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```					                             The Past Perfect

What do we mean by the Past Perfect?

!"     # \$%
+ )*         ' (&' ..
,-               .            /0 1             , /0 2 3 4 \$       2
6               /,                 \$%    )5     ' &' .

9 : ;<=                %      '; > ?1         847 .
;<= @ %" ; >               1     %               % ,-       2
; > 1 \$% )5 A <                    . .
!# B C D 7 "% E 1 F =             G
;H I ")          ..

JI K1
How to form the Past Perfect

? 1     LHM          N= O      ") P 2 !\$Q 1" \$                R ; 0< % S M
Has/have+V-past participle

T I ;U      ;H I                   ;H M   V\$.W F = % S M E G :

>     2 had        M:         > ;7 7 ;H I /, .

%          >      G had X 7 <2 V                 Y O & R ")Z

She-he-it-you-they-we-I
LH I \$ W ; > & W A     D7      1 EG:

; B T IW
I had eaten the apple before I went to school yesterday.

6                    A<                  .                   ?'        , - V2 % 3 4 \$
;<=        @ %" \$% 6                      \$%          7       -     ; >     1 \$% D :             -
.                >   )5                       ;H M V\$. )5                     - A     !"        -        2
6
O.K

A         D7             = 1; B              , - ; 1 != O                   9         V2 ;[ 4
U       6                         ; B \"-W ] S I ^                        .
; B V2 /0> ; B D4)                      \$0>         O ?'\$         I    V 3 4 ? "- 2
_ X Q V2 ; 7 :       \\$` F = 6                          ;H M      4M        %.

a
When to use the Past Perfect ?
<2 \$% (K                  1         7   = b`        > = .        G)
+ )*        ' (&'                                                      ..
,-              .                  /0 1                 ,   /0 2 3 4 \$      2
6                       !" ( )5         - d\$R != O                     9 c )5          ' &' )
; B D4)           \$0>       O     . V         %e.

; 7 /Examples

D# a 2 L ] O !" ?'\$            \$W !      1 U

D :              -     2:                    <2 % 41 ' !           V.

7           - :6                        <2 % D#       !=\$O .

V             %e 1     , - V %3 4 \$ .

I had finished my work before the captin came.

. X B    '        ?0     U.

D :              -     2:                    <2 %          ?0       .

7           - :6                    <2 %         . X B .

V             %e 1     , - V %3 4 \$ .

He had never seen a cigarette before.
' f= B \$% % ` / .

D :           -       2:                  <2 % f= B          %` / L .

7           - :; B D4)              O        \$0> \$%      2 =\$1"    S.

\ "- 6                           V\$. V g >             !"    )5      -     2
; B h <               L\$ O    0 '    U    ; B                %.

\$ ;IU & < U .

D :           -     2:                  <2 % ;IU & < L .

7        - :; B D4)               O      \$0> \$%         2 =\$1"        S.

\ "- 6                            V\$. V g >        !"         )5           -    2
; B h <               L\$ O    0 '    U    ; B                %.

He had called the doctor when I got there.
i %?M           E b a <2 ' V 1 U .

D :           -        2:                   <2 % E b a            <2 L .

7     - :6                        <2 % i % / .          D\$M .

V               %e 1    , - V %3 4 \$ .

;-      ; 7 : V\$.W V a W .

I \$ . 6                                B E.              ; b' ! ; 1 d= \$
6                           ' ? ' X Q 1 a 2 ; bU d <                      WV
; - j"%        2.

```
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