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									                              Egypt Information

The country known as Egypt is officially called the Arab Republic of Egypt and it is
situated in the north-east of Africa; though the Sinai Peninsula forms a land bridge with
south-west Asia. It is because of this that Egypt is also called a Middle-East country.
Therefore Egypt is a transcontinental country, which helps it in being a major power in
Africa, the Middle-East, the Mediterranean, and the Muslim world.

In Arabic Egypt is called ‫ ,ﻣﺼﺮ‬or Mir, and in ancient times the country was known as
Kemet, or the black land, due to the alluvial soil which was deposited during the annual
inundation of the River Nile. This yearly event gave Egypt its fertile land that enabled it
to expand along the length of the river, especially in the Delta where many various crops
were, and still are, harvested.

Egypt covers an area of approximately 1,001,450km2 (386,662 miles²) and is bordered
by Israel and the Gaza Strip in the north-east; the Red Sea in the east; Sudan in the south;
Libya in the west; and the Mediterranean Sea in the north. It is the 3rd most populous
country in Africa and the most populous in the Middle-East with the majority of its
estimated 80 million people living on, or near, the banks of the River Nile. Only 5.5% of
the total land area is actually used by the population, the area that borders the River Nile
as well as a few oases, the other 94.5% being uninhabitable desert.

The River Nile vertically bisects the Sahara Desert and the area to the west is known as
the Western Desert, or Libyan Desert, with the area to the East, as far as the Red Sea,
being called the Eastern Desert. The desert itself is very sparsely inhabited with relatively
small population centres growing up around oases such as the Fayoum, Siwa, Bahariya,
Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga to the west and any areas of habitation being restricted to the
many wadis (or valleys) to the east.

Within the Libyan Desert can be found an enormous area of sand which is known as the
Great Sand Sea and located within this area are several depressions that have their
elevations below sea level. These include the Qattara Depression, which covers an area of
approximately 18,000km2 (7,000 miles2) and reaches a depth of approximately 133m
(436 ft) below sea level: the lowest point in Africa.

Most of the Eastern Desert lies on a plateau that gradually rises from the Nile Valley to
heights of approximately 600m (2,000 ft) in the east. Along the Red Sea coast there are
many jagged peaks that reach as high as 2,100m (7,000 ft) above sea level. The Nubian
Desert lies to the extreme south of the Eastern Desert, along the border with Sudan, and it
is an extensive area of dunes and sandy plains.

The Sinai Peninsula mainly consists of sandy desert in the north with rugged mountains
in the south; the summits here towering more than 2,100m (7,000 ft) above the Red Sea.
Mount Catherine, or Gebel Katherîna, reigns supreme here at a height of 2,629m (8,625
ft) and is the highest point in Egypt, slightly dwarfing the nearby Mount Sinai, or Moses
Mountain (Gabal Musa), at 2,285m (7,497 ft). According to Islamic, Christian and Jewish
beliefs, the biblical Mount Sinai was the place where Moses received the Ten
Commandments, though not everyone agrees that this particular mountain is actually the
biblical one.

The River Nile is nowadays regarded as the longest river in the world and it enters Egypt
from the Sudan and flows north for about 1,545km (960 miles) until it exits into the
Mediterranean Sea. From the Sudanese border to Cairo, the River Nile flows through a
narrow cliff lined valley, which, south of Edfu, is hardly more than 3km (2 miles) wide.
From Edfu to Cairo, it is about 23km (14 miles) in width, with most of the arable land
lying on the western side. Just north of Cairo the valley merges with the Delta before the
River Nile joins with the Mediterranean Sea.

The Delta is a triangular shaped plain, bordering the Mediterranean coastline for
approximately 250km (155 miles). Silt has been deposited here by the many tributaries of
the River Nile (Rosetta [Rashid], Damietta [Dumyat] and others) and this has made the
Delta the most fertile area of Egypt. The Aswan High Dam, however, has reduced the
flow of the Nile, the annual inundation now being confined to history, and this has caused
the salty waters of the Mediterranean Sea to erode most of the land along the coast.
Nowadays a series of four shallow, salty, lakes extend along the seaward extremity of the

Lake Nasser, the world's largest man-made reservoir, was formed by the building of the
Aswan High Dam in 1970. It is approximately 480km (300 miles) long and 16km (10
miles) across at its widest point. Almost two-thirds of this lake is situated in Egypt, and it
extends southwards across the Sudanese border.
From ancient times, right through to the modern era, the Nile Valley has been divided
into two separate regions, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Lower Egypt, where the
Pharaohs wore the red crown, is the area of the Delta, whilst Upper Egypt, where the
Pharaohs wore the white crown, is the entire valley south of Cairo (or Memphis during
the Pharaonic period).

The land boundaries, which Egypt shares with other countries, are 2,665 km in total and
comprise of: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km and Sudan 1,273 km. Its
coastline is 2,450 km long which includes the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Suez
Canal and the Gulf of Aqaba, though any indentations, which are suitable as harbours, are
confined to the delta.

Egypt has one of the most diverse economies in North-Africa and the Middle-East with
the various sectors employing the following amounts of people: agriculture 32%; industry
17%; services 39%; and tourism 12%.

A predominantly Sunni Muslim country, Egypt has Islam as its state religion. A genuine
estimate of the percentages of the various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt, and
no two sets of figures appear to match, but it is generally accepted that 80-90% of the
population are Muslims. Five times a day the "Adhan", the Islamic call to prayer, can be
heard being broadcast from the loudspeakers on Cairo's many minarets. There are so
many Mosques in the Egyptian capital that it was once dubbed "the city of 1,000

Cairo also hosts a considerable number of church towers due to the Christian minority in
Egypt, which makes up about 8-18% of the population. Of these, 90% belong to the
native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria with the other 10% comprising of the
Coptic Catholic Church; the Evangelical Church of Egypt; and various other Protestant

The remaining 2% of the population are Jews, with a number of synagogues being sited
around Cairo. Islam, Christianity and Judaism are the only three religions that Egypt
officially recognises.

                             EGYPT: BACKGROUND

Egypt, as a unified country, is believed to have been created about 3,200BCE, though it is
known that a civilisation existed here since the Neolithic period (8,800-4,700BCE) and
perhaps as far back as the Palaeolithic period, though much of the dating of this period
was done by uncalibrated radiocarbon dating.
Why the ancient people decided to settle on the banks of the River Nile is not known,
though it is generally accepted that it is because of the Sahara Desert, which was once
fertile, starting to change into a sandy expanse, forcing the population to look for water.
Once the River Nile was discovered, the regularity and richness of the annual inundation,
or flood, coupled with the semi-isolation that was provided by the deserts to the east and
west, allowed for the development of one of the world's greatest civilizations.

The last indigenous dynasty surrendered to the Persians in 341BCE, who were then
replaced, in turn, by the Greeks, the Romans, and the Byzantines. In the 7th century the
Arabs introduced Islam, and the Arabic language, and ruled for the next six centuries
until the Mamelukes, a local military caste, seized control circa 1250, continuing to
govern after Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Once the Suez Canal
was completed in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but this
also caused heavy debt. Seemingly, to protect its investments, Great Britain took control
of Egypt's government in 1882, but allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until
1914. By 1922 Egypt was partially independent from the UK and acquired full
sovereignty, with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy, in 1952.

The largest growing population in the Arab world, as well as limited arable land, and
dependence on the Nile, have all contributed to the huge over-taxation of resources and
has stressed society. The government had struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's
growing population through economic reform and massive investment in
communications and physical infrastructure until Jan 25th 2011, when youth led protests
brought down the Presidency and government. Now the world waits to see how this new
civilisation pans out.


Egypt: People

82,079,636 (July 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.7% (male 13,725,282/female 13,112,157)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 26,187,921/female 25,353,947)
65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,669,313/female 2,031,016) (2011 est.)

Median age:
Total: 24.3 years
Male: 24 years
Female: 24.6 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.96% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Birth rate:
24.63 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Death rate:
4.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Net migration rate:
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Urban population: 43.4% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:
Cairo (capital) 10.902 million; Alexandria 4.387 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Total: 25.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 81
Male: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 72.66 years
Country comparison to the world: 123
Male: 70.07 years
Female: 75.38 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.97 children born/woman (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
HIV/aids - adult prevalence rate:
Less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

HIV/aids - people living with HIV/aids:
11,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

HIV/aids - deaths:
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhoea, hepatitis a, and typhoid fever
Vector borne disease: rift valley fever
Water contact disease: Schistosomiasis
Note: highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses
a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close
contact with birds (2009)

Noun: Egyptian(s)
Adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups:
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%

Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 71.4%
Male: 83%
Female: 59.4% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2004)
Education expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 110

Egypt: Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Arab republic of Egypt
Conventional short form: Egypt
Local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr Al-Arabiyah
Local short form: Misr
Former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type:

Name: Cairo
Geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during standard time)

Administrative divisions:
29 governorates (Muhafazat, singular - Muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr Al Ahmar
(Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Fayoum), Al Gharbiyah, Al
Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El
Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi Al
Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf
(Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Helwan, Janub Sina' (South
Sinai), Kafr Ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina' (North
Sinai), Sittah Uktubar, Suhaj (Sohag)

28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July
1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn
on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 BCE that the two lands of Upper (southern) and
Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically

National holiday:
Revolution day, 23 July (1952)
11 September 1971; amended 22 may 1980, 25 may 2005, and 26 march 2007; note -
constitution dissolved by the military caretaker government 13 February 2011

Legal system:
Based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by
Supreme Court and council of state (oversees validity of administrative decisions);
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President (vacant); Vice President (vacant); note - following the
resignation of President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak in February 2011, the supreme council
of the armed forces, headed by defence minister Muhammad Hussein Tantawi, assumed
control of the government
Head of government: Prime Minister Essam Abdel Aziz Sharaf (since 4 March 2011);
Deputy Prime Minister Yehia El-Gamal (since 24 February 2011)
Cabinet: a new cabinet was sworn in on 7 March 2011

Elections: President elected by popular vote for a six-year term (no term limits)
Election results: Hosni Mubarak re-elected President; percent of vote - Hosni Mubarak
88.6%, Ayman Nour 7.6%, Noman Gomaa 2.9%

Legislative branch:
Bicameral system consists of the advisory council or Majlis Al-Shura (Shura Council)
that traditionally functions mostly in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 members elected
by popular vote, 88 appointed by the President; members serve six-year terms; mid-term
elections for half of the elected members) and the people's assembly or Majlis Al-Sha'b
(518 seats; 508 members elected by popular vote, 64 seats reserved for women, 10
appointed by the President; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: advisory council - last held in June 2010 (next to be held in 2013); people's
assembly - last held in November-December 2010 in one round of voting and one run-off
election (next to be held in 2015); note - on 13 February 2011 the ruling military council
dissolved the parliament
Election results: advisory council - percent of vote by party - Na; seats by party - NDP
80, Al-Geel 1, Nasserist 1, NWP 1, Tagammu 1, Tomorrow Party 1, Independents 3;
People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - Na; seats by party - NDP 419, NWP 6,
Tagammu 5, Democratic Peace Party 1, Social Justice Party 1, Tomorrow Party 1,
Independents 71, seats undecided 4, seats appointed by President 10

Judicial branch:
Supreme constitutional court
Political parties and leaders:
Al-Geel; Democratic Peace Party; Nasserist Party [Ahmed Hassan]; National Democratic
Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni Mubarak]; National Progressive
Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat El-Said]; New WAFD Party or NWP [Sayed El-
Bedawy]; Social Justice Party [Mohamed Abdel Al Hasan]; Tomorrow Party [Ayman
Note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties
with representation in elected bodies are listed

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal)
Note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the
technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Egypt's most potentially significant
political opposition; President Mubarak has alternated between tolerating limited political
activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence (its members compete as
independents in elections but do not currently hold any seats in the legislature); civic
society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and
professional associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned; internet
social networking groups and bloggers

International organization participation:

Flag description:
Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold
eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a
scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centred in the white band; the band
colours derive from the Arab liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome
through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
Note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq,
which has an Arabic inscription centred in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain
white band

National anthem:
Name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (my homeland, my homeland, my homeland)
Lyrics/music: Younis-Al Gadi/Sayed Darwish
Note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to
create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed Darwish, commonly
considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
Economy - overview:
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly
fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was
highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened up
considerably under former Presidents Anwar el-Sadat and Mohamed Hosni Mubarak.
Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign
investment and facilitate GDP growth. The global financial crisis slowed the reform
efforts. The budget deficit climbed to over 8% of GDP and Egypt's GDP growth slowed
to 4.6% in 2009, predominately due to reduced growth in export-oriented sectors,
including manufacturing and tourism, and Suez Canal revenues. In 2010, the government
spent more on infrastructure and public projects, and exports drove GDP growth to more
than 5%, but GDP growth in 2011 is unlikely to bounce back to pre-global financial
recession levels, when it stood at 7%. Despite the relatively high levels of economic
growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remain poor.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$500.9 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27
$475.7 billion (2009 est.)
$454.8 billion (2008 est.)
Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$216.8 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2010 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 55
4.6% (2009 est.)
7.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$6,200 (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
$6,000 (2009 est.)
$5,900 (2008 est.)
Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
Agriculture: 13.5%
Industry: 37.9%
Services: 48.6% (2010 est.)

Labour force:
26.1 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Labour force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 32%
Industry: 17%
Services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.7% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107
9.4% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:
20% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.9%
Highest 10%: 27.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34.4 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 90

Investment (gross fixed):
18.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Revenues: $46.82 billion
Expenditures: $64.19 billion (2010 est.)

Public debt:
80.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16
80.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.8% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208
11.9% (2009 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
8.5% (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 34
11.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11.98% (31 December 2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
12.33% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$37.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
$33.42 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$166.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42
$146.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$145.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42
$131.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$89.95 billion (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 43
$85.89 billion (31 December 2008)
$139.3 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons,
construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate:
5.5% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Electricity - production:
118.4 billion KwH (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28
Oil - production:
680,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 29

Oil - consumption:
683,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 25

Oil - exports:
89,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68

Oil - imports:
48,450 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85
Oil - proved reserves:
4.3 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Natural gas - production:
62.7 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - consumption:
42.5 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas - exports:
8.55 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.656 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Current account balance:
$270 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54
$-3.195 billion (2009 est.)

$25.34 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$23.09 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed

Exports - partners:
Us 7.95%, Italy 7.26%, Spain 6.78%, India 6.69%, Saudi Arabia 5.53%, Syria 5.3%,
France 4.39%, South Korea 4.27% (2009)

$46.52 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
$45.56 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:
Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners:
Us 9.92%, china 9.63%, Germany 6.98%, Italy 6.88%, turkey 4.94% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$35.72 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34
$33.93 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:
$30.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$29.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$72.41 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48
$66.71 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$4.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59
$4.272 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Telephones - main lines in use:
10.313 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Telephones - mobile cellular:
55.352 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 19

Telephone system:
General assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centres at
Alexandria, Cairo, al Mansoura, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable
and microwave radio relay
Domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2010 there were three mobile-
cellular networks with a total of more than 55 million subscribers
International: country code - 20; landing point for aletar, the sea-me-we-3 and sea-me-
we-4 submarine cable networks, link around the globe (flag) falcon and flag fea; satellite
earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1
Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in
medarabtel (2009)

Broadcast media:
Mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6
regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite
channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription;
state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately-owned
radio stations operational (2008)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
187,197 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Internet users:
20.136 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 21

86 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 73
Over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 5 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 4 (2010)

6 (2010)

Condensate 320 km; condensate/gas 13 km; gas 6,628 km; liquid petroleum gas 956 km;
oil 4,332 km; oil/gas/water 3 km; refined products 895 km; water 13 km (2010)

Total: 5,083 km
Country comparison to the world: 35
Standard gauge: 5,083 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2010)

Total: 65,050 km
Country comparison to the world: 70
Paved: 47,500 km
Unpaved: 17,550 km (2009)

3,500 km (includes the River Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo waterway, and
numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches)
is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 29

Merchant marine:
Total: 66
Country comparison to the world: 63
By type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 24, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12,
roll on/roll off 9
Foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
Registered in other countries: 52 (Cambodia 12, Cook Islands 1, Georgia 11, Honduras 2,
Malta 1, marshal Islands 1, Moldova 5, panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,
Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 2, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Sidi Kurayr, Suez

Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months,
followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)


Disputes - international:
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of
Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its
administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the
security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai
border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 60,000 - 80,000 (Iraq); 70,198 (Palestinian territories);
12,157 (Sudan) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
Transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa;
transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax
enforcement of financial regulations

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