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ADDIE Instruction Design Systems ADDIE A D D I E The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. Analysis Phase In the analysis phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase: Who is the audience and their characteristics? Identify the new behavioral outcome? What types of learning constraints exist? What are the delivery options? What are the online pedagogical considerations? What is the timeline for project completion? Development Phase The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. Programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given. Implementation Phase During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners include training them on new tools (software or hardware), student registration. This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application or Web site is functional. Evaluation Phase The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. Design Phase The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details. These are steps used for the design phase: Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor). Design the user interface and user experience Prototype creation Apply visual design (graphic design) IST – What is that? IST or Instructional Systems Technology as defined in 1994 “is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994). IST links together technology and best learning practices to the advantage of all the stakeholders – learner, instructor, organization, and society. When we, as a field, say technology we mean anything, not just computers, which can be used to meet the goals of the learning process. To eliminate any initial confusion, IST is simply another name for Instructional Technology (IT). Fast Prototyping Designing While Delivering One of the items in my list of principles for faster, cheaper, and better design of training is to build airplanes while flying them. A pilot test of the new training package the next Monday. My client becomes skeptical and suspicious since it is Thursday afternoon now. But he agrees to assemble a group of participants for the pilot test on Monday. Step 1 To test his suspicion that a lot of content already exists in different places, I google leadership skills and find more than a million documents available. Next, I go to Amazon.com and find more than 75,000 books on the topic. I browse through the list and select 30 different titles (judging many of the books by their cover) and order them to be shipped overnight. Step 2 On the fateful Monday, I drag in three cartons of books and dump them in the middle of the workshop room. Without any preamble, I announce, “We are going to master powerful practical leadership principles and procedures. Here's what I want you to do: Each one of you grab a book from these piles. Choose any book you like. Later, if you don't like it, throw it back and pick a substitute. Then grab a highlighter. Sit down anywhere you want and speed- read the book. You have 20 minutes to discover six practical ideas that you can use tomorrow on your job. Highlight these six ideas. If you finish ahead of time, read some more and see if you can locate better ideas.” Step 3 After 20 minutes, I blow a whistle and ask everyone to find a partner. When everybody is paired up, here are the instructions I give: “Take turns sharing your leadership ideas to each other. Share one idea at a time. When you are listening, practice all of your active listening skills. Lean forward, maintain eye contact, make enthusiastic noise, and take notes. You have another 20 minutes. If you finish sharing all 12 ideas before time's up, talk to your partner about how you plan to apply these ideas tomorrow.” After 20 more minutes, I ask each pair of participants to join another pair. In each group of four, participants take turns to share ideas presented by their partners during the previous round. So in another 20 minutes each participant listens to 12 new ideas—in addition to the original 12 they shared during the previous round. A few participants complain that some of the ideas are exactly the same. I say, “That's wonderful! This reinforces the validity of the ideas.” Other participants complain that some ideas contradict each other. I say, “That's wonderful! You have discovered the concept of situational leadership. These ideas work effectively in some contexts and fail miserably in others.” Twenty minutes later, I announce the final round: I ask each group of four to select the most practical idea and send a representative to the front of the room to explain it to everyone else. Later I have participants discuss similarities and differences among these ideas. I conduct five other activities, all related to practical leadership principles that can be applied to authentic job-related situations. ID Plan The Morrison, Ross, and Kemp model or “ID Plan” is a classroom orientation model that focuses on curriculum planning. The ID Plan approach is from the learner’s perspective rather than that of the content. This model allows entry at any point in the process and emphasizes centrality of evaluation and environment surrounding instruction. This circular or elliptical model allows instructional problems, learner characteristics, task analysis, instructional objectives, content sequencing, instructional strategies, and message design, as well as development and evaluation of instruction to be revised at each stage. This formative evaluation is encircled by consistent management and support such as summative evaluation, support services and project management (Molenda, 2006). Where to learn more For more information on educational and instructional technology’s history and evolution, suggested readings are C.G. Gentry’s Instructional technology: Past, present, and future in “Educational technology: A question of meaning” or B.B. Seels and R.C. Richey’s “Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field.” These two references gather expert opinions, systematically define technology, ET and IT and are excellent resources for new students. Maria’s Approach Eclectic framework Mix of behavioral and cognitive learning theories (Molenda 2006) Demonstrates that instructional frameworks frequently arise from a combination of theories. The Eclectic Framework incorporates Gagne’s theory and instructional framework. Gagne’s work is distilled into other adaptations such as Stolovitch and Keeps’s “universal model” and Russell’s Objectives Alignment Framework. Formative Evaluation Components of the Systems Approach Model (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001) Emphasis (Molenda, 2006) Dick and Carey’s systems approach model specifically emphasizes formative and summative evaluation. References AECT (2004). Educational technology: Definition and glossary of terms (pre- publication draft) (pp. 1-10). Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology. AECT (1977). The definition of educational technology. Washington DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Gentry, C.G. (1995). Educational Technology: a question of meaning. In G.J. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present, and Future (2nd ed.) (pp. 1-10). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Januszewski, A. (2004). Stasis and change in the definition of educational technology. TechTrends, 49(1), 45-46. Molenda, M. (2006). Introduction to Technology Part 2. Retrieved January 17, 2007 from the Indiana University Oncourse Module B: Instructional Technology Overview Syllabus Website: http://www.indiana.edu/~istr511/hubbard- welsh06fall/Module%20B.html. Seels, B.B. & Richey, R.C. (1994). The 1994 definition of the field. In Instructional Technology: The definition and domains of the field (pp. 1-22) Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communication and Technology. Thiagi Oct 2007 Issue References Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J. O. (2001). The systematic design of instruction (5th ed.). (pp. 2-14). New York: Longman. Driscoll, M.P. (2000). Gagne’s Theory of Instruction. Psychology of learning for instruction. (2nd ed.). (pp. 341 - 372). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Foshay, W.R., Silber, K.H., & Stelnicki, M.B. (2003). The Cognitive Approach to Training Development. Writing training materials that work. (pp. 9-21). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. Foshay, W.R., Silber, K.H., & Stelnicki, M.B. (2003). A Cognitive Training Model. Writing training materials that work. (pp. 23-32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass/Pfeiffer. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. & Smaldino, S. (2002). Media, Technology and Learning. Instructional media and technologies for learning (7th ed.). (pp. 5-21). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice-Hall. Molenda, M. & Russell, J.D. (2006). Instructional Development Models and Lesson Frameworks. Excerpted from Instruction as an intervention. In J.A. Pershing (Ed.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology (3rd ed.) (pp. 1- 11). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
"ADDIE Flying Instruction"