Human Psychology and Happiness - PowerPoint

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					 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
        (马斯洛需求层次理论 )
and World Happiness Levels与幸
        福的世界水平
             Dr Mark Williams
    Professor of Education (Positive Psychology)
              Shenzhen University
         Mobile: (0011 86 755) 13417391319
           email: markw.szu@gmail.com
               website: www.aappi.net
       Questions for this lecture
         关于这个讲座的问题
• What is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? 什么是马斯
  洛的需求层次?
• How do these needs explain aspects of our levels
  of happiness? 这些需要是如何解释反应我们的幸福水
  平?
• What are world levels of happiness? 什么是幸福的
  世界水平?
• How do world levels of happiness relate to
  Maslow’s hierarchy? 世界水平的幸福是如何与马斯洛
  的层次理论关联?
     Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
• Parents migrated to America,
  uneducated Russian Jews. 父母,没
  有受过教育的俄罗斯犹太人,移居到美国。
• Studied law then PhD in psychology.
  学习法律,然后获得心理学博士学位。
• Taught and researched, eventually
  Professor at Brandeis University.
  授课和研究,终于成为布兰代斯大学教授。
• Leader of the humanistic school of psychology 1950-
  1970 1950-1970 年,领导人文主义心理学学校
• “Third force" beyond Freudian theory and
  behaviourism. “第三势力”超越弗洛伊德的理论和行为主义。
      Maslow, leader of humanist
    psychology 人本主义心理学的领导者
• What energizes, directs, and sustains human
  behavior - biology, drive for achievement, or power?
  是什么支持,指导,并维持人类行为 - 生物学,对成就和权
  力的渴望?

• In a famous article “A Theory of Human Motivation”
  (1943) in the American journal Psychological Review,
  Maslow contended that human needs drive
  behaviour1943 年,马斯洛在美国心理学评论杂志发表一
  篇著名文章“关于人类的动机的一个理论,谈及人类需要
  驱动行为
Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid Diagram
   (Huitt, 2007) 需要层次金字塔图
           自我超越
                               4 Growth
             自我实现                 Needs
                               4种增长/发展
               审美                    需求
                 认知

                    尊重     4 Deficiency
                      归属与爱       Needs
                               4种不足/基本
                       安全/安全      需求。
                         生理
Maslow’s 4 Deficiency Needs 马斯洛
      的四种不足需求理论
• Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval
  and recognition. 尊重:去实现,去完善,去获得赞赏
  和承认。

• Belongingness and Love: affiliate with others, be
  accepted; 归属与爱:与他人融洽,被接受;
• Safety/security: out of danger; 安全/安全:脱离危险;
• Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;
  生理:饥饿,干渴,身体舒适等;
        Maslow’s 4 Growth Needs
          马斯洛的四种增长/发展需求
• Self-transcendence: connect to something bigger,
  help others develop. 自我超越:参与到到更大的事情,
  帮助他人发展
• Self-actualization: self-fulfillment and realize one‘s
  potential. 自我实现:自我实现,挖掘自己的潜力
• Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty. 审美:对称,
  秩序,和美容
• Cognitive: to know, understand, explore. 认知:知道,
  理解,探索
        Maslow’s Growth Needs
 马斯洛的增长/发展需求理论 (Huitt, 2007)
• more self-actualized and self-transcendent means
  more wisdom - knows what to do. 更多地去自我实现
  和自我超越意味着更多的智慧 - 知道该怎么做
• in spite of a lack of scientific experiments to
  support this model, it enjoys wide acceptance. 尽管
  缺乏科学实验来支持这一模式,它还是被广泛的接受
• important to parents, educators, human resource
  managers and others developing and using human
  potential. 对家长,教育工作者,人力资源管理者和其他
  开发和利用人的潜力的人而言很重要
     Maslow’s Hierarchy and
  Happiness 马斯洛的层次和幸福
• It’s hard to be happy if deficiency needs are not being
  met 如果我们的基本需求无法得到满足,这是很难
  感到幸福的
• However, people can feel some happiness even if their
  needs are not being met. 然而,人们可以感受到一些
  快乐,即使他们的基本需要没有得到满足
• Is more happiness available to people as more of their
  needs are met? 是不是人们的需求越多得到满足,就
  会越开心?
Basic Physical Needs
    基本生理需求
           Basic Physical Needs
                 基本生理需求
• Food and Drink (not to be hungry or thirsty) 食品和
    饮料(不挨饿或渴)
•   Air for oxygen 空气中氧气
•   Sleep and warmth 睡眠和温暖
•   Maternal behaviour 母性行为
•   Sexual release 性释放
•   Basic sensory needs like touch, being near and
    sensing other people and nature 基本感觉需要触摸,
    接近和感受他人与自然
           Basic Physical Needs
                  基本生理需求
• Food, water, air and rest are essential for life. 食品,水,
  空气和休息是生活的必需
• People will die without them and cannot even fight.没
  有这些,人会死,甚至不能斗争
• Without them happiness is very difficult. 没有它们,幸
  福是很困难的
• Some happiness might be found in having hope or
  working to get these needs satisfied, especially
  working with others which is a form of happiness
  itself. 有些快乐可能就在有希望或者在努力满足这些需求过
  程中,特别是与他人一起努力1,这本身是幸福一种形式。
 I’ve been lucky, always having had
these needs provided for我是多么幸运地享受着
             已提供好的需求
    Safety and Security
   Needs 安全和保障需要
Basic Physical Needs   基本生
           理需求
        Safety and Security Needs
                 安全和保障需要
    Once a person’s basic needs have been met, their
    next concern is usually for: 当一个人的基本需求得
    到满足,他们的下一个令人关注通常是:
•   safety and security 安全与保障
•   freedom from pain 远离疼痛
•   Addressing threats from possible
    physical attack对付可能的身体攻击威胁
•   protection from danger. 保护免受危险
 Safety and Security Needs (cont.)
                安全和保障需要
• People and communities spend a lot of time and
  energy to get these needs met – e.g. locks and
  keys, home security, police, weapons, health
  care, armed services 人们和社区花了很多时间和精力
  来满足这些需求 - 如锁和钥匙,家庭安全,警察,武器,
  医疗保健,军队
• If these needs are not met, some happiness might
  be found in having hope and working or fighting
  for safety and security, especially with others. 如果
  这些需求得不到满足,一些快乐可以在为安全和保障充
  满希望地工作或战斗中找到
 My older brother
    had a mental
condition and often
 attacked me, once
  pushing me off a
high balcony nearly
  killing me. This
  created anxiety
since my safety and
security needs were
       not met.
   Love and Social Needs
      爱和社会需要
    Safety and Security
   Needs 安全和保障需要
Basic Physical Needs   基本物
           质需求
         Love & Social needs
              爱和社会需要
  These include: 这些措施包括
• a sense of belonging 归属感 esp. family尤指意识的归
    属感。家庭
•   the need for social activities 对社会活动的需要
•   Friendships友谊
•   giving and receiving love 给予和接受爱
•   For most adults, loving sexual intimacy 对于大多数成
    年人,有爱心的性亲密
      Love & Social needs (cont.)
                  爱和社会需要
• People spend a lot of time and energy to create
  loving families, good friendships, social activities,
  romance and love人们花费大量时间和精力去营造和谐家庭、友
  谊和社交、爱情
• If people do not have a sense of belonging or love,
  some happiness might be found in having hope and
  working to find friendship, love or social belonging,
  especially with groups, clubs, or with others. 如果人们
  没有归属感和爱,快乐可以在充满希望地寻觅中找到
  Recent Research on Social Needs
  关于社会需求的最近研究      (Christakis & Fowler, 2009)
• Being connected to a happy friend makes you
  15% more likely to be happy yourself 拥有一
 个快乐的朋友让你增加15%的幸福
• even being connected even to a friend’s
  friend’s friend (3 degrees of separation)
  makes you 6% more likely 甚至接触到一个朋友
 的朋友的朋友(3分离度)让你增加6%的幸福
• Other research shows that an extra $10,000
  makes people 2% more likely to be happy 其他
 研究表明,一个额外的10,000元让人增加幸福
          Relatedness
• Maslow’s Need for Belongingness
• Social interactions with friends.
• Affectionate relationships with others.
• Others acknowledge us and care about our
  wellbeing.
• Give and take: reciprocal relationships.
     Humans are social animals
• Like other social
  animals.
• Living together in
  groups improved our
  survival.
• Perhaps part of our
  genetic makeup.
• Important for our well-
  being.
    Marital status and SWB

• Significant predictor of
  subjective well being.
• Make for more:
• Positive interactions
• Emotional expressiveness
• Role sharing
• For success, trust and
  intimacy important.
I’ve been lucky always having had
        these needs meet
   Self-Esteem
  Needs自尊的需求
Love and Social Needs
  爱与社会的需求
 Safety and Security
Needs 安全与保障的需
          求
 Basic Physical Needs
   基本生理的需求
           Self-esteem needs
              自尊的需求
This includes the need to have
• self respect (involves the desire to have strength,
  confidence, independence, freedom and
  achievement) 自我尊重的需求包括(对力量拥有的
  渴望,有信心,独立,自由和成就)
• esteem of others (involves having prestige,
  status, attention, recognition, reputation and
  appreciation from other people) 尊重他人(包括
  尊重他人的声望,地位,认真,赏识,名誉和别人对
  他的赞赏)
High self esteem - father, professor,
well-travelled and experienced 高度
自尊的人--父亲,教授,见多识广,经验
丰富的人
Self actualisation needs
    自我实践的需求

    Self-Esteem
   needs 自尊的需
Love and 求
         Social Needs
    爱与社会的需求
 Safety and Security
Needs 安全与保障的需求
 Basic Physical Needs
   基本物质的需求
       Self actualisation needs
           自我实践的需求
• This is the development of and realisation of a
  person’s full potential 自我实践的需求是人类发展
  和实现目标的充分潜力
• all the other needs in the pyramid have to be
  achieved before a person can reach this stage 在金字
  塔中其他所有需求必须在自我实践的需求达到后才
  能实现
          Self actualisation needs
              自我实践的需要
• Include: Peak experiences of the unity and oneness of life,
  knowledge, compassion, goodness, understanding, appreciating
  the beautiful, kindness, meaningfulness, authenticity,
  playfulness, vitality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving,
  openness to the new, lack of prejudice, morality-ethics, and
  acceptance of the facts of life. 包括:生活中统一性的顶峰经
  验(或体验 ),知识,同情心,善良,理解,美丽,善良,
  意义,真实性,娱乐,生命力,创造力,自发性,解决问题,
  创新的,缺乏偏见, 道德伦理,并接受生活事实
Self actualization through
 happiness 通过幸福来自我实践
Self actualization through the happiness
of elevation, wonder, ecstasy, gratitude,
flow and engagement in teaching and
researching positive psychology and the
flow of language and love (the Dao)     通
过增加幸福,好奇,狂喜,感激,流量和教学
科研参与,积极心理学研究以及语言与爱的流
动(即道)来实现自我实践

Especially elevation through reading
   e.g.
• Cupitt, Don. (2001). Emptiness and
   Brightness. Polebridge Press: USA
• Cupitt, Don. (2003). Life, Life.
   Polebridge Press: USA
• Cupitt, Don. (2005). The way to
   happiness. Polebridge Press: USA
   One of my art
exhibitions - this one
        Berlin
 我的一个艺术展览 – 在柏林
                                   Transcendence 超越
 4 Growth       Self actualization Self-actualization 自我实现
  Needs
                needs 自我实践的需 Cognitive 认知
4的增长需求                             Aesthetic 审美的
                        求
                   Self-Esteem
                 Needs 自尊的需求
4 Deficiency
   Needs.
               Love and Social Needs
4缺乏需求。            爱与社会的需求
                Safety and Security
               Needs 安全与保障的需求
                Basic Physical Needs
                   基本物质的需求
      Transcendence 超越
• Late in his life Maslow stated that
  transcendence is a higher need even
  than self-actualization马斯洛晚年说,超
  越是一个比自我实践还高的需求
• He founded the Association for
  Humanistic Psychology in 1959 and,
  then, going a quantum jump further,
  established the Association for
  Transpersonal Psychology in 1969 to
  study transcendence. 他于1959年创立人
  文主义心理学协会,然后,一个像量子跳跃
  似的进步,于1969年成立的超个人心理学协
  会,研究超越这一性质。
 Transcendence is a spiritual need
 achieved by relatively few people
超越是由相对少数人的精神的需求来实现
Joke
Time:
Happy
China?
笑话时间:快乐中国?
                         References
• Christakis, N. A. & Fowler, J. H. (2009). Connected: The Surprising Power
  of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. Little Brown and
  Company.
• Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology
  Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date]
  from, http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html
• Inglehart, Ronald. (1990). Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society.
  Princeton, NJ: Princeton. University Press, USA
• Maslow, A (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review
  50(4):370-96.
• Miller, W. & deBaca, J. (2001) Quantum Change: When Epiphanies and
  Sudden Insights Transform Ordinary Lives. Guildford Publications Inc.

				
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