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Journal – you will have 8 min. In your opinion, supported with evidence, what is the most significant technological discovery for all of humanity? Example: the automobile In your answer, please include the following details: What was necessary for this breakthrough to occur? Internal combustion engine What positive and/or negative effects did this breakthrough have? Expanded the livable world for the consumer – greatly contributed to our current environmental issues Child labor in the 19th Century Essential Questions: (Write these down) What were the negative results of the Industrial Revolution? How did the Industrial Revolution affect the lives of the working class? Women? Children? Context and Introduction The Industrial Revolution put in place many of our current economic practices What are the short and long term effects of rapid technological change? How does this affect me/why should I care? A few short generations ago, you would have been working in the fields or factories Given our current economic situation, you are entering a world of an uncertain labor future How are wages determined? What rights do I have as a worker? Journal – take 7 minutes and respond to the following… What rights do you have as a worker? In other words, when you get hired by a legal employer, What are they not allowed to do? What are you entitled to simply as a worker? Background Information With the rise of factories, there were no laws governing work requirements for children Children under 10 often worked 14 hours a day for a penny an hour. Vocabulary term: textile – anything related to the cloth or clothing industry. Requirements You will need to add this information into your notes as it appears. 1. What is a scavenger? 2. What is a piecer? 3. How were children recruited? 4. How can children’s health be damaged? 5. Are there disadvantages to banning child labor? Fuel for the new factory… Coal mine Dangers - Chilean mine accident 33 men trapped for 69 days deep in the Earth Comfort, West Virginia - April 2010 29 miners killed when an explosion collapsed a mine The company that owned the mine had so many fines that the U.S. government had to close it down – this has never happened before Changing countryside Deforestation of England Effects still exist today “richest hill on Earth” Berkeley Pit in Montana 1.5 X 1 mile wide Connected by 2700 miles of passageways Closed in 1982 – now a Superfund site Currently 900 feet of water and 30 billion gallons of water – adds 17-25 feet a year In its life, it produced over 1 billion tons of ore The new factories Reaction - Luddites Social Implications – the first slums Impact on families Scavengers Job title It was the job of the scavenger to pick up loose cotton from under the machinery. Unfortunately, they had to do this while the machine was still working. Read this first hand account of the work of scavengers (1) John Brown wrote about Robert Blincoe's experiences in a textile mill in an article for The Lion newspaper (15th January 1828) The task first allocated to Robert Blincoe was to pick up the loose cotton that fell upon the floor. Apparently, nothing could be easier... although he was much terrified by the whirling motion and noise of the machinery. He also disliked the dust and the flue with which he was half suffocated. He soon felt sick, and by constantly stooping, his back ached. Blincoe, therefore, took the liberty to sit down; but this, he soon found, was strictly forbidden in cotton mills. His overlooker, Mr. Smith, told him he must keep on his legs. And another more violent tale (2) Frances Trollope, Michael Armstrong, the Factory Boy(1840) A little girl about seven years old, who job as scavenger, was to collect incessantly from the factory floor, the flying fragments of cotton that might impede the work... while the hissing machinery passed over her, and when this is skillfully done, and the head, body, and the outstretched limbs carefully glued to the floor, the steady moving, but threatening mass, may pass and repass over the dizzy head and trembling body without touching it. But accidents frequently occur; and many are the flaxen locks, rudely torn from infant heads, in the process. Stop and Assess What were some positive effects of the I.R.? Negative effects? Your homework: Talk to anyone currently in the workforce and ask them about safety regulations at their job site. Write them down as well as the source, the time, and the place interviewed (please do not interview other teachers or school employees) Piecers Job description Piecers had to lean over the machine and repair any threads that broke during the manufacturing process and which might cause a delay in production. Piecers walked over 20 miles a day! First hand account (1) James Turner was interviewed by Michael Sadler's Parliamentary Committee on 17th April 1832. The work of the children, in many instances, is reaching over to piece the threads that break; they have so many that they have to mind and they have only so much time to piece these threads because they have to reach while the wheel is coming out. Happy children? Recruitment? Pauper apprentices Children were purchased from orphanages and workhouses and paid even less than kids whose parents knew they were working This practice became so popular, most labor was from this practice. Children would sign contracts that forced them to work in a factory until they were 21. Recruitment Account 1 1) Letter from John Betts to Richard Carlile (24th February, 1828) In 1805 when Samuel Davy was seven years of age he was sent from the workhouse in Southwark in London to Mr. Watson's Mill at Penny Dam near Preston. Later his brother was also sent to work in a mill. The parents did not know where Samuel and his brother were. The loss of her children, so preyed on the mind of Samuel's mother that it brought on insanity, and she died in a state of madness. Recruitment Account 2 (2) Sarah Carpenter, interviewed in The Ashton Chronicle (23rd June, 1849) My father was a glass blower. When I was eight years old my father died and our family had to go to the Bristol Workhouse. My brother was sent from Bristol workhouse in the same way as many other children were - cart-loads at a time. My mother did not know where he was for two years. He was taken off in the dead of night without her knowledge, and the parish officers would never tell her where he was. It was the mother of Joseph Russell who first found out where the children were, and told my mother. We set off together, my mother and I, we walked the whole way from Bristol to Cressbrook Mill in Derbyshire. We were many days on the road. Mrs. Newton fondled over my mother when we arrived. My mother had brought her a present of little glass ornaments. She got these ornaments from some of the workmen, thinking they would be a very nice present to carry to the mistress at Cressbrook, for her kindness to my brother. My brother told me that Mrs. Newton's fondling was all a blind; but I was so young and foolish, and so glad to see him again; that I did not heed what he said, and could not be persuaded to leave him. They would not let me stay unless I would take the shilling binding money. I took the shilling and I was very proud of it. They took me into the counting house and showed me a piece of paper with a red sealed horse on which they told me to touch, and then to make a cross, which I did. This meant I had to stay at Cressbrook Mill till I was twenty one. Apprentice House Recruitment Some parents refused to let their children work in the factories. If a factory was far from an orphanage, factory owners got creative. An apprentice house was for young children who were purchased from workhouses and given pay and lodging to work in the factories. Apprentice House Account (1) John Birley was interviewed by The Ashton Chronicle on 19th May, 1849. We then worked till nine or ten at night when the water-wheel stopped. We stopped working, and went to the apprentice house, about three hundred yards from the mill. It was a large stone house, surrounded by a wall, two to three yards high, with one door, which was kept locked. It was capable of lodging about one hundred and fifty apprentices. Supper was the same as breakfast - onion porridge and dry oatcake. We all ate in the same room and all went up a common staircase to our bed-chamber; all the boys slept in one chamber, all the girls in another. We slept three in one bed. The girls' bedroom was of the same sort as ours. There were no fastenings to the two rooms; and no one to watch over us in the night, or to see what we did. How was health damaged? Accidents Deformities Hours Punishment Food Pollution Accidents Frequent and horrific. Workers were not compensated and were abandoned immediately. Hospitals saw thousands of injuries and visitors to England were appalled at the sight of legless and armless people in the streets Accident Account (1) Dr. Ward from Manchester was interviewed about the health of textile workers on 25th March, 1819. When I was a surgeon in the infirmary, accidents were very often admitted to the infirmary, through the children's hands and arms having being caught in the machinery; in many instances the muscles, and the skin is stripped down to the bone, and in some instances a finger or two might be lost. Last summer I visited Lever Street School. The number of children at that time in the school, who were employed in factories, was 106. The number of children who had received injuries from the machinery amounted to very nearly one half. There were forty-seven injured in this way. Deformities Parliament reacts Because of the events and conditions that you have seen, England’s Parliament reacted by setting up a commission to look into the situation Michael Sadler heads up the commission Hours/Punishment On 16th March 1832 Michael Sadler introduced a Bill in Parliament that proposed limiting the hours of all persons under the age of 18 to ten hours a day. After much debate it was clear that Parliament was unwilling to pass Sadler's bill. However, in April 1832 it was agreed that there should be another parliamentary enquiry into child labour. Sadler was made chairman and for the next three months the parliamentary committee interviewed 48 people who had worked in textile factories as children. Sadler discovered that it was common for very young children to be working for over twelve a day. Lord Ashley carried out a survey of doctors in 1836. In a speech he made in the House of Commons he argued that over half of the doctors interviewed believed that "ten hours is the utmost quantity of labour which can be endured by the children" without damaging their health. However, Lord Ashley admitted that some doctors that came before his committee did not believe that long hours caused health problems. Children who were late for work were severely punished. If children arrived late for work they would also have money deducted from their wages. Time-keeping was a problem for those families who could not afford to buy a clock. In some factories workers were not allowed to carry a watch. The children suspected that this rule was an attempt to trick them out of some of their wages. Prison inmate Punishments Children were whipped, or dunked in buckets of cold water for basic offenses. Girls were often chained together like prisoners to keep them attempting to escape. If you attempted to run away or were caught as a runaway, you could be put in prison for your offense. Punishment (2) Jonathan Downe was interviewed by Michael Sadler's Parliamentary Committee on 6th June, 1832. When I was seven years old I went to work at Mr. Marshalls factory at Shrewsbury. If a child was drowsy, the overlooker touches the child on the shoulder and says, "Come here". In a corner of the room there is an iron cistern filled with water. He takes the boy by the legs and dips him in the cistern, and sends him back to work. Food – Steak and Lobster? (2) Matthew Crabtree was interviewed by Michael Sadler's Parliamentary Committee (18th May, 1832) I began work at Cook's of Dewsbury when I was eight years old. We had to eat our food in the mill. It was frequently covered by flues from the wool; and in that case they had to be blown off with the mouth, and picked off with the fingers, before it could be eaten. (3) Sarah Carpenter was interviewed by The Ashton Chronicle on 23rd June, 1849. Our common food was oatcake. It was thick and coarse. This oatcake was put into cans. Boiled milk and water was poured into it. This was our breakfast and supper. Our dinner was potato pie with boiled bacon it, a bit here and a bit there, so thick with fat we could scarce eat it, though we were hungry enough to eat anything. Tea we never saw, nor butter. We had cheese and brown bread once a year. We were only allowed three meals a day though we got up at five in the morning and worked till nine at night. Pollution As you can imagine, with all the wool, cloth and machinery, the air was full of dust and debris “Mill Fever” became a sickness that many workers would get – headaches and general sickness for no apparent reason Lung diseases such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, and asthma were common Illness (3) Frank Forrest, Chapters in the Life of a Dundee Factory Boy (1850) About a week after I became a mill boy, I was seized with a strong, heavy sickness, that few escape on first becoming factory workers. The cause of the sickness, which is known by the name of "mill fever", is the contaminated atmosphere produced by so many breathing in a confined space, together with the heat and exhalations of grease and oil and the gas needed to light the establishment. Is there a defense for these practices? Consider these remarks from prominent politicians and business leaders of the time. Weigh their evidence with the previous slides to help you answer the prompt presented to you at the beginning. Pause Look at the data that you have so far in this process. What does it tell you about the prompt? Write a thesis sentence about the prompt. The next three slides are evidence against prohibiting children from factories. Consider them seriously before making a final decision. For each document, write down how this might influence your decision (DO NOT DISMISS THEM OUT OF HAND) (1) William James, speech, House of Commons (16th March, 1832) I have no doubt that the right honourable member (Michael Sadler) is actuated by the best intentions and motives, but I think that the course which he pursues will fail in attaining the object which he has in view. Undoubtedly the system which is pursued in these manufactories relating to the working of young children is a great evil; but it appears to me that the remedy which the honourable gentleman proposes to apply is worse than the disease. There appears to me to be only a choice of evils - the children must either work or starve. If the manufacturer is prevented working his mill for more than a certain number of hours together, he will often be unable to execute the orders which he may receive, and consequently, the purchaser must go to foreign countries for a supply. The result will be that you will drive the English capitalist to foreign countries, where there is no restrictions upon the employment of labour and capital. (1) William Bolling, speech, House of Commons (9th May, 1836) I mistrust interference on behalf of the poor which the poor are themselves to pay for. Let the question be presented honestly and fairly. Let the parents of factory children know that the diminishing the hours of daily toil must diminish the amount of weekly pay. Certainly, there are cases of hardship and oppression, but I dislike all cases of legislative interference between master and man - between parent and child. And, moreover, all such interference would be unsuccessful. Your laws to regulate wages, and hours of labour, and conditions of contract for work - they are merely cobwebs broken through at will - because it is the interest of master and servant that they should be broken. Cultivate commerce with all the nations of the world; this will raise wages and will prevent the necessity for exhausting labour. (1) Henry Thomas Hope, speech, House of Commons (16th March, 1832) It is obvious, that if you limit the hours of labour, you will, to nearly the same extent, reduce the profits of the capital on which the labour is employed. Under these circumstances, the manufacturers must either raise the price of the manufactured article or diminish the wages of their workmen. If they raise the price of the article the foreigner gains an advantage. I am informed that the foreign cotton-manufacturers, and particularly the Americans, tread closely upon the heels of our manufacturers. The right honourable member (Michael Sadler) seems to consider that it is desirable for adults to replace children. I cannot concur with that opinion, because I think that the labour of children is a great resource to their parents and of great benefit to themselves. I therefore, on the these grounds, oppose this measure. In the first place I doubt whether parliament can protect children as effectively as their parents; secondly; because I am of the opinion that a case for parliamentary interference has not yet been made out; and thirdly, because I believe that the bill will be productive of great inconvenience, not only to persons who have embarked large capital in the cotton manufactures, but even to workmen and children themselves - that I feel it my duty to oppose this measure. Take action Now that you’ve seen both sides of the issue, what would you say to Parliament? Take a look at the initial prompt you were given and prepare a one paragraph response. First, decide on your opinion/approach Next, what evidence are you going to use to defend your answer? Finally, what language can you use to demonstrate your point. Is there an incentive for Parliament to address this issue or are you going to appeal to their humanity? Final product You will produce a speech to be read in Parliament; one copy will be typed for me to read, the other will be summarized on a note card for you to refer to in your speech Whichever side you choose, you should prepare to defend both sides (although you are only writing a speech for the side you will defend) What do you think and why? “Parliament should pass legislation making it illegal for children under the age of twelve to work in textile factories.”
"Child labor ppt"