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Trade Information Packet and Water Industry Report

                  June 2011
                    Prepared by

                 Shahed Dashti
            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego
                 2980 Pacific Highway
                 San Diego, CA 92101
                   T: (619) 615-0868
                   F: (619) 615-0876

                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

This report was developed by the WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego to
provide information on Jordan. The report will not be, and should not be
considered as an opinion regarding a recommendation for, or the
reasonableness of any specific business action.            No representations or
warranties are provided with respect to the results obtained from use of the
analysis or surveys of this report. In no event shall the WTCSD be liable for
consequential, special, or indirect damages arising out of use of this material.

To the best of our knowledge and belief, the statements contained in this report
are true and correct. Information, estimates and opinions provided to us and
contained in the report were obtained from the sources cited, and to the extent
analyzed by us are believed to be true and correct. However, no representation,
liability or warranty for the accuracy of such items is assumed by or imposed on

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

Background                                                            4

Geography                                                             6

Demographics                                                          9

Economic Environment                                                  12

Communication                                                         18

Transportation                                                        20

Military                                                              22

Trade Overview                                                        23

National Trade with the United States                                 26

Trade and Regulations                                                 31

Recent U.S Corporations Activity                                      34

Business Travel                                                       38

Contacts                                                              39

Water in Jordan                                                       43

Foreign Relations and Water                                           46

Water Resource Management                                             48

Wastewater                                                            51

Opportunities                                                         53

Water Sector Organizations                                            54

Useful Links                                                          59

Sources/ Bibliography                                                 60

                                        WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

Flag Description:

Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate,
white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the
Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the
Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star
symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran;
the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit,
humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab
Revolt flag of World War I.


Name: Amman.

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the UK
received a mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain separated out a
semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s, and
the area gained its independence in 1946; it adopted the name of Jordan in
1950. The country's long-time ruler was King Hussein (1953-99). A pragmatic
leader, he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers
(US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian
population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 war and barely
managed to defeat Palestinian rebels who attempted to overthrow the monarchy
in 1970. King Hussein in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the
West Bank. In 1989, he reinstituted parliamentary elections and initiated a
gradual political liberalization; political parties were legalized in 1992. In 1994, he
signed a peace treaty with Israel. King Abdallah II, the son of King Hussein,
assumed the throne following his father's death in February 1999. Since then, he
has consolidated his power and undertaken an aggressive economic reform
program. Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2000, and began to
participate in the European Free Trade Association in 2001. In 2003, Jordan
staunchly supported the Coalition ouster of Saddam Hussein in Iraq and,
following the outbreak of insurgent violence in Iraq, absorbed thousands of
displaced Iraqis. Municipal elections were held in July 2007 under a system in
which 20% of seats in all municipal councils were reserved by quota for women.
Parliamentary elections were held in November 2010 and saw independent pro-
government candidates win the vast majority of seats. Beginning in January 2011
in the wake of unrest in Tunisia and Egypt, several thousand Jordanians staged
weekly demonstrations and marches in Amman and other cities throughout
Jordan to protest government corruption, rising prices, rampant poverty, and high
unemployment. In response, King Abdallah replaced his prime minister and
formed a National Dialogue Commission with a reform mandate. Some
opposition groups also called for sweeping political and constitutional reforms,
particularly on a controversial election law.

                                                WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

      Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and

Geographic coordinates:
     31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references:
      Middle East

        Total: 89,342 sq km
        Country comparison to the world: 111
        Land: 88,802 sq km
        Water: 540 sq km

Area - comparative:
       Slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
      Total: 1,635 km
      Border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 744 km, Syria
      375 km, West Bank 97 km

      26 km

Maritime claims:
      Territorial sea: 3 nm

      Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

      Mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley
      separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Elevation extremes:
      Lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
      Highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m
                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Natural resources:
      Phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:
      Arable land: 3.32%
      Permanent crops: 1.18%
      Other: 95.5% (2005)

Irrigated land:
       788.6 sq km (2004)

Total renewable water resources:
       0.94 cu km (2008)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
     Total: 0.9311 km³ (2005)

Natural hazards:
      Droughts; periodic earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
      Limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
      erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
      Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
      Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
      Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
     Strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab
     country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

      WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

     6,508,271 (July 2011 est.)
     Country comparison to the world: 102

Age structure:
      0-14 years: 35.3% (male 1,180,595/female 1,114,533)
      15-64 years: 59.9% (male 1,977,075/female 1,921,504)
      65 years and over: 4.8% (male 153,918/female 160,646) (2011 est.)

Median age:
     Total: 22.1 years
     Male: 21.8 years
     Female: 22.4 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate:
     0.984% (2011 est.)
     Country comparison to the world: 117

Birth rate:
       26.79 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 50

Death rate:
      2.69 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 220

Net migration rate:
      -14.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 215

     Urban population: 79% of total population (2010)
     Rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:
      AMMAN (capital) 1.088 million (2009)

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Sex ratio:
      At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
      Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
      15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
      65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
      Total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
       Total: 16.42 deaths/1,000 live births
       Country comparison to the world: 107
       Male: 16.98 deaths/1,000 live births
       Female: 15.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
       Total population: 80.05 years
       Country comparison to the world: 29
       Male: 78.73 years
       Female: 81.45 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate:
       3.39 children born/woman (2011 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 49

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
      Less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 138

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
      600 (2007 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 150

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
      Fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 90

      Noun: Jordanian(s)
      Adjective: Jordanian

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Ethnic groups:
      Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

      Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some
      Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian
      Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shia
      Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)

     Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle

      Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
      Total population: 89.9%
      Male: 95.1%
      Female: 84.7% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
     Total: 13 years
     Male: 13 years
     Female: 13 years (2008)

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                              Economic Environment

Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient
supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's
heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the
government include chronic high rates of poverty, unemployment, inflation, and a
large budget deficit. Since assuming the throne in 1999, King ABDALLAH has
implemented significant economic reforms, such as opening the trade regime,
privatizing state-owned companies, and eliminating most fuel subsidies, which in
the past few years have spurred economic growth by attracting foreign
investment and creating some jobs. The global economic slowdown, however,
has depressed Jordan's GDP growth. Export-oriented sectors such as
manufacturing, mining, and the transport of re-exports have been hit the hardest.
The Government approved two supplementary budgets in 2010, but sweeping
tax cuts planned for 2010 did not materialize because of Amman's need for
additional revenue to cover excess spending. The budget deficit is likely to
remain high, at 5-6% of GDP, and Amman likely will continue to depend heavily
on foreign assistance to finance the deficit in 2011. Jordan's financial sector has
been relatively isolated from the international financial crisis because of its limited
exposure to overseas capital markets. Jordan is currently exploring nuclear
power generation to forestall energy shortfalls.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
     $33.79 billion (2010 est.)
     Country comparison to the world: 103
     $32.74 billion (2009 est.)
     $31.98 billion (2008 est.)
     Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
     $27.13 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
      3.2% (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 119
      2.4% (2009 est.)
      5.8% (2008 est.)

                                                WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
GDP - per capita (PPP):
      $5,300 (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 141
      $5,200 (2009 est.)
      $5,200 (2008 est.)
      Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
      Agriculture: 3.4%
      Industry: 30.3%
      Services: 66.2% (2010 est.)

Labor force:
      1.719 million (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 126

Labor force - by occupation:
      Agriculture: 2.7%
      Industry: 20%
      Services: 77.4% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:
    13.4% (2010 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 137
    12.9% (2009 est.)
    Note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%

Population below poverty line:
     14.2% (2009)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
     Lowest 10%: 3%
     Highest 10%: 30.7% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
       39.7 (2007)
       Country comparison to the world: 62
       36.4 (1997)

Investment (gross fixed):
      30.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 19

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
     Revenues: $6.269 billion
     Expenditures: $8.701 billion (2010 est.)

Public debt:
      61.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 29
      64.7% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
        4.4% (2010 est.)
        Country comparison to the world: 125
        -0.7% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
      4.75% (31 December 2009)
      Country comparison to the world: 67
      6.25% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    9.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 100
    9.03% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
      $26.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 72
      $25.14 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
     $31.86 billion (31 December 2009)
     Country comparison to the world: 53
     $35.85 billion (31 December 2008)
     $41.22 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
      Citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep,
      poultry, dairy


      Clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals,
      petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing,
                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Industrial production growth rate:
      2.7% (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 118

Electricity - production:
       12.21 billion kWh (2007 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 84

Electricity - consumption:
       10.4 billion kWh (2007 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 85

Electricity - exports:
       176 million kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:
       200 million kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:
       0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 188

Oil - consumption:
       108,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 74

Oil - exports:
       0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 176

Oil - imports:
        108,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
        Country comparison to the world: 61

Oil - proved reserves:
       1 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
       country comparison to the world: 98

Natural gas - production:
      250 million cu m (2008 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 73

Natural gas - consumption:
      2.97 billion cu m (2008 est.)
                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
      Country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - exports:
      0 cu m (2008 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 119

Natural gas - imports:
      2.72 billion cu m (2008 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 42

Natural gas - proved reserves:
      6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 87

Current account balance:
      $-975 million (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 132
      $-1.27 billion (2009 est.)

     $7.333 billion (2010 est.)
     Country comparison to the world: 97
     $6.366 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:
Clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
     US 17.13%, Iraq 17%, India 13.59%, Saudi Arabia 10.56%, Syria 4.18%,
     UAE 4.09% (2009)

      $12.97 billion (2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 82
      $12.5 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:
      Crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals
      Imports - partners:
      Saudi Arabia 17.3%, China 10.95%, US 6.94%, Germany 6.29%, Egypt
      6.1% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
     $12.64 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
      Country comparison to the world: 54
      $12.14 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:
       $5.522 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
       Country comparison to the world: 102
       $6.766 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
      $22.19 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
      Country comparison to the world: 66
      $19.76 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:
     Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar
     0.709 (2011)
     0.709 (2010)
     0.709 (2009)
     0.709 (2008)
     0.709 (2007)
     0.709 (2006)

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

Telephones - main lines in use:
      501,200 (2009)
      Country comparison to the world: 97

Telephones - mobile cellular:
      6.014 million (2009)
      Country comparison to the world: 85

Telephone system:
      General assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of
      digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and
      coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-
      cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line
      services; Internet penetration remains modest and slow-growing.
      Domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services
      to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services
      terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to
      competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with
      subscribership rapidly approaching 100 per 100 persons
      International: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link
      Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable
      networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land
      and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and
      microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Broadcast media:
     Radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and
      Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports
      network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV
      broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian
      TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations operational with
      JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of
      multiple international radio broadcasters are available (2007).

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
      42,412 (2010)
      Country comparison to the world: 92

Internet users:
      1.642 million (2009)
      Country comparison to the world: 78

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan


      18 (2010)
      Country comparison to the world: 138

Airports - with paved runways:
      Total: 16
      Over 3,047 m: 8
      2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
      1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
      914 to 1,523 m: 1
      Under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
      Total: 2
      Under 914 m: 2 (2010)

      1 (2010)

       Gas 439 km; oil 49 km (2010)

      Total: 507 km
      Country comparison to the world: 111
      Narrow gauge: 507 km 1.050-m gauge (2008)

     Total: 7,891 km
     Country comparison to the world: 143
     Paved: 7,891 km (2009)

Merchant marine:
     Total: 13
     Country comparison to the world: 107
     By type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
     Foreign-owned: 7 (UAE 7)
     Registered in other countries: 20 (Bahamas 2, Egypt 2, Panama 13, Syria
     2, unknown 1) (2010)

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Ports and terminals:
      Al 'Aqabah

                       WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

Military branches:
       Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Land Force (RJLF),
       Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya
       al-Malakiya al-Urduniya, RJAF), Special Operations Command (Socom);
       Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior, but
       comes under JAF in wartime or crisis) (2011)

Military service age and obligation:
       17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription for males at age
       18 was suspended in 1999, but reinstated in July 2007 in order to provide
       youth training necessary for job market needs; all males under age 37 are
       required to register; women not subject to conscription, but can volunteer
       to serve in non-combat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab
       Army Women's Corps (2010)

Manpower available for military service:
     Males age 16-49: 1,674,260
     Females age 16-49: 1,611,315 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
     Males age 16-49: 1,439,192
     Females age 16-49: 1,384,500 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
     Male: 73,574
     Female: 69,420 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
       8.6% of GDP (2006)
       Country comparison to the world: 4

                                                 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                                 Trade Overview

Under the leadership of King Abdullah, Jordan has demonstrated its commitment
to economic reform, especially in the areas of privatization and in improving the
investment climate. In April 2000, Jordan acceded to the World Trade
Organization (WTO), a process which entailed extensive legislative and
regulatory reform. The government has partially privatized the national
telecommunications company and the state-owned cement firm, and is in the
process of privatizing the national airline. In addition, Jordan and the U.S. signed
a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in October 2000 which eliminated virtually all
trade barriers between the two countries over a period of several years and
created new opportunities for commercial business ventures for U.S. firms
seeking to enter the Jordanian market and/or the Middle East Region.

Reforms to the customs, taxation, and investment laws have improved Jordan's
business climate. Investors have shown interest in Qualifying Industrial Zones
(QIZs), which are industrial parks that can export products to the U.S. duty free if
35% of the product's content comes from the QIZ, Israel, and/or the West
Bank/Gaza. QIZ factories have created more than 15,000 jobs, and the number
is expected to continue increasing rapidly. The government is also developing
the port of Aqaba as a Special Economic Zone (SEZ), with low taxes, minimal
bureaucracy, and investor-friendly policies.

In 1999-2000, Jordan's intellectual property (IP) laws were upgraded to meet
international standards and are now regarded as TRIPS-consistent. As a result,
Jordan was removed from the United States Trade Representative's Special 301
"Watchlist" of countries having inadequate intellectual property protection.
However, effective enforcement mechanisms and legal procedures have not yet
been fully established. As a result, U.S. companies continue to lose sales to
unauthorized reproductions of copyrighted and patented products.

                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
The U.S. Government has encouraged Jordan to continue moving forward on its
economic reform program, as illustrated by the following:

      Jordan and the U.S. signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA);

      In 1999, the two countries signed a Trade and Investment Framework
      Agreement (TIFA), which seeks to remove impediments to trade and

      The U.S. and Jordan have ratified a Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT),
      which protects investors and establishes procedures for resolving
      investment disputes;

      The Zarqa Free Zone is Jordan's major free zone area. Other areas
      include the Sahab Industrial Estate Free Zone, Queen Alia International
      Airport Free Zone, and the Gateway Qualifying Industrial Zone.

      The government converted the Aqaba port and surrounding area into a
      Special Economic Zone (ASEZ) in May 2001, with streamlined
      bureaucracy, lower taxes and facilitated customs handling. In the SEZ, the
      private sector has been given a free hand to develop transportation and
      communication services, tourism, and high value-added activities.

      Annual cash transfers from the U.S. Agency for International Development
      (USAID) are conditioned on the implementation of specific policy reforms
      aimed at speeding privatization, developing capital markets and improving
      the investment climate. In addition, USAID supports a comprehensive set
      of economic reform and private enterprise development activities aimed at
      implementing policy reforms and improving the overall business climate
      for trade and investment.

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Jordan is becoming an increasingly attractive market for global trade and
investment. In addition to its accession to the WTO, privatizations and extensive
trade and investment reforms, Jordan is looking at becoming a strong platform
for regional and international trade. Congressional approval of the U.S. - Jordan
FTA, development of the ASEZA and continued growth in the QIZ's should both
strengthen Jordan's economy and create a more attractive market for
international trade and investment.

Statistical Information

       Population: 5.7 million people.
       GDP $15.8 billion, GDP per capita is around $2,770.
       50% of population under 20.
       Well educated labor force (1.41 million) with literacy over 90%.
       Economic grew by 6% in 2007 and is expected to grow around 5.5% in 08.
       Jordan economy is 70% composes of the service sector and 17% of
       Relative large middle class, but still needs to reduce unemployment which
       stands at 13%.
       Jordan is the fourth largest recipient of US aid.

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                        National Trade with the United States

2006 - 2010: U.S. trade in goods with Jordan

All figures are in millions of U.S. dollars on a nominal basis, not seasonally
adjusted unless otherwise specified. Details may not equal totals due to

     Year                Exports                      Imports                     Balance
2010                           1,174.2                            974.1                     200.1
2009                           1,191.8                            924.1                     267.7
2008                               940.3                         1,137.5                 -197.1
2007                               856.2                         1,328.9                 -472.7
2006                               650.3                         1,422.1                 -771.7
2005                               644.2                         1,266.8                 -622.7




  U.S. Dollars


                        2005   2006        2007           2008    2009     2010

                                                          WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
U.S. Imports from Jordan by 5-digit End-Use Code

2009 – 2010

                                                                  Value      Value
                        End-Use Code
                                                                  2009       2010
(00000) Green coffee                                                    0          0
(00010) Cocoa beans                                                     0          0
(00020) Cane and beet sugar                                             0          0
(00110) Dairy products and eggs                                        95        140
(00120) Fruits and preparations, including frozen juices               25          7
(00130) Vegetables and preparations                                 2,326      1,485
(00140) Nuts and preparations                                           2          8
(00150) Food oils and oilseeds                                        167        194
(00160) Bakery and confectionary products                             162        250
(00170) Tea, spices, and preparations                                 401        383
(00180) Other (soft beverages, processed coffee, etc.)                705        795
(00190) Wine and related products                                       0          0
(00200) Feedstuff and foodgrains                                       80         38
(01010) Alcoholic bevs, except wine and related products               32         98
(01020) Other nonagricultural foods and food additives                  4          0
(10020) Other petroleum products                                       10          0
(10100) Coal and related fuels                                         43         22
(11110) Paper and paper products, n.e.s.                               52          5
(12000) Cotton, wool and other natural fibers                           0          0
(12050) Natural rubber and similar gums                                 0          0
(12060) Farming materials, incl farm animals & animl breed              0          0
(12070) Other (tobacco, waxes, nonfood oils)                            4        155
(12100) Cotton cloth and fabrics, thread & cordage                      2          0
(12110) Wool, silk, and other veg cloth and fabric, thread              0          0
(12135) Synthetic cloth and fabrics, thread and cordage                 0          0
(12150) Finished textile industrial supplies                           48        197
(12160) Leather and furs-unmanufactured                                 1          0
(12320) Other materials, except chemicals                               0          0
(12500) Plastic materials                                              67          2
(12510) Fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides                       0          0
(12530) Industrial inorganic chemicals                              1,265      3,403
(12540) Industrial organic chemicals                                1,582          5
                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
(12550) Other chemicals (photo chems, prnt inks, paint)              17          0
(13020) Stone, sand, cement, and lime                               272        826
(13100) Glass-plate, sheet, etc. (excluding automotive)               2         35
(13110) Other-finished (shingles, molding, wallboard, etc)            3          0
(13120) Nontextile floor and wall tiles and other covering           11          3
(14000) Steelmaking and ferroalloying materials-unmanufacd            0        147
(14200) Bauxite and aluminum                                          0          0
(14220) Copper                                                        0        201
(14240) Nickel                                                        0        212
(14260) Zinc                                                          0          0
(14270) Nonmonetary gold                                              0          0
(14280) Other precious metals                                       158        765
(14290) Miscellaneous nonferrous metals                             146          0
(15000) Iron and steel products, except advanced manufacts            0         96
(15100) Iron and steel manufactures-advanced                          8          8
(15200) Finished metal shapes & advncd manuf, except steel           93         50
(16040) Sulfur and nonmetallic minerals                              12         12
(16050) Other (syn rubbers, wood, cork, gums, resins, etc)            5          0
(16110) Blank audio and visual tapes and other media                  0          0
(16120) Other (boxes, belting, glass, abrasives, etc.)            2,779      3,489
(20000) Generators, transformers, and accessories                    18         19
(20005) Electric apparatus and parts, n.e.c.                        118        353
(21030) Excavating, paving, and construction machinery                0         11
(21040) Nonfarm tractors and parts                                    0         48
(21100) Industrial engines, pumps, compressors & generatrs          141         66
(21110) Food and tobacco processing machinery                        42          5
(21120) Machine tools, metal working, molding and rolling             6         25
(21130) Textile, sewing and leather working machinery                 8          0
(21140) Woodworking, glass working, & plastic & rubber mch          140          0
(21150) Pulp and paper machinery                                      4          0
(21160) Measuring, testing and control intruments                    15        144
(21170) Materials handling equipment                                 14         25
(21180) Other industrial machinery                                  938        882
(21190) Photo and service industry machnery & trade tools           616      1,462
(21200) Agricultural machinery and equipment                          0         75
(21300) Computers                                                    57          9
(21301) Computer accessories, peripherals and parts                  47        316
                                          WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
(21320) Semiconductors and related devices                          23         10
(21400) Telecommunications equipment                               141        188
(21500) Business machinery and equipment, except computers           0          0
(21600) Laboratory testing and control instruments                  10          0
(21610) Other scientific, medical and hospital equipment           158          8
(22010) Parts for civilian aircraft                                  4          0
(22020) Engines for civilian aircraft                               95         50
(22100) Railway transportation equipment                             0          0
(22220) Marine engines and parts                                     0          0
(30000) Passenger cars, new and used                                 0          0
(30200) Engines and engine parts                                    17         67
(30220) Automotive tires and tubes                                   0          0
(30230) Other parts and accessories                                412         35
(40000) Apparel and household goods-cotton                     388,372    352,660
(40010) Apparel and household goods-wool                        15,270     15,632
(40020) Apparel and household goods-other textiles             356,406    432,709
(40030) Nontextile apparel and household goods                     106          8
(40040) Footwear of leather, rubber, or other materials              0         14
(40050) Sporting and camping apparel, footwear and gear          5,133      7,555
(40100) Medicinal, dental and pharmaceutical preparations       17,452     20,538
(40110) Books, magazines, and other printed matter                 413        410
(40120) Toiletries and cosmetics                                 1,185        893
(40140) Other products (notions, writing and art supplies)       1,421      1,491
(41000) Furniture, household items, baskets                        682        721
(41010) Glassware, porcelain, and chinaware                         51         18
(41020) Cookware, cutlery, house and garden wares, tools            14         17
(41030) Household and kitchen appliances                         5,899      1,501
(41040) Rugs and other textile floor coverings                     138         25
(41050) Other (clocks, port typewriters, oth household gds         147        150
(41100) Motorcycles and parts                                      372      1,128
(41110) Pleasure boats and motors                                    0          0
(41120) Toys, shooting and sporting goods, and bicycles              8         10
(41130) Photographic and optical equipment                           0         12
(41140) Musical instruments and other recreational equip.            0          0
(41200) Television receivers, vcr's & other video equip.            55          0
(41210) Radios, phonographs, tape decks, and other stereo           15          0
(41220) Records, tapes, and disks                                   15        321
                                         WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
(41300) Numismatic coins                                                 3         26
(41310) Jewelry (watches, rings, etc.)                              71,391     74,458
(41320) Artwork, antiques, stamps, and other collectibles              110        421
(42100) Gem diamonds-uncut or unset                                    288            0
(42110) Other gem stones-precious, semiprecious, and imita             932           658
(50000) Military aircraft and parts                                       0           3
(50010) Other military equipment                                          5           0
(50020) U.S. goods returned, and reimports                          41,574     44,879
(50030) Minimum value shipments                                      2,947           915
(50040) Other (movies, misc imports, and spec transactions              84           125
TOTAL                                                              924,088    974,126

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                             Tariffs and Regulations

Import Tariffs

Customs tariffs are based on the Harmonized System coding practice. Additional
taxes may apply to some products.

Trade Barriers

Jordan has made important reforms in trade liberalization in the past few years,
and the government continues its efforts to improve the trade and investment
climate. As a member of the WTO, Jordan must reduce its import tariff ceiling to
Designated companies operating in the Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZs),
providing they meet certain criteria, gain quota and duty-free access to the U.S.
market and benefit from special import provisions for raw inputs.

Import Requirements and Documentation

Import licenses, valid for one year, are required for:
(1) Non-commercial shipments exceeding JD 2,000 ($2,820)
(2) Biscuits of all types
(3) Mineral water
(4) dried milk for industry use
(5) Used tires
(6) Items that require prior clearance from the respective authorities

Items that do not need an import license may require prior authorization by the
appropriate government ministry. Any imported agricultural or food product may
be inspected and tested to ensure that it is fit for human consumption. Virtually all
prepared and mixed foods are tested at the border.
The Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) has the authority to inspect
food products at the retail and wholesale distribution levels. A representative may
enter any place and collect samples for testing. If a product fails to meet
technical requirements or is found unfit for human consumption, it is removed
from distribution channels and destroyed.
The Jordan Institution for Standards and Metrology (JISM) regulates food
additives for JFDA. In general, permissible additives and their concentrations are
those approved by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. However, the technical
standards for foods contain specific lists for food additives and their permissible
levels of use. These standards should be consulted to make sure that any
additives are permitted.
Goods entering the country under temporary entry status, bonded goods and
goods benefiting from the investment promotion law are exempt from import
                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
All Jordanian and foreign trading companies must either obtain an importer‘s
card from the Ministry of Industry and Trade for customs clearance purposes, or
pay a Customs fee equivalent to 5% of the value of the imported goods. For non-
trading entities such as banks, hospitals and hotels, the ministry issues a special,
―limited” card that allows the import of goods specific to that entity‘s purpose.

Shipping Documentation: The U.S. government requires submission of a
shipper‘s export declaration, or SED, if the value of the shipment is greater than
$2,500. Exporters can submit a hard copy or can use the free internet-based
system to file. For shipments to Jordan, exporters are required to provide, in
original form, a certificate of origin, a commercial invoice, an airway bill, and a
packing list.

A customs declaration is also required, but only an authorized forwarding agent
in Jordan can process the declaration, which must be filed electronically.
U.S. Certificate of Origin for Exporting to Jordan: A general certificate of origin is
acceptable and can be obtained from most commercial stationers or downloaded
from the Trade Information Center‘s Web site,
Both the commercial invoice and the certificate of origin must be certified by the
National U.S-Arab Chamber of Commerce, and then legalized by the Jordanian
Embassy or consulate. To locate the National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce
view their Web site at Invoices do not have to be written
in Arabic, but if the invoice is not, the importer is required to provide an Arabic
translation. Typically, this is done in handwriting on the actual invoice.
Exporters should be aware that commercial invoices for all shipments from the
United States must bear a notarized affidavit. The Jordanian Customs
Department may request other documents related to the shipment as needed.

U.S. Export Controls

U.S. exporters to Jordan must follow the standard U.S. Government
requirements regarding export control documentation for sensitive U.S. exports.
For information on this subject contact the U.S. Department of Commerce
Bureau of Industry and Security.
U.S. export licenses are required for exports to Jordan of certain high technology,
and defense-related equipment. U.S. exporters should ensure that they are in
compliance with the export control regulations as administered through the U.S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration and U.S. Department
of State, Office of Defense Trade Controls.

Temporary Entry

U.S. and Jordanian businesses are treated equally with regard to temporary
entry rights. Foreign industrial inputs, equipment for scientific tests, as well as
containers and wrapping material used for packaging domestic produce, can be
                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
granted temporary entry status for a maximum three year period, subject to
approval by the customs department and the submission of a bank guarantee
that represents a scaled percentage of the relevant tariff and tax.
Temporary entry exemptions may be obtained by submitting a written request,
accompanied by supporting documentation, to the customs department.
Imported primary, secondary, or complementary inputs used in the production of
export goods are exempt from custom duties and all additional import fees on a
reimbursable or drawback basis.

Labeling and Marking Requirements
Imported products must comply with labeling and marking requirements issued
by the Jordan Institution for Standards and Metrology (JISM) and relevant
government ministries, which conform to the relevant WTO directives.
Importers are responsible for informing foreign suppliers of any applicable
labeling and marking requirements. All labels must either be in Arabic or have a
stick-on label in Arabic. Nutritional labeling is mandatory in certain categories of
food including infant formula and food for dietary use. A food shipment might be
rejected based on ambiguous labeling content even if it is only a printing error.
Marking should be done by printing, engraving, stamping, or any other means, on
the package or the goods themselves. If marking is not possible, a label should
be well sewn on or stuck to the goods or package.

Prohibited and Restricted Imports

Prohibited Imports

The government bans the import of plastic waste, the narcotic plant ―qat”, and
diesel passenger cars.
Exporters should always note that U.S. export licenses, though not required for
many shipments, are required in certain situations involving national security,
foreign policy, short-supply, nuclear non-proliferation, missile technology,
chemical and biological weapons, regional stability, crime control, or terrorist

Restricted Imports

Imports of raw leather are restricted to the Jordan Tanning Company. Crude oil
and its derivatives (except metallic oils) and household gas cylinders are
restricted to the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company. Cement is restricted to the
Jordan Cement Factories Company, which has been sold and is privately owned.
Explosives and gun powder are restricted to the Jordan Phosphate Mines
Company, and used tires are restricted to tire retreating factories. In addition,
biscuits of all type, mineral water, and dried milk for industry use are restricted to
those factories.

                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                       Recent U.S. Corporation Activity

Openness to Foreign Investment

In the ten years since King Abdullah ascended to the throne, Jordan has taken
several steps to encourage foreign investment and realize the vision of
transforming Jordan into an outward-oriented, market-based economy
competitive in the global marketplace. Key reforms have been undertaken in the
banking, information technology, pharmaceuticals, tourism, and services sectors.
Foreign and domestic investment laws grant specific incentives to industry,
agriculture, tourism, hospitals, transportation, and energy and water distribution.
The laws also allow the cabinet flexibility in offering investment incentives to
other sectors.
Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in April 2000.
Investment promotion activities have been consolidated under the Jordan
Investment Board (JIB), which provides a ―one-stop shop‖ for investors. A new
investment promotion law stalled in the parliament during 2009 but is expected to
be resubmitted once a new parliament is elected. Jordan is still conducting
negotiations on a WTO Government Procurement Agreement and is conducting
interagency consultations with the aim to try to conclude an agreement in 2010.
Jordan‘s current investment laws treat foreign and local investors equally, with
the following exceptions:
Under the terms of the FTA, ownership of periodical publications is restricted to
Jordanian natural persons or Jordanian juridical entities wholly-owned by

investigation and security services, sports clubs (except for health clubs), stone
quarrying for construction purposes, customs clearance services, or land
transportation services including buses or taxis. However, the Cabinet may
decide to approve projects in such categories upon the recommendations of the
Investment Promotion Committee. The Committee includes senior officials from
the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Income Tax Department, Customs
Department, the private sector, and the Director General of the Jordan
Investment Board. To qualify for exemptions, projects have to be highly valuable
to the national economy and recruit a large number of Jordanians. The Prime
Ministry deals with such exceptional cases and provides exemptions accordingly.

printing/publishing companies and in aircraft or maritime vessel maintenance and
repair services. Also under the FTA, foreign investors are limited to 50 percent
ownership in a number of businesses and services. The most up-to-date listing of
limitations on investments is available in the FTA Annex 3.1 and may be found at
the following internet address:

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
foreign investors. This requirement was lowered for Jordanian Businesses in
2008 to JD 1000 (USD 1400). This requirement does not apply to participation in
public shareholding companies. There is no formal screening or host government
selection process for foreign investment. However, investors in large projects find
that the informal approval of local and central government officials helps to
ensure governmental cooperation in project implementation.
The law stipulates that expropriation is prohibited unless deemed in the public
interest. It provides for fair compensation to the investor in convertible currency.

since 1999, with ongoing achievements in recent years in energy and aviation.
By 2008, the majority of Jordan‘s energy sector had been privatized including two
distribution companies Electricity Distribution Company (EDCO) and the Irbid
District Electricity Company (IDECO) — and one generation company, the
Central Electricity Generating Company (CEGCO). The privatization of a second
generation company, Samra Power Plant (SEPGCO), remains in progress.

In early 2008, the Government of Jordan concluded the initial public offering of
national air carrier Royal Jordanian. Concurrent with this privatization, the role of
the regulatory body, the Jordan Civil Aviation Regulatory Commission, continues
to evolve with greater separation between regulation and aviation management.
Related to this regulatory change, management of Amman‘s Queen Alia
International Airport was fully transferred to a private company and the build-
operate-transfer (BOT) airport expansion is well underway.

The Executive Privatization Commission recently initiated a medical and
industrial waste project. Among the projects still seeking investors are passenger
and cargo rail, the postal system, and the nation‘s refinery. The 50-year
concession to the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company ended in March 2008,
and the government has approved a new energy law, which came into effect on
Feb, 2010, to open up the hydrocarbon sector for local and foreign investors.

With respect to ownership and participation in the major economic sectors in
Jordan, there is no apparent discrimination against foreign participation. In fact,
many Jordanian businesses seek foreign partners, which are perceived as the
key to increased competitiveness and easier entry into international markets.
Jordan‘s efforts have combined to make Jordan‘s investment climate more
welcoming, but some large U.S. investors have reported "hidden costs" when
investing in Jordan due to bureaucracy, red tape, vague regulations and
conflicting jurisdictions. In the World Bank‘s (WB) 2008 Doing Business Report,
Jordan was ranked 100th out of Jordan‘s 2009 Economic Freedom score is 65.4,
making its economy the 51st freest in the 2009 index. Its score has increased by
1.3 points since 2008, reflecting an increase in business freedom, trade freedom
and government size, and a decrease in freedom from corruption183 countries
for the regulatory ease of doing business. Jordan received its best rankings for
                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
taxation and employment policies. Jordan received its worst rankings for
obtaining credit, starting a business, and enforcing contracts, Jordan‘s 2009
Economic Freedom score is 65.4, making its economy the 51st freest in the 2009
index. Its score has increased by 1.3 points since 2008, reflecting an increase in
business freedom, trade freedom and government size, and a decrease in
freedom from corruption. It ranked sixth out of the 17 countries in the Middle
East/North Africa region. As they would in other countries, investors should
continue to execute due diligence in exploring investment opportunities and
concluding purchases.

U.S.- Jordan Free Trade Agreement

The U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement (FTA) entered into force on December
17, 2001. The FTA will eventually eliminate duties and commercial barriers to
bilateral trade in goods and services originating in the United States and Jordan.
The FTA also includes – for the first time ever in the text of a trade agreement –
provisions addressing trade and environment (Article 5), trade and labor (Article
6), and electronic commerce (Article 7). Other provisions address intellectual
property rights protection(Article 4), balance of payments (Article 11), rules of
origin(Article 14), safeguards (Article 10) and procedural matters (Articles 16 and
17). Because the United States already has a Bilateral Investment Treaty with
Jordan, the FTA does not include an investment chapter.
In order to take advantage of the benefits for U.S. goods under this agreement,
exporters will need to understand how to determine that their goods originate or
qualify for preferential duty treatment under the U.S.-Jordan FTA Rules of Origin.
Some may find the process of qualifying one‘s goods to be rather complicated.
US exporters will find information here to help guide them through the process.
Users of this site should keep in mind, however, that the text of the U.S.-Jordan
FTA and the customs regulations of Jordan are the only definitive resources
regarding qualification.
Under the U.S.-Jordan FTA, Jordan is obligated to adopt stronger protection and
enforcement provisions for copyrights, trademarks, patents, and trade secrets.
The FTA will also open the Jordanian services market to US companies. These
changes, among others, will provide US and Jordanian businesses with a market
base that is more accessible and easily navigated.
U.S. – Jordan FTA, which came into full force in January 2010, eliminated most
duties and tariffs on commerce between the U.S. and Jordan.

Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

In general, the laws on investment and property ownership permit domestic and
foreign entities to establish and own businesses and engage in remunerative
activities. However, activities relevant to military and national security are subject
to different provisions and procedures. Foreign companies may open regional
and branch offices. Branch offices may carry out full business activities, while
                                                WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
regional offices may serve as liaisons between head offices and Jordanian or
regional clients. The Ministry of Industry and Trade manages the government‘s
policy on setting up regional and branch offices.
No foreign firm may import goods without appointing an agent registered in
Jordan. The agent may be a branch office or a wholly owned subsidiary of the
foreign firm, notwithstanding the limitations on foreign ownership in certain
sectors. The agent's connection to the foreign company must be direct, without a
sub-agent or intermediary. A Commercial Agents and Intermediaries Law
governs the contract between foreign firms and commercial agents. It clearly
delineates the distinction between commercial agency and distribution contracts
relationships. Private foreign entities, whether licensed under sole foreign
ownership or as a joint venture, compete on an equal basis with local companies.
Foreign nationals and firms are permitted to own or lease property in Jordan for
investment purposes and personal use, provided that their home country permits
reciprocal property ownership rights for Jordanians.

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                                 Business Travel

Business Customs

Visiting U.S. companies find Jordan‘s business environment to be modern. It is a
professional and westernized business environment and most U.S.
businesspersons feel comfortable doing business here. Appointments can be
made on fairly short notice. Business cards in English or in English and Arabic
are recommended. It is inexpensive to have business cards made in a short
notice. Email addresses and websites should be included with your contact
In general dress code is formal in most business and official settings. English is
widely spoken in the business community and in government offices, but knowing
and using a few words in Arabic, especially introductory phrases and greeting,
can be very useful.
Jordan uses the metric system of weights and measures, and the monetary unit
is the Jordanian Dinar, which is divided into 1,000 fils. For the last five years, the
value of the Dinar has been stable at a rate of exchange of 1 JD = $1.41. Cash is
the most common method of payment in Jordan. Payments by major credit cards
are accepted in most hotels and restaurants and in many shops. Bank ATM
machines are widespread.

Visa Requirements

U.S. citizens are required to have visa to enter Jordan. A visa may be obtained in
advance from the Jordanian Embassy in Washington, DC or one of its
consulates, or at Queen Alia International Airport upon arrival and most border
entry points. To cross into Jordan at the King Hussein/Allenby Bridge, U.S.
citizens must already have either a visa for Jordan in their passports or have an
entry permit from the Ministry of Interior.

                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

U.S. Embassy, Amman

U S Commercial Service, Amman
      Sheryl Pinckney-Maas, Commercial Counselor
      Muna Farkouh, Senior Commercial Specialist
      Fareedon Hartoqa, Commercial Specialist

International mailing address:
       Commercial Section
              P.O. Box 354
              Amman 11118, Jordan
       U.S. Domestic mail address:
              U.S. Embassy Amman,
              Commercial Section
              DPO, AE 09892

Telephone: (962) (6) 590-6632
Fax: (962) (6) 592-0146

Economic Section
     Joyce Wong, Economic Counselor
     Katherine Skarsten, Economic Officer
     Mark Wilson, Economic Officer

International mailing address:
       Economic Section
              P.O. Box 354
              Amman 11118, Jordan
       U.S. Domestic mail address:
              U.S. Embassy Amman,
              Economic Section
              DPO, AE 09892-0200

Telephone: (962) (6) 590-6000 x6558

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Fax: (962) (6) 592-7653

U.S. Agency for International Development, Amman

International mailing address:
       USAID/Jordan Economic Opportunities Office
              U.S. Embassy Amman
              P.O. Box 354
              Amman 11118, Jordan

U.S. Domestic mail address:
      U.S. Embassy Amman, USAID
      DPO, AE 09892-0200
      Steve Gonyea, Director

Telephone: (962) (6) 592-6619
Fax: (962) (6) 592-0143

Relevant Jordanian Government Departments

Ministry of Industry and Trade
       P.O. Box 2019, Amman, Jordan
       Telephone: (962) (6) 560-7191/ 566-3774
       Fax: (962) (6) 560-3721/568-4692

Jordan Customs Department
      P.O. Box 90, Amman, Jordan
      Telephone: 962-6-462-3186/8; 462-4394/6
      Fax: 962-6-464-7791

Jordan Investment Board
      P.O. Box 893, Amman 11821, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 553-1081/2/3
      Fax: (962) (6) 552-1084
                                           WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

Jordan Export Development and Commercial Centers Corporation (JEDCO)
      P.O. Box 7704, Amman 11118, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 560-3507
      Fax: (962) (6) 568-4568

Jordan Industrial Estates Corporation
      P.O. Box 950278, Amman 11195, Jordan
      P.O. Box 17, Sahab Industrial Estate, Amman, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 402-2101/3
      Fax: (962) (6) 402-1194

Chambers of Commerce and Trade Associations

American Chamber of Commerce
      Jordanian American Business Association (JABA)
      P.O. Box 941865, Amman 11194, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 565-1860/1
      Fax: (962) (6) 565-1862

Federation of Jordanian Chambers of Commerce and Amman Chamber of
Commerce (ACC)
      P.O. Box 287, Amman, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 566-5492/566-6151
      Fax: (962) (6) 568-5997/566-6155

Amman Chamber of Industry
    P.O. Box 1800, Amman, Jordan
                                          WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 464-4569/464-3001
      Fax: (962) (6) 464-7852

Jordan Exporters Association
      P.O. Box 830432, Amman, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 568-5603/4
      Fax: (962) (6) 568-5605

Jordanian Businessmen Association (JBA)
      P.O. Box 926182, Amman, Jordan
      Telephone: (962) (6) 568-0855/560-4424
      Fax: (962) (6) 568-0663

World Trade Center Amman
      Mr. Wael Mihyar, General Manager

      Le Meridien Hotel/Amman,
      P.O. Box 962140
      Amman, 11196

      Phone: 962-6-5605791
      Fax Number: 962-6-5605793
      Email Address:
      Website Address:

                                         WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                                Water in Jordan

Economy and Water

Jordan is a small country with limited natural resources. It is among the most
water-poor countries in the world. In addition to insufficient amount of water,
Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries,
whose control has partially deprived Jordan of its fair share of water. The deficit
is covered by the unsustainable practice of overdrawing highland aquifers,
resulting in lowered water tables and declining water quality.

Components of the water crisis in Jordan are limited renewable water
resources, increasing cost of supply expansion, high population growth,
efficiency of service delivery, and cost, recovery, and affordability.

Percent uses by sector in the year 2008:
      Industrial, 4%
      Pastoral, 1%
      Municipal, 32%

The country is currently exploring ways to expand its limited water supply and
use its existing water resources more efficiently, including through regional

Jordan is the only Arab country among the original group of 30 countries that
supported the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) in 1980. The WCS
declaration encouraged all countries to draw up a national strategy for
environmental protection. The Department of Environment's primary aim, when it
was established, was planning for a national strategy, which was formulated and
approved by the Jordanian government in May 1991.

Environment and Water

Jordan today stands face to face with the reality of potentially frightening water
shortages. In a largely arid region, even the slightest change in water levels or
quality has a significant impact on agriculture, industry, nutrition, and personal
health standards. The hard reality is that Jordan is consuming more water than it
has available from secure (annually renewable) sources. A water catastrophe is
imminent, as groundwater resources will slowly dry up.

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Climatic changes causing shorter rainy seasons and lower rain levels are
attributed to the depleting ozone layer, increasing global pollution, degenerating
environmental conditions, and the changing weather cycle across the country,
which seems now more than ever to be affected by desert climatic conditions.

In the year 2008, water needs are estimated at 1297 mcm. Water availability was
at 866 mcm, which left a deficit of 431 mcm. Water demand in 2010 was 1525
mcm, and it estimated to reach 1615 mcm by the year 2020. Such severe water
shortages have forced the government to impose a rationing program, whereby
domestic water supply is pumped twice a week during summer months.

Scarce water has been treated in some cases as if it were abundant. Hence,
water prices have been minimal and demand excessive. Two-thirds of the
Kingdom‘s water goes to low-value agricultural crops, while higher value
demands for urban consumers, industry and tourism go unmet. Furthermore, half
of Amman‘s water supply is ―lost‖ or unaccounted for somewhere in the nation‘s
distribution network.

Jordanians are supplied with only 90 liters of water per capita a day. This is
already one of the lowest water consumption rates in the world: According to the
World Health Organization, "normal" water consumption rates should hover
around 170 liters per capita daily26% of available water goes to domestic use
and tourism, 5% to industries and the rest, 70% goes to agriculture, which,
according to the Central Bank, directly contributes to 3.8 per cent of the GDP.

Water Sources

Jordan ultimately depends largely on rainfall. The rainfall is highly variable and
only occurs in the mountainous range in the north-west. Its annual variability
affects rain fed agriculture, ranges, livestock, groundwater recharge and surface
water storage.

Total rainfall amounts are:

• Wet Year: 11 billion cubic meters

• Average Year: 8.3 billion cubic meters

• Dry Years: 5.2 billion cubic meters

93% of the rainfall evaporates, and only 7% is available in the form of flood flow
and groundwater.
                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Other sources of water come from non-renewable (fossil water) reservoirs – such
as the Disi reservoir on the Jordanian-Saudi border – and treated wastewater (a
trickle of actual needs). The Jordan and Yarmouk rivers are both major sources
of surface water for Jordan, but both had become highly undependable due to
upstream diversion and over-pumping by Syria and Israel. The King Talal Dam is
Jordan‘s largest above-ground water reservoir.

Water Demands; MCM (2005-2020)

                   18 0 0

                   16 0 0

                   14 0 0

                   12 0 0

                   10 0 0





                               19 98    20 0 5      2 010        2 0 15      20 2 0

          M un ic ip a l       29 7    3 6 6 .9     40 4 .5     4 4 4. 2     49 3 .4

          To u r i st ic                 5 .5        10 .1        16 .2       19. 9

          In du s t r ia l      45      5 9. 3      7 7 .3       99 .8       119. 8

          Ir r ig a t i on     90 0    1,0 93 .4   1,0 7 2. 3   1, 03 9 .7   98 2 .7

                                                   WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                         Foreign Relations and Water

Jordan signed a non-belligerency agreement with Israel (the Washington
Declaration) in Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. Jordan and Israel signed a
historic peace treaty on October 26, 1994, witnessed by President Bill Clinton.
This treaty guarantees Jordan its right to an additional 215 mcm of water
annually through new dams, diversion structures, pipelines and a
desalination/purification plant. Of this 215 mcm, Jordan is already receiving
between 55 and 60 mcm of water from across the border with Israel through a
newly-built pipeline. Jordan is also entitled to build a series of dams on the
Jordan and Yarmouk rivers to impound its share of flood waters. To this end, the
Karama Dam in the Jordan Valley has been built to stor 55 mcm of water, mainly
from the Yarmouk, and its yield will be used to help irrigate some 6000 hectares
in the southern Jordan Valley.

The U.S. has participated with Jordan and Israel in trilateral development
discussions in which key issues have been water-sharing and security;
cooperation on Jordan Rift Valley development; infrastructure projects; and trade,
finance, and banking issues.

In addition to securing its bilateral rights from Israel in its 1994 peace treaty,
Jordan is actively involved in promoting regional cooperation through the Water
Resources Working Group of the Multilateral Peace Talks. Likewise, Jordan is
currently involved in discussions with Syria pertaining to issues on the upper
catchment of the Yarmouk River in an attempt to reach an understanding over
stable water sharing and flood storage between the two countries. Jordan has
long been a strong advocate of transforming the zero-sum game in water
sharing, where there are winners and losers, into a positive-sum game where all
the concerned parties will be winners. Hopefully, in the context of future peace,
there will be real cooperation among the countries of the region toward achieving
the provision of safe and reliable water for future generations.

U.S. - Jordanian Relations and Water

Since 1952 the United States has worked closely with Jordan to improve the lives
of Jordanian citizens. Development assistance totaling nearly $6 billion has
resulted in dramatically improved health indicators, road and water networks,
hundreds of schools built, thousands of Jordanians in critical fields educated and
trained in the U.S., and grants and loans for U.S. agricultural commodities.
Current focus areas include education, access to water, resource management
                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
and conservation, energy, youth and poverty alleviation programs, maternal/child
health, energy, governance, macroeconomic policy, workforce development, and
competitiveness. These programs are an essential contributor to a strong
bilateral relationship centered on a stable, reform-oriented Jordan.

                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
                         Water Resources Management

As the exploitation of new water resources is costly, Jordan will invest heavily in
the development and maintenance of water infrastructure. Among the projects
requiring immediate attention are storage dams, wastewater treatment and
reuse, rehabilitation of distribution systems, and augmenting urban water
supplies. Conserving water, reducing leakage and waste, and utilizing a greater
proportion of surface water through damming are comparatively economical
ways of stretching Jordan‘s meager water supply further.

Reusing treated wastewater for agriculture could effectively double Greater
Amman‘s water supply at affordable costs (where nearly half the country‘s
population resides). However, a supply-only response without accompanying
demand management and conservation is likely to result in simply wasting even
larger quantities. For these reasons, USAID/Jordan in close cooperation with the
Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation and the Water Authority of Jordan
pursues a two-track approach to the water sector that not only generates supply
but also encourages more cost effective water use in all sectors and includes
both construction activities and the transfer of technical skills.

USAID's water portfolio activities are designed to enhance Jordan‘s ability to
manage its water resources wisely as well as in a more integrated and efficient
manner. This helps support regional stability by preventing conflict, provides
quality water for the population and improves the overall economic prospects for
the country. Specific activities are initiated in partnership with the Government of
Jordan and focus on: improving environmental protection; optimizing the
availability and use of water resources; strengthening water policies and
systems; and improving resource allocation.

Construction activities are making good progress. In Aqaba, a $31 million
contract was awarded by USAID in February 2003 to rehabilitate and expand
wastewater treatment for the city. Contracting is also underway with an expected
award in October 2004 for rehabilitation of Aqaba‘s water distribution system.

In Amman, the construction of the $125 million Zara Ma‘in Water Supply project
is underway, with USAID funding $104 million of the cost. This project will
increase potable supplies by 40 percent in the capital. Construction at the As
Samra $167 million build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract for wastewater
treatment of 60 million cubic meters per year started in January 2004. This is
Jordan‘s first private sector BOT with 50 percent private sector financing and
operation for a 25-year period. Approximately 46 percent of the cost is being
                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
provided by USAID in the form of a grant. USAID also is implementing a $72
million component of the multi-donor rehabilitation of Amman‘s potable water
distribution system.

On other fronts, the USAID-funded Watershed Management project strengthened
the relationship between the Ministries of Health and Water with agreement on
the following: acceptance of key water standards and regulations, Quality
Assurance/Quality Control program for ministries laboratories, drinking water
guidelines, and new procedures that will result in reduced water treatment plant
shutdowns. On another environmental front, groundwater protection has been
advanced through twinning the Amman municipality and Northern Governorate
hospitals with U.S. partners for the hazardous/medical waste disposal.

Regarding water reclamation, USAID funded the establishment of three
demonstration farms were established for reclaimed water in Irbid, Wadi Mousa
and Aqaba. Moreover, with technical assistance from USAID, Jordan now has a
strategy for pricing and marketing reclaimed water and the resulting crops
produced. Revised industrial reuse standards received Jordanian Government
approval. To support this progress, new water entities were created including the
Reuse and Environment Unit and a Reuse Coordination Committee. Other
activities in reuse include public/farmer education, training, study tours and

In the area of Water Demand Management, a Water Demand Management
(WDM) Unit was established at the Ministry of Water and Irrigation with
assistance from USAID. The Water Efficiency and Public Information for Action
Program (WEPIA), funded by USAID, supported a new WDM curriculum that has
been inserted into Jordanian classroom textbooks from grades 1 through 11. The
WEPIA program also helped establish a Masters Degree program at Jordan
University for Science and Technology. The revision of sanitary and
beautification codes is in final stages. Public education on water issues is
ongoing along with journalist training sessions. Sales training and the actual
sales of water-saving devices continues to expand. Auditing and retrofitting of
public and private buildings (hotels, schools, hospitals, government and
commercial) indicated that 40 to 60 percent are now using water-saving devices.
A ―model‖ community was rehabilitated to demonstrate water and associated
energy conservation. 27 grants have been awarded to poor communities to
alleviate water shortages and inefficient water usage. Also, a new USAID
program (KAFA‘A) initiating agricultural demand management in Jordan has
begun. KAFA‘A addresses efficient irrigation in the Jordan Valley and selected

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
highland areas. This initiative aims to improve the economic return of water used
in agriculture and will support: improved on-farm water management, agriculture
extension, irrigation, better crop selection, marketing and export potential.

USAID provided technical assistance to the water authorities of Jordan to
improve and standardize accounting systems, improve efficiency, and strengthen
these institutions. For example, training courses under a program with
Washington State University have been completed for more than 800 employees
from the Jordan Valley Authority, Water Authority of Jordan and Ministry of Water
and Irrigation. Furthermore, Washington State and the University of Jordan are
engaged in curriculum development for proposed, new water studies to be added
to courses at the University of Jordan.

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

The Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) is the responsible entity for all water
and wastewater services together with the Water Authority and Jordan Valley

MWI is adopting measures aiming at:

       1. Improving the services by restructuring and rehabilitating the existing

       2. Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW).

       3. Providing new resources and maximizing the efficient use of available

       4. Reducing reliance on subsidies.

Jordan has worked to manage irrigation with wastewater for several decades.
Since the early 1980s the general approach has been to treat the wastewater
and either discharge it to the environment where it mixes with freshwater flows
and is indirectly reused downstream, or to use the resulting effluent to irrigate
restricted, relatively low-value crops. Given the diminishing per capita freshwater
supply, the increasing dominance of effluent in the water balance, the
overloading of wastewater treatment plants, local riparian water rights, and the
need to protect domestic and export produce markets, effectively managing
water reuse, including enforcement of existing regulations, has become
increasingly challenging.

Jordan's 19 wastewater treatment plants generate more that 80 million cubic
meters of treated wastewater per year. This volume is significant and will play an
important role in meeting future demands for water in Jordan.

Public acceptance generally dictates that, in addition to irrigated agriculture,
which is likely to continue to be the largest user, reclaimed water can be
effectively used for environmental restoration and enhancements, irrigation of
green areas (parks, golf courses, sports fields), urban development (waterfalls,
fountains, lakes), road cleaning, car washing, fire fighting, toilet flushing, and/or
industrial uses, but not for potable water supplies.

A major consideration in the use of reclaimed water in Jordan is the potential
impact of regulations on the export market of fresh fruit and vegetables, and the
possibility of restrictions placed by importing countries based on the poor
                                                WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
microbiological quality of the irrigation water. The export market for food crops
grown in Jordan has suffered from restrictions imposed by some of the importing
countries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf because wastewater, where
inadequately treated, may have been used to irrigate crops in some parts of
Jordan. More recently, standards for exporting crops to Europe have become
more rigorous, as they need to be compliant with Euregap, stressing the
importance of addressing the role of wastewater in the water used for irrigation.

Location of waste water treatment pants in Jordan:

                                             WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

Project        Location Contact            Project   Sector           Capacity   Phase        Expected
name                    information        Value                                              Completion

Jordan Red     Al         Hatem Tieby      USD 10    Water            900        Developer    2045
Sea Project    Aqabah                      billion   Desalination,    million    BOT - Bid
                          (Project                   Water            cu.m/y     Submission
                          Manager)                   Transmission
                          +962 6-585-
                          7161 ext:626


Jordan Red     Al         Hatem Tieby      USD 4.5   Water            200        Developer    2015
Sea Project    Aqabah                      billion   Desalination     million    BOT - Bid
– Phase 1                 (Project                                    cu.m./y    Submission

                          +962 6-585-
                          7161 ext:626


MWI - Disi     Jordan     Ministry of      N/A       Power            325 km     Completion   Q4 2012
Water                     Water and                  Transmission     100,000
Conveyance                Irrigation                 & Distribution   cu.m./d.

MWI – Irbid    Irbid      N/A              N/A       Power            13,500     Completion   Q4 2011
Wastewater                                           Generation       cu.m./d.

                                                          WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Water Sector Organizations

Jordan Ice and Aerated Water Company (PepsiCo Jordan)
      PepsiCo Building
      Zarkaa Highway
      P.O. Box 146
      Amman 11118

      Tel: +962 6-489-2014
      Fax: +962 6-489-7114

Ghadeer Mineral Water Company (Nestlé Waters Jordan)
     Jamal Commercial Center
     3rd Floor
     Safar Bin Kaab Street
     Bayader Wadi Al Seer Industrial Area
     P.O. Box 142393
     Amman 11844

      Tel: +962 6-550-5510
      Fax: +962 6-550-5517

Jordan Water Company (Miyahuna)
      Miyahuna Building
      Al Jalil Street
      Jebel Al Hussein Area
      P.O. Box 922918
      Amman 11192

      Tel: +962 6-566-6111
      Fax: +962 6-566-2642

Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ)
       Ministry of Water and Irrigation Building
      4th Floor
      Shomesani Area
      P.O. Box 2412
      Amman 11183

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
       Tel: +962 6-568-3100
            +962 6-568-0100
       Fax: +962 6-567-9143

Aqaba Water Company (AWC)
     Aqaba Water Company Building
     Sharif Hussein Bin Ali Street
     P.O. Box 252
     Al Aqabah 77110

       Tel: +962 3-201-5656
       Fax: +962 3-201-5982

Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI)
       Ministry of Water and Irrigation Building
       Shmeisani Area
       P.O. Box 2412
       Amman 5012

       Tel: +962 6-568-0100
       Fax: +962 6-568-0075

Irshaidat Water Treatment Company (IWT)
       Al Burj Building number 91
       4th Floor
       Queen Rania Street
       P.O. Box 925973
       Amman 11190

       Tel: +962 6-462-4534
            +962 6-462-1622

       Fax: +962 6-562-0211

                                               WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Arab Water Treatment Company (ARWATCO)
      Building number 38
      Queen Rania Street
      P.O. Box 962962
      Amman 11196

      Tel: +962 6-515-2225
      Fax: +962 6-515-2225

Middle East Environment Technology (MEET) – Wastewater Treatment
      AquaTreat Building
      Zawood Street
      Al Qastal Area
      P.O. Box 143146
      Amman 11844

      Tel: +962 6-471-7557
      Fax: +962 6-471-7561

LEMA Company – Water Distribution
     P.O. Box 940095

      Tel: +962 5666111
      Fax: +962 5680868

Samra Project Company (SPC) – Wastewater Treatment
     Samra Project Company Building
     Hashimiya Area
     P.O. Box 11194
     Amman 942023

      Tel: +962 5-390-1230
      Fax: +962 5-390-1231

Energy and Water Technology Investment Company – Investment Firm
      Catalyst Investment Management Company
                                        WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
      PO Box 1350
      Amman 11821

      Tel: +962 6-581-3411
      Fax: +962 6-581-3412

Quality and Excellence Company (Q&E)
       Shukri Al Majdalawi Building
       3rd Floor
       3rd Circle Street
       Jebel Amman Area
       P.O. Box 960332
       Amman 11196

      Tel: +962 6-462-2861
      Fax: +962 6-462-2949

Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH)
       Ministry of Public Works and Housing Building
       Airport Road
       8th Circle
       P.O. Box 1220
       Amman 11118

      Tel: +962 6-580-3838
      Fax: +962 6-585-7590

Catalyst Investment Management Company – Investment Firm
      Hajb Al Tijari Building
      1st Floor
      Al Mahara Street
      P.O. Box 1350
      Amman 11821

      Tel: +962 6-581-3411
      Fax: +962 6-581-3412
                                            WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Useful Links

Construction Week Online:
The latest news and information in the world of construction. A search on ‗water‘
brings up a wide range of Algerian projects.

An Arabic business news portal. News can be filtered by sector – select ‗Power‘
for the news including water projects.

Arab Water Council:
The website for the non-profit regional organization that is responsible for
advancing water resources in the Middle East and North Africa. There is a link to
the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) portal within the ‗Databases‘ section, which
shows all current PPPs in operation.

Arab Countries Water Utilities Association:
Established in 2007 for much the same reasons as the Arab Water Council, this
organization is primarily responsible for the advocacy of Arab water and
wastewater service providers.

Desalination and Water Reuse Quarterly:
News website for the industry. A search on Algeria brings up current activities.

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Sources / Bibliography

2011 Commercial Guide for US Companies in Jordan.

Dellapenna, Joseph W. Introduction to Water and Water Law in the Jordan

General Overview. CIA World Fact book – June14, 2011

Jordan Information. US Department of State – March 25, 2011

Local Water Supply, Sanitation, Sewage – Country Report: Jordan. MEDA

Market Overview – Jordan. Commercial Guide.

Prospects of Efficient Wastewater Management and Water Reuse in Jordan.
MEDA Water.

Raddad, Khamis. Water supply and water use statistics in Jordan. Department of

Sustainable Management of Scarce Resources in the Coastal Zone – Case
Study: Jordan.

Sustainable Water Strategies for Jordan. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. April

Trade in Goods with Jordan. U.S Census Bureau.

U.S. Imports from 2002 – 2010. U.S Census Bureau.

                                              WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan
Water Resources in Management. USAID in Jordan.

World Trade Center Association. WTC Jordan – 2011

Zawya. JRSP: Jordan Red Sea Project – April 28, 2011.

Zawya. JRSP: Jordan Red Sea Project Phase 1–April 28, 2011.

Zawya. MWI - Disi Water Conveyance Project.

Zawya. MWI – Irbid Wastewater Treatment Plant.

                                          WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego – Jordan

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