Research Plan - Download as PowerPoint by Y4q8z6

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									     Typical Strategic Planning Process
                           Condu
                                                    Strateg
                 Condu       ct       Concep
                                                       ic
                   ct                  tual
Research
                  Desk    Primar
  Plan
                 Resea       y        Frame
                                                     Frame
                  rch     Resear       work
                                                      work
                            ch



           Typical Implementation Process


                           Training
  Organisation                                Monitoring &
   Framework
                         Framework
                                               Evaluation
       Research
         Plan

Research Plan: Taking the time upfront to develop a research plan will help
to ensure the research program acquires the correct data in a productive
and timely fashion. A good plan will typically have five components:

    1 - Research objectives
    2 - Data required
    3 - Potential sources
    4 - Preferred collection methods
    5 - Estimated timeline
          Conduct
            Desk
          Research


Desk Research: This is the identification and collection of existing qualitative
(press releases) and quantitative (UN/World Bank/Govt Assessment reports,
Development Plans) data from on-line (internet) and off-line (UN, manuals,
published material) sources:

    •Desk research is the source for most data on strategy development
    •Persistence and creativity are important to successful desk research
    •A wide variety of data sources are generally required
    •More and more valuable data is becoming available on-line
    •Some of the best data sources are still off-line
        Condu
          ct

        Primar
           y
        Resear
          ch
Primary Research: This involves the creation of new information
and insight, which is tailor-made to get the data required:

    •Provides information that is exclusive, unpublished, new and
    unique
    •Uses interviewing, one of the most common primary research
    methods, to collect data
    •Uses focus groups to collect qualitative data from small groups
    •Uses large-scale, quantitative research techniques to collect
    data from a large sample
     Interview Methods to Collect            Interview Methods to Collect
           Qualitative Data                       Quantitative Data

•Unstructured face-to-face interviews   •Structured face-to-face interviews
•Unstructured telephone interviews      •Structured telephone interviews
•Guided conversations



 The type of data to be collected, and that which is available, strongly
 influences the method used to collect it.

 •Collecting quantitative data requires a more structured method, and,
 conversely,
 •Collecting qualitative data can use a less structured, less formal
 approach

 Unstructured interviews are quite conversational, whereas

 Structured interviews follow a detailed, specific interview guide
                             Interview Methods to Collect                  Interview Methods to Collect
                                   Quantitative Data                              Qualitative Data
                          Unstructured Interviews                      Structured Interviews

                                                            • Unstructured face-to-face interviews
                       •Conversational rather than          • Unstructured telephone interviews
                                                                 •Structured
                                                            • Guided conversations questionnaire
Characteristics
                        questions only
                       •Topical issues and areas, with
                                                               •Mixture of open and closed
                        more open questions than closed
                                                                questions to maintain interest
                       •Need to probe into areas of
                        interest!
 Recording Responses




                                                              •Written responses/ structured
                       •Written responses/tape recording       response sheet
                                                              •Ranking/ scoring & categorical
                       •Some ranking/categorical               responses
                        responses
                                                              •Numerical data




                       •At the beginning of interviewing
When to use




                       •When working out what questions       •When clear what questions to ask
                        to ask as part of designing a         •When the data collection is
                        quantitative approach                  quantifiable or numerical
                       •When canvassing for opinions/
                        quotes
Advantages and Disadvantages of chosen methods

              Interviews                               Focus Groups


•Avoids peer group pressure                •Interaction generates new ideas,
•Allows people to voice less acceptable     exchanges of opinion—can be very
 views                                      creative
•Allows focus on an individual’s opinion   •Allows understanding/ sense of the
•Where sample difficult to recruit,         group’s opinion
 represents easier recruitment than for    •Allows comparison and contrasts of the
 focus groups                               reactions of different groups (men
•More expensive                             versus women, young versus old)
                                           •More opinions more quickly
                                           •Wider range of views
                                           •Good value for money
             Concept
               ual

             Framewo
                rk
Analysis of the primary and secondary data to develop a conceptual
framework to deliver resources to achieve results, with the following
guiding principles:

• The project must take into consideration the objectives of existing main
stream development plans: National Development Plan; UN/Govt Master Plan of
Operations

• There should be effective project management: Ensures quality and cost
effectiveness

• There must be transparency and effective supervision:                 Encourages probity
& transparency leading to a fair distribution of economic benefits

• Community participation and empowerment must be encouraged:
Overarching principle; creates ownership and livelihood opportunities
           Strategic

          Framewo
             rk
Defines how the conceptual framework can be implemented by knowing
and understanding the development issues: Restoration & development;
environment; influx of donor funds distorts local economy; opportunity to create livelihoods
programmes

Develops the strategic objectives to address the development issues

Determines the interventions/ activities that are needed to achieve the
objectives

Allocates responsibilities and time frames to these interventions

States the desired end results, which will address the defined issues
  Organisational
   Framework



Defines how the programme is institutionalised, how is works alongside
existing institutions, Government, Donors, non-governmental
organisations, groups and communities


How it collaborates and integrates with existing related programmes,
within Government and United Nations’ organisations


Defines roles and responsibilities of key players at each phase of
programme
          Training

          Framewo
             rk
Defines training needs:
• For community groups: how to assess needs, to prioritise planning, and to
develop action steps & work-plans

• To sensitise professionals to community needs: friendly learning
environments, gender issues, simplified bidding, livelihoods programmes,
community is the centre of the process, and need for transparency

• For small contractors in construction management:            how to win work,
how to be profitable and how to please your customer, safe building techniques, and
how to manage the business

• Emerging contractors: costing, organising and safety in labour only contracts,
and maintenance of public assets

• Training of trainers & supervisors: leadership, principles of supervision,
problem solving, decision making, and health & safety

• Training of development committees: transparency, empowerment,
mobilisation of members, participation and monitoring
           Monitorin
               g
                 &
           Evaluation

Defines project governance:          project management team, project steering group, bid
evaluation, procurement & financial management procedures


Defines monitoring process and techniques: development of performance
indicators, and measurement methods; supervision of construction quality and cost control;
adherence to child friendly learning needs; involvement of community & livelihood creation;
monthly or quarterly reporting; mid-term evaluation of the progress in reaching project’s
desired-end-results.


Defines evaluation techniques: team for end-of-project evaluation (internal, external,
government, donor etc); framework for evaluation - quality and cost of structures, bidding
transparency, appropriateness to educational needs -degree of child friendliness; adherence to
project principles – involvement of community; and, project and financial management

								
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