Pre-APUSH MIDTERM TEST
20. Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor, advocated
a. trade unionism, pure and simple, concentrating on practical issues like wages and hours b. one big union, welcoming
both skilled and unskilled workers c. broad social reforms by getting pro-labor officials elected d. that skilled craftsmen
give up their autonomy in order to create solidarity with unskilled workers in the union
21. The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
a. Jay Gould b. Henry Bessemer c. John P. Altgeld d. Thomas Edison
22. During the Gilded Age, The Sherman Anti-trust Act was primarily used to curb the power of: a. manufacturing corporations
b. labor unions c. state legislatures d. railroad corporations
23. Farmers favored "silver coinage" because doing so would a. encourage deflation b. help bankers and people who were
money lenders c. inflate prices d. reduce the interest rate on mortgage loans
24. Which of the following was not invented by Thomas Edison, the Wizard of Menlo Park? a. microphone b. motion picture
camera c. incandescent light bulb d. the telephone
25. Defenders of laissez-faire capitalism believed that government should
a. promote collective bargaining to help labor unions b. avoid unnecessary regulation of industry c. promote railroads and
factories with land grants and high tariffs d. abolish free enterprise.
26. Social Darwinism justified the: a. need for federal regulation of big businesses
b. use of collective bargaining by labor unions.
c. the rise of monopolies and concentration of wealth d. the extermination of the buffalo.
27. In 1887 Congress established which federal regulatory board to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and
issue cease and desist orders against railroads acting illegally?
a. Federal Railroad Commission. b. Interstate Commerce Commission
c. Federal Transportation Board d. Transportation Ethics Committee
28. Which of the following does not correctly match each individual with his/her field of influence? a. George Westinghouse-
safer trains b. Alexander Graham Bell- founder of AT&T c. Thomas Edison – moving pictures d. Thomas Edison-
founder of General Electric e. Rockefeller- owned oil monopoly
29. The Haymarket Square bombing in 1886 resulted in: a. increased sympathy for workers and Unions b. the election of
several German-born anarchists to the Illinois state legislature c. the arrest of the police who fired on the crowd d. public
anger directed at the Kinghts of Labor and other industrial unions
30. His dramatic “Cross of Gold” speech won this Populist the 1896 Democratic nomination for president of the United States: a.
Grover Cleveland b. William McKinley c. Thomas Watson d. William Jennings Bryan
31. In 1894, President Cleveland sent United States troops to Chicago to end a strike at the Pullman Palace Car Company, citing
the responsibility of the federal government to: a. deliver the mail b. maintain law and order c. confront anarchists d.
prepare troops for the Spanish-American War e. keep workers employed
32. In 1881, President Garfield was assassinated: a. as a result of his Civil War service record b. because he was a Stalwart
Republican c. because he opposed Civil Service reform d. by a mentally deranged office seeker and supporter of patronage
33. The Pendleton Act was the most important civil service reform of the Gilded Age. The law was designed to reduce patronage
created by the Spoils System. It required appointees to public office to:
a. take a competitive examination b. present a written recommendation from a congressman c. agree to make financial
contributions to their political party d. pledge independence from either major political party
34. Identify the source of the following: ...every contract, combination in the form of trust...or in conspiracy, in restraint of trade
or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations, is hereby declared to be illegal...
a. Sherman Antitrust Act b. Minor v. Happersett
c. 16th Amendment d. Interstate Commerce Act
35. In 1871, Chicago was forced to reconstruct much of its downtown as a result of a(n): a. flood b. tornado c. fire d.
36. Which of the following worked to provided services to the urban poor with the founding of Hull House in the Chicago
a. Jane Addams b. Clara Barton c. Florence Kelly d. Horatio Alger
37. Who is responsible for the Omaha Platform in 1892?
a. the Republican Party b. the Democratic Party c. the Socialist Party d. the Populist Party
38. In the west the immigrants who bore the brunt of labor hostility in the 1870s and 1880s were: a. Jewish b. Chinese c. Irish
Catholic d. Russian
39. One of the inconsistencies of those who believed in Social Darwinism was their
a. opposition to unions and to government attempts to regulate business practices of large corporations b. desire for
government assistance to help break up strikes and raise tariffs to protect American manufacturers c. belief in government
aid and assistance to drought stricken farmers in Texas d. unwillingness to apply to society the principles of scientific
management that they used in their factories
40. Whose use of yellow journalism helped create a public demand for war with Spain?
a. Jose Marti. b. Valeriano Weyler c. Frederic Remington d. William Randolph Hearst.
41. Early in the 20th century the US announced that it must "exercise.... an international police power" in the Western
hemisphere. This was the
a. Platt Amendment b. Roosevelt Corollary c. Monroe Doctrine d . Open Door Notes
e. Washington's Farewell Address
42. The United Sates acquired the Panama Canal Zone by
a. signing an agreement with Columbia. b. putting down a rebellion in Nicaragua.
c. making Panama an American colony. d. encouraging Panama's revolt against Columbia.
43. What did Alfred T. Mahan encourage the United States to do?
a. Decrease its exports b. eliminate the merchant marine c. increase the size of its navy d. develop permanent alliances
with European powers
44. Which primary economic need led to America s interest in overseas expansion?
a. to find markets for surplus products b. to find more land for agricultural production c. to establish more alliances with
European powers d. for all of these reasons
45. Taft lost support from progressive republicans after he
a. supported the 16th Amendment to levy the income tax b. he signed the Payne-Aldrich tariff and failed to lower import
duties c. removed big businesses control over the telephone and telegraph rates d. opposed the direct election of senators
46. The United States v. Northern Securities case
a. declared Granger laws unconstitutional and stated that only the federal government could regulate interstate
b. was initiated by the Roosevelt administration and resulted in the first successful application of the Sherman Antitrust
Act to break up a real monopoly
c. held that employers could force employees to sign yellow-dog contracts be cause collective bargaining violated the
company owner s 14th Amendment
d. ruled that a sugar monopoly was not in violation of federal laws because it only engaged in manufacturing
47. The Eighteenth Amendment provided for
a. a way to lower the tariff and still raise funds for the federal government. b. a progressive attack on one of the United
States' social problems. c. a progressive expansion of democracy. d. citizenship for African Americans.
48. The Teller Amendment
a. made Cuba an American possession b. made Cuba an American protectorate c. extend America s sphere of influence in
the Caribbean d. guaranteed the technical independence of Cuba
49. Ratification of the 17th Amendment is considered a progressive victory because by
a. providing for the income tax, it had the effect of redistributing wealth
b. establishing a regulatory commission for the railroad industry, it furthered the concept of socialism
c. making the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages illegal, it furthered the progressive goal of moral purity
d. providing for the direct election of United States senators, it took their election out of the hands of state legislatures
dominated by big business interests and political party bosses
50. In his book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis, the Reverend Josiah Strong advocated American
a. based on a more powerful navy b. to open new markets for industrial goods
c. to spread American values
51. All of the following became colonial possessions of the United States under the provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1898
after the Spanish-American War except
a. Guam b. Philippines c. Cuba d. Puerto Rico
52. The United States gained a right to send troops to intervene in Cuba in the
a. Insular Cases b. Platt Amendment c. Foraker Act d. Teller Amendment
53. Teddy Roosevelt s role in the Panamanian Revolution involved
a. using American naval forces to block Colombian troops from crossing the isthmus and crushing the revolt b. ordering an
economic embargo of Colombia c. remaining perfectly neutral
d. declaring war on Panama
54. Which of the following was, in large part, a consequence of Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle?
a. drug manufacturers agreed to stop selling impure merchandise
b. President Roosevelt supported passage of the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act c. Railroad rate-making
was taken out of the hands of the railroad industry and put into the hands of the ICC
d. President Roosevelt supported legislation to guarantee the right of workers to bargain collectively
55. Which of the following statements about progressivism is accurate?
a. it was different from populism in that it was more urban and enlisted more journalists, academics, and social theorists
b. it was a political response to the social effects of industrialism
c. Progressives wanted to reform the evils spawned by capitalists, but they wanted to preserve the capitalist system itself
d. all of these are true statements about progressivism
56. Hawaii’s leader, Queen Liliuokalani, was removed from power because:
a. she did not allow Christian missionaries in her country b. she insisted that native Hawaiians control Hawaii c. Hawaiian
agriculture had become a more profitable foreign investment opportunity for Americans after 1890 d. President William
McKinley ordered US marines to invade and overthrow her government to secure American lives and property
57. Which president established the National Forest Service, 53 wildlife reserves, 16 national monuments, and 5 new national
parks. He also banned the practice of cutting pine trees for display in the White House during the Christmas holiday season
during his years in office.
a. McKinley b. T. Roosevelt c. Taft d. Wilson
58. Journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American politics and business were called
a. muckrakers b. yellow journalists c. whistle blowers d. Popocrats
59. Which reform measure allows proposed legislation to be submitted to the voters for approval?
a. the recall b. the initiative c. the referendum d. the 19 th Amendment
60. The NAACP grew out of the ideas of
a. Booker T. Washington b. WEB Du Bois c. the Tuskegee Institute d. President Taft
61. Who led the movement for a separate African-heritage nation?
a. James Weldon Johnson
b. Marcus Garvey
c. Booker T. Washington
d. W.E.B. Dubois
62. In 1895, Booker T. Washington urged his audience: “To those of the white race… I would repeat what I have said to my own
race, ‘Cast down your bucket where you are.’ Cast it down among the 8,000,000 Negroes whose habits you know, whose
fidelity and love you have tested…” Which best explain what Washington meant by “cast down your bucket where you are”?
a. White people should immediately stop all discrimination against black people.
b. Black people should never seek social equality with white people.
c. White and black people should begin where they are among those who share the same aspirations.
d. Black southerners should migrate north where conditions were better.
63. Margin buying was to stocks as ______________ was to washing machines.
Which statement best completes the analogy?
a. Laissez-faire buying
b. Installment-plan buying
c. Cash buying
d. Impulse buying
64. Which law was most responsible for bootlegging, speakeasies, and organized crime?
a. 17th Amendment
b. 18th Amendment
c. 19th Amendment
d. 20th Amendment
65. Which statement best describes the Agricultural Adjustment Act?
a. Farmers were given money to help rebuild their farms
b. Farmers were paid by the federal government to grow more crops to help feed the nation.
c. Farmers were paid to grow fewer crops to raise prices.
d. Farmers were given lost interest loans in order to buy farming equipment and farm supplies
66. “The bank rescue of 1933 was probably the turning point of the Depression…It marked the revival of hope.” To which New
Deal program is this aide to President Roosevelt most likely referring?
a. National Recovery Act
b. Securities and Exchange Commission
c. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
d. Social Security Act
67. What is the most likely reason women in the 1920s discarded so many long-standing social conventions of behavior?
a. War conditions had given women a taste of independence that they would never again give up.
b. Men had no authority over women after losing World War I.
c. Women had just learned about the availability and convenience of birth control.
d. Women were living in a period during which everyone defied law and order.
68. Which of the following was not one result of Prohibition?
a. Speakeasies became popular places to visit.
b. People stopped manufacturing, selling, and drinking alcoholic beverages.
c. Organized crime rose sharply during the 1920’s.
d. The temperance movement succeeded in their mission.
69. Which best explains President Hoover’s unwillingness to initiate social programs that would bring relief to the nation?
a. Hoover was a socialist by conviction and inclination
b. Hoover believed that people in trouble should help themselves
c. Hoover supported tax cuts for big businesses.
d. Hoover knew that the economic crisis would soon resolve itself.
70. What is most likely the reason for the fall in United States wheat and cotton prices during the 1920s?
a. Mexican wheat and cotton was cheaper and better quality.
b. The sharecropping system meant smaller cotton harvests.
c. Overproduction during the war years had flooded the market.
d. Severe floods ruined crops for several seasons.
71. The causes of the Great Depression included all of the following EXCEPT:
a. overproduction of agricultural goods
b. unequal distribution of wealth
c. excessive government regulation of big business
d. rampant speculation in the stock market
72. African Americans supported FDR because
a. his used his power as Chief Executive to push for a federal anti-lynching law
b. relief programs like the resettlement administration and others aided African Americans in their struggle for economic
c. FDR pushed Congress to pass a federal law to outlaw the use of discriminatory poll taxes
d. FDR s justice department workers successfully aided the NAACP in the fight against de jure Jim Crow laws in the former
73. During WWI and WWII, thousands of African Americans moved north in
the Great Migration because
a. northern cities had no segregation rules
b. southerners finally allowed them to leave
c. the best paying jobs were in industrial centers
d. they would receive more firm protection under federal anti-lynching laws
74. The Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act of 1933
a. took the United States off the gold standard
b. empowered President Roosevelt to temporarily close all banks
c. created the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate the stock exchange
d. created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to insure individual bank deposits
75. The Social Security Act of 1935 provided for all of the following EXCEPT
a. unemployment insurance
b. old-age pensions
c. economic support for the blind and physically handicapped
d. health care for the poor
76. After FDR s attempt to pack the Supreme Court failed
a. Roosevelt was unable to make any changes in the court
b. the Democrats lost the next election in 1940
c. the high court began to support New Deal programs
d. additional New Deal programs were ruled unconstitutional
77. FDR s programs for the unemployed
a. were almost no help to the poor b. provided immediate relief but did not end the depression
c. created the first federal deficits in American History d. aided only the farmers
78. The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act
a. pulled the economy out of the depression
b. enabled the UAW to use the sit down strike
c. reduced unemployment rates to acceptable levels.
d. established a national minimum wage, maximum work week with overtime pay, and banned industrial employment of
children under the age of 16
79. Which New Deal law increased the strength of organized labor and resulted in the unionization unskilled workers in the
automobile and steel industries?
a. Fair Labor Standards Act b. Wagner National Labor Relations Act
c. Clayton Antitrust Act d. Taft-Hartley Act
80. Which of the following is most consistent with the Supreme Court’s ruling in Schenk v. US?
a. the government s seizure and operation of the railroads industry was a Constitutional use of its wartime powers
b. the government’s prohibition of the manufacture and sale of alcohol was unconstitutional
c. the government can restrict the First Amendment right to free speech in time of war
d. the government does have the power to compel young men to serve in the armed forces during time of war
81. Which of the following is true of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
a. it weakened the American economy by making it more difficult for foreign nations to earn money to buy American
b. it strengthened the American economy by keeping foreign goods out of the country
c. it strengthened the American economy by stimulating competition that brought prices down
d. it weakened the American economy by making foreign products cheaper than American products
The following statements apply to various New Deal programs. Read each
statement carefully. Mark:
A. if it applies to the TVA
B. if it applies to the CCC
C. if it applies to the AAA
D. if it applies to the NIRA
E. if it applies to the WPA
82. Put young Americans to work planting trees
83. Tried to raise farm prices by paying farmers to grow less
84. This federal agency was accused of being "socialistic" because it produced power cheaper than private companies could
85. Set up codes for industry that included fixed prices and minimum wages
86. Employed writers and artists.
87. Harnessed a potentially destructive river
88. Established "parity" prices for a major American product
89. This amendment was known to many as the “Anthony Amendment” in honor of Susan B. Anthony who fought so long and
diligently all women the right to vote.
a. 16th c. 17th
b. 18 d. 19th
90. This muckraking journalist uncovered corrupt business practices of John D. Rockerfeller’s Standard Oil.
a. Ida Tarbell c. Lincoln Steffens
b. Upton Sinclair d. John Spargo
91. This law proposed by Teddy Roosevelt called for truth in labeling of meats and other consumer products.
a. Meat Inspection Act c. Jungle Act
b. Keating-Owen Child Labor Act d. Pure Food and Drug Act
92. Wrote “The Bitter Cry of Children” book about Child Labor in the United States
a. Ida Tarbell c. Lincoln Steffens
b. Upton Sinclair d. John Spargo
93. Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks and the first communists leader of Russia
a. Motie Brimberry c. Joseph Stalin
b. Michel Gorbachev d. Vladimir Lenin
94. One of President Wilson’s goals at the Versailles Peace Conference was to:
a. Seek revenge on Germany c. Seize German territories
b. Increase the arms race d. Eliminate the general causes of war
95. He was a U.S. Senator who adamantly fought against the passage of the Treaty of Versailles.
a. William Jennings Bryan c. Henry Cabot Lodge
b. Woodrow Wilson d. Jeanette Rankin
96. WWI had all of the following effects on history except:
a. Changed the way war was fought c. Led to Spanish-American War
b. Treaty of Versailles – distributes Middle East d. Brought 1 million women into the workforce
colonies (will later cause tremendous tensions)
97. These two Communist immigrants were accused and convicted of a murder they didn’t commit simply because of their
a. Sacco and Vanzetti c. Bonnie and Clyde
b. Debs and Marx d. Ethel and Julius Rosenburg
98. This international body, open to allied and neutral nations, was started as a result of the Treaty of Versailles:
a. League of Nations c. Gathering of Nations
b. United Nations d. League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
99. All of the following are reasons for WWI except:
a. Militarism c. Imperialism
b. Alliance System d. Transcendentalism
100. All of the following were reasons the U.S. got involved in WWI except:
a. Sinking of the Lusitania c. Our loyalty to Britain
b. The Zimmerman Note d. Overwhelming public desire to enter war