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Flying Flying Club


									  Flying 20 Flying Club

Garmin GNS 430/530 Training
   VFR/Basic Operations
   Presented By: Brad Freeman
GNS 430/530 VFR/Basic Operations
 • GPS/WAAS Overview              • Overview of the Main Page
                                    Groups (NAV, WPT, AUX,
 • GNS 430/530 Overview
 • Key and Knob Functions
                                  • Not-So-Stupid Garmin
 • NAVCOM - Tuning COM and          Tricks
   VLOC Frequencies               • Vertical Navigation
 • Basic Navigation - Direct-To   • Airspace Alerts
                                  • OBS Mode/Runway Centerline
 • GPS vs. VLOC Navigation
                                  • Scheduler/Flight Timers
 • Data Field Display and         • Winds Aloft
   Interpretation (DTK, TRK,
   CTS, etc.)                     • Using the Garmin GNS430
                                    PC Simulator
 • Refreshment Break!             • Q&A
GPS/WAAS Overview
The Global Positioning System (GPS)
• Satellite-based Navigation System - 24 Satellites, 12,000 Miles
  Above Earth's Surface
• Built by U.S. Department of Defense (Also Called NAVSTAR), Gov’t
• The First GPS Satellite Was Launched in 1978 - Full Constellation of
  24 Satellites Was Achieved in 1994
• Each Solar Powered Satellite Is Built to Last About 10 Years.
  Replacements Are Constantly Being Built and Launched Into Orbit
• GPS Satellites Circle the Earth Twice a Day in a Precisely Known
  Orbit and Transmit Signal Information to Earth
• GPS Receivers Take This Information and Use Time-Based
  Triangulation to Calculate the User's Exact Location
• Accurate to Within 15 Meters
What is WAAS?
• Wide Area Augmentation System – corrects for GPS signal errors
  caused by ionospheric disturbances and satellite orbit errors
• A network of ground reference stations at precisely surveyed
  locations – compare GPS distance measurements to known values
• Each ground reference station is linked to a master station which
  generates a correction signal and transmits it to one of two
  geostationary satellites
• Correction signal is then broadcast to WAAS-capable receivers
• Covers entire USA and some of Canada and Mexico – similar
  satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) are being developed in
  Europe and ASPAC
• WAAS position accuracies of 1 meter horizontal and 2 meters vertical
  – up to five times better than standard GPS
WAAS Network
GNS 430/530 Overview
An “All-in-One” GPS NAVCOM solution.     WAAS, TIS Traffic (with Garmin GTX
IFR certified – TSO C129a/C146a          330), TAWS
Huge Jeppesen Database – All Airports,   Weather – Couples with Goodrich
VOR, NDB, Intersections, FSS/ATC         SKYWATCH™, STORMSCOPE® WX
Freq, SUAs, Approaches, STARs, DPs,      500 and Garmin GDL 69A Data Link
etc                                      Transceiver (NEXRAD)

  Advanced Technology Offering Enhanced Situational
              Awareness and Safety…
… but beware!
FAA’s Safer Skies Initiative – Study of “Technically Advanced
Airplanes”: TAAs offer more “available” safety, but without
proper training for their pilots, they could be less safe than
airplanes with less “available” safety.
Flying Magazine December 2003

Excerpt from an NTSB investigation of an accident involving
a Garmin GNS 430-equipped Cirrus SR20:
"The pilot was in the process of selecting the approach in the
airplane's global positioning satellite (GPS) receiver [GNS
430], when he noticed that the turn coordinator was "pegged
to the left, with no flag," and that the airplane was losing
altitude rapidly. The pilot disengaged the autopilot and
attempted to stabilize the airplane."
Standard GNS 430/530 vs 430W/530W
       Feature          Standard 430/530           430W/530W
TSO                   C129a – Supplemental   WAAS TSO C146a –
                      navigation             Primary navigation

GPS Position Update   Once per second        Five times per second

Terrain Awareness     Optional               Standard

Vertical Guidance     Enroute VNAV only      IFR precision and non-
                                             precision approach
                                             guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV,
Course Guidance       Nav course only        Active guidance in holding
                                             patterns and procedure
                                             turns – can be coupled with
                                             roll steering auto-pilot
Dead Reckoning        No                     Yes
Satellite Status Page
                GNS 430 Key Functions
                  Frequency      Map/Function/D    RANGE Zoom      Direct-To
Power/Volume/      Windows         ata Fields         In/Out       Navigation

COM Toggle/                                                         Context-
HOLD 121.5                                                       Sensitive MENU


VLOC Toggle

                                                                 LARGE CRSR
LARGE KNOB                                                        Page Groups
                                                                 SMALL CRSR
                                                                 Pages/ PUSH
PUSH Toggle                                                      Toggle CRSR

 CDI - Toggle        OBS         MSG – View
                                                  FPL – Flight    PROC – IFR
 Nav Source      Mode/Waypoint     System
                                                     Plan         Procedures
 GPS/VLOC         Sequencing      Messages
GNS 430/530 Page Navigation
        Entering Data

                                                 PRESS ENTER KEY
                                                   TO CONFIRM

                                                  PRESS ONCE TO
                                                 ACTIVATE CURSOR,
                                                     AGAIN TO

5                      2                     3
                                                 TURN BIG KNOB TO
                           TURN SMALL KNOB
    PRESS CLR KEY TO                             ADVANCE CURSOR
                              TO SELECT
     CANCEL ENTRY                                OR CHANGE FIELDS
                                                   (CURSOR OFF)
GPS Navigation Concepts
      GPS Navigation Concepts

DTK   Desired Track
TRK   Ground Track

BRG   Bearing to Waypoint

CTS   Course To Steer

XTK   Cross-Track
DIS   Distance (NM)

GS    Groundspeed

A course is always defined by two waypoints!
           GNS 430/530 Data Fields

BRG – Bearing to Waypoint      GS – Ground Speed
CTS – Course To Steer          MSA – Minimum Safe Altitude
DIS – Distance to Waypoint     TKE – Track Angle Error
DTK – Desired Track            TRK – Ground Track
ESA – Enroute Safe Altitude    VSR – Vertical Speed Required
ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival WPT – Active Waypoint
ETE – Estimated Time Enroute   XTK – Cross Track Error
Vertical Navigation
Terrain Awareness
Terrain Awareness Criteria
Terrain Awareness Page and Alerts

 Premature Descent Alert       Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance

Flashing Alert = Immediate Evasive Action Required!
Flight Simulator
    Do                            Don’t
•   Develop Skills in Stages    • Exceed VFR or “Personal
    (80/20 Rule)                  Minimums”
•   Practice with PC            • Focus Inside the Cockpit/Forget
                                  to Scan
                                • Rely Solely on GPS Map Display
•   Program On the Ground         for Navigation - Use Current
•   Delegate GNS 430              Charts and FSS Briefings!
    Operations to Co-Pilot      • Futz with it When Close to Airport
                                  or in High Workload Situations
•   Fly the Airplane First!
                                • Try New Features in Flight Until
                                  You Are Proficient in Their Use

        GPS is Not a Substitute for Sound ADM!!
       “Proper Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance!”
• How do you set the time on the GNS 430/530?
• What is the difference between HDG and TRK?
• Define DTK, TRK, XTK and their relationship to
  each other
• VLOC refers to what capability of the GNS 430?
• What is the CDI key used for?
• What is the OBS key used for?
• How do you cancel a Direct-To course?
MS Flight Simulator Add-Ons
     & Further Reading
MS Flight Simulator 2004 Add-Ons
Dreamfleet - makers of the Piper Archer Add-on (they are also working on a
Dakota add-on, not released yet): With it’s
photo-realistic panel, this is one of the best aircraft add-ons available for FS
Order and download the Archer for $20 from Flight1 Software. Note there are
special instructions for FS2004 – read the instructions carefully before
Reality XP makes the GNS 430 and GNS 530 Add-ons for MS Flight
Simulator Order them from the Reality XP web site:
The Reality XP package provides the Garmin CDI head accessory and a
Garmin GMA 340 audio panel. It basically uses the internal functionality of the
free Garmin PC Simulator, but wraps it in a different "skin" that integrates with
FS2004. It's a really cool product and great for VFR or IFR training.
You will also need the free Garmin GNS 430/530 PC Simulator. Download it
from Garmin:
Further Reading
• Garmin Web Site -
   – Garmin GNS 430 and GMA 340 Manuals (Download PDF or Order Hard
   – GNS 430 PC Simulator
   – Garmin Training Syllabus
• AOPA Air Safety Foundation –
   – ASF Safety Advisor – GPS Technology
   – GPS: Beyond Direct-To Seminar
• AVweb –, Avionics Articles
   – Gems in the GPS Attic
   – GPS and Beyond: The SatNav Transition
   – GPS – From VFR to IFR
     Brad Freeman

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