a movie star. But with a lot of perseverance you can get
into the business if you really have the desire to do so. This module will help to
show you how.


Entertainment Job Forecast
PHOTO #501
The entertainment industry offers a variety of employment opportunities for
people with a wide range of business, creative and technical skills. There are
hundreds of people who are connected to the creation of any CD, DVD, TV
show or film, not to mention many others who are behind the scenes.
Entertainment and related industries today offer thousands of jobs that range
from orchestrating the music in a film or video to orchestrating the mergers and
acquisitions of a media conglomerate, and everything in between.

Careers in entertainment basically fall into two fields: there are the performers
and there are those who provide the back-up, engagement and support for them.
Unlike many other businesses, the entertainment industry depends heavily on
support people, which opens up a considerable number of job opportunities.

Many of the skills required are transferable from other industries and
professions such as electricians who can their skills to work on a movie set or
corporate fund-raising directors who transfer their skills to similar jobs at theater
or ballet companies. Writers, editors, teachers and others can also make the
move into the entertainment industry both in front of the camera and behind the
scenes. Yet entertainment can be a tough industry to break into because much of
the industry is so insular.

While entertainment jobs are expected to grow faster than average through 2012,
key jobs will remain scarce, turnover can be high and relatively few employees
ever make it to stardom. The field is highly competitive as so many want jobs in
show biz that appear to be fun and glamorous. While life in Tinsel town can be
brutal, success awaits those who learn to navigate the trenches. Harvey
Weinstein of Miramax said it best when he said there is no Harvard School of
business for movies, you learn at the desk.

Of course, besides TV and motion pictures entertainment includes a wide range
of career opportunities in casinos and gaming, amusement parks, music, theatre,
theme restaurants, news organizations, publishing, online entertainment, new
media and video games, to name only a few of the categories. A key to finding a
job in show business is to decide what part of the industry you are interested in,
to determine what your skills and talents are, develop them to the best of your
ability and then look for work.
Finding an Entertainment Job
PHOTO #502
The entertainment and media industries offer a wide range of jobs and careers in
studios, companies, businesses, suppliers and media outlets. This expanse ranges
from multi-billion dollar diversified conglomerates to small, independent
movies houses and production shops. Motion pictures, television, music, theatre,
sports, video games and theme parks offer entertainment in a variety of medium
and formats. Further, the rise of the Internet, cell phones, wireless and other
interactive technologies in will continue to increase entertainment and media
employment opportunities.

Today’s motion picture, television and music industries are for the most part are
dominated by large, vertically integrated companies like Sony, Time Warner,
GE and Walt Disney which have interests in multiple segments of the
entertainment industry. Of course, thousands of mid-sized and smaller
production companies exist along with companies in dozens of other
entertainment categories including comedy dance, ballet, performance arts and
related fields.

These companies can range in size from hundreds or thousands of employees
down to five or six people. Many are located in New York and Los Angeles but
entertainment jobs can be found in almost every city in the United States (for
simplicity we will refer to entertainment, media, publishing and all the
companies within these industries simply as “entertainment” or “show biz”).

Today a wide range of companies offer jobs from film and television production
companies, distributors and independent record companies to talent,
management and public relations agencies, to name a few. Films or motion
pictures are the biggest segment of the entertainment industry (next to video
games) not only because of their prominence within the culture but also because
a successful motion picture can be sold in different forms such as DVD,
international distribution, TV syndication, etc.

When looking for a job, the industry breaks down into two main categories: the
creative side and the business side. Generally, the creative side develops and
makes the product or content for what will become a book, motion picture, TV
show, song, music video, etc. This includes magazine editors, film directors,
music producers and network executives. The business side sells the content or
product, provides marketing and distribution, ensures that everything is legal
and grows the business with the original content that was created. This includes
marketers, sales people, business development managers and deal makers.
Motion Picture Careers – The Creative Side
PHOTO #503
The creative side of the entertainment business is where the content or movies
are made. Overlapping stages in making a film are known as development, pre-
production, shooting, production and distribution. Producers, screenwriters,
agents and studio executives are among the people who are involved in the stage
known as development. Here is where a script is written, a story is developed
and the story-telling process is started by the producer or a production company.
Breaking into this side of the business can be difficult.

While the studios and producers get thousands of scripts from famous and not so
famous screenwriters each year, most are returned unopened. The studios do
negotiate with literary agents who represent writers to purchase the most
interesting scripts, and then they bring together key players (directors, lead
actors and other producers) who will commit to starring in or making the films if
a studio or other entity finances them. Production companies either use their
own funds or pitch the film to a studio for underwriting. If approved, the film
then gets a 'green light' to go into production.

Pre-production of a film is what happens before the shooting begins. This
includes casting, location scouting, set design, hiring of the crew, etc. When a
film is 'green lit,' shooting and production starts with cast and crew including
actors, directors, cinematographers, camera operators, electricians and
production assistants, hair & make-up, costumes and hundreds of others. Post-
production including editing, sound, special effects, animation, music, titles and
credits happens after the shooting ends and involves hundreds of additional
highly creative and talented people.

Producers provide the foundation and are at the center of a film production or
project. They control the allocation of monies and resources needed to make
motion pictures, and are responsible to the financiers such as a studio, a
distribution company, bank, insurance company or other investor. Today leading
actors and directors have their own production companies and many of them are
located on the lots of the major film studios. Employees consist of development
executives and assistants who meet with writers and directors, read countless
movie scripts as well as new books and look for projects to develop into films.

Also at the center of a motion picture is the director who conducts or directs the
actors and shooting of film. Directors orchestrate motion pictures and also direct
television shows, news programs, commercials and music videos. The path to
becoming a director usually involves film school and working in an editing
facility, as a camera assistant. Of course, with all the highly talented yet
struggling directors who are out there looking to find work, the road is tough
and there is no beaten track to success.

Working closely with producers and directors on the set are the crew which
includes cinematographers, directors of photography, production designers and
writers. These jobs comprise the top management of most motion picture,
television and music video projects. Other jobs include assistant directors, boom
operators, grips, best boys, and those who work with sound, lighting and other
aspects of production.

In the old days when films were almost entirely made by studios, production
crews would be assembled from various departments within the studio. These
departments including camera, grip, lighting, sound, wardrobe, make-up/hair,
special effects, etc. had available skilled personnel to be assigned to a
production on the basis of a daily call. While many studios have eliminated
these departments, the system continues continued today except that most of the
former departments are now made up of freelancers.
As a project moves from development into production, a unit production
manager is hired by the producer to organize the crew and the production
process. Also known as executive producers or line producers they are
experienced and knowledgeable of people with the skills required to make
projects happen. Handling the logistics of filmmaking is their basic
responsibility including permits, schedules, locations, catering, trailers,
transportation and other production related needs.

The producer or director often know the staff they want in certain jobs.
Otherwise production managers will recruit key hires from several departments.
Then typically the hires will bring their own teams and assistants. If the project
is covered by collective bargaining agreements the hiring will be from union
members on rosters, otherwise they will be recruited from union or non-union
freelancers. Hiring is nearly always pressured by time and budget.

Of course, having the right skills and knowing someone who knows someone on
the inside of a production is always helpful in getting a job. Then it’s up to you
to make as many connections as you can among the people you work with. The
critical thing in the mind of whoever is hiring will be whether the person to be
hired can and will do the job.

The best way to increase the likelihood of that outcome is to hire someone
known to meet those criteria (a) because he or she has worked successfully for
you before or (b) is known to have done the job for someone you know or (c) is
known to have done the job for someone else. Getting experience and getting
yourself known are thus primary objectives for getting any kind of creative or
business side job in the motion picture industry.

Having gotten a job, doing a good job and building your reputation are
important in getting the next job, so many who seek to enter the industry choose
to work without pay in order to get the experience and contacts necessary to get
paid work. Thus one entry point for job seekers is a usually unpaid and often
self-created internship. You can demonstrate your desire and ability if you can
afford to volunteer for a chance to learn skills and gain valuable on-the-job
training and experience.

Hiring Tip: Look for points of entry into show business other than those
requiring special skills like drivers, receptionists, clerks or security guards.
These jobs can get you into places that may offer access to contacts and other
jobs. Companies that supply goods, services and technology to the entertainment
industry are likely to hire the less experienced and may provide opportunities to
break in. These jobs can enable you to learn technical skills, become familiar
with equipment, offer a chance to observe live productions and to contact those
who may be helpful in finding you a job on the inside.


Motion Picture Careers – The Business Side
PHOTO #504
The other side of filmmaking is the business side which deals with everything
that happens after the filmmaking process including theatrical release, television
distribution, DVDs, home video, theme parks and licensing. There are various
channels of distribution and businesses involved in leveraging the enormous
property and revenue opportunities for successful film franchises like The Lord
of the Rings and Star Wars. With the business side now generating billions of
dollars annually the studios have grown into diversified conglomerates with
many different segments -- opening up a number of job opportunities for
entertainment career seekers.
One such area is home video, where videotapes and DVDs become the second
phase of a movie's life cycle, bringing films into the homes of consumers usually
after playing in local theatres. Filmed properties and characters with broad
appeal are further exploited by other companies that pay licensing fees for the
rights to use images and names. Licensing is a huge and lucrative part of the
entertainment business that offers opportunities for jobseekers from legal
assistants and accountants to merchandising and sales managers.

There are many types of products that can licensed from films including apparel,
stuffed animals, toys, comic books, holiday costumes and school supplies to
name a few. Literally hundreds of products can be licensed by a single film or
TV show and it takes many people to work with and watch their licensees. Some
film studios sell items directly to consumers via the Internet, direct mailing,
direct response TV and others have retail stores. Again, this opens up a wide
range of job opportunities from planning and inventory to retail sales
management.

Business side jobs range from strategic planning, corporate finance and real
estate to entertainment law, investment banking, accounting and mergers and
acquisitions. Industry-related marketing positions can be found at studios,
production companies, ad agencies, PR agencies, market research and media
placement firms.

Although distribution is not as large as the physical production, it is a vital
component of the entertainment industry which involves getting the final
products to various markets. Today foreign and DVD distribution alone can
account for as much as half of the total revenues for many studio films.
Distribution jobs vary from accounting, marketing and sales to inventory,
information technology and customer support.

Entertainment writing is an excellent way to get into show biz with many
positions available including include arts writers, critics and publicists and
authors. Publicists or publicity agents represent an artist or company, create
media packets and then follow through with calls to the press to hopefully
generate exposure for their clients. To be a publicist or entertainment critic you
need to have solid writing skills along with a thorough understanding of the arts.

Some writers work full-time at the studios, production companies, newspapers,
magazines, web sites and other media outlets while others are freelance writers
working for multiple media, publications or clients. Other writing and publicity
jobs are available in unions, trade associations, booking agencies and in record
companies.

Large entertainment destinations, theme parks, sports stadiums and theme
restaurants are another part of the industry that offering job opportunities and a
way to break in to the business. From Disneyland to Magic Mountain, theme
parks further leverage content and bring it to consumers in an exciting, live-
action setting. Some people who work at theme parks are lucky enough to
leverage their jobs to meet people and make contacts that help them break into
show business. Remember, many companies hire from within or promote
someone in another division without ever running an advertisement to fill the
position!
For more information on business side entertainment careers contact your local
library, university or career center. Depending on your area of interest, you can
also check out web sites for industry related groups and job opportunities
including:
        Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
        Academy of Television Arts & Sciences
        ACM Siggraph
        American Association of Advertising Agencies
        American Council for the Arts
        American Film Institute
        American Film Market Association
        American Society of Cinematographers
        Association of Imaging Technology & Sound
        Association of Independent Feature Film Producers
        Association of Independent Video and Filmmakers
        Association of Public Television Stations
        Casting Society of America
        CineWomen NY
        Director's Guild of America
        Hollywood Network
        IndustryCentral
        National Art Education Association
        National Association of Schools of Theatre
        National Association of Television Program Executives
        National Endowment for the Arts
        National Foundation for the Advancement of the Arts
        New York New Media Association
        New York Production Alliance
        Producers Guild of America
        Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
        Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers
        Women in Film, American Film Institute
        Writer's Guild of America


Skills That May Be Required
PHOTO #505
Based on research among different industry professionals, there are basically
three different types of skill sets or knowledge that set motion pictures apart
from other segments of the entertainment business.

Cinematic skills include an ability to visualize the appearance of reality as a
filmed image and to enhance or modify reality to making its image comply with
the script or the director’s instructions; cinematic skills involve the knowledge
of “what works in front of a camera, from interpreting scripts and visualizing
scenes or characters to knowing how things are presented on film and assessing
levels of detail needed. For example, doors on a set need not open if not called
for in the script; characteristics are exaggerated or de-emphasized by make-up;
the backdrop viewed through a window of the set may need more or less detail.
This set of skills would appear to be learned largely on-the-job.
Organizational skills are critical to motion pictures as each person from truck
driver and camera operator to line producer has to carry out his/her task in a
coordinated, timely and effective manner. For instance, if a driver is late in
delivering equipment to the shooting location then the production is stalled. If
the assistant director does not prepare the call-sheet in advance, the right crew
and equipment will not be available to do the work. Because of the large number
of people on a set or location, lost time is costly. Inability to work smoothly with
fellow workers in a timely way can quickly jeopardize a career in film.

Technical skills are necessary to perform given tasks from costume design and
make-up to set design and construction. Technical skills, however, can also be
industry specific when the tools are specific to the industry, for instance a
camera operator, projectionist or film loader. This group of skills also includes
the knowledge and practice of specific safety, mechanical, procedural and
operational measures that are extremely important on a movie set or location.


Other Skills, Abilities & Personal Traits
It has been said that performers spend more time looking for work than actually
performing. Even for successful performers there is always the need for a new
movie, new TV show, Broadway production or job. For the newcomer and
veteran alike, there is always the process of getting started. In acting as in any
other competitive situations, there are the five “D’s” known as desire, drive,
determination, dedication and discipline. It is necessary to posses all of these
qualities if one is to succeed as an actor or performer.

How does one become a professional? In part, by behaving like a professional.
One must work, study and often starve. Performing requires great discipline. Do
you need an agent or manger early in your career? An agent usually doesn’t get
an actor a job. Once an actor has a job, the agent negotiates the terms. Agents
are franchised by unions and managers are not officially recognized by any
group. An actor should be careful about signing with managers.

There are no shortcuts to becoming an agent or an actor. Training and work, and
work to find work are what count. Try to get as much stage time as you can, any
place and any time. Prepare, study and appear before audiences whenever and
wherever you can. Here are some of the skills and personal traits that may be
required in the motion picture industry:
     Analyzing competing plans & strategies
     Business sense
     Communication skills
     Competitiveness
     Creativity
     Entrepreneurial skills
     Interpersonal skills
     Knowing how to creating & produce projects
     Leadership
     Negotiating
     Networking
     Organizing projects
     Persuading
     Team work
     Thinking on your feet
     Time and stress management
     Working in a constantly changing environment
     Working well under pressure
     Writing clearly
Becoming a Performer
PHOTO #506
Actors perform their roles in theaters, movies, on radio and television and
Internet productions based on scripts provided. Though often viewed as a
glamorous profession, most actors from stage to screen are forced to put in long
and irregular hours with minimal or no payment in return. In addition, only a
few achieve recognition or become stars. Being a successful actor involves a lot
more than just memorizing lines. It demands patient and total commitment
because there are often periods of long unemployment between jobs and
rejections when auditioning for work.

Other desirable qualities include talent, determination, persistence, social skills,
good memory and a fine speaking voice, creative ability and training in order to
portray different roles. Skills in singing and dancing are also useful. Actors need
to have poise, stage presence and stamina. Evening work is a regular part of a
stage actor’s life. Formal dramatic training and acting experience are generally
necessary to enter the field and to get ahead, costing time and money. A
master’s degree in theater or film is considered a plus.

Rigorous training, hectic schedules, 12 hour days, auditions, workshops,
rehearsals and keeping headshots and resume up to date are just a tiny part of the
ongoing process. Many actors work in temporary jobs in order to survive their
actor career. Fortunately, there are no limits on looks or age, so how does one go
about becoming an actor?

The best way to build an acting career is to pursue local opportunities and move
on from there. Local and regional theater jobs may be available. Become a
regular audience member at live theatre events to better understand the working
of a stage is helpful. Attend seminars, workshops or trade shows in theatre and
stage production. Also visit bookstores and start reading scripts, plays and
practice the style of dialogue to get a feel for the rhythms of speech. Keep up
with theater reviews. The more you know, the better prepared you will be when
you step into the spotlight.

Essential tools you’ll likely need to get into the business are a resume that
highlights your qualifications, acting history and special skills. You will need
professional photos for your headshot. Once this is ready, you can begin the
difficult job of making calls on casting offices, ad agencies, producer’s offices,
agents and other contacts. While waiting for a part, you may need works as a
waiter or waitress, bartender, taxi driver, etc. These jobs can provide a flexible
schedule and money to live on. Read Backstage, Ross Reports, Variety, The
Hollywood Reporter, Billboard, Publishers Weekly, Premiere and others.

Jobs Forecast
Fueled by the growth of cable television, film rentals, television syndication,
web casts, games, cell phones and a growing entertainment market here and
abroad, employment for actors is expected to grow along with the demand for
production and business personnel. It is important to note, however, that acting
is still an overcrowded field and it is expected it to remain so. This is because of
the large number of people desiring acting careers and the general lack of formal
entry requirements which will continue to cause competition for the jobs that do
exist. Thus only the most talented are likely to find regular employment.
Those interested in stage management, directing, etc. often have to start out
much the way actors do. Working part-time in a theater box office or the
administration office of a theater can give you a behind the scenes look at how
things work. Being seen and becoming known in the theatrical community can
help. Attending auditions, performing or working behind the scenes will help
move your career forward. Many professionals got their first jobs in dinner
theatres, summer stock or regional theaters established in towns and cities.

Some stars like Demi Moore, Alec Baldwin, Kevin Bacon, Christopher Reeve,
and Meg Ryan got their start acting in TV soap operas. It helps to break into TV
if you can register with a reputable talent agency that sends headshots to casting
agents for TV shows and commercials. Of course, signing is easier said than
done. Generally, working as an actor depends largely on training, business and
creative skills, versatility and perseverance. Some are fortunate enough to get
consistent work, while most last only a short time in the business because they
can’t find enough work or a full-time job to keep them sustained.

Breaking Into Show Business
PHOTO #507
To help you determine the kind of a job you would like to have and to find ways
to break into the business, ask yourself some questions. Do you love movies,
books or are you a music buff? Do you enjoy working on the artistic or the
business side of projects? Are you more technology or customer support
oriented? Are you more comfortable working on a different news story each day
or a film that could take up to a year or more? How about working in magazines,
music videos, news broadcasts, video games or radio broadcasts?

There is no set path to getting a creative or business side job in entertainment.
Generally show biz is an industry without initiation rites, outside training or
designated steps for promotion. Thus each must find his or her own path keeping
in mind breakthroughs can occur at any time. Among the best ways to break into
the business is to get on-the-job training despite the fact that, depending on your
chosen field, few formal training programs exist.

Some top management agencies offer training programs if you can get in, as
does the Director’s Guild of America. But keep in mind the competition for
internships and training positions is plentiful. Competition is so great that even
film school graduates often have to swallow their pride and begin their careers
as a secretary, intern, page or messenger. Of course, paying dues by becoming a
personal assistant or an intern can provide you with the credibility you need to
land a job elsewhere. Yet while training helps prepare you for a career it does
not assure you of entry into show biz.

Major talent agencies offer training but you must work long hours in exchange
for an opportunity to learn the ropes, more often than not as an assistant or a
sorter in the mail room! If and when you do get in, this training will prove
valuable because you’ve likely learned many aspects of the business and
perhaps more importantly, you learn who people are, what they do, how deals
are made, the language and the politics of it all, including how to negotiate and
how to survive. This is on-the-job experience you just won’t get in school or an
academic environment.
Of course, only the strong will survive in what can ultimately be an extremely
frustrating process. It is estimated more than half of all trainees drop out, some
from sheer abuse and others from exhaustion. But despite the hardships there is
no shortage of applicants. Some start in the mailroom or work as pages,
assistants or as delivery or maintenance personnel in order to learn the business
from the inside and have an opportunity to make contacts. Others take jobs from
temporary help agencies specializing in entertainment in order to get in the door
and in the hopes of landing a full-time position.

What about education? Universities offer courses in many areas of the business
but most insiders agree their degree was worthless in landing them a job. While
the creative side might not reward MBAs, the business side often does. Listings
for entry level jobs and executive training programs offered Disney, Sony, Time
Warner and others are available at the colleges with film departments. These
include Stanford, University of Florida, Northwestern, Harvard, NYU, UCLA
and USC. Contact alumni and attend mixers and other events at these schools as
well as your own alumni organization to learn the business and to uncover
referrals and hidden job leads.

As you’ve probably guessed networking in show biz is essential. There are
always jobs for college graduates, middle management and senior executives.
To find them read industry trades and web sites to learn about new companies,
which ones are expanding and those most likely to have jobs. Visit industry
association web sites and contact the film promotion agency in your state. If you
are interested in post-production for example, join the Hollywood Post Alliance
(www.hpaonline.org), attend a couple of events and in no time you’ll make
valuable industry contacts. To meet people and obtain referrals you’ll want to
attend seminars, workshops and trade conventions that serve your area of
interest.

Taking classes is also an important aspect of gaining access to the entertainment
industry and the jobs within. Classes include acting, screenwriting, producing
and development. Many offer exposure to studio executives, top writers and
other talent from the industry. Some colleges offer extension classes which are
great for networking and many of the instructors and professors have contacts in
the industry. If you can afford it and you can get in, a film school like NYU
Film School or UCLA Film School can provide training, contacts and the
opportunity to develop a demo reel or portfolio.

Industry experts advise another way to break into show business is to write your
way in, such as writing an original screenplay. Yet once again, most of the
scripts written by aspiring screenwriters do not open any doors at all for their
authors. That’s because screenwriting appears deceptively simple, but it's a lot
tougher to write for the entertainment business than most people think. There are
hundreds of members in the Writer’s Guild of America, but only a few get most
of the work.

Screenwriting is not an easy skill and craft to master. It can take years and most
can’t afford to wait that long. Many aspiring writers don't know the kind of
scripts that interest studios and production companies, select subject un-
commercial subject matter, develop scenes too expensive to shoot and neglect to
write roles for existing stars. Further, most producers and studios return
unsolicited manuscript unopened to avoid lawsuits from writers claiming their
screenplays were eventually plagiarized.
Today those writers without an agent to represent them face difficulty
submitting a script. You can enlist people who are willing to pass along a script.
Industry functions and seminars offer opportunities for access but there are
usually plenty of people waiting around hoping a speaker or contact will read
their script. For the tenacious, it can and often does happen.

Agents, like executives, generally won't accept unsolicited manuscripts.
Moreover, they’re reluctant to represent beginning writers until they have
demonstrated their marketability by selling a script -- a difficult task when no
one will read your work! Did you know that it took Lawrence Kasdan who
wrote Raiders of the Lost Ark six scripts and five years just to get an agent who
would sign him on?

Those looking to become a director also experience difficulty breaking into the
business. Some will direct and produce a short film an attempt to break into the
studios as a way of getting in the door, although directing a short doesn’t mean
you have what it takes to direct a feature film. Others will direct local or
regional theater, music videos and other types of productions to hone their craft
and to get known. Still other directors got their chance to direct only after they
had established themselves as top writers.

Holding their script as hostage, they refused to sell unless the studio will let
them direct a project! Others use whatever access, networking and connections
they can muster to get their work read by people in the industry. They speak
with relatives, dentists, a friend's uncle, a personal trainer and everyone they can
to reach people who know influential people. For example, there’s a certain auto
mechanic in Venice, CA who has become friends with some of his customers
including Hollywood’s top producers and directors.

Always check studio, production and media web sites for job listings. It’s best to
have the name of a referral when you’re ready to send in your resume. That’s
because according to one industry recruiter half of the job placements come
from referrals, about 20 percent form headhunters or placement agencies and
less than five to 10 percent of jobs are filled through resumes that have been
submitted to the company.


Acting Careers
PHOTO #508
While writers and directors find it difficult to break in, acting can be even more
difficult. That’s because writers and directors are at least able to demonstrate
their skills and talents by writing scripts or making their own films. On the other
hand, actors can't show their talent until they first persuade someone to give
them a role. There are other barriers against beginning actors that can be most
formidable.

To act in films or on television usually one must be a member of the Screen
Actors Guild (SAG) to be considered for even the most minor parts. While low-
budget productions will use non-union crews and non-Guild writers or directors,
they rarely employ non-SAG actors. To join SAG actors must convince SAG
signatory production company to hire them, but in most cases the producer's
agreement with SAG usually requires producers to give hiring preference to
SAG members.

One exception allows the producer to hire a non-SAG actor when no SAG
member is available or qualified for a part. Thus if the role calls for an Albanian
midget who speaks French and can do motorcycle stunts, the producer will have
little difficulty demonstrating his need to hire a non-SAG actor. But if the part
calls for someone more ordinary, the producer hires actors outside of the union
runs the risk of incurring a severe penalty and costs.
Of course, an actor could conceivably join SAG by forming a production
company, having it become a guild signatory, and then hire him or her self but
its costly scheme most can’t afford. SAG admission is more typically gained by
requesting a director to take advantage of a provision that allows directors to
upgrade extras during production. If the director adds a line to the script while
shooting and assigns it to a non-speaking extra, even if that line is just a shout
from a crowd, the extra becomes a "day player" who is eligible to join SAG.

Another way to join SAG is to transfer in from its sister unions in the fields of
television (AFTRA) or live theater (Equity). Persons who have been members of
AFTRA or Equity for a year and performed in at least one principal role in a
production under their jurisdiction are eligible to enter SAG. AFTRA is easy to
join since it is open to anyone at any time. Therefore, the aspiring actor has only
to enroll and obtain a speaking role in a soap opera, commercial or other taped
television show in order to get into SAG.

But once an actor joins SAG his or her troubles are far from over. The number
of persons pursuing acting careers has increased enormously. The number of
these roles is so limited that at any given time some 85 percent of SAG members
are unemployed. Consequently, few members are able to support themselves
from acting alone. Thus, beginning actors are always at a competitive
disadvantage.

Even casting directors look for actors whose names on a billboard might mean
something to the public, perhaps piquing its interest. Because casting directors
have so many actors to choose from, they usually will not even consider hiring
one who does not have an agent (so many have representation there is little need
to look further). Also, casting directors complain that negotiating with actors can
be exasperating. They often do not understand the fine points of deal-making
and they tend to become emotionally involved, so it’s far easier to deal with an
agent who understands the business of hiring.

For the beginning actor, getting an agent can be a big obstacle, so actors go
about seeking representation in a variety of ways. Some wander around town
dropping off resumes at agents' offices. This approach rarely works, because
agents want to see an actor perform. Consequently, to gain exposure, actors will
take roles for little or no pay in small theater productions and also appear in
showcases sponsored by acting schools. No matter how an actor obtains an
agent, there remains the problem of securing work.

Agents can only propose their clients for parts that may be appropriate for them.
Ultimately, the actor must win the role himself, often in an audition. Mastering
the art of auditioning is important because it's a skill needed throughout one's
career. Even veterans are asked to audition and only the biggest stars are spared
the ordeal. Actors usually solicit work for many years before they become
sought-after talent. Further, great performances and reviews may have little
impact unless you are in a high-visibility production.

Actors are only considered as good as the films they are in, according to some.
Unless they're in a hit, where exposure to the public is so tremendous that they
become known overnight, they can forget it. If they're in a film that doesn't
make it, even with good notices, they start their career over again. They look for
the next picture that is going to do it for them. For many actors it is one film that
shoots them to the top.
Moreover, unless an actor has mastered his craft while awaiting his lucky break,
all may be for naught. You need "a foundation of craftsmanship beneath you to
be able to capitalize on luck if it should strike you," says Paul Newman. How
one obtains that mastery without regular opportunity to work is a dilemma many
actors face.

But there is little an actor can do to generate that breakthrough role.
Notwithstanding all the dedication and talent, he or she often must wait a long
time to be offered the right part. As Boris Karloff once said, "You could heave a
brick out of the window and hit ten actors who could play my parts. I just
happened to be on the right corner at the right time."

So You Want to Be a Producer?
Just as writers, directors and actors struggle to break into the business, so do
producers. Many serve lengthy apprenticeships as production managers, agents,
personal managers or studio executives. A good number of writers, directors and
stars also become producers, often in a dual capacity. Today it's unusual for a
picture to have just one producer.

According to one industry executive, most producers today may call themselves
producers but what they really do is stay in their offices and make phone calls.
They're not filmmakers by and large instead they tend to be deal-makers. And
they're not developers as they often don’t know anything about a script. They are
businessmen, they are smart with money and the best producers are self-
generators. They come up with original ideas while others go to lunch. They
wait for agents to give them scripts and they package by assembling the right
talent for that particular project.

Depending on their background, individuals can make the transition to
producing in different ways. For the businessman who has made his fortune in
another field and now wants to try producing, the key to success is to surround
himself or herself with experienced hands in the hopes of learning the business.
Writers and directors who become producers need to learn deal-making and the
logistical aspects of production. Agents and attorneys can help with the former,
while an experienced line producer can help with the latter.

Steven Spielberg and George Lucas are two of the most successful writer-
directors who have graduated to producing. Their experience as filmmakers
makes them ideal supervisors and collaborators for writers and directors, and
their stature in the industry allows them to exercise great control over their
productions. They're the modern-day equivalent of the traditional producer. It
may be that only those producers who have been successful filmmakers can
amass that much authority today.

No matter how one first becomes a producer, it's difficult to sustain a career.
Studios don't value producers as much for their skill as for their projects. Rarely
will a studio suggest stories to a producer, or bring him into projects it's
developing, as it does with stars and directors. And when a producer stops
getting phone calls or is no longer able to deliver desirable motion picture
packages, his or her career is over.
Web Designers
Web designers are important because the Internet is a growing component of the
film, publishing, TV, news media and music industry. Jobs in ad agencies,
graphics houses, magazines, newspapers and the studios include the daily
upkeeps for news, content, editorial, e-mails, lead generation and web-based
marketing. There are also jobs available in special effects, computer graphics,
streaming media, advertising and customer support.

Where The Entertainment Jobs Are:
PHOTO #509

        Motion picture studios
        Production companies
        Public relations firms
        Advertising agencies
        Editing & post-production
        Equipment manufacturers
        Media companies
        Interactive agencies
        Video game producers
        Concert halls & theaters

Still Want To See Your Name in Lights?
Here are some entertainment industry career links and resources for both the
creative and business side of the industry.

Screen Actors Guild (SAG)
The basics you'll need to know if you want to become a professional actor.

ShowBizJobs
A good starting point for entertainment job leads. Search the job board for
employment listings by category, company and location.

Hollywood Reporter
This is a good trade web site that gives you the latest film, television and music,
Hollywood news and job listings.

Playbill Online
Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional and national jobs including performance,
design, administration, technical openings and casting calls.

Assistant Directors Training Program
Here is a good site for those interested in working behind the scenes instead of
in front of the camera and to break into the entertainment field.

Casting Calls and Auditions
Casting calls and auditions for would-be stars to show their talent and gain a
spot on reality TV and other television shows, in films and in theater

ActorNEWS.com
Union and Non-Union, Film & TV auditions, East and West Coast, Theatre
Dance, Modeling, Cruises, National Tour and Theme Park auditions

Actorsite.com
Casting calls, discussion forums, and email announcements

Artslynx.org
Directory of theater job listings
Back Stage.Com
Career Corner, casting information, and feature stories (fee for some services)

Casting Daily
Feature Films, Commercials, Television Shows, Theatrical productions and
Voice over jobs that are currently casting (fee to subscribe)

Casting Society of America
Career resources, membership directory and international casting links

Entertainment Employment Guide
Job openings in film and television

Eperformer.com
Auditions, arts news and resources for performing artists and arts organizations

Mandy.com
International film and TV production resources including casting calls

Media-Match
Resume posting and job board for freelance TV film and industry job seekers

Playbill Online
Theater job listings, casting notices & auditions

Reeldirt.com
Film and TV job listings

Screenwriting Jobs
Internship and job listings from the About.com Guide to Screenwriting

ShowBiz Jobs
Jobs in Show Business, TV, Film, Recording and Multimedia

So...You Wannabee an Actor
Details you need to know from the Screen Actors Guild

Theatre Design and Technical Jobs Page
Behinds the scenes jobs in the live entertainment industry

4EntertainmentJobs.com
Theatre, Opera, Ballet & Dance

About Theater
PHOTO #510
Today theatre encompasses talented individuals who bring words and music to
life to entertain audiences worldwide. Actors, directors and producers are again
the stars of theatrical productions that range from solo performances to drama,
comedy, musicals and mime and to improvisation, but there are many who work
behind the scenes. While New York is considered the performing arts capital
Chicago, Washington, San Francisco and other cities offer opportunities as well.
Los Angeles has a lively theater community but often showcases stage actors
who are more interested in getting into film or television than theater arts!

Theatre directors are involved in script reading, rehearsal, set design and other
activities. Stage managers assist directors. Producers are usually the ones who
hire, negotiate contracts and finance productions. Playwrights create dialogue-
driven scripts, collaborating closely with directors and producers. Other jobs
include props, costumes, hair & make-up, lighting, sound and other more
general jobs including marketing, box office, administration, etc.

About Dance
There are many areas of dance performance including classical, ballet, ballroom,
tap and modern dance, to name a few. Each demands different methods of study
and levels of performance. Ballet and modern dancers are usually affiliated with
a specific dance company which helps them make the right connections and
attain recognition. Dance related professions include choreographers, artistic
directors, managing directors and producers. In dance, like theater and
entertainment, there are educational opportunities for those who are interested in
teaching in schools and universities. Many highly skilled actors, directors,
musicians, singers and dancers alike also conduct seminars, workshops and
master classes to generate income while honing their own skills and careers.

About Opera
Today opera offers a wide range of jobs divided into two categories. Opera
specialists include music administrator, musical director, creative director,
artistic administrator, director, prop master, sound crew, stage manager, set
designer, lighting designer, hair & make-up and costume designer. Generalists
are those who work in sponsorships, box office, communications,
administration, management, marketing, theatrical development and information
services. These jobs can overlap and there is often a delicate balance between
artistic freedom and the business sense that needs to be maintained for an opera
company to survive.


TV & Radio Careers
PHOTO #511
Television offers opportunities and career possibilities for those with a wide
range of talents, skills and educational backgrounds. Job opportunities include
producers, directors, camera operators, casting directors, costume designers,
make-up artists, property masters, anchors, reporters, news writers, traffic,
continuity, programs, production and publicist, to name a few.

TV programs includes game shows, talk shows, entertainment, realty TV,
daytime television, sports, concerts, children’s shows, made for TV movies,
variety shows and sitcoms. Employment opportunities can be found at network
stations, affiliated stations, public television, local cable stations, cable
networks, independent production companies, video production companies, ad
agencies and public relations firms.
For more information contact the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB),
National Association of Television Program Executives (NAPTE), Academy of
Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS), Producers Guild of America (PGA),
American Women in Radio and Television (AWRT), Broadcast Education
Association (BEA), Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), International
Association of Independent Producers (IAIP), National Cable Television
Association (NCTA), Casting Society of America (CSA), Alliance of Theatrical
Stage Employees (ATSE), Writers Guild of America (WGA).

Of course, there are many TV and cable networks you can contact directly
including ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX, CNN, MSNBC, MTV, VHI, CMT,
Showtime, The Movie Channel, Sundance, etc. to name a few. You can also
visit these TV industry web sites for industry information, news and job
postings:

www.actionjobs.com
www.crewnet.com
www.entertainmentcareers.net
www.entertainmentjobs.com
www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Bungalow/5014/joblink.html - links to TV jobs
www.hollywoodreporter.com – check out the job listings
www.ifp.org
www.iwantmedia.com
www.mandy.com
www.maslowmedia.com
www.mediabistro.com
www.mediageneral.com - newspapers, television stations, interactive media, etc.
www.medialine.com
www.media-match.com
www.nab.org
www.pbs.org/aboutpbs/aboutpbs_jobs.html - jobs at PBS
www.pluginz.com
www.promax.org
www.sbgi.net - jobs at SBG (Sinclair Broadcast Group)
www.showbizJobs.com
www.showbizjobs.com - good database of current jobs in entertainment industry
www.turnerjobs.com - CNN, TBS, TNT, Cartoon Network, Atlanta Braves
www.tvandradiojobs.com
www.tvjobs.com
www.tvjobs.com - pay for posting your resume and searching for jobs
www.tvnewz.com/jobs.htm - webzine for TV professionals
www.tvspy.com/ - TV jobs, mostly senior/middle level
Here are some tips to break into the TV business:
     Look for internships to get your foot in the door; talk college advisors
         and contact TV stations, shows and production companies direct
     Use a local market TV or cable station as a training ground to learn all
         facets of the business
     Get on-the-job training at a college TV station
     Apply for work at a company’s production or TV division
     Get hired as a production assistant for a network, syndicated show or
         production company
     Learn a specific field such as sports, entertainment or news
     Enroll in seminars & workshops
     Make presentations or volunteer to serve on committees
     Attend trade association meetings & events

There are opportunities in a broad spectrum of radio careers in small, mid-sized
and major markets throughout the country that require an array of employees
with various talents, skills, education, training and experience. Job positions
include accountants, computer operators, sales people, receptionists, secretaries,
producers, copywriters, talent bookers, programming, community affairs,
promotions, advertising, operations and technical support along with
announcers, disc jockeys and talk show hosts.

Associations and groups that can provide helps include the American Federation
of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA), National Association of Broadcast
Employees and Technicians (NABET), National Academy of Recording Arts
and Sciences (NARAS), American Women in Radio and Television (AWRT),
National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), Radio-Television News Directors
Association (RTNDA) and Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

You can also visit these radio industry web sites for industry information, news
and job postings:

www.nab.org/bcc/program/ViewCurrentPosting.asp
www.ilba.org/pages/jobs_posted.php
www.radioandrecords.com/Resources/Jobs.asp
www.jobs.radio-online.com/looking.htm
TVandRadioJobs.com/cgi-bin/classifieds/classifieds.cgi
radio411.com/classifieds.htm
www.fmqb.com/article.asp?id=15958
www.cpb.org/jobline/
www.inba.net/jobfile/index.html
www.radioearth.com/jobs.htm
www.insideradio.com/joblistings.asp
www.berkleemusic.com/billboard/jobs/?pid=503

Here are some tips on getting a job in the radio industry:
     Attend a vocational or trade school but check references carefully
     Read Billboard, Radio and Records, Broadcasting and other trade
         journals and visit web sites
     Visit a radio station in your market
     Get involved with a college radio station
     Call local stations to get hired as an intern or production assistant
Recording & Music Industry
PHOTO #512
The term music industry typically conjures up images of rock & roll stars,
agents and producers. While this is true, if you look further you will see that
there are many different career opportunities to choose from in the music
industry. Besides the well-known and coveted jobs of pop star, producer, agent,
songwriter, recording technician or "roadie" there are thousands of jobs and
career opportunities from instrument manufacturers and publishers to publicists
and retail salespersons.

Today music is a multi-billion dollar industry that reaches people in every
corner of the world. It all starts with the creative side, the songwriters and
composers, but once a song is written there is an entire industry that supports it
known as the business side of the music industry. Many people in the business
started out playing music or singing in chorus in their high schools. Some
realized that their best talents were on the business side. Still, many music
industry jobs utilize one's background in music in day-to-day operations such as
the jobs listed below.

A&R. A&R stands for "artist and repertoire" which means A&R people are
responsible for finding the singer and the songs, supervising the recording
session and other tasks. Today producers have largely taken over the recording
sessions so A&R people are primarily responsible for finding and signing new
talent and managing the recording process (obtaining money, getting the label
excited about the artist, and trouble-shooting). A&R people spend a lot of time
traveling to wine and dine talent in the hopes that they will sign a contract with
that company. Some A&R people are musicians or producers themselves some
are not, but most have good ears meaning they can spot a hit when they hear it.

Artist Manager. The manager's job is to promote an artist's career. Successful
artists employ a business manager to handle financial matters and an artist
manager to handle their scheduling, record company relations, etc. The manager
is responsible for anything to advance the artist's career like getting a record or
publishing deal, finding them a booking agent once there is sufficient demand
for them to tour and setting up product endorsements. That means mangers are
usually good negotiators and have a sense for business. The manager usually
receives 15 to 25% of all of the artist's earnings although this is negotiable.

Booking Agent. The person who makes it possible for an artist or band to
perform at a club or concert venue is the booking agent. This person is
responsible for contracting venues where live music is performed and
appearances. Booking agents plan tours and secure opening slots for developing
bands to give them exposure to the audiences of more established bands. These
agents take a percentage of the artist's revenue from a performance, so they
mostly will work only with acts that can draw an audience but an agency will
sign an act they believe has potential to eventually draw big crowds.
PHOTO #513
Sound Engineer. The sound engineer is responsible for making a musician or
band sound as good as possible using microphones, mixers, signal processing
electronics, amplifiers, speakers and other equipment to balance and reinforce
the music created. There of course basic skills that involve connecting up
everything and each has its own set of controls which need to be learned. They
need to know how to match various pieces of the system to the music that they
hear and know which controls make it sound better. It’s a classic combination of
art and technology that demands knowledge, creativity and lots of patience.

Music critic. If working in the music business sounds like fun some jobs will
pay you for your opinion about artists and their performances. There are
hundreds of newspapers and magazines with entertainment sections that include
reviews of new artist releases and concert performances. They regularly include
editorials and reviews about bands and music celebrities. Authors of non-fiction
books and biographies on music and artists also make up a significant part of the
music industry. Being a critic, writer or journalist requires broad knowledge of
music and artists you are writing about, as well as good writing skills.

Marketing. A broad department usually involved in many facets of the industry
is marketing. Marketing is involved in many aspects of the music business
including research, advertising, web sites, concerts, publicity and coordination
of promotional events, to name a few.

Product manager. Once the recording process is complete, a music product
manager will oversee the many facets of promoting music or an artist including
the music, CD, cassette, vinyl record, DVD, video, mini-disc, etc. The product
manager's job is to sell the product, make sure that there is enough of it in the
stores, to make sure that the various promotion departments are completing their
duties, and to assure the artist's representatives (usually the artist's manager) that
the job is being done. They are also often responsible for setting up promotions
and advertising with retail chains, or such extracurricular marketing ventures as
artist sponsorships or partnerships with clothing lines, soft drink companies, etc.

Promoter. A song doesn't just magically appear on the radio; a singer's face
doesn't just magically appear in a magazine or on television; and 100 copies of a
certain CD don't just magically appear in the front of a record store. Promotion,
which includes publicity, radio, retail, and video, helps to make those things
happen. Internet promotion is rapidly becoming a very big industry in itself.

Publicist. A publicist's job is to obtain coverage for their clients in print,
television, and electronic media. This is done by developing relationships with
writers, editors, and the people who choose talent for television shows,
developing a "story" (or angle) around their client that will make the client more
appealing to the media. If there isn't an interesting story about an artist, it is the
publicist's job to create one. They are responsible for treating their client like a
star, or as if they are destined to be one, in the hope of creating this impression
among the public. Publicists spend a lot of time on the phone, escorting clients
to interviews and contacting media people.

Publisher. Music publishers wear many hats. The main responsibilities include
copyrighting music compositions, licensing and collecting fees, protecting
against infringement, securing uses for the music in TV, films, advertising, etc.,
manufacturing and distribution sheet music and helping to promote the artists.
Publishing firms are also involved in choosing materials; editing and
proofreading music manuscripts; promoting performances; nurturing composers
and other marketing and distribution responsibilities.
Radio. There are all kinds of jobs in the radio industry related to music and
music promotion. With thousands of songs released annually, music directors,
program directors and recording industry representatives all play a role in
getting music played on the air or on the Internet. Jobs are available in both
commercial radio stations, which get their revenues from advertising, and at
non-commercial or college stations, which tend to play less mainstream music.

PHOTO #514
Producer. Music producers are essential to the industry. Most producers are also
competent arrangers, composers or songwriters since they are the ones who are
charge of the creative mix or final product from which CDs and vinyl records
are made. They work with sound engineers, marketing and other aspects of the
business. Encouraging the best musical performance, coaching the artist and
directing the backing vocalists are just a few of the functions they perform. They
also translate an artist's needs into the engineer’s point of view and protect the
artist and record labels interests.

Some producers take total control of a project while others prefer to collaborate
with the artist, musicians and technicians as a creative partner to produce the
best track possible. Since much of today’s music is generated by technology, a
producer will often create the tracks or parts of a song and then work closely
with the engineer to mix them so that the sounds on all of the songs are at the
right levels. Producers also have a say in deciding which songs will appear on an
album and the order in which they will appear.

Retailing. Music retailing includes the distribution end of the business such as
record stores, video stores and Internet services and promoting records or artists
to the stores. Retail promotion includes sales, product placement, making sure
posters are up, coordinating in-store appearances. Record companies have their
own retail promotion departments. There are also independent retail promotion
companies hired by the record companies. Prospective retail employees should
have sufficient music experience or training.

Tour manager. When artist go on the road the tour manager is usually the one
with the responsibility to make sure everything goes as planned. A tour manager
can be responsible for hotel accommodations, feeding the artists, making sure
everyone and all the equipment gets to the concert venue in time for set-up and
sound check, and getting the buses and equipment to the next city in one piece.
Tour managers spend an enormous amount of time on the road, in hotel rooms
and at concert venues.

Attorney. Music law as it is practiced today involves a heavy emphasis on
copyright and contract relationships between creative people and users of music
in popular and standard areas. Typical of a day's work are the negotiation of a
recording artist contract between an artist and recording company; a long-term
management or agent agreement; a termination or amendment of a previous
agreement; a musical synchronization license from music publisher to motion
picture company; and assertion through audit (in conjunction with accountants)
of royalty claims of a composer against a music publisher.

Composer. Music composers must have a wide range of skills and a broad
musical background. They should be skilled on at least one instrument, have
thorough training in theory and music history and a practical working
knowledge of instrumentation. There are many educational institutions that offer
training in music composition.
Editor. Music editors help composer put his or her music on a soundtrack. When
a film is put together, dialogue, sound effects and music have to be synchronized
on a soundtrack. The producer and composer run the film and spot the music
(choose where it should appear) throughout the film. The music editor then
breaks this down into separate cues and times each cue for the composer, who
takes these timing sheets and writes the music. The music editor takes the
composer's sketches and gets the necessary information from them to set up the
film for orchestra recording. The orchestra records the score, the music is cut
into reels, and it is then ready for a final dub.

The best advice that can be given to any young person interested in preparing
himself or herself for a career in the music publishing industry is to acquire as
much knowledge as possible of the various music skills and the various
mechanical procedures involved. To obtain the latter he or she should seek
employment in a music publishing firm that maintains its own production and
printing departments and then observe, ask questions, and remember what is
being done and how.

Instrument Sales. Most instrument sales jobs don’t require a music background
there is no denying those who play music instruments and appreciate music have
an advantage. Instruments used by schools are often sold by manufacturer's
representatives who are intimately acquainted with the school band and
orchestra program. You don't have to be a music educator to be a good
salesperson, but music education and skilled salesmanship are an unbeatable
combination. Before becoming a rep for a manufacturer, gaining retail
experience is a good way to get the feel of the selling end of the business.

PHOTO #515
Performer. Many music students in conservatories and universities are not made
sufficiently aware of the practical aspects involved in making a living as a
classical instrumentalist. The emphasis is frequently on competing on a soloist
level with a view toward a glamorous career, yet theory, languages, academic
subjects, and music training are key factors. Education is important for a career
as a performer of pop, rock, or jazz, but so are talent, persistence, emotional
maturity, showmanship and luck.

Musicians who succeed as performers have mastered the technique of satisfying
a particular audience while not compromising their personal, unique vision and
sound. Most pop vocalists earn their living in a various areas - concerts, club
work, recordings, radio & TV spots, Broadway musicals, even teaching.
Versatility is essential especially for vocalists who have not yet gained star
status. Performance situations are competitive, often demanding years of
experience to gain a solid reputation, a high level of proficiency and steady
work. A vocalist who sings reasonably well, can sight-read, knows all styles of
music and has a solid knowledge of music theory is going to be in demand.

Music Teacher. The role of a music teacher can be diversified. In music
department and schools you can teach performance, theory, composition,
history, music therapy or commercial music, to name a few. If you love working
with children and are musically gifted, teaching music can be a rewarding and
enjoyable profession. A teacher's day can start early in the morning and often
end in the evening with concerts or rehearsals to attend. But the satisfaction
from helping students learn and understand the beauty and power of music can
carry you through the toughest schedule.
Vocal teachers work with individuals or groups developing skills and techniques
related to vocal performance. Instrumental music teachers work either
individually or in groups, teaching beginning, intermediate and advanced
technique classes, small ensembles and band or orchestra rehearsal. For those
who love children and enjoy dealing with them on a personal level, private
teaching offers great rewards. To be an independent music teacher, one needs to
specialize in his or her major instrument.

Music Therapist. A music therapist uses music in the therapy of human
disabilities. Music therapists are most likely to be located in settings that
normally employ other members of the helping professions such as physicians,
clinical psychologists, social workers, and rehabilitation specialists. In these
settings music therapists work either as team members or individually to assist
their clientele to become healed, rehabilitated, or specially educated. Most music
therapists do their work in hospitals, training centers for disabled, rehabilitation
centers and selected elementary and secondary school settings.

Keep in mind these are just a few positions in the music business. Most major
record labels and publishing companies have administrators, office personnel,
finance departments, technical support and computer legal and marketing
departments. There are also business consultants who specialize in the music
and entertainment industries.

Most of the people who work in the music industry share a common love of
music and work with people who are passionate about what they do. Indeed if
you look hard, visit industry web sites and attend conferences and events, you’ll
find countless opportunities for building a music career.


A Powerful Job Hunting Method
PHOTO #516
Regardless of the industry or job category, cold calling is one of the most
powerful methods for getting a job. Consider the fact that the hiring process
including trying to find the right person to fill a need can take up to nine months
before the position is advertised. Further, keep in mind that cold calling is not
selling yourself, being a telemarketer or as bad as you may think.

Understand that you are doing the employer a favor. You are helping decrease
the time required for a new hire to be approved, reducing paperwork and
interviews to choose a candidate. You're also reducing funds spent on ads and
productivity lost when one or more managers time out of their regular workdays
to interview potential hires.

So if you want to get hired, pick up the phone and call a production company,
film distributor, music company, publisher or any company you want. Don’t be
afraid. More often than not it beats out most of the other methods of looking for
work. Here's a script you can use:

"Hello, my name is ______. I have ____ years experience as a ________,
specializing in _________, ________ and ______________. I have a (B.A.,
M.S., Ph.D., certificate) in ___________ and I recently completed (name a
recent successful project). When can I come in for an interview?"
Here are job related web sites, major record labels and publishers:

        A&M Records                                 GigMasters
        Applause Careers in                         Interscope Records
         Music                                       Island Records
        Arista Records                              Jade Tree Records
        ASCAP Jobline                               MCA Records
        Atlantic Records                            Motown Records
        Capitol Records                             Music Jobs Central
        Columbia Records                            Musicianscontact.com
        CrewPro                                     Musicjoblist.com
        Def Jam                                     Musicjournalist.com
        DreamWorks Records                          Rhino Records
        EMI Chrysalis                               Showbizjobs.com
        EMI Group                                   Sony Music Entertainment
        BMG Entertainment                           Universal Music Group
        Geffen Records                              Virgin
        Warner Music Group



Job Sites & Industry Resources

THEMEDIAWORLD.COM - various media jobs

NEWMEDIACAREER.COM - TV and radio jobs

TVJOBHELP.COM - Broadcast jobs

NEWSLINK.ORG – TV and radio jobs

AIRTALENTS.COM - for on-air radio and TV jobs

ALLACCESS.COM – For radio jobs

CLEARCAREERS.COM – For jobs at Clear Channel

PRODUCTION HUB – Media production jobs

ENTERTAINMENT CAREERS.NET – for internships, listings and career info

INTERSCAPE – TV, radio and film jobs

TV NEWZ – for jobs in TV news

MEDIA HEADHUNTER.COM – for media jobs

SHOPTALK – for TV jobs

TVSTAFF.COM – For TV jobs

JOURNALISM JOBS.com – for journalism jobs

JOBS AT MANDY – for all kinds of production jobs

GANNETT BROADCASTING – for jobs at Gannett / USA Today
MEDIA PLANNER JOBS – for media planner jobs

MEDIALINE.com – for media jobs

MEDIA BISTRO – an excellent site for all kinds of media jobs

CAREER PAGE – for radio and TV jobs

F.C.C. JOBS DATABASE- jobs at the Federal Communications Commission

PBS ONLINE EMPLOYMENT PAGE – Public Broadcasting Service


You can also check out the following associations for career advice, job listings
and information:

        Entertainment Marketing Association

        Promotion Marketing Association

        Marketing Agencies Association

        Association of National Advertisers

        American Association of Advertising Agencies

        National Conference of Personal Managers

        Recording Industry Association of America

        Musicians Network

        International Association for the Performing Arts
Nab.org – National Association of Broadcasters, an excellent source for TV and
radio jobs

SHOWBIZJOBS.COM- jobs in TV, film, theme parks, etc.

RADIO AND RECORDS ONLINE – for recording industry and radio jobs

NEW RADIO STAR – on air radio jobs

THE FILM / TV / & COMMERCIAL EMPLOYMENT NETWORK

TV RUNDOWN - TV employment resources and links

TV BROADCAST – for TV engineering jobs

NATION JOB – National media jobs

TAB – Texas TV jobs

FILM BIZ – for film jobs

ENTERTAINMENT EMPLOYMENT JOURNAL

101 HOLLYWOOD BLVD - INDEPENDENT MOVIE OPENINGS AND
INTERNSHIPS

THE MASLOW MEDIA GROUP – for Washington DC area jobs

BROADCASTING & CABLE – trade magazine with job listings

"CABLE ONLINE" – for jobs in cable TV

"RADIO WEB" – for radio jobs

THE TV PRODUCERS PAGE – for producer jobs

"BACK STAGE CASTING" – for jobs in theatre

ZAP2IT.COM – for TV jobs

www.cpb.org – for job links in public broadcasting

COX CABLE EMPLOYMENT - for jobs at this leading cable provider

NBC JOB OPPORTUNITIES – for internships and jobs at NBC and Universal
Studios

JOBS AT VIACOM – For jobs at MTV, VH-1, CBS TV, TNN and HBO

www.variety.com – click on careers for a wide variety of entertainment jobs

DanceLinks.com - information and links to ballet and contemporary dance
companies, dance newsgroups and organizations and dance schools.

Musicians Network Bulletin Board
Module 5 Questions


1. What segments of the entertainment industry today?
    A. Motion pictures and video games.
    B. Video games and television.
    C. News programs and motion pictures.
    D. None of the above.
Answer: A

2. Which of these industry jobs are not considered to be on the industry side?
    A. DVD distributor.
    B. Film director.
    C. Public relations assistant.
    D. Accounting manager.
Answer: B

3. Which of these is not one of the three main skill areas in the motion picture
industry?
    A. Cinematic.
    B. Technical.
    C. Organizational.
    D. Personal.
Answer: D

4. Many successful actors have been able to break into show business in the
following ways except:
     A. Getting a job in a local or regional theatre company.
     B. Becoming an intern or production assistant.
     C. Starting their career on a soap opera.
     D. Sending in a resume to motion picture studios.
Answer: D

5. What would be considered an essential tactic for getting a job in the
entertainment industry?
    A. Reading classified ads.
    B. Checking national job web sites.
    C. Networking.
    D. Taking an acting class.
Answer: C

6. What are some proven ways to become known and break into show biz?
    A. Attend seminars or workshops.
    B. Attend industry association events.
    C. Sign up for film, acting or technical classes.
    D. All of the above.
Answer: D

7. Which of these statements is not true?
    A. Publicists obtain news coverage for their clients.
    B. Publicists protect music compositions against infringement.
    C. Publicists strive to make their client more appealing to the media.
    D. Publicists spend a lot of time on the telephone.
Answer: B

8. Which of the following is not the best way to break into the music industry?
    A. Work as a temp for a record label.
    B. Attend music industry conferences.
    C. Listen to the radio and watch MTV frequently.
    D. Get hired in music finance, marketing or technical support.
Answer: C
9. One of the best ways to break into television, radio or the media is to try to
get a full-time, part-time or intern position:
     A. At a career guidance center.
     B. At a local TV station or cable provider.
     C. At a college radio station.
     D. At a university or home town newspaper.
Answer: A

10. According to an industry recruiter, about ____ of all entertainment hiring is
done through a referral:
    A. 20%
    B. 40%
    C. 50%
    D. 80%
Answer: C

11. Which of the following is not a good tactic to earn income while honing
your skills in order to get a job in the creative side of show biz?:
    A. Teach at a high school or university.
    B. Conduct seminars or workshops.
    C. Get a part-time job at a theme park, studio store or music retailer.
    D. Attend a master class in your area of expertise.
Answer: D

12. Which of the following is not a good “point of entry” to get your foot in the
door of a motion picture studio?
    A. Driver.
    B. Scriptwriter.
    C. Receptionist.
    D. Security guard.
Answer: B

13. Which of the following is not among the five “D’s” of getting started on
your acting career?
    A. Dedication.
    B. Determination.
    C. Discipline.
    D. Direction.
Answer: D

14. The following are among the best ways to get a job in show business except:
    A. Networking.
    B. Calling the film critic at your local newspaper.
    C. Reading industry trade journals.
    D. Checking job listings on studio and production company web sites.
Answer: B

15. The skills sets needed be a motion picture producer include all of the
following except:
     A. Directing films.
     B. Allocating budgets.
     C. Reading scripts.
     D. Raising capital.
Answer: A
16. The segment of entertainment known that deals with leveraging revenues
from properties, characters, images and other assets is known:
    A. Merchandising.
    B. Retail marketing.
    C. Licensing.
    D. Franchising.
Answer: C.

17. Which of the following statements is not true?
    A. Screenwriting is one way to break into show business.
    B. Screenwriting is essential for having a show business career.
    C. Screenwriting is not an easy skill and craft to master.
    D. Screenwriters have held their scripts hostage in order to get directing
        jobs.
Answer: B

18. At any given time, up to ___ of all SAG members are unemployed:
    A. 25%
    B. 35%
    C. 50%
    D. 85%
Answer: D

19. Sharp job seekers continually mine for future jobs. Which of these are not
considered ways a good way to meet people in order to learn about hidden show
business job opportunities?
     A. Sending emails and resumes.
     B. Attending conferences.
     C. Volunteering for committee work.
     D. Making presentations.
Answer: D

20. The benefits you offer when you cold call a potential employer for a job
include all of following except:
     A. Saving time.
     B. Saving money.
     C. Increasing productivity.
     D. Filling a need.
Answer: C

				
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