9AKK105397 4Q Root Cause Analysis - DOC

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					                             ABB 4Q RCA Report

This document is a guide and report for systematic problem solving using the ABB 4Q Methodology. It is
the standard format for reporting on customer issues work/resolution and should be used with ABB
Group Instruction Number GI/Q0-01.04.

The report is in five parts; a “status section” and then each of the four quadrants of ABB 4Q (Q1, Q2, Q3,
Q4). On the last page are links to tools to aid in completing this report. For more information on ABB 4Q
please go to inside.abb.com/gf-qo.


STATUS

Issue:                     Title or name of issue recognizable by ABB and the Customer (if a customer issue)
ABB Issue Owner:           The person who is the owner of this document and 4Q project leader
Customer:                  If this is a customer issue, the name of the customer
Customer ref:              Any reference number or code given to this issue by the customer (if a customer issue)
ABB BU:                    The BU responsible
ABB Project Sponsor:       The person accountable (resources and authority) for resolving the issue
Date:                      Date of this status update

                                         Current Status



                     Q1 Measure                         Any necessary containment
                                                        done, project set up and data
                                                                                         Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
                                                                  collected.
                                                                                           complete and verified
                                                              The current state
   Status            Q2 Analyze                        investigated and understood
   Checked box
indicates project
 is complete for
  that quadrant.     Q3 Improve

                     Q4 Sustain                                                            Long Term Solution
                                                          New work methods and            developed, piloted and
                                                          processes standardized.       implemented that eliminates
                                                               Issue closed.                 the root causes.




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Q1 Measure

Q1a.         Containment / Short term actions
Are there any immediate actions that need to be taken to protect the customer? If so, use this space to describe the dangers. Include
any dangers/actions relating to other products, lines or sites that this issue might affect. And include any dangers/actions relating to
the management or quarantine of Work in Progress from suppliers through to customers. Then use the table below to show the
immediate actions being taken to contain the problem.


Action                                                           Owner                                   Target            Complete
                                                                                                          Date               Date




Q1b. Project description
Use this space to draw a diagram or picture of the problem or use a photograph. Then describe the problem using the six boxes below.



What is happening?                                                     Why is this a problem? if there are different opinions
                                                                       include all opinions



When does/did the problem happen? if this has                          Who is involved with the problem?
happened before, include any history



Where does/did the problem happen?                                     How do we know we have a problem? as a
                                                                       minimum, how did we find out about this problem



Use this space to describe which ABB departments or functions need to be involved in finding a solution and why. If a supplier and or
customer representatives are needed describe these too. Use the table below to identify the individuals who will work on this project.
For a larger project, the team will need a formal project document. You can use the “Project Charter” tool.


Project target and major assumptions
Briefly state what results the project is going to deliver


Name:                             Job Title                    Project Responsibility               Contact details




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Q1c.        Data collection / Process mapping
Size of Problem
Use this space to quantify the problem. Be specific. Use business and customer measures such as $, OTD, NPS, quantities etc.




Data/evidence
Use this space to list all the data and evidence that will be needed for Q2. Analyze. Include a process map - you can use the SIPOC
tool. If this data/evidence is not available now then show a plan for collecting the data/evidence. Interview people who can give
useful information as soon as possible before they forget.




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Q2 Analyze

Q2.         Root Cause Analysis
All Possible causes
There are usually many possible causes of a problem. The project team should identify all of the possible causes of the problem.
Analyze the data and the process map from Q1. You can use the Fishbone part of the “Fishbone& 5 Whys” tool to help structure
your teams thinking. Use this space to list all the possible causes.




Most likely root cause(s)
The project team should agree on which is the most likely root cause(s) of the problem. You can use the 5 Whys part of the
“Fishbone& 5 Whys” tool to help you structure your work. Use this space to show your thinking on the most likely root cause(s).




Verified root cause(s)
Use this space to show how you checked (verified) that you have the root cause(s). Some of the ways to do this verification are:
         Observe the process and see the effect of the root cause(s)
         Pareto analysis, scatter diagram or other statistical analysis of the data
         Meeting with an expert(s) who confirms your thinking




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Q3 Improve
Q3           Long term solution
All Possible solutions
The project team needs to think of all the possible ways the root cause found in Q2 can be eliminated. This is particularly important
and requires opportunity storming or equivalent if the problem is difficult or has been around for a long time. Use this space to list all
the ways the root cause could be eliminated.




Best solution
The project team needs to agree the best long term solution that eliminates the root cause. This should include thinking about an
organized workplace (5S) and how to ensure that the problem doesn’t happen again (mistake proofing or Poke Yoke).It may involve
piloting to prove that it does eliminate the root cause. Use this space to show the best solution and why how you know that it works.




Implement solution
Implementation of the chosen solution needs to be planned. Use the table below to plan piloting and implementation or for larger
projects use MS Project or similar.


Action                                                            Owner                                     Target           Complete
                                                                                                             Date              Date




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Q4 Sustain

Q4a. Permanent solution
Use this space to show what has been done to make the solution permanent and that it is not just a temporary fix. You can use the
“Control Plan” tool for more sophisticated solutions. Other ways to sustain a permanent solution are Standardization, Visual
Management and Control Charts. Monitor the KPI to show that the target is reached and maintained.




Q4a. Issue closed
Use this space to show how the issue has been closed with the customer (if a customer issue)




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     Tool (hyperlink)    Description                   where used=> Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
                         Understand the connection between customer
VOC and CTQ              requirements and quality criteria
                         Identify, measure and monitor the
KPI                      performance of key elements of the process
                         Record and present direct observations and
Check sheet              facts about a process
Control chart            Monitor performance, variation of the process
                         Show variation and observe one or more
Run diagram              variables against another
                         Document the sequence of events in any
Process mapping          process for a product or service
                         Document the top level process steps in any
SIPOC                    process for a product or service
5 Whys                   Understand the real root causes of a problem
Cause & Effect           Illustrate the main causes and sub classes
(Fishbone)               leading to a symptom
Opportunity              Discover opportunities and uncover issues in a
storming                 group or organization
                         Breakdown a subject into lower-level
Tree diagram             hierarchical components
Bar chart                Display and communicate numeric data
                         Identify the vital few causes of the majority of
Pareto                   problems
                         Determine the distribution of quantitative data
Histogram                over time
Scatter diagram          Present data to identify patterns or relationships
                         Compare two or more sets of data against one
Matrix diagram           another
SMART action list        Formulate clear objective actions

Lean and 7 wastes        Identify and eliminate the causes of waste
                         Workplace organisation to improve safety and
5S                       productivity
Prioritization           Sort a list into order of relative importance
matrix
                         Stabilize a process to make it more measurable,
Standardization          predictable and controllable
Poka Yoke                Mistake-proofing a process
Visual management Control work and monitor status
4Q basic project  Assist completion of 4Q project objectives
management
Kaizen            Identify and implement quick improvements




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