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ADDIE Flying Instruction



 Instruction Design Systems
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 The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally
  used by instructional designers and training
 The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development,
  Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a
  dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective
  training and performance support tools.
Analysis Phase
 In the analysis phase, the instructional problem is
    clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are
    established and the learning environment and
    learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified.
    Below are some of the questions that are addressed
    during the analysis phase:
   Who is the audience and their characteristics?
   Identify the new behavioral outcome?
   What types of learning constraints exist?
   What are the delivery options?
   What are the online pedagogical considerations?
   What is the timeline for project completion?
Development Phase
 The development phase is where the
 developers create and assemble the content
 assets that were created in the design phase.
 Programmers work to develop and/or
 integrate technologies. Testers perform
 debugging procedures. The project is
 reviewed and revised according to any
 feedback given.
Implementation Phase
 During the implementation phase, a procedure for
  training the facilitators and the learners is developed.
  The facilitators' training should cover the course
  curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery,
  and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners
  include training them on new tools (software or
  hardware), student registration.
 This is also the phase where the project manager
  ensures that the books, hands on equipment, tools,
  CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the
  learning application or Web site is functional.
Evaluation Phase
 The evaluation phase consists of two parts:
  formative and summative. Formative
  evaluation is present in each stage of the
  ADDIE process. Summative evaluation
  consists of tests designed for domain specific
  criterion-related referenced items and
  providing opportunities for feedback from the
Design Phase
 The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment
    instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson
    planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic
    and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying,
    developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for
    attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the
    instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details.
   These are steps used for the design phase:
   Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical design
   Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral
    outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
   Design the user interface and user experience
   Prototype creation
   Apply visual design (graphic design)
IST – What is that?
 IST or Instructional Systems Technology as defined
  in 1994 “is the theory and practice of design,
  development, utilization, management, and
  evaluation of processes and resources for learning”
  (Seels & Richey, 1994). IST links together
  technology and best learning practices to the
  advantage of all the stakeholders – learner,
  instructor, organization, and society. When we, as a
  field, say technology we mean anything, not just
  computers, which can be used to meet the goals of
  the learning process. To eliminate any initial
  confusion, IST is simply another name for
  Instructional Technology (IT).
Fast Prototyping
 Designing While Delivering
     One of the items in my list of principles for
      faster, cheaper, and better design of training is
      to build airplanes while flying them.
 A pilot test of the new training package the
  next Monday. My client becomes skeptical
  and suspicious since it is Thursday afternoon
  now. But he agrees to assemble a group of
  participants for the pilot test on Monday.
Step 1
 To test his suspicion that a lot of content
  already exists in different places, I google
  leadership skills and find more than a million
  documents available. Next, I go to and find more than 75,000
  books on the topic. I browse through the list
  and select 30 different titles (judging many of
  the books by their cover) and order them to
  be shipped overnight.
Step 2
 On the fateful Monday, I drag in three cartons of
  books and dump them in the middle of the workshop
  room. Without any preamble, I announce, “We are
  going to master powerful practical leadership
  principles and procedures. Here's what I want you to
  do: Each one of you grab a book from these piles.
  Choose any book you like. Later, if you don't like it,
  throw it back and pick a substitute. Then grab a
  highlighter. Sit down anywhere you want and speed-
  read the book. You have 20 minutes to discover six
  practical ideas that you can use tomorrow on your
  job. Highlight these six ideas. If you finish ahead of
  time, read some more and see if you can locate
  better ideas.”
Step 3
   After 20 minutes, I blow a whistle and ask everyone to find a partner. When everybody is
    paired up, here are the instructions I give:
   “Take turns sharing your leadership ideas to each other. Share one idea at a time. When
    you are listening, practice all of your active listening skills. Lean forward, maintain eye
    contact, make enthusiastic noise, and take notes. You have another 20 minutes. If you finish
    sharing all 12 ideas before time's up, talk to your partner about how you plan to apply these
    ideas tomorrow.”
   After 20 more minutes, I ask each pair of participants to join another pair. In each group of
    four, participants take turns to share ideas presented by their partners during the previous
    round. So in another 20 minutes each participant listens to 12 new ideas—in addition to the
    original 12 they shared during the previous round.
   A few participants complain that some of the ideas are exactly the same. I say, “That's
    wonderful! This reinforces the validity of the ideas.”
   Other participants complain that some ideas contradict each other. I say, “That's wonderful!
    You have discovered the concept of situational leadership. These ideas work effectively in
    some contexts and fail miserably in others.”
   Twenty minutes later, I announce the final round: I ask each group of four to select the most
    practical idea and send a representative to the front of the room to explain it to everyone
   Later I have participants discuss similarities and differences among these ideas. I conduct
    five other activities, all related to practical leadership principles that can be applied to
    authentic job-related situations.
ID Plan
 The Morrison, Ross, and Kemp model or “ID Plan” is a
  classroom orientation model that focuses on curriculum
  planning. The ID Plan approach is from the learner’s
  perspective rather than that of the content. This model allows
  entry at any point in the process and emphasizes centrality of
  evaluation and environment surrounding instruction. This
  circular or elliptical model allows instructional problems, learner
  characteristics, task analysis, instructional objectives, content
  sequencing, instructional strategies, and message design, as
  well as development and evaluation of instruction to be revised
  at each stage. This formative evaluation is encircled by
  consistent management and support such as summative
  evaluation, support services and project management (Molenda,
Where to learn more
 For more information on educational and instructional
  technology’s history and evolution, suggested
  readings are C.G. Gentry’s Instructional technology:
  Past, present, and future in “Educational technology:
  A question of meaning” or B.B. Seels and R.C.
  Richey’s “Instructional technology: The definition and
  domains of the field.” These two references gather
  expert opinions, systematically define technology, ET
  and IT and are excellent resources for new students.
Maria’s Approach
 Eclectic framework
    Mix of behavioral and cognitive learning theories (Molenda
    Demonstrates that instructional frameworks frequently arise
     from a combination of theories. The Eclectic Framework
     incorporates Gagne’s theory and instructional framework.
     Gagne’s work is distilled into other adaptations such as
     Stolovitch and Keeps’s “universal model” and Russell’s
     Objectives Alignment Framework.
 Formative Evaluation
    Components of the Systems Approach Model (Dick, Carey,
     & Carey, 2001)
    Emphasis (Molenda, 2006)
    Dick and Carey’s systems approach model specifically
     emphasizes formative and summative evaluation.
   AECT (2004). Educational technology: Definition and glossary of terms (pre-
    publication draft) (pp. 1-10). Washington, DC: Association for Educational
    Communications and Technology.
   AECT (1977). The definition of educational technology. Washington DC:
    Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
   Gentry, C.G. (1995). Educational Technology: a question of meaning. In G.J.
    Anglin (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present, and Future (2nd ed.) (pp.
    1-10). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
   Januszewski, A. (2004). Stasis and change in the definition of educational
    technology. TechTrends, 49(1), 45-46.
   Molenda, M. (2006). Introduction to Technology Part 2. Retrieved January 17,
    2007 from the Indiana University Oncourse Module B: Instructional Technology
    Overview Syllabus Website:
   Seels, B.B. & Richey, R.C. (1994). The 1994 definition of the field. In
    Instructional Technology: The definition and domains of the field (pp. 1-22)
    Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communication and Technology.
   Thiagi Oct 2007 Issue
   Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J. O. (2001). The systematic design of instruction
    (5th ed.).
    (pp. 2-14). New York: Longman.
   Driscoll, M.P. (2000). Gagne’s Theory of Instruction. Psychology of learning for
    instruction. (2nd ed.). (pp. 341 - 372). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
   Foshay, W.R., Silber, K.H., & Stelnicki, M.B. (2003). The Cognitive Approach to
    Training Development.        Writing training materials that work. (pp. 9-21). San
    Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
   Foshay, W.R., Silber, K.H., & Stelnicki, M.B. (2003). A Cognitive Training Model.
    Writing training materials that work. (pp. 23-32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
   Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. & Smaldino, S. (2002). Media, Technology
    and Learning. Instructional             media and technologies for learning (7th
    ed.). (pp. 5-21). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
   Molenda, M. & Russell, J.D. (2006). Instructional Development Models and
    Lesson Frameworks. Excerpted from Instruction as an intervention. In J.A.
    Pershing (Ed.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology (3rd ed.) (pp. 1-
    11). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

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