Child labor ppt by yurtgc548


									           Journal –    you will have 8 min.
   In your opinion, supported with evidence,
    what is the most significant technological
    discovery for all of humanity?
         Example: the automobile
   In your answer, please include the following
       What was necessary for this breakthrough to
        occur? Internal combustion engine
       What positive and/or negative effects did this
        breakthrough have? Expanded the livable world
        for the consumer – greatly contributed to our
        current environmental issues
    Child labor in the 19th Century

Essential Questions: (Write these down)

What were the negative results of the Industrial Revolution?

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the lives of the
working class? Women? Children?
         Context and Introduction
   The Industrial Revolution put in place many of
    our current economic practices
   What are the short and long term effects of
    rapid technological change?
   How does this affect me/why should I care?
       A few short generations ago, you would have been
        working in the fields or factories
       Given our current economic situation, you are
        entering a world of an uncertain labor future
       How are wages determined?
       What rights do I have as a worker?
    Journal – take 7 minutes and
     respond to the following…
   What rights do you have as a worker?
   In other words, when you get hired by a
    legal employer,
       What are they not allowed to do?
       What are you entitled to simply as a worker?
       Background Information

   With the rise of factories, there were no
    laws governing work requirements for
   Children under 10 often worked 14 hours
    a day for a penny an hour.
   Vocabulary term: textile – anything related
    to the cloth or clothing industry.

   You will need to add this information into your
    notes as it appears.
   1. What is a scavenger?
   2. What is a piecer?
   3. How were children recruited?
   4. How can children’s health be damaged?
   5. Are there disadvantages to banning child
Fuel for the new factory…
Coal mine
Dangers - Chilean mine accident
   33 men trapped for
    69 days deep in the
Comfort, West Virginia - April 2010

                     29 miners killed when
                      an explosion collapsed
                      a mine
                     The company that
                      owned the mine had so
                      many fines that the
                      U.S. government had to
                      close it down – this has
                      never happened before
Changing countryside
Deforestation of England
Effects still exist today
“richest hill on Earth”
     Berkeley Pit in Montana
     1.5 X 1 mile wide
     Connected by 2700 miles of
     Closed in 1982 – now a
      Superfund site
     Currently 900 feet of water
      and 30 billion gallons of water
      – adds 17-25 feet a year
     In its life, it produced over 1
      billion tons of ore
The new factories
Reaction - Luddites
Social Implications – the first slums
Impact on families
                   Job title
   It was the job of the scavenger to pick up
    loose cotton from under the machinery.
   Unfortunately, they had to do this while
    the machine was still working.
Read this first hand account of the
       work of scavengers
   (1) John Brown wrote about Robert Blincoe's
    experiences in a textile mill in an article for The
    Lion newspaper (15th January 1828)
   The task first allocated to Robert Blincoe was to pick up
    the loose cotton that fell upon the floor. Apparently,
    nothing could be easier... although he was much
    terrified by the whirling motion and noise of the
    machinery. He also disliked the dust and the flue with
    which he was half suffocated. He soon felt sick, and by
    constantly stooping, his back ached. Blincoe, therefore,
    took the liberty to sit down; but this, he soon found, was
    strictly forbidden in cotton mills. His overlooker, Mr.
    Smith, told him he must keep on his legs.
    And another more violent tale
   (2) Frances Trollope, Michael Armstrong, the
    Factory Boy(1840)
   A little girl about seven years old, who job as scavenger,
    was to collect incessantly from the factory floor, the
    flying fragments of cotton that might impede the work...
    while the hissing machinery passed over her, and when
    this is skillfully done, and the head, body, and the
    outstretched limbs carefully glued to the floor, the
    steady moving, but threatening mass, may pass and
    repass over the dizzy head and trembling body without
    touching it. But accidents frequently occur; and many
    are the flaxen locks, rudely torn from infant heads, in
    the process.
                 Stop and Assess
   What were some positive effects of the I.R.?
   Negative effects?

   Your homework:
       Talk to anyone currently in the workforce and ask
        them about safety regulations at their job site. Write
        them down as well as the source, the time, and the
        place interviewed (please do not interview other
        teachers or school employees)
             Job description

   Piecers had to lean over the machine and
    repair any threads that broke during the
    manufacturing process and which might
    cause a delay in production.
   Piecers walked over 20 miles a day!
            First hand account
   (1) James Turner was interviewed by
    Michael Sadler's Parliamentary Committee
    on 17th April 1832.
   The work of the children, in many instances, is
    reaching over to piece the threads that break;
    they have so many that they have to mind and
    they have only so much time to piece these
    threads because they have to reach while the
    wheel is coming out.
Happy children?
   Pauper apprentices
       Children were purchased from orphanages
        and workhouses and paid even less than kids
        whose parents knew they were working
       This practice became so popular, most labor
        was from this practice.
   Children would sign contracts that forced
    them to work in a factory until they were
         Recruitment Account 1
   1) Letter from John Betts to Richard
    Carlile (24th February, 1828)
   In 1805 when Samuel Davy was seven years of
    age he was sent from the workhouse in
    Southwark in London to Mr. Watson's Mill at
    Penny Dam near Preston. Later his brother was
    also sent to work in a mill. The parents did not
    know where Samuel and his brother were. The
    loss of her children, so preyed on the mind of
    Samuel's mother that it brought on insanity, and
    she died in a state of madness.
                 Recruitment Account 2
   (2) Sarah Carpenter, interviewed in The Ashton Chronicle (23rd June, 1849)
   My father was a glass blower. When I was eight years old my father died and our
    family had to go to the Bristol Workhouse. My brother was sent from Bristol
    workhouse in the same way as many other children were - cart-loads at a time. My
    mother did not know where he was for two years. He was taken off in the dead of
    night without her knowledge, and the parish officers would never tell her where he
    It was the mother of Joseph Russell who first found out where the children were,
    and told my mother. We set off together, my mother and I, we walked the whole
    way from Bristol to Cressbrook Mill in Derbyshire. We were many days on the road.
    Mrs. Newton fondled over my mother when we arrived. My mother had brought her
    a present of little glass ornaments. She got these ornaments from some of the
    workmen, thinking they would be a very nice present to carry to the mistress at
    Cressbrook, for her kindness to my brother. My brother told me that Mrs. Newton's
    fondling was all a blind; but I was so young and foolish, and so glad to see him
    again; that I did not heed what he said, and could not be persuaded to leave him.
    They would not let me stay unless I would take the shilling binding money. I took
    the shilling and I was very proud of it.
    They took me into the counting house and showed me a piece of paper with a red
    sealed horse on which they told me to touch, and then to make a cross, which I did.
    This meant I had to stay at Cressbrook Mill till I was twenty one.
Apprentice House

   Some parents refused to let their children
    work in the factories.
   If a factory was far from an orphanage,
    factory owners got creative.
   An apprentice house was for young
    children who were purchased from
    workhouses and given pay and lodging to
    work in the factories.
       Apprentice House Account
   (1) John Birley was interviewed by The Ashton Chronicle on
    19th May, 1849.
   We then worked till nine or ten at night when the water-wheel
    stopped. We stopped working, and went to the apprentice house,
    about three hundred yards from the mill. It was a large stone
    house, surrounded by a wall, two to three yards high, with one
    door, which was kept locked. It was capable of lodging about one
    hundred and fifty apprentices. Supper was the same as breakfast -
    onion porridge and dry oatcake. We all ate in the same room and all
    went up a common staircase to our bed-chamber; all the boys slept
    in one chamber, all the girls in another. We slept three in one bed.
    The girls' bedroom was of the same sort as ours. There were no
    fastenings to the two rooms; and no one to watch over us in the
    night, or to see what we did.
     How was health damaged?

   Accidents
   Deformities
   Hours
   Punishment
   Food
   Pollution

   Frequent and horrific.
   Workers were not compensated and were
    abandoned immediately.
   Hospitals saw thousands of injuries and
    visitors to England were appalled at the
    sight of legless and armless people in the
                  Accident Account
   (1) Dr. Ward from Manchester was interviewed about the
    health of textile workers on 25th March, 1819.
    When I was a surgeon in the infirmary, accidents were very often
    admitted to the infirmary, through the children's hands and arms
    having being caught in the machinery; in many instances the
    muscles, and the skin is stripped down to the bone, and in some
    instances a finger or two might be lost. Last summer I visited Lever
    Street School. The number of children at that time in the school,
    who were employed in factories, was 106. The number of children
    who had received injuries from the machinery amounted to very
    nearly one half. There were forty-seven injured in this way.
            Parliament reacts

   Because of the events and conditions that
    you have seen, England’s Parliament
    reacted by setting up a commission to
    look into the situation
   Michael Sadler heads up the commission
   On 16th March 1832 Michael Sadler introduced a Bill in Parliament that proposed
    limiting the hours of all persons under the age of 18 to ten hours a day. After much
    debate it was clear that Parliament was unwilling to pass Sadler's bill. However, in
    April 1832 it was agreed that there should be another parliamentary enquiry into
    child labour. Sadler was made chairman and for the next three months the
    parliamentary committee interviewed 48 people who had worked in textile factories
    as children. Sadler discovered that it was common for very young children to be
    working for over twelve a day.
    Lord Ashley carried out a survey of doctors in 1836. In a speech he made in the
    House of Commons he argued that over half of the doctors interviewed believed that
    "ten hours is the utmost quantity of labour which can be endured by the children"
    without damaging their health. However, Lord Ashley admitted that some doctors
    that came before his committee did not believe that long hours caused health
    Children who were late for work were severely punished. If children arrived late for
    work they would also have money deducted from their wages. Time-keeping was a
    problem for those families who could not afford to buy a clock. In some factories
    workers were not allowed to carry a watch. The children suspected that this rule was
    an attempt to trick them out of some of their wages.
Prison inmate

   Children were whipped, or dunked in
    buckets of cold water for basic offenses.
   Girls were often chained together like
    prisoners to keep them attempting to
   If you attempted to run away or were
    caught as a runaway, you could be put in
    prison for your offense.
   (2) Jonathan Downe was interviewed by
    Michael Sadler's Parliamentary Committee
    on 6th June, 1832.
   When I was seven years old I went to work at
    Mr. Marshalls factory at Shrewsbury. If a child
    was drowsy, the overlooker touches the child on
    the shoulder and says, "Come here". In a corner
    of the room there is an iron cistern filled with
    water. He takes the boy by the legs and dips
    him in the cistern, and sends him back to work.
          Food – Steak and Lobster?
   (2) Matthew Crabtree was interviewed by Michael Sadler's
    Parliamentary Committee (18th May, 1832)
   I began work at Cook's of Dewsbury when I was eight years old. We
    had to eat our food in the mill. It was frequently covered by flues
    from the wool; and in that case they had to be blown off with the
    mouth, and picked off with the fingers, before it could be eaten.

   (3) Sarah Carpenter was interviewed by The Ashton
    Chronicle on 23rd June, 1849.
    Our common food was oatcake. It was thick and coarse. This
    oatcake was put into cans. Boiled milk and water was poured into it.
    This was our breakfast and supper. Our dinner was potato pie with
    boiled bacon it, a bit here and a bit there, so thick with fat we could
    scarce eat it, though we were hungry enough to eat anything. Tea
    we never saw, nor butter. We had cheese and brown bread once a
    year. We were only allowed three meals a day though we got up at
    five in the morning and worked till nine at night.
   As you can imagine, with all the wool,
    cloth and machinery, the air was full of
    dust and debris
   “Mill Fever” became a sickness that many
    workers would get – headaches and
    general sickness for no apparent reason
   Lung diseases such as tuberculosis,
    bronchitis, and asthma were common
   (3) Frank Forrest, Chapters in the Life
    of a Dundee Factory Boy (1850)
   About a week after I became a mill boy, I
    was seized with a strong, heavy sickness,
    that few escape on first becoming factory
    workers. The cause of the sickness, which
    is known by the name of "mill fever", is the
    contaminated atmosphere produced by so
    many breathing in a confined space,
    together with the heat and exhalations of
    grease and oil and the gas needed to light
    the establishment.
       Is there a defense for these
   Consider these remarks from prominent
    politicians and business leaders of the
   Weigh their evidence with the previous
    slides to help you answer the prompt
    presented to you at the beginning.
   Look at the data that you have so far in this
   What does it tell you about the prompt?
   Write a thesis sentence about the prompt.
   The next three slides are evidence against
    prohibiting children from factories.
   Consider them seriously before making a final
   For each document, write down how this might
    influence your decision (DO NOT DISMISS THEM
   (1) William James, speech, House of Commons
    (16th March, 1832)
   I have no doubt that the right honourable member
    (Michael Sadler) is actuated by the best intentions and
    motives, but I think that the course which he pursues
    will fail in attaining the object which he has in view.
    Undoubtedly the system which is pursued in these
    manufactories relating to the working of young children
    is a great evil; but it appears to me that the remedy
    which the honourable gentleman proposes to apply is
    worse than the disease. There appears to me to be only
    a choice of evils - the children must either work or
    starve. If the manufacturer is prevented working his mill
    for more than a certain number of hours together, he
    will often be unable to execute the orders which he may
    receive, and consequently, the purchaser must go to
    foreign countries for a supply. The result will be that you
    will drive the English capitalist to foreign countries,
    where there is no restrictions upon the employment of
    labour and capital.
   (1) William Bolling, speech, House of Commons
    (9th May, 1836)
   I mistrust interference on behalf of the poor which the
    poor are themselves to pay for. Let the question be
    presented honestly and fairly. Let the parents of factory
    children know that the diminishing the hours of daily toil
    must diminish the amount of weekly pay. Certainly,
    there are cases of hardship and oppression, but I dislike
    all cases of legislative interference between master and
    man - between parent and child. And, moreover, all such
    interference would be unsuccessful. Your laws to
    regulate wages, and hours of labour, and conditions of
    contract for work - they are merely cobwebs broken
    through at will - because it is the interest of master and
    servant that they should be broken. Cultivate commerce
    with all the nations of the world; this will raise wages
    and will prevent the necessity for exhausting labour.
   (1) Henry Thomas Hope, speech, House of Commons (16th
    March, 1832)
   It is obvious, that if you limit the hours of labour, you will, to nearly
    the same extent, reduce the profits of the capital on which the
    labour is employed. Under these circumstances, the manufacturers
    must either raise the price of the manufactured article or diminish
    the wages of their workmen. If they raise the price of the article the
    foreigner gains an advantage. I am informed that the foreign
    cotton-manufacturers, and particularly the Americans, tread closely
    upon the heels of our manufacturers.
    The right honourable member (Michael Sadler) seems to consider
    that it is desirable for adults to replace children. I cannot concur
    with that opinion, because I think that the labour of children is a
    great resource to their parents and of great benefit to themselves.
    I therefore, on the these grounds, oppose this measure. In the first
    place I doubt whether parliament can protect children as effectively
    as their parents; secondly; because I am of the opinion that a case
    for parliamentary interference has not yet been made out; and
    thirdly, because I believe that the bill will be productive of great
    inconvenience, not only to persons who have embarked large capital
    in the cotton manufactures, but even to workmen and children
    themselves - that I feel it my duty to oppose this measure.
                  Take action
   Now that you’ve seen both sides of the issue,
    what would you say to Parliament?
   Take a look at the initial prompt you were
    given and prepare a one paragraph response.
   First, decide on your opinion/approach
   Next, what evidence are you going to use to
    defend your answer?
   Finally, what language can you use to
    demonstrate your point. Is there an incentive
    for Parliament to address this issue or are you
    going to appeal to their humanity?
                Final product
   You will produce a speech to be read in
    Parliament; one copy will be typed for me to
    read, the other will be summarized on a note
    card for you to refer to in your speech
   Whichever side you choose, you should prepare
    to defend both sides (although you are only
    writing a speech for the side you will defend)
    What do you think and why?

   “Parliament should pass legislation making
    it illegal for children under the age of
    twelve to work in textile factories.”

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