MARIN COUNTYWIDE PLAN

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MARIN COUNTYWIDE PLAN Powered By Docstoc
					             MARIN COUNTYWIDE PLAN

               Final Transportation Background Report




Project Manager: Michele Rodriguez, Principal Planner, AICP

                            Alex Hinds, Planning Director
                             Dan Dawson, Senior Planner
                                Kristin Drumm, Planner
                           Larisa Roznowski, Planning Aide
                           Jeanne Shelton, Clerical Support
                            Sharon Silver, Clerical Support


Special Consultant: Nelson\Nygaard




                                     March 2003




         The Marin County Community Development Agency, Planning Division
                    3501 Civic Center Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903
                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. MARIN COUNTY TRANSPORTATION TODAY ...............................................1
   A. MAJOR HIGHWAYS AND ARTERIALS ......................................................1
     1. U.S. 101..................................................................................................1
       a. Golden Gate Bridge ............................................................................1
     2. Interstate 580..........................................................................................1
       a. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge.........................................................2
     3. State Route 1 (Shoreline Highway) ........................................................2
     4. State Route 37 (Highway 37; Novato Boulevard) ...................................2
     5. State Route 131 (Tiburon Boulevard) .....................................................2
     6. Sir Francis Drake Boulevard...................................................................3
   B. TRANSIT SERVICE AND ALTERNATE MODES ........................................5
     1. Marin County Transit District ..................................................................5
     2. The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (The
     District) ..........................................................................................................5
       a. Basic Service ......................................................................................7
       b. Commute Service..................................................................................7
       c. Ferry Service .........................................................................................8
       d. Recreational Service .............................................................................8
       e. Ferry Feeder Service ............................................................................8
       f. Local Service..........................................................................................8
       g. Special Service .....................................................................................9
       h. Changes Proposed by Golden Gate Bridge District ..............................9
     3. Paratransit ..............................................................................................9
     4. Specialized Transit ...............................................................................10
       a. Greyhound Lines, Inc. .........................................................................10
       b. Ferries .................................................................................................10
       c. The Marin Airporter .............................................................................10
     5. Transportation Demand Management ..................................................11
     6. Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel ..............................................................12
   C. AIRPORT FACILITIES...............................................................................12
   D. COUNTY PROFILE ...................................................................................13
     1. Households and Population..................................................................13
     2. Other Demographics Affecting Transportation......................................15
     3. Job Base...............................................................................................16
   E. TRAVEL BEHAVIOR .................................................................................17
     1. Trip Distribution ....................................................................................17
     2. Trip Purpose .........................................................................................18
     3. The AM Peak Factor.............................................................................18
     4. The Recreational Factor .......................................................................18
     5. The Sonoma Factor..............................................................................19
     6. Trips Entering Marin from the East on Interstate 580, AM Peak...........20



                                                            i
II. LEVEL OF SERVICE .....................................................................................21
   A. HIGHWAYS ...............................................................................................22
   B. ARTERIALS ...............................................................................................23
   C. HIGHWAY SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS ....................................................25

III. THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION IN MARIN COUNTY ......................27
    A. PROJECTS AND STUDIES UNDERWAY.................................................27
      1. Moving Forward: A Transportation Vision for Marin County .................27
      2. SMART (Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit)...........................................27
      3. Marin County Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan...............................27
      4. Marin Bus Transit Futures ....................................................................28
      5. Water Transit Authority Study- New Ferry Service for the North Bay ...28
      6. Golden Gate Transit Express Bus Services..........................................29
      7. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) .......................................29
      8. Park Access Studies.............................................................................29
        a. Marin Headlands Fort Baker Transportation Management Study .......29
        b. Southern Marin Parklands Comprehensive Transportation
        Management Plan (CTMP).......................................................................30
        c. Tamalpais Transportation Improvements Project (TTI) .......................30
        d. GGNRA Ferry Access Study ...............................................................30
        e. National Park Service Transportation Demand Management Program
        (TDM) .......................................................................................................31




                                                          ii
                I. MARIN COUNTY TRANSPORTATION TODAY

A. MAJOR HIGHWAYS AND ARTERIALS

  1. U.S. 101

  U.S. 101 is Marin County’s primary roadway, which varies between two and
  five lanes in either direction and forms a north-south corridor along Marin’s
  eastern edge.

  U.S. 101 is highly congested because it is the primary surface link to San
  Francisco, the Bay Area’s financial base, which draws large numbers of
  workers each day. The highway also intersects with other important
  highways, such as Interstate 580, which provide important inter-county and
  inter-regional links. U.S. 101 is also vital in connecting communities within
  the County for everyday activities such as shopping, riding to school, and
  recreation.

            a. Golden Gate Bridge

            The Golden Gate Bridge is the only direct surface link between San
            Francisco and Marin, following the path of U.S. 101. Although all
            day traffic volumes across the Bridge have not appreciably
            changed in over a decade, peak periods have spread out, creating
            congested conditions for more hours each day. Additionally,
            weekend travel has increased, so that Sunday afternoon traffic
            exceeds some weekdays, creating extreme traffic congestion
            pressure in Southern Marin on U.S. 101, Highway 1, and other
            highway approaches. The Golden Gate Bridge has six reversible
            lanes; four lanes are provided in the peak direction during commute
            hours, with two lanes provided opposite the peak travel direction.

  2. Interstate 580

  Interstate 580 is a four-lane east-west highway that enters Marin County from
  the East Bay. Interstate 580 terminates in San Rafael at the U.S. 101/I-580
  interchange. The Interstate absorbs and diffuses traffic among northbound
  and southbound motorists on U.S. 101, and westbound and eastbound
  motorists on Sir Francis Drake Boulevard.




                                      1
          a. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge

          Marin County’s position as a job center continues to fuel travel
          demand over the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, with over 75
          percent of all AM trips entering Marin County from the bridge
          destined for locations within the County. The vast majority (78
          percent) of eastbound evening Interstate 580 trips begin in Marin
          County, as workers employed here head home to the East Bay.
          The bridge is 5.5 miles long (including approaches) and supports
          two lanes of traffic in each direction. Some of the 78% eastbound
          evening Interstate 580 trips are residents of northwest Contra
          Costa County, returning home from work in San Francisco.

3. State Route 1 (Shoreline Highway)

State Route 1 is a two-lane highway that runs north to south in West Marin.
With the exception of its access point from US 101 at Tamalpais Valley,
Route 1 follows the east side the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and
the entire recreational corridor of west Marin for the duration of its length
through the County. There is relatively little development surrounding State
Route 1. The corridor is used primarily for intercommunity travel within West
Marin or by visitors to the County.

4. State Route 37 (Highway 37; Novato Boulevard)

State Route 37 in Marin County is a four-lane highway that runs primarily
east-west and borders the City of Novato, intersecting U.S. 101 in the
southern limits of the city. The highway feeds into Novato Boulevard to the
west. In addition to being an important link to U.S. 101, State Route 37
(Highway 37) creates a loop with San Marin Drive and Atherton Avenue to
provide circulation within Novato to serve Marin County’s fastest growing and
most densely populated city.

5. State Route 131 (Tiburon Boulevard)

State Route 131 is a four-lane highway that stems off of U.S. 101 and runs
northwest-southeast in Marin County’s southeast section. The highway is
locally known as Tiburon Boulevard, which serves the Tiburon Peninsula,
connecting with ferry service. Any travel east beyond the Tiburon Peninsula
is limited to ferry service. The peninsula is moderately developed and
provides recreation opportunities for residents and visitors.




                                    2
6. Sir Francis Drake Boulevard

Sir Francis Drake Boulevard is an important arterial roadway that runs
primarily east-west, linking U.S. 101 to State Route 1. Much of the suburban
segment between U.S. 101 and State Route 1 is primarily a four-lane rural
highway. The roadway widens to six lanes around Larkspur Landing east of
U.S. 101 and thins to two lanes as it extends west beyond Fairfax, curving
north along the southern portion of Tomales Bay and then turning southwest
towards the Point Reyes Peninsula. Sir Francis Drake Boulevard is the
primary east-west corridor in Marin County.




                                   3
Figure 1   Marin County – Major Highways and Arterials




                         4
B. TRANSIT SERVICE AND ALTERNATE MODES

  1. Marin County Transit District

  The Marin County Transit District was formed upon a vote of the Marin
  County electorate in 1964 to develop, finance, and provide local transit
  service within Marin County. Transit services are supplied through contracts
  with various operating agencies. The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and
  Transportation District (GGBHTD), which provides local contract bus service
  beginning and ending within the county, and Whistle Stop Wheels, operated
  by the Marin Senior Coordinating Council, which provides specialized van
  service for eligible elderly and disabled individuals. The local GGBHTD
  services provide about an average 4,581 passenger trips per day, and the
  Whistle Stop services provide about an average 232 passenger trips per day.

  In addition to these services, the Transit District recently completed planning,
  resource development, and implementation of a new rural West Marin pilot
  project known as the Stagecoach, providing four round trips on weekdays
  from Bolinas-Stinson Beach to Mill Valley-Marin City and from Inverness to
  San Anselmo. Feeder service is also available for qualified transit-dependent
  riders with hardships in reaching the Stagecoach routes. This project is
  funded in part by Federal Section 5311 Funds. The adult cash fare is $1.50
  per trip, and since implementation of Stagecoach shuttle service in June 2002
  ridership has been robust with an average of over 80 riders carried per day.

  2. The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (The
     District)

  In 1969, the State of California passed legislation allowing the Golden Gate
  Bridge Highway and Transportation District (The District) to provide public
  transit bus and ferry services to keep traffic congestion levels down. The
  District has an important influence on transportation planning and funding in
  Marin County. The District controls toll revenue from the Golden Gate Bridge,
  which it uses to subsidize both its ferry and bus transit services. The District
  also receives funding from the MTC for maintenance and capital projects.
  The District’s general priority is to serve longer distance travel, focusing on
  commutes that end in San Francisco.




                                       5
Figure 2. Golden Gate Transit Route Map




                  6
The District is the “contract operator” for local transit services in Marin
County, under an agreement with the Marin County Transit District. Marin
County provides about $9 million per year to the District that is used to
provide additional local transit service in Marin. Expansion of local transit
services in Marin County could involve an expansion of the contract
arrangement with the District, or could ultimately result in a new contractor
being identified for the local portion of the service.        Marin County’s
arrangement with the District is unique in that the two transit agencies must
work cooperatively at the same time that they are in competition for scarce
transit funds.

The District’s services are not subsidized by local sales tax measures or
dedicated general funds and does not have the authority to levy taxes. The
current operating and capital budget is funded by: 35.2% Tolls; 34.1%
Government Funds; 13.1% Bus and Ferry Fares; 6.2% from other District
sources (Bridge Gift Center & Café, Transit Rents, Concessions and
Advertising).

The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District presently
consists of three operating divisions – Bridge, Bus and Ferry – and an
administrative District Division. The District provides six types of transit
service: Basic, Commute, Recreational, Ferry Feeder, Local, and Special.
Details of these services are provided below.

          a. Basic Service

          Basic service consists of ten fixed routes upon which buses travel
          seven days per week, between the hours of 5:00 AM and 4:00 AM.
          Fares range between $2.35 and $3.95 for travel within Marin
          County, and up to $5.25 for destinations outside of Marin.
          Currently, 194 southbound and 200 northbound weekday runs, and
          130 southbound and 130 northbound weekend runs are made
          along these ten routes.

          b. Commute Service

          Local riders are also carried on Golden Gate Transit transbay bus
          routes that terminate in San Francisco. The Transit District and
          County allow Golden Gate Transit to claim Transportation
          Development Act funds to support local riders on these buses.
          Transbay buses carry 7,400 daily riders. Typically for any given
          month, local Marin bus ridership equals or exceeds intercounty
          travel on the entire Golden Gate Transit bus system.




                                    7
c. Ferry Service

The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District
offers ferry service from Larkspur and Sausalito to the Ferry
Building terminal in San Francisco. The Golden Gate service out of
Larkspur carries about 4,400 weekday daily riders and out of
Sausalito carries about 960 weekday daily riders.

d. Recreational Service

Recreational service is limited to two routes, #63 and #65, serving
park and recreation areas around Stinson Beach and the Town of
Inverness in West Marin. Buses operate Saturday and Sunday
between the hours of 9:00 AM and 6:00 PM. Fares range between
$4.60 and $5.25. Connections are made with other bus routes at
selected stopping points. Currently, 20 runs are made per
weekend.

For the District’s Fiscal Year ending June 2002, Golden Gate
Transit Recreational routes 63 and 65 carried 148 patrons per day.
Ridership was at 227 in 1980, which dropped to 63 by 1990.

e. Ferry Feeder Service

Ferry feeder service operates on 15 routes connecting selected
neighborhoods with the Larkspur, Tiburon, and Sausalito ferries.
There is no fare for this service, which operates Monday through
Friday during peak commute hours. Currently, 94 runs are made
per week. For the District’s Fiscal Year ending June 2002, Golden
Gate Transit ferry feeder routes (routes 3, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, 19, 25,
29, 31, 37, 41, 51, 67, 69) carried 802 patrons per day.

f. Local Service

Golden Gate Transit provides twelve local bus routes under
contract to the Transit District, under a three-party Agreement that
also incorporates the County of Marin. Four trunk line routes are
offered along with eight school supplemental routes. The Transit
District is responsible for setting route alignment, establishing fare
and transfer policies, setting service frequencies, and hours of
operation on these local routes. The fare is $1.75 per trip. For the
District’s Fiscal Year ending June 2002, Golden Gate Transit Marin-
local service routes (routes 1, 7, 17, 21, 23, 27, 33, 35, 39, 43, 45)
carried 1,672,192 patrons.



                           8
          g. Special Service

          Special service is provided for sporting events, fairs, and other
          infrequent events. These buses operate only on the day of the
          event. Special service also includes a shuttle between the Golden
          Gate Bridge toll plaza and the San Francisco Civic Center, and
          between downtown San Rafael and the Bridge District bus facility in
          East San Rafael.

          h. Changes Proposed by Golden Gate Bridge District

          Golden Gate Transit is currently evaluating opportunities to reduce
          over $25M from its annual transit operating budget. The first phase
          of transit service cuts is scheduled to go into effect in March 2003.
          This cut is focused primarily on ferry feeder services and relatively
          minor reductions in other bus and ferry services. A second, and far
          more severe, service cut scenario is currently being developed by
          the District, for implementation in the fall of 2003. Marin County
          Transit District is committed to working with Golden Gate Transit to
          develop alternatives that will meet Golden Gate’s financial needs,
          while preserving as much mobility in Marin County as possible. A
          likely result of this process will be additional burden on the local
          transit agency to provide supplemental or enhanced services for
          local transit needs.

3. Paratransit

Americans with Disabilities Act paratransit services are provided by Whistle
Stop Wheels with over 75,000 local annual passenger trips paratransit
services using over 40 lift-equipped vans. Whistle Stop Wheels also provides
intercounty paratransit service on behalf of Golden Gate Transit. Nearly
10,000 passengers are transported annually on this regional service,
operating between the counties of Marin, Sonoma, San Francisco and Contra
Costa. The Transit District administers this contract on behalf of Golden Gate
Transit and is fully reimbursed for costs associated with it.

Marin’s paratransit services are operated by the Marin Senior Coordinating
Council (MSCC) through a contract with Whistle Stop Wheels. The MSCC
organizes three paratransit services, mostly operating in the eastern, urban
portion of the County. Local paratransit service operates seven days a week
from 5:00 AM to 12:00 AM. The fare for all trips is $1.25. Inter-county
paratransit provides service between Sonoma, Marin and San Francisco
Counties, seven days a week, from 5:00 AM to 12:00 AM depending on



                                    9
destination. Fares range between $4.45 and $10.40. Novato Health Express
operates Monday through Friday 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM. The no-fee service is
exclusive to Novato residents going to medical appointments in the Novato
area. MSCC also provides mid-week trips to Bolinas, Point Reyes, and Dillon
Beach. MSCC is also the contract operator for the West Marin Stagecoach
and Novato EZ Rider project. Novato EZ Rider offers seniors and those with
mobility problems additional intra-Novato transportation options.

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 2002, MSCC accommodated a total of
85,700 passenger trips. Although data on trip purposes are not kept, medical,
shopping and recreation are cited as the top three uses of MSCC’s
paratransit service.

4. Specialized Transit

          a. Greyhound Lines, Inc.

          Greyhound Lines, Inc. provides interregional bus service from its
          terminal in San Rafael. There are two northbound and two
          southbound departures each day with an additional departure in
          either direction during the summer months. The northbound buses
          originate in San Francisco and terminate at Crescent City,
          Vancouver and Seattle. The southbound buses originate in
          Crescent City, Vancouver, and Portland, and terminate in San
          Francisco. Each departure from San Rafael receives an average of
          two passengers.

          b. Ferries

          The Blue and Gold Fleet provides commuter and recreational ferry
          service between Tiburon and San Francisco, and between
          Sausalito and Fisherman’s Wharf in San Francisco. The Angel
          Island-Tiburon Ferry provides weekend service between Tiburon
          and Angel Island and limited, special-request-only, weekday
          service between Tiburon and Angel Island.

          c. The Marin Airporter

          The Marin Airporter provides regularly scheduled service to and
          from the San Francisco airport. Buses operate on 30-minute
          headways from San Francisco International Airport and 30- and 60-
          minute headways from Marin between 4:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m.
          The Marin Airporter is based in Larkspur Landing and provides
          service to Hamilton, San Rafael, Larkspur Landing, Mill Valley and



                                     10
          Sausalito. Terra Linda was recently removed from the Marin
          Airporter’s service area. Ridership averages between 25,000 and
          30,000 passenger trips per month.


5. Transportation Demand Management

Transportation Demand Management includes all modes of transportation
services that fall between conventional transit (buses and trains) and the
private automobile. The goal of Transportation Demand Management
measures is to reduce peak period congestion by encouraging commuters to
use higher capacity modes of travel, or to avoid the peak period using
techniques such as telecommuting, and flexible work schedules. Other TDM
measures include vanpool and carpool matching services and incentives,
employer shuttles connecting to regional transit services, subsidized transit
passes, guaranteed ride home programs, parking cash-out and a host of
education programs designed to foster awareness of transportation
alternatives.

Currently, RIDES, the Regional Ridesharing Agency offers support to
commuters in the nine Bay Area Counties, including assistance with carpool
and vanpool matching. Individual employers may also offer TDM programs to
reduce their impact on the peak period commute. The County of Marin is a
model employer, offering many commute incentives including subsidized
transit passes, and carpool subsidies and incentives. A guaranteed ride
home program provides “insurance” to employees who may be willing to try
an alternative mode but require “insurance” that they will not be stranded if
they have an emergency that requires them to miss their planned commute
option. The County reports substantial increases in the use of alternative
modes since implementing its program. In the first 18 months of the program,
carpool use increased by 108% and transit ticket sales increased by 26%.
The County continues to enhance and develop its program with plans to add
telecommute options and increased transit incentives for County employees.

The Marin County Transit District recognizes the relationship between transit
service and other Transportation Demand Management options. In its Bus
Transit Futures Plan, the District proposes operating a Marin Office of Mobility
Management (MOMM) to assist commuters and employers in offering and
expanding Transportation Demand Management options. Implementation of
this plan depends on enhanced funding.




                                    11
  6. Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel

   The 2000 U.S. Census indicates that 4% of work trips in Marin County are
   made by bicycle and pedestrian modes. A survey conducted by the Regional
   Rideshare agency, RIDES, to gauge perceptions of commute conditions and
   options showed that 18% of commuters see bicycling as a viable commute
   alternative. Bicycle use for commutes within Marin County is lower than
   might be expected due to inadequate or non-existent connections between
   communities, particularly over hilly terrain.

C. AIRPORT FACILITIES

Marin has one general aviation airport at Gnoss Field north of Novato. Marin
Ranch Airport is a small craft private airport in northern San Rafael. Gnoss Field
has a 3,300 foot asphalt runway that accommodates small private aircraft up to
18,500 pounds. It is classified by the Federal Aviation Administration as a "B-1"
facility and a "reliever" airport. Gnoss Field has capacity for 320 aircraft,
currently accommodating 295. The airport currently handles 60,000 takeoffs and
landings per year.

Marin Ranch Airport is a private airport with 2,180 feet of runway. The airport
houses 100 aircraft and accommodates commuter, recreational and emergency
response activities.




                                       12
D. COUNTY PROFILE

  1. Households and Population

  The following table provides 1990 and 2000 population totals for California,
  the San Francisco Bay Area, and Bay Area counties.
                                 Figure 3. Area Population: 1990 and 2000

                                                 Population
                                County           1990       2000
                                Alameda          1,279,182   1,443,741
                                Contra Costa        803,732    948,816
                                Marin               230,096    247,289
                                Napa                110,765    124,279
                                San Mateo           649,623    707,161
                                San Francisco       723,959    776,733
                                Santa Clara      1,497,577   1,682,585
                                Solano              340,421    394,542
                                Sonoma              388,222    458,614
                                Bay Area Total    6,023,577  6,783,760
                                California       29,760,021 33,871,648

  The following graph shows population growth for California, the San
  Francisco Bay Area, and Bay Area Counties for the period between 1990 and
  2000.
                                Figure 4. Change in Population, 1990-2000

                               20
                               18
                               16
           Percent Increase




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                                                   13
The growth rate for population in Marin County was the lowest of the nine Bay
Area Counties, excepting San Francisco, and far lower than either the state or
regional population growth rates.

The following graph presents population distribution among Bay Area
counties.

        Figure 5. Population Distribution, Bay Area Counties, 2000

                        30



                        25



                        20
     Percent of Total




                        15



                        10



                        5



                        0
                             Alameda   Contra   Marin   Napa   San Mateo      San      Santa   Solano   Sonoma
                                       Costa                               Francisco   Clara




Between 1990 and 2000, the population distribution among Bay Area
counties (in terms of percent of total population) was essentially maintained.
Santa Clara and Alameda Counties account for the largest shares (25 and 21
percent, respectively), amounting to 46 percent of the entire Bay Area
population. Contra Costa, San Francisco and San Mateo Counties combined
comprise 35 percent of the total population (14%, 11%, and 10%
respectively). Sonoma, Solano, Marin and Napa Counties remain the Bay
Area’s least populated with a combined 19 percent share.

Marin County residents are “on the move”. People who live in the county
made over 750,000 trips in 1998, up by more than 10 percent in less than a
decade. Almost 80 percent of those trips were made to destinations within
Marin County.

This growth in trip making is far outpacing the growth in either employment or
residents in Marin County. While the number of trips made in Marin County
grew by about ten percent between 1990 and 1998, the number of Marin
County households grew by only about three percent and the number of




                                                                14
 workers in Marin County grew by only about five percent. In fact, during this
 period, Marin County experienced slower growth than any other county in the
 Bay Area outside of San Francisco, while experiencing rapidly increasing
 congestion.

 This increase in trip generation, without significant growth in the number of
 households or the number of jobs in the County, can only be attributed to one
 thing – Marin residents are making more trips. The increase in congestion
 experienced in the County is a direct result of our increased mobility.

Figure 6. Household, Employment and Trip Growth, Marin County, 1990-
                              1998


      12%

      10%

       8%

       6%

       4%

       2%

       0%
              Household Growth   Employment Growth      Trip Growth



 2. Other Demographics Affecting Transportation

 Marin County is a “graying county,” with the median age of the County at 41.3
 and rising. Fourteen percent of Marin’s population is over the age of 65 and
 20 percent is under the age of 18. The Association of Bay Area Governments
 (ABAG) estimates that over 35 percent of Marin’s population will be over the
 age of 65 by the year 2020.

 While trips are made throughout the day, congestion in Marin County is at its
 worst from six to nine in the morning and from four to six in the evening.
 Congestion county-wide peaks in the morning, when almost 2/3 of the trips
 being made are trips to work and over 20 percent of all trips are being made
 between home to school. The impact of school trips in the morning peak is




                                    15
dramatic – while school trips make up only six percent of all trips made in the
county, they make up over 20 percent of the trips in the morning peak. This
explains the phenomenon experienced in Marin County during school breaks
– when the schools are closed, the congestion is significantly reduced.

3. Job Base

Marin County’s economy is characterized by small- and medium-sized
businesses. Services account for 39% of the County’s total employment.
Retail comes in second, accounting for nearly 22% of total employment. The
County of Marin is Marin’s largest employer, with 2,100 employees. The City
of San Rafael provides the most developed job market, hosting some of the
County’s major employers, including Autodesk, Children's Discovery Center,
Fair Isaac, Industrial Light & Magic, Lucas Digital, Quadra Med, and
Westamerica Bancorporation. These employers provide jobs in the areas of
investment, accounting, data processing, public relations, and motion picture
production.

The City of Corte Madera is host to two major shopping centers and three of
the County’s major employers, including Restoration Hardware, a home
furnishings retailer, and Constellation Concepts and Il Fornaio, two
restaurant-related businesses. Other major employers are found in Novato
(Fireman’s Fund Insurance), Mill Valley (S & P Co Holding Offices), and
Greenbrae (Marin General Hospital).

There were 130,000 workers in Marin in 1990 and 136,000 in 2002. The
unemployment rate for the first half of 2002 ranged between 3.6% and 4%.
This rate of unemployment comes after a 5-year period from 1997 to 2001
where the unemployment rate was as low as 1.4% and did not exceed 3.3%.
Nonetheless, the County has enjoyed an unemployment rate lower than that
of the state since 1996.

The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) projected that 20,000 new
jobs will be added between 1997 and 2004. Occupations with the fastest
anticipated growth rates are reservation, transportation and ticket agents,
expected to grow by 107%, and taxi and limousine services, expected to grow
by 58%. Jobs for light-duty truck drivers are expected to increase by 37%,
and 26% for heavy-duty truck drivers.

Sonoma County’s job base is developing significantly, posing new
transportation challenges in the effort to alleviate Marin’s congestion
problems. While fewer Sonoma residents will need to come to and through
Marin County to work, their jobs will ultimately attract Marin residents north,
creating a “reverse commute.”



                                    16
E. TRAVEL BEHAVIOR

  1. Trip Distribution

  Marin County is not only a very desirable place to live and recreate, but also
  an important part of the Bay Area’s economic engine. Over the past decade,
  commute patterns in the County have changed dramatically in response to
  new jobs becoming available in the County and an increase in the number of
  workers per household.

  It is not too surprising that over 80 percent of all trips that begin in Marin
  County, end within the County.           The vast majority of shopping and
  recreational trips, as well almost all school trips are made entirely within the
  County. While most people recognize that they make their non-work trips
  close to home, a common assumption is that people who live in Marin County
  work outside the county, especially in San Francisco. But today, over half of
  all work trips made by Marin County residents are to jobs here in the County.
  And, while more than a quarter of Marin County’s work trips are still destined
  for San Francisco, the Marin-San Francisco commute is well served by
  transit. While only about five percent of all trips in Marin County are made on
  transit, over 25 percent of Marin-San Francisco commute trips are transit
  trips, minimizing the impact of those trips on our roads.

                 Figure 7. Trip Distribution, Marin Residents

                                           North Bay and
                               South Bay
                                               Other
                                  4%
                     Sonoma                     2%
                       6%

                    East Bay
                      8%


                                                           Marin
                                                           52%


              San Francisco
                  28%




                                            17
2. Trip Purpose

Looking at all of the trips generated throughout the day by residents of Marin
about 30 percent are trips between home and work, and about 30 percent are
for trips that are not home based. About another quarter of all trips are
between home and shopping destinations and nearly 13 percent are for trips
between home and social or recreational destinations. Only six percent of all
trips are trips between home and school.

           Figure 8. Trip Purpose, Marin County, 1990-1998

                        Home Based
                         Soc/Rec
                           12%                   Non Home
                  Home Based                      Based
                    School                         29%
                     6%



                  Home Based
                     Shop
                     23%


                                           Home Based
                                              Work
                                              30%



3. The AM Peak Factor

While trips are made throughout the day, congestion in Marin County is at its
worst from six to nine in the morning and from four to six in the evening.
Congestion county-wide peaks in the morning, when almost 2/3 of the trips
being made are trips to work and over 20 percent of all trips are being made
between home to school. The impact of school trips in the morning peak is
dramatic – while school trips make up only six percent of all trips made in the
county, they make up over 20 percent of the trips in the morning peak. This
explains the phenomenon experienced in Marin County during school breaks
– when the schools are closed, the congestion is significantly reduced.

4. The Recreational Factor

Marin is unique because of its large number of natural attractions that are of
regional and national significance. These important recreational destinations



                                     18
 include Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Mt. Tamalpais State Park,
 Muir Woods National Monument, Point Reyes National Seashore, Samuel P.
 Taylor State Park, and Tomales Bay State Park. These are certainly
 treasures for Marin and are often a main reason that residents cite for living in
 Marin.

 The drawback of hosting such important recreational uses is the traffic
 generated by visitors to them. This traffic is exacerbated by the limited
 number of access points on narrow roadways and the fact that many visitors
 must travel through residential areas of Marin to access the various parks.
 Congestion on weekends in many areas of the county rivals and even
 exceeds weekday tie-ups. Additionally, recreational travel demand is more
 difficult to serve with alternatives compared to commuter travel.

 5. The Sonoma Factor

 Historically, Marin residents believed Sonoma County to be the source of their
 congestion, alleging that Sonoma residents were traveling through Marin to
 access jobs in San Francisco. In fact, the following chart shows that more
 than half of southbound morning commute hour traffic from Sonoma is
 destined for Marin, while less than 25 percent of those trips are destined for
 San Francisco or points south. Other southbound trips from Sonoma may be
 traveling to the East Bay via Interstate 580 and the Richmond-San Rafael
 Bridge in Marin’s southeast section, which is believed to be a growing travel
 pattern. An increase in the number of jobs in Sonoma may be slightly
 relieving southbound U.S. 101 travel, especially during the morning commute
 hours.

Figure 9. Destination of Morning Commute Traffic From Sonoma County

                                     Other
                                      4%
                       East Bay
                         20%




                                                         Marin
                                                         52%



                  San Francisco
                  and South Bay
                       24%




                                      19
6. Trips Entering Marin from the East on Interstate 580, AM Peak

The following chart shows that 76 percent of trips entering Marin County from
the East Bay on Interstate 580 during the AM peak hours are destined for
Marin County while the balance 24 percent are destined for Sonoma. Only a
negligible percent are destined for San Francisco.

Figure 10. Destination of Trips Entering Marin from Interstate 580 East



                                              Sonoma County
                                                  24%




                Marin County
                    76%



The overall composition of vehicle trips on Marin roads during the morning
peak is as follows:

   •   50% originating in Marin County and terminating in Marin County
   •   20% originating in Marin County and terminating in a different county
   •   20% originating in another county and terminating in Marin County
   •   10% originating in another county and terminating in another county
       (passing through)




                                   20
                                II. LEVEL OF SERVICE

With a road system of a given capacity, the volume-to-capacity ratio is the
primary indicator of the transportation system's performance. Volume-to-capacity
is a measure of demand and supply, and is equal to: the number of vehicles
assigned to a segment divided by the vehicular capacity of that segment. For
example, if the assigned volume is 1,500 vehicles and the segment capacity is
2,000 vehicles, the volume-to-capacity ratio is 0.75. This ratio is converted to a
letter grade called Level of Service (LOS).

The LOS is identified with a letter from A through F, and is described in terms of
speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, interruptions, comfort,
convenience, and safety. The letter A represents free traffic flow with few
vehicles and easy maneuverability while the letter F represents severe
congestion with bumper-to-bumper traffic at slow speeds. LOS is key to all
modes since all modes depend on streets and related facilities for access and in
many cases for direct operations. Figure 11 shows the relationship between
LOS grades and volume-to-capacity ratios.
       Figure 11. Level of Service, Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Formula
                            Level of Service           Volume-to-Capacity Ratio
     For Freeways:          A                          0.00 - 0.33
                            B                          0.34 - 0.55
                            C                          0.56 - 0.75
                            D                          0.76 - 0.89
                            E                          0.90 - 1.00
                            F                         1.00+
     Source: Transportation Research Board, Highway Capacity Manual, Chapter 3

                            Level of Service           Volume-to-Capacity Ratio
     For Local Streets:     A                          0.00 - 0.60
     (intersections)        B                          0.61 - 0.70
                            C                          0.71 - 0.80
                            D                          0.81 - 0.90
                            E                          0.91 - 1.00
                            F                         1.00+
     Source: Transportation Research Board, Circular 212

The design of an intersection is the key determinant in an arterial’s ability to
handle the flow. Design components include such elements as the number of
lanes, special turn lanes, signal phasing, length of red and green cycles, and
"right turn on red."



                                           21
Generally, LOS E is associated with traffic flowing near the capacity of a road.
Speeds are low and unstable; maneuvering is difficult; comfort and convenience
levels are poor; user frustration is high. When the freeway is at capacity, the
vehicle density per lane mile is 67 vehicles. Freeway speeds fall below 30 miles
per hour. If more vehicles are added to the road, breakdowns or stop-and-go
traffic is experienced (LOS F).

It is important to note that capacity is reached for only a short time during the
commute period in urban areas. Fifteen highway and arterial roadway segments
operated at LOS F when the CMP was adopted in 1992 and qualified as
“grandfathered” segments, which means these segments were already operating
below the LOS standard. Because levels of service E or F are unacceptable to
most motorists, local officials choose LOS D as the minimum standard on
congested local roads, and LOS E as the minimum standard on congested
highways. (LOS D is accepted as a standard for suburban street operations
nationwide.) At LOS D, maximum freeway lane volume is 1,850 vehicles per
hour, vehicle density per lane mile ranges from 30 to 42 vehicles, and speeds
range from 46 to 54 miles per hour. Marin County’s Congestion Management
Program has established LOS D as a standard for principal arterials and
conventional highways in Marin; however, a local jurisdiction may establish
higher standards. LOS E is the minimum standard for Highway 101, Interstate
580 and State Route 37 (Highway 37).

The 2001 Congestion Management Program (CMP) evaluated 24 road segments
along three freeways and rural expressways, and seven arterial roadways. The
following sections discuss the CMP’s reported LOS for each of the two
categories.

A. HIGHWAYS

Six northbound segments on U.S. 101, one westbound segment on Interstate
580, and one eastbound segment on Interstate 580 were reported to be
operating at, or below, the standard of LOS E during PM peak hours. These
segments that fail come at points where there are high on-ramp volumes.

Figure 12 below presents segments of Marin’s highway and rural expressways
that were reported to operate at an LOS that is below Marin County standards.1




1
 Marin County 2001 Congestion Management Program, 2001 Draft Monitoring Program, Prepared for
Marin County Congestion Management Agency by DKA Associates, June 2001.




                                               22
        Figure 12. Marin Highway and Rural Expressway Segments with
          Congested Level of Service Observed During PM Peak Hours


Monitoring Segment
                                                                       Volume
From                           To                            Direction per Lane Capacity V/C LOS
U.S. 101
  State Route 131               Paradise Dr                     NB      2297       2000     1.15   F
  Sir Francis Drake Blvd        Interstate 580                  NB      2221       2000     1.11   F
  Interstate 580                Mission Ave.                    NB      1811       2000     0.91   E
  Mission Ave.                  North San Pedro Rd.             NB      1947       2000     0.97   E
  Atherton Ave.                 Sonoma County Line              NB      1886       2000     0.94   E
  Freitas Parkway               Lucas Valley Road             Mixed
                                                                        2179       2000     1.09   F
                                                             Flow NB
I-580
  E. Sir Francis Drake Blvd.    Richmond-San Rafael Bridge     EB       2011       2000     1.01   F
  Bellam Boulevard              U.S. Highway 101               WB       NA*        NA*      NA*    F
Source: Marin County 2001 Congestion Management Program, 2001 Draft Monitoring Program, Prepared
for Marin County Congestion Management Agency by DKA Associates, June 2001.

*Data not available.

U.S. 101 runs north to south along the east side of the County, where
development is most dense between Mill Valley and Novato. LOS F was
reported on U.S. 101 between State Route 131 and Paradise Drive, Sir Francis
Drake Boulevard and Interstate 580, and Freitas Parkway and Lucas Valley
Road with V/C ratios ranging between 1.09 and 1.15. Interstate 580 feeds traffic
west across the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge and branches out into U.S. 101
and East Sir Francis Drake Boulevard in Marin County. Interstate 580
demonstrated an LOS of F between Bellam Boulevard and U.S. Highway 101,
and East Sir Francis Drake Boulevard and the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge.
These below standard LOS ratings were reported primarily in the southeastern
portion of the County, where traffic must filter through more developed areas
surrounding the Golden Gate Bridge and the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge,
which are major commuter gateways to and from San Francisco and the East
Bay. Also, a segment of I-580 from East Sir Francis Drake Boulevard to the
Richmond-San Rafael Bridge currently operates below LOS standards that were
not grandfathered and should be highlighted for future evaluation.

B. ARTERIALS

Arterials are signalized streets that primarily serve through traffic and provide
access to adjacent property. They may be two-, three-, four-, five- or six-lanes
wide depending on the volume of traffic they are designed to carry. Although the
number of lanes, on-street parking and intersecting driveways affect traffic flow




                                               23
 on arterials, intersections are the greatest influence on traffic flow. When an
 arterial intersects another arterial or collector street, there are usually traffic lights
 or stop signs to regulate vehicle flow.

 Five segments on Marin’s arterial roadways were reported to be operating below
 standards at LOS E and F during PM peak hours. Figure 13 below presents
 segments of Marin’s arterial roadways the 2001 CMP reported at a LOS that is
 below Marin County standards. 2

       Figure 13. Marin Arterial Roadway Segments with Congested Level of
                    Service Observed During PM Peak Hours


Monitoring Segment
                                                      Volume
From                  To                    Direction per Lane      Capacity    V/C        LOS
Novato Blvd (City of Novato)
     Grant Ave           Diablo Ave           NB        903         960        0.94        E
Bel Marin Keys (City of Novato)
     U.S. 101            Commercial Blvd    WB          750         800        0.94        E
Sir Francis Drake Blvd (Town of San Anselmo)
     Willow Ave        Butterfield Rd       WB          1278        960        1.33        F
     San Anselmo Ave   Red Hill Ave         WB          1152        960        1.20        F
Sir Francis Drake Blvd (City of Larkspur)
     U.S. 101          Larkspur Landing Cir EB          1059        960        1.10        F
 Source: Marin County 2001 Congestion Management Program, 2001 Draft Monitoring Program, Prepared
 for Marin County Congestion Management Agency by DKA Associates, June 2001.

 Segments of Marin’s arterial roadway network that had reported substandard
 LOS ratings include northbound Novato Boulevard between Grant Avenue and
 Diablo Avenue, westbound Bel Marin Keys between U.S. 101 and Commercial
 Boulevard, and Sir Francis Drake Boulevard between Willow Avenue and
 Butterfield Road, San Anselmo Avenue and Red Hill Avenue, and U.S. 101 and
 Larkspur Landing Circle. Most of these segments were operating unacceptably
 in 1992 and grandfathered. Novato Boulevard is the exception, and the City of
 Novato is developing a deficiency plan for it.

 Figure 14 below presents annual LOS data from 1995 through 2001 (excluding
 2000) for U.S. 101 and Interstate 580 segments with sustained or worsening

 2
  Marin County 2001 Congestion Management Program, 2001 Draft Monitoring Program, Prepared for
 Marin County Congestion Management Agency by DKA Associates, June 2001.




                                                 24
 LOS since 1995. The most notable worsening in LOS occurred along Interstate
 580 between East Sir Francis Drake Boulevard and the Richmond-San Rafael
 Bridge, where LOS was C from 1995 through 1999, dropping to a reported LOS
 F in 2001. Other segments stagger, with LOS reaching an acceptable D only to
 return back to E and F in the following year.

    Figure 14. Marin Highway Segments with Sustained or Worsening LOS
                                since 1995

Monitoring Segment
From                   To                    Direction        1995   1996   1997    1998    1999    2001
U.S. 101
State Route 131        Paradise Dr            Mixed Flow NB     D      D       D       E        E     F
Sir Francis Drake Blvd Interstate 580         NB                E      F       D       D        D     F
                                              SB                D      E       D       D        D     E
Interstate 580            Mission Ave         NB                F      F       F       F        F     D
Mission Ave               North San Pedro Rd. NB                E      E       E       F        E     E
                                              SB                F      E       F       F        F     D
Freitas Parkway           Lucas Valley Road Mixed Flow NB       E      D       D       D        E     F
Atherton Ave              Sonoma County Line NB                 F      E       F       E        F     E
Interstate 580
                          Richmond-San
Sir Francis Drake Blvd.                      EB                 C      C       C       C        C     F
                          Rafael Bridge
 Source: Marin County 2001 Congestion Management Program, 2001 Draft Monitoring Program, Prepared
 for Marin County Congestion Management Agency by DKA Associates, June 2001.



 C. HIGHWAY SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS

 Marin’s Congestion Management Agency regularly prepares a Congestion
 Management Program that prioritizes highway projects. The most recent CMP
 was prepared in December 2001. For the past decade, much of the attention
 and funding in the CMP has been focused on the “HOV gap closure” project –
 completing the HOV lane system through San Rafael and Larkspur, connecting
 to Corte Madera. This project is now being constructed, allowing the County to
 develop new priorities. The latest Congestion Management Agency funding
 priorities distribute funds proportionately to all under-funded projects, including
 highway improvements, interchanges, transit, local road improvements and
 maintenance, and pedestrian and bicycle facilities.

 The highest priority projects for highway improvements are intended to provide
 “spot relief” for major bottlenecks in the highway system. Critical bottlenecks
 occur in the Sonoma-Marin Narrows area and at critical interchanges throughout
 the County. In addition, accidents and incidents are often concentrated in these




                                                  25
“choke points” where the system slows down dramatically due to spot
congestion. The CMP attempts to resolve these bottleneck and safety problems.

Caltrans is currently drafting an environmental document with alternatives for
improving the Sonoma-Marin Narrows area by completing the HOV lane system
throughout the County. This project will have the special benefit of making transit
service in this area more competitive by improving travel times, while at the same
time encouraging carpool and vanpool services.

In addition, improvements are envisioned at critical interchanges throughout the
County, where safety and congestion are a particular concern. Six interchanges
have been identified as high priorities for future projects. The exact nature of
these projects will be determined through further study by a partnership of the
Congestion Management Agency, Caltrans and local stakeholders. The high
priority interchanges are:

   •   I-580/U.S. 101
   •   U.S. 101/Greenbrae
   •   U.S. 101/Tiburon
   •   U.S. 101/Lucas Valley Road
   •   U.S. 101/Tamalpais
   •   U.S. 101/Atherton
   •   U.S. 101/Sausalito (Alexander Avenue)




                                        26
       III. THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION IN MARIN COUNTY

A. PROJECTS AND STUDIES UNDERWAY

  1. Moving Forward: A Transportation Vision for Marin County

  Currently in draft form, this “Transportation Vision for Marin County”
  represents the first step towards making significant and lasting change in the
  Marin’s transportation system. It represents a synthesis of over three years of
  study and provides a vision for a multi-modal future, in which all modes of
  transportation combine to manage and minimize congestion in the County.
  The Vision is not constrained by existing funding, but is designed to be
  reasonably achievable assuming cooperation at all levels in Marin. The
  Vision will provide many opportunities for public involvement as priorities are
  set.

  2. SMART (Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit)

  The Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit System (SMART) is intended to operate
  from Cloverdale in Sonoma County to San Rafael, with a planned ferry
  connection in southern Marin at either Larkspur or San Quentin (a potential
  ferry terminal location), or in the Northern Marin area at Port Sonoma (also a
  potential ferry terminal location). Marin County stations would be sited in
  Novato (two locations) and San Rafael (two locations) close to the Civic
  Center area and downtown. Each of these stations would provide multi-
  modal transfer opportunities with extensive bus and shuttle services, bicycle
  facilities and pedestrian access. The ultimate connection to a ferry terminal
  will allow riders to make a seamless trip into San Francisco.

  3. Marin County Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan

  Adopted in May 2001, The Marin County Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan
  provides a blueprint for making bicycling and walking an integral part of daily
  life in Marin County. The 20-Year Plan calls for the completion of a
  countywide network of primary and secondary bikeways. It also calls for the
  completion of pedestrian improvements, both local and linear in nature. The
  long-term system is intended to connect all of the major destinations in the
  County as well as providing continuous connections between communities.
  Along with specific physical projects, the Plan provides bicycle and pedestrian
  facility design standards and guidelines and provides recommendations for
  education, marketing, and other programs that will ultimately be implemented
  by public or private groups.




                                      27
The Plan promotes inter-modal connections by providing direct and
convenient bicycle- and pedestrian-ways to major transit stops. If fully
implemented, the Plan would include significant investment in bicycle facilities
at transit nodes, including both bus transfer points and rail and ferry terminals.

The Countywide Plan is supplemented by individual local bicycle and
pedestrian plans, prepared by each city in the County.         It is also
supplemented by an expanded Safe Routes to Schools Program, which
addresses the congestion problems in Marin County and has reduced auto
use at schools 15% annually in its first two years. The Safe Routes to
Schools program provides training to students and parents, and promotes
engineering and construction projects that enhance bicycle and pedestrian
safety around schools.

4. Marin Bus Transit Futures

Marin Bus Transit Futures is a comprehensive long-range effort to provide a
vision and practical implementation strategies for improving the range of
public transportation choices for local Marin County trips. The goal of the
Plan is to enhance local mobility, create more livable communities and
provide county residents and workers an alternative to the single occupant
vehicle. The Plan seeks to improve intercommunity service within Marin,
facilitate intermodal connections, expand paratransit to serve a growing
senior population, and provide school shuttle services.

Transportation Demand Management (TDM), included in the Transit Futures
Plan, will further improve the performance of all modes by shifting trips
outside of the peak and encouraging the use of higher occupancy modes for
commute trips. TDM strategies include carpool matching, telecommuting
centers, “Guaranteed Ride Home” programs, and employer shuttles and
transit passes.

5. Water Transit Authority Study- New Ferry Service for the North Bay

The Bay Area Water Transit Authority (WTA) was initiated through Governor
Gray Davis’ Transportation Congestion Relief Program. The WTA is currently
evaluating terminal, service and technology enhancements to ferry services,
which could greatly expand ferry service to the North Bay. Potential new
terminal locations at Port Sonoma and San Quentin are recommended for
further study. Among the criteria being considered is the availability of multi-
modal connections, including potential rail and bus transit services.




                                     28
6. Golden Gate Transit Express Bus Services

Golden Gate Transit is currently re-evaluating its express bus and ferry
services in light of potential new funding available through the sales tax on
gasoline (Proposition 42). Services offered by Golden Gate Transit would
further enhance options in the Highway 101 Corridor, traveling from Sonoma
County through Marin and into San Francisco.

7. Transportation Demand Management (TDM)

TDM strategies manage the “demand” side of transportation needs by
encouraging the use of higher capacity modes for work trips. This includes
carpooling and vanpooling as well as transit use. As a large employer in
Marin County, the County is a leader in Transportation Demand Management
for County employees. The Local Bus Master Plan developed a preliminary
TDM concept that would create Marin Office of Mobility Management, working
closely with Marin employers to maximize the use of alternative modes for
work trips in Marin County.

The Marin Employee Commute Alternatives Program offers such TDM
strategies as:

   •   At-cost fuel and preferential parking for carpools and vanpools
   •   60% bus ticket subsidies
   •   A Guaranteed Ride Home program
   •   Ridematching services
   •   Bicycle tune-ups and lunch certificates
   •   Telecommuting/teleworking program
   •   On-site services and facilities (cafeteria, ATM, credit union, bike
       storage and showers)

8. Park Access Studies

A number of projects are being developed to improve access to Marin’s
recreational areas and reduce related congestion. The studies include
participation of federal, state and local agencies and are being coordinated by
both Marin County and the National Park Service.

          a. Marin Headlands Fort Baker Transportation Management Study

          The Marin Headlands Fort Baker Transportation Management
          Study is a comprehensive study of alternative transportation
          options for the Marin Headlands and Fort Baker. Included within




                                    29
the Study are proposals for internal shuttles, park and ride shuttles,
and transit improvements.

b.    Southern Marin Parklands Comprehensive Transportation
     Management Plan (CTMP)

This study is a large scale planning effort intended to quantify
current and future demand for park visitation and to identify broader
strategies for reducing the number of vehicles accessing recreation
areas and national and state parklands along State Route 1. The
main strategy being studied is a satellite parking intercept facility,
reservation, and shuttle bus system.

c. Tamalpais Transportation Improvements Project (TTI)

This involves two related construction projects designed to improve
congestion, safety and circulation in, around and through the
Tamalpais Valley, and provide alternative transportation access to
the parklands. The two TTI projects are the Tennessee Valley Trail
upgrade project to improve access for all users from the Mill Valley-
Sausalito Bike Path to the GGNRA trailhead at the end of
Tennessee Valley Road; and the Coyote Creek Bridge replacement
project on Shoreline Highway to improve alternative access under
the bridge and across the creek, as well as vehicle access across
the bridge.

d. GGNRA Ferry Access Study

The study is examining land use, market data, and the existing
transportation network surrounding the GGNRA in order to plan and
implement better access to the recreation area with a ferry terminal
at Horseshoe Bay in Fort Baker. The study identifies potential
terminal sites that will support visitor flow, and facilitate transit
linkages while remaining ADA compliant to create as seamless a
transportation network as possible. Mode preference surveys have
helped forecast ridership by trip purpose in order to develop routes
that serve an identifiable market.

Both the capital costs of pier and landside facilities, and annual
operations and maintenance costs are to be carefully compared
with expected visitor flow and anticipated ferry revenue.
Environmental considerations are being made along all federal,
state and Bay Area regulatory guidelines, including tidal flow and
range, dredging, and wave impact, wake erosion and noise



                          30
pollution in the context of habitat. Other factors include tidal flow
and range, depths around potential piers and the need for dredging.

e.    National Park Service Transportation Demand Management
     Program (TDM)

The National Park Service is developing a TDM program for park
tenants, which will reduce commute traffic generated by the
headlands. The study focuses on the southern Marin Headlands
and Fort Baker, and considers the area’s connectivity with
surrounding gateway communities while placing it, appropriately, in
its regional context.      The program promotes alternative
transportation modes, and maintains special events guidelines to
regulate events in Fort Baker. The program coordinates with Bay
Area Discovery Museum and the retreat and conference center
there to reduce single vehicle trips and to minimize parking
demand.




                          31
APPENDIX 1. REFERENCES

DKS Associates:     2001 Marin Congestion Management Program, December
     2001

Marin County Planning Department: Travel Patterns in Marin and Sonoma
      Counties, Technical Report # 2, Transportation Element, June 1987,
      updated August, 1991

Marin County Planning Department: Transportation Element, Technical Report #
      3, Existing Conditions, August, 1991

Marin County Planning Department: Travel Patterns in Marin and Sonoma
      Counties, Technical Report # 4, Transportation Impacts of the Preferred
      Land Use Alternative

Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc., Moving Forward: A Transportation
      Vision for Marin County (Public Review Draft), Jointly produced by: Marin
      County Congestion Management Agency, Marin County Board of
      Supervisors, Marin County Transit District.

RIDES for Bay Area Commuters, Inc.: Commute Profile 2001: A Survey of San
     Francisco Bay Area Commute Patterns, September 2001

Persons and Agencies Contacted

John Loll, Transit Manager, Marin County Transit District

Art Brook, Jack Baker, Tho Do, Dean Powell, Jeffrey Rawles, Marin County
      Public Works Department, staff to Marin County Congestion Management
      Agency

Joe Story, DKS Associates

Maurice Palumbo, Tony Clark, Golden Gate Transit District

Steve Beroldo, Danielle Bricker, RIDES for Bay Area Commuters

Kim Plaskett, Greyhound Lines, Inc.

Marin Senior Coordinating Council

Ron Kyutoku, CalTrans




                                       32

				
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