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Slide 1 by SBYE8D

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									                                         TBLT 2007
                            Hiroko Suzuki, Peter J. Collins
           Research Institute of Educational Development
                                          Tokai University
                                     September 21, 2007




Empowering EFL Teachers
     to Implement
  “Expansive Learning”
          Session Overview
1. Background
  1.1   Ministry Guidelines: 2002 Action Plan
  1.2   Traditional perspectives
  1.3   Practices and challenges
  1.4   RIED’s educational model
2. 2007 TDE Program
  2.1   Teaching concepts
  2.2   Objective and goals
  2.3   Contents and organization
  2.4   Sample task-based lesson
3. Outcomes
  3.1 Perspective shifts
  3.2 Participant Reflections
1. Background
 1.1 Ministry Guidelines
 Action Plan to Cultivate
   “Japanese with English Abilities”
       (implemented: March 2003, goals to be met: 2008)


“English Abilities” – The ability to communicate efficiently
 with others in today’s global society
Through upgrading:
   →   teachers’ English ability.
   →   the teaching system itself.
   →   collaborative teaching with NETs and people in the
       local community.
1. Background
1.1 Ministry Guidelines
Action Plan to Cultivate
  “Japanese with English Abilities”
   (implemented: March 2003, goals to be met: 2008)


RIED sees that teachers must be able to…

  communicate and negotiate with others in
  English: JTE and NET colleagues, administrative
  levels, parents, people in the community
  collaborate and share ideas with other English
  teachers
1. Background
1.2 Traditional perspectives
                    • Grammar-translation
                    • Individual teaching ideas, methods

           T        • Teacher-fronted – ‘correct’ answers
                     predetermined by teachers



 S    S     S    S          S

 S    S    S     S          S

 S    S    S    S           S
1. Background
1.3 Practices and challenges
2003 Questionnaire:
5 schools responded     Dai-yon
                                    14 Tokai-attached
                     Yamagata            Schools
                  Dai-san
              Gyosei                       Kofu
          Dai-go                           Boyo
      Dai-ni                               Urayasu
                                           Bosei
                                           Takanawadai
                                           Sugao


                       Shoyo      Sagami
1. Background
1.3 Practices and challenges
Respondents to 2003 Questionnaire: 5 / 14 schools




Meetings about pedagogy and materials development: none
Sharing plans and/or materials in their English department: none
TDE participants explaining to their colleagues
   what they are doing in the TDE program: few
   how they practice the outcome in their classes: few
teachers conducting classes more than 50% in English:
     less than 10 / 50, at five schools
1. Background
1.3 Practices and challenges
English as the language of instruction: Percentage
             (general course of study at 3,800 public senior high schools)

            Almost        Less than         Around           Almost
             none           50%             or more           100%
                                           than 50%
OCⅠ            3.1%           40.5%            31.3%           25.1%
OCⅡ            4.6%           36.9%            30.9%           27.7%
EnglishⅠ      14.9%           76.3%             7.7%            1.1%
EnglishⅡ      17.1%           76.0%             6.2%            0.8%
Reading       24.8%           65.6%             5.0%            0.7%
Writing       28.5%           64.4%             4.7%            1.2%
                                                        (MEXT 2005 survey)
1. Background
1.4 Educational model
 We can learn to communicate
   only by communicating.
 Communicate and negotiate with other people in
 English – NET, colleagues, management levels,
 parents and people in the community
 Collaborate and share ideas with other English
 teachers
    1. Background role in the classroom activity
            students’
    1.4 Educational model
                       Instruments
                                        English expressions in the textbook,
                                        Japanese / Tests

                                            Learning Goal:
                                            Text comprehension in the textbook
                                            Acquiring linguistic knowledge


                Subject                            Activity → Outcome
              students                        Good test scores     Better university,
                                                                   better job




                                                                 Competing with
                                                                 others
    Rules                                                         Division of
Strategies for better scores,   Community                           labor
No relations with others        classroom
                                                     (Engestrom, 1987) (山住、2004)
  1. Background
  1.4 Educational model Instruments
                                    English expression in the
                                    textbook, Japanese / Tests

                                         Learning Goal:
students’ role in the                    Text comprehension in the textbook
                                         Acquiring linguistic knowledge
classroom activity

                   Subject                     Activity → Outcome
                 Students                       Acquiring        Applicable
                                                accuracy of      activities
                                                linguistic
                                                knowledge




       Rules                                                  Division of
   Trials or rehearsal for   Community                          labor
   authentic activities      classroom             Participants in classroom
                                                   communication activity
                                                   peer learning
  1. Background
  1.4 Educational model                                     students’ role in the
                                                              social activities
                   Instruments
                                          English, background knowledge
   Learning goals:                        Communication activities

   Task
   LPP social activity                                      Feeling of accomplishment
                                                         Feedback from the community
                                                                   Learning motivation

           Subject                                  Activity → Outcome
           Students                                 Problem-solving
           Teacher                                  Carry out the task
           people in the social
           community


Rules
                                                                  Division of labor
  Appropriate                Community                            Role assigned
behaviors based                   The task                        in the task
  on their role                   situation
2. TDE Program
2.1 Objective and Goals
                            Dai-yon
                       Yamagata
                  Dai-san
              Gyosei                           Kofu
         Dai-go                                Boyo
     Dai-ni                                    Urayasu
                                               Bosei
                                               Takanawadai
                                               Sugao

                         Shoyo        Sagami
 2. TDE Program
 2.1 Teaching concepts: Teacher’s role

   High           Mid           Low

Instructor                      Supporter



                                  ‘real
       Instructor / Supporter
                                learning’
                Activities
                Materials
Supporter      Interaction      Instructor
                   ICT
2. TDE Program
2.1 Teaching concepts: Interaction

 T                     S
          S                        S
               S                       S
      S                S       S
           S
                                   S
           S       S
                           S
                                           C
2. TDE Program
2.1 Teaching concepts: Task Sequencing
Textbook       Extended Activities

   Topic
                   Goal
Vocabulary                     Community
               Supplementary
 Grammar
                 materials      Exposure,
                                Response
  Comm.
   Skills        Situation

  Comm.
 Activities
 2. TDE Program
 Teachers must be able to…
 Communicate, negotiate in English with

 others:

     JTE and NET colleagues, administrative
     levels, parents, people in the community

•Collaborate and share ideas with other

 English teachers
2. TDE Program
2.2 Objective and Goals
Objective:
  Participants will experience learning through
  a variety of interactive situations. These
  include collaboration within their
  department, team-teaching with NETs,
  other JTEs, and increasing the efficiency of
  student learning through cross-content
  awareness. Through these experiences,
  participants will be empowered to apply
  new definitions of ‘learning’ and
  ‘communication’ in their own teaching.
2. TDE Program
2.2 Objective and Goals
  Goal 1:
    Participants will be able apply ideas from
    discussions on educational and teaching
    issues, including
    • the learning process.
    • their roles in a variety of communities,
       including
       - a learner in the TDE program.
       - a collaborator with the colleagues in
         their English divisions.
    • problem-solving strategies.
2. TDE Program
2.2 Objective and Goals
Goal 2:
  Participants will improve their grasp of key
  ideas and concepts, including
  • task sequencing and project-based learning.
  • the learning process, in terms of linguistic
    and background knowledge and
    communication skills and activities.
  • how the role of the classroom teacher
    rotates between that of instructor, facilitator
    and participant.
  • interaction with students, collaborative work.
2. TDE Program
2.3 2007 Contents and Organization
   #            Theme
  1       Critical thinking,
        communication skills

  2           Interaction
        (participants as teachers)    High - Structured


  3          Participation
        (participants as teachers)    Mid - Structured


  4    Performance / empathy
         (participants as learners)   Low - Structured
2. TDE Program
2.3 2007 Contents and Organization
2. TDE Program
2.3 2007 Contents and Organization




  Group discussion




                     Formal debate
2. TDE Program
2.3 2007 Contents and Organization




          Dramatic Scenes
2. TDE Program
2.4 2007 Contents and Organization
2. TDE Program
2.4 Sample task-based lesson
    Biology          Social Studies                English
1) What
is”gene”?
2) episodes
about
inheritance
                1) Do good while you
                live
                2) religion/
                art/motivation in life
3) genetic                               1) genetic engineering
engineering
                3) Technological
                development and ethics
4) cloning                               2) cloning mechanism (pp
mechanism (pp                            presentation)
presentation)
                                         3) Search Internet to report
                                         about gene engineering
2. TDE Program
2.4 Sample task-based lesson
2. TDE Program
2.4 Sample task-based lesson
2. TDE Program
2.4 Sample task-based lesson
2. TDE Program
2.4 Sample task-based lesson
2. TDE Program
2.4 Sample task-based lesson
3. Outcomes
3.1 2007 Lake Yamanaka Sessions

Discussion                   satisfied                          unsatisfied
                Internet Search     2         9            0         0
 English reading and discussion     4         7            0         0
          Material Development      1         7            1         0


Comments from participants
• I thought it was a valuable way in creating materials.

• I hope I would like this type of discussion in my department for

 material development. This session was worthwhile.

• I think it ideal, but I wonder if my department can spare the time for

 this kind of meetings.
3. Outcomes
3.1 2007 Lake Yamanaka Sessions
 Interactive Workshop understand                            not understand
    Necessity of interaction with
                                    5         5         0           0
                        students
  Importance of seeing materials
                                    7         4         0           0
         through students’ eyes
    Understandability of my own
                                    0         5         0           2
          materials for students

Participants comments
• I understand how difficult but important for teachers to create

 materials clearly understandable for students.

• I need to create more effective materials for students and evaluate

 them through students’ eyes.

•I could experience of seeing materials through students’ eyes.
3. Outcomes
3.1 2007 Lake Yamanaka Sessions

Debate                         satisfied                      unsatisfied
                     Preparation     2       6         2        0
     Logical and critical thinking
                                     7       4         0        0
          about the proposition
     Applicability for my classes    2       6         1        0
                    Performance      5       6         0        0

Participant comments
• I experienced a feeling of accomplishment by acting with other

 participants.

• I understand significance and pleasure in working collaboratively with

 others.
3. Outcomes
3.1 2007 Lake Yamanaka Sessions

 Drama                        learned                           not learned
      New perspective of seeing
                                    6         5            0         0
                  other people
                      Flexibility   8         4            0         0
        Skills as a good teacher    6         4            0         0
      Collaboration with costars    8         3            0         0
Participant comments
• I thought it was a valuable way in creating materials.

• I hope I would like this type of discussion in my department for

 material development. This session was worthwhile.

• I think it ideal, but I wonder if my department can spare the time for
this kind of meetings.
3. Outcomes
3.2 Participant Reflection

Comments on task sequencing:

“I understand how to do action
research to improve our classes... I
realize that the school
administration needs to understand
the importance of cross-content
lesson. They urgently need to
reconstruct the school system and
the teacher organization.”
3. Outcomes
3.2 Participant Reflection

Comments on collaboration:
 “I know it is important to share
 worksheets and collaboratively create
 materials in our department. This year I
 was lucky – I could do it, since it was the
 TDE assignment. But I see some
 difficulty to get help or cooperation from
 my colleagues next year. This is one of
 the challenges of our school in reforming
 our educational system.”
3. Outcomes
3.2 Participant Reflection

Comments on the future:
 “We should continue "collaborative
 relations" with our colleagues in the
 English department. In the TDE
 Program, I learned how to design and
 practice "team teaching" and "cross-
 content lesson." My challenge is to
 continue practicing these ideas from next
 year on.”
RIED URL
 http://www.ried.tokai.ac.jp/

or contact:
 hsuzuki@ried.tokai.ac.jp
 pcollins@ried.tokai.ac.jp

								
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