International Recommendations for the Index of Industrial

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					International Recommendations for
       the Index of Industrial
          Production (IIP)

       United Nations Statistics Division/DESA

 Index of Industrial Production has been
  calculated since the 1920s
   UNSD has collected series going back to 1938

 Methodology was described in 1950 UN
  Manual on “Index of industrial production”
   Number 1 in series of publications on
    international recommendations and guidelines
    (Series F)
 The 1950 manual was not updated
 However, related guidance materials
  were published:
   Guidelines on Principles of a System of
    Price and Quantity Statistics, 1977
   Manual on Producers’ Price Indices for
    Industrial Goods,1979
 Why a revision of the IIP publication?
   The previous UN publication on the IIP was
    published in 1950
   Methods and approaches have changed
    over time (e.g. fixed weight vs. chain
    approaches, volume aggregation vs.
    deflation, etc.)
 Why a revision of the IIP publication?
   Various related standards and
    international recommendations have
    been updated over time:
     International Recommendations for
      Industrial Statistics 2008
     System of National Accounts 2008
     Producer Price Index Manual
     Classifications (ISIC Rev.4, CPC ver.2)
   These changes need to be reflected in
    the updated IIP text
Process and timetable for revision
 The revision of the IIP has been carried out at the
  request of the United Nations Statistical Commission
   Discussion of topics/issues at UN expert group
     meeting in 2005 & 2007
   UN IIP country practices questionnaire to all
     countries – Sept 2007
   Initial draft and input from
     countries/organizations – Jan 2008
   Review of 1st draft by Expert Group) – July
   Worldwide consultation – Jan 2009
   Submit to UN Statistical Commission – Feb
Objectives of revised IIP publication
  Outline practical and suitable measurement
   methods and document issues and benefits from
   recent theoretical and practical work in the area

  It is intended to assist compilers in producing
   more accurate indices of industrial production

  It helps compilers to produce index numbers in
   comparable ways so they can serve as reliable
   international comparisons of economic
   performance and behavior using the best
   international practices
Objectives of revised IIP publication
 This publication also assists countries that plan to
  set up a more comprehensive systems of volume
  measures by providing not only the methodological
  foundations for the index number compilation, but
  also by giving practical guidance on individual steps
  and elements of the compilation process

 It is recognized that due to practical constraints,
  some of the recommendations in this publication
  may not be immediately attainable by all statistical
  offices and, therefore, should serve as guideposts
  for agencies as they revise and improve their IIP
Additional inputs considered
 Recent work on other index number publications:
   Producer Price Index Manual (World Bank et al.,
   Consumer Price Index Manual (ILO et al., 2004)
   Handbook on price and volume measures in
     national accounts (Eurostat, 2001)
   Compilation Manual for an Index of Service
     Production (OECD, 2007)
 New manual should be consistent with other
  existing manuals (e.g. IRIS & SNA)
Publication structure
 Part I includes a description of the international
  recommendations, covering scope, fundamental
  concepts, etc.
    It is encouraged that countries comply with the
     recommendations set out in Part I.

 Part II includes international guidance to assist
  countries in implementing these
    It presents a set of methods (categorized as
     ‘preferred’, ‘alternative’ and ‘other’) and variables
     for each ISIC Rev. 4 class in scope of this
     publication for the compilation of an IIP, based on
     current country practices
Key issues/recommendations
 1: Statistical units, classifications & business
   Recommendations outlining - Statistical Units to
     use; classifications; use of business registers;
     and data sources (incl. administrative data

 2: Frequency
   Publication recommends monthly compilation of
     the IIP so that turning points in economic
     activity can be identified as early as possible
Key issues/recommendations
 3: Scope of the IIP:
   Scope is defined to cover activities in sections
     B - E of ISIC Rev.4, i.e. Mining and quarrying,
     Manufacturing, Electricity, gas steam and air-
     conditioning supply, as well as water supply,
     sewerage, waste management and
     remediation activities
       Section E contains new areas for inclusion
        in the IIP
       This scope coincides with the scope of the
        International Recommendations for
        Industrial Statistics (IRIS) 2008, which
        includes the index numbers of industrial
        production in its list of recommended
Key issues/recommendations
 4: Index formula
   Laspeyres index is recommended
      Preferred due to feasibility over Paasche
        or Fischer index
    Chain linked, rather than fixed base indices are

 5: Weights and updates
   Annual update of weights should be carried out
     to provide an up-to-date weighting structure
     for the index.
   Weights should ideally be National Accounts
     value added figures – adjustments necessary
     to make them timely available.
Key issues/recommendations
 6: Calculation method

   Deflation should be used to obtain volume
    estimates from value data, rather than volume
    extrapolation method
   PPI is recommended as deflator
   Deflation should be done at lowest level, i.e. 4-
    digit industry level

   Volume aggregation still works for areas with
    limited number of products.
Key issues/recommendations
 7. Variables to be used

    To approximate industrial production for the IIP,
     output measures (value or physical quantity of
     output) are preferred over input measures
     (labour or materials consumed)
       E.g. relationship between labour and production
        value is affected by various factors, including
        quality, efficiency etc.
    The publication provides suggestions for
     preferred, alternate and other methods for the
     use of variables in the IIP calculation.
       Suggestions are specific for each ISIC industry at
        4-digit level
Key issues/recommendations
 8: Data adjustments

   Adjustments should be made for quality changes
      Either through the correction of PPI used in
       deflation, or
      by adjusting input data when volume
       aggregation is used

   Data series should be produced as work day
    adjusted as well as seasonal adjusted series
Key issues/recommendations
 9: Dissemination

   The publication outlines elements / requirements
    for the dissemination of IIP data

   General requirements for international reporting
    are set in the International Recommendations for
    Industrial Statistics (IRIS) 2008

   UNSD data collection will continue at 2-digit ISIC
    level for annual and quarterly data, 1-digit ISIC
    level for monthly data
      Currently for raw (unadjusted) data only
      Will switch to ISIC Rev.4 for production of regional IIP
Major changes
 Scope
   Enlarged definition of “industry”
 Recommended calculation method
   Deflation vs. volume extrapolation
 Frequency of weight updates
   Annual updates vs. 5-yearly updates
   Chain linking vs. fixed-weight approach

 Other recommendations, such as on seasonal
  adjustment or dissemination issues reflect an
  update of previous recommendations as well

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