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					Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was a British explorer, slave-trader, privateer (a pirate working for a government) in the service of
England, mayor of Plymouth, England, and naval officer (he was an Admiral) Drake led the second expedition to sail around the
world in a voyage lasting from 1577 to 1580 (Magellan led the first voyage around the world). Queen Elizabeth I comissioned Drake
to command the expedition together with John Winter and Thomas Doughty. They left Plymouth, England, on December 13, 1577,
with six ships (including the Golden Hind). They sailed to Brazil, and through the perilous Strait of Magellan (between August 20 and
September 6, 1578). At Tierra del Fuego (located at the southern tip of South America), natives gave Drake and his crew food and
water. They sailed by Panama (1579), where he pirated Spanish ships and settlements for food and treasures. He landed on the island
of Cano, off the coast of southern Mexico. In North America, he claimed the land he called "Nova Albion" for the Queen (his exact
location was kept secret, but he may have sailed as far north as northern California or even Vancouver Island, Canada). They then
crossed the Pacific Ocean and sailed by Indonesia, through the Indian Ocean, past the Cape of Good Hope, and back to Plymouth,
England, in 1580. Upon his return, the Queen rewarded Drake with a large sum of money (£10,000) Drake was also involved in the
slave trade and was a fierce warrior and privateer. Drake and John Hawkins were on a slave-trading trip to the West Indies (backed by
Queen Elizabeth) that ended with an attack by the Spanish fleet at San Juan de Ulua, near Veracruz, Mexico. The six English slave-
trading ships were in the harbor for repairs, and only two ships survived the attack, those commanded by Hawkins and Drake; the
Spanish did not want the English competing in their highly profitable slave-trading business. This battle led to a series of battles that
later resulted in a war between Spain and England. In this war, England crushed the Spanish Armada in 1588 and became the
dominant world power. Drake helped the British defeat the Spanish Armada; he was second in command. The Spanish called him El
Draque, meaning "The Dragon." Drake died of fever at sea near Panama; he was on a voyage intending to attack Spanish colonies in
the West Indies.

Sir Francis Drake - Seaman, Explorer and Pirate

Nationality – English                         Lifespan - 1540 – 1596             Family - Son of a farmer and preacher
Sir Francis Drake Naval Career                Navigator of a small merchant ship in the 1550's
Officer on West African slave ships                       Sailed to the Caribbean with his cousin John Hawkins
Born in Tavistock, in Devonshire              Distant relative of Sir Walter Raleigh
Francis Drake was the first to pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of South America
Sailed round the World in the ship called the Golden Hind
Appointed Vice Admiral of the navy that destroyed the Spanish Armada
Famous as seaman, explorer & pirate, sailing around the World, raiding Spanish & helping to defeat Spanish Armada
Drake married Mary Newman before he had acquired wealth or fame in 1569 but she died 12 years later
In 1572 Queen Elizabeth commissioned Drake as a privateer to sail for the Americas
Drake was the first to pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of South America. He raided Nombre de Dios, Panama
He returned to England bringing Spanish gold and plunder
In 1577 Queen Elizabeth selected him to be the head of an expedition that was to sail around the world
He re-named his ship from 'The Pelican to the 'Golden Hind'
In 1579 he stopped near the present-day San Francisco to repair the Golden Hind. He claimed the land for for England which he called
New Albion
1580 he returned to England
In 1581 he was knighted Sir Francis Drake on board the Golden Hind by Queen Elizabeth
He purchased Buckland Abbey in Devon
In 1585 Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham, twenty years his junior who came from wealthy & well-connected family
1585: Drake travelled to Brazil accompanied by his nephew Richard Hawkins
26 June 1586 - Drake visit Sir Walter Raleigh's colony headed by Ralph Lane, disheartened colonists & hostile Indians
In 1587 Drake attacked and destroyed the Spanish Fleet at Cadiz - referred to as 'Singeing Philip of Spain's beard'
In 1588 he was appointed Vice Admiral of the navy that destroyed the Spanish Armada
Famous for finishing a game of bowls whilst waiting for weather to change before sailing to meet the Spanish Armada
1588: Spanish Armada of 132 ships sails for England. Eng.'s navy consists of 34 ships & 163 armed merchant vessels
1588 Jul 29, The Spanish Armada was sighted off the coast of England
1588 Jul 30, The English exchanged fire with the Spanish Armada
1588 Aug 8, The English Navy destroys the Spanish Armada
1595: Sir Francis Drake embarks on his last voyage to Caribbean with Sir John Hawkins (who dies of fever on voyage)
1595: Sir Francis Drake was sent to attack Spanish settlements in the West Indies but he also died on the journey home
1596 January 28: Sir Francis Drake died on board the Defiance aged about 55
Sir Francis Drake died of a tropical disease referred to as "the bloody flux" which was probably Yellow Fever
1596 January 29: Sir Francis Drake was buried at sea in a lead coffin off Puerto Bello
Sir Francis Drake had no children
His title passed to a nephew - also named Francis
In 1628 the second Sir Francis Drake published the chronicle of the circumnavigation called 'The World Encompassed'
Marco Polo (1254-1324) was an Italian voyager and merchant who was one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia through
China, visiting the Kublai Khan in Beijing. He left in 1271 (he was a teenager at the time) with his father (Nicolo Polo) and uncle
(Maffeo Polo); they spent about 24 years traveling. [Nicolo and Maffeo had previously made a trip to China, from 1260-1269, during
which the Kublai Khan (the conqueror of China) requested holy oil blessed by the Pope.] Polo sailed south from Venice, Italy, in the
Mediterranean Sea to the Middle East. They then went southeast overland to Persia (now Iran), then through the Pamir Mountains and
the Gobi Desert, to Beijing, China. They explored the area south of Beijing, including Yunan and Szechuan. Returning to Beijing, they
traveled east to Tankchow (at the mouth of the Yangtse River), then south to Hangchow, China. They then sailed south along the coast
of China, to what are now Vietnam and Sumatra. They sailed west to Sri Lanka and India, and then back to Ormuz (on the Persian
Gulf). They went northwest overland to the Black Sea, then the Mediterranean Sea, and back to Venice, Italy.
Marco Polo's written accounts of his travels were the first Western record of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, printing, paper money, and
silk; Polo wrote "Book of Ser Marco Polo" around 1298.

Nationality: Italian - Marco Polo was born in Venice                  Lifespan: 1254-1324
Date of Birth: He was born on on September 15, 1254
Family connections : He was the son of Niccolo Polo and the nephew of Maffeo Polo
Date of Death: Marco Polo died on January 1324 in Venice. Marco Polo was almost 70 years old
Marco Polo was buried in the Church of San Lorenzo
Marco Polo travels to Cathay (China)
 Marco Polo lived from 1254-1324. Some years before St. Louis led his last Crusade there was
born in Venice a boy named Marco Polo. His father was a wealthy merchant who often went on trading journeys to distant lands. In
1271, when Marco Polo was seventeen years old, he accompanied his father and uncle on a journey through the Holy Land, Persia and
Tartary, and at length to the Empire of China, then called Cathay. It took the travellers three years to reach Cathay. Marco Polo meets
Kublai Khan in Peking
 The emperor of Cathay was a monarch named Kublai Khan who lived in Peking. Marco Polo's father and
uncle had been in Cathay once before and had entertained Kublai Khan by telling him about the manners and customs of Europe. So
when the two Venetian merchants again appeared in Peking, Kublai Khan was glad to see them. He was also greatly pleased with the
young Marco Polo, whom he invited to the palace. Important positions at the Chinese court were given to Marco Polo's father and
uncle, and so they and Marco Polo lived in the country for some years. Marco Polo studied the Chinese language, and it was not very
long before he could speak it. Marco Polo works as an envoy for Kublai Khan
 When Marco Polo was about twenty-one Kublai
Khan sent him on very important business to a distant part of China. He did the work well and from that time was often employed as
an envoy of the Chinese monarch. His travels were sometimes in lands never before visited by Europeans and Marco Polo had many
strange adventures among the almost unknown tribes of Asia. Step by step he was promoted. For several years he was governor of a
great Chinese city. Finally Marco Polo, his father and his uncle desired to return to Venice. They had all served Kublai Khan faithfully
and he had appreciated it and given them rich rewards; but he did not wish to let them go. Marco Polo leaves China
 While the matter
was being talked over an embassy arrived in Peking from the king of Persia. This monarch desired to marry the daughter of Kublai
Khan, the Princess Cocachin, and he had sent to ask her father for her hand. Consent was given, and Kublai Khan fitted out a fleet of
fourteen ships to carry the wedding party to Persia. The Princess Cocachin was a great friend of Marco Polo, and urged her father to
allow him to go with the party. Finally Kublai Khan gave his consent. Marco Polo's father and uncle were also allowed to go, and the
three Venetians left China. Marco Polo escorts the daughter of the Kublai Khan to Persia
 The fleet with the wedding party on board
sailed southward on the China Sea. It was a long and perilous voyage. Stops were made at Borneo, Sumatra, Ceylon and other places,
until the ships entered the Persian Gulf and the princess was safely landed. After they reached the capital of Persia the party, including
the three Venetians, was entertained by the Persians for weeks in a magnificent manner and costly presents were given to all. At last
the Venetians left their friends, went to the Black Sea and took ship for Venice. Marco Polo returns to Venice
 They had been away
so long and were so much changed in appearance that none of their relations and old friends knew them when they arrived in Venice.
As they were dressed in Tatar costume and sometimes spoke the Chinese language to one another, they found it hard to convince
people that they were members of the Polo family. At length, on order to show that they were the men that they declared themselves to
be, they gave a dinner to all their relations and old friends. When the guests arrived they were greeted by the travelers, arrayed in
gorgeous Chinese robes of crimson satin. After the first course they appeared in crimson damask; after the second, they changed their
costumes to crimson velvet; while at the end of the dinner they appeared in the usual garb of wealthy Venetians. "Now, my friends,"
said Marco Polo , "I will show you something that will please you." He then brought into the room the rough Tatar coats which he and
his father and uncle had worn when they reached Venice. Cutting open the seams, he took from inside the lining packets filled with
rubies, emeralds and diamonds. It was the finest collection of jewels ever seen in Venice. The guests were now persuaded that their
hosts were indeed what they claimed to be. Marco Polo is captured by the Genoese
 Eight hundred years before Marco Polo's birth,
some of the people of North Italy had fled before the Attila to the muddy islands of the Adriatic and founded Venice upon them. Since
then the little settlement had become the most wealthy and powerful city of Europe. Venice was the queen of the Adriatic and her
merchants were princes. They had vessels to bring the costly wares of the East to their wharves; they had warships to protect their rich
cargoes from the pirates of the Mediterranean; they carried on wars.
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was a Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition that sailed around the Earth (1519-1522).
Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean (the name means that it is a calm, peaceful ocean). Magellan was born in Northern Portugal
(either in Sabrosa or in Oporto). His parents, Pedro Ruy de Magalhaes and Alda de Mezquita, were members of the nobility (they
were wealthy and powerful). Early in his career, Magellan sailed to India and to the Far East many times via Africa's Cape of Good
Hope. He sailed for his native Portugal, but a dispute with the Portuguese King Manoel II turned him against the Portuguese.
Thereafter, he sailed for Spain. Magellan and his friend the astronomer Ruy de Falero proposed to King Charles V (of Spain) that a
westward voyage around the tip of South America would take them to the Moluccas (spice-rich islands) and avoid the Portuguese
(with whom they were competing fiercely). The voyage began September 8, 1519, and lasted until September 6, 1522 (almost 3
years). Magellan sailed from Seville, Spain, with five ships, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Victoria, and Santiago. Three
years later, only one ship (the Victoria) made it back to Seville, carrying only 18 of the original 270 crew members. Magellan was
killed towards the end of the voyage, on the Island of Mactan in the Philippines, during a battle with the natives. The Basque navigator
Juan Sebastián de Elcano (del Cano) completed the trip.
Ferdinand Magellan:
Nationality – Portuguese                       Lifespan - 1480 – 1521             Career - Explorer and Navigator
Family - son of wealthy Mayor Pedro Ruy de Magalhaes and of Alda de Mezquita.
Education - Tutored at the Court of Portugal
Famous for: Portuguese sea captain who led five Spanish ships and 251 men in the first voyage around the World
The government of Spain provided the 5 ships for the expedition - Ferdinand Magellan Ships
Magellan commanded the Trinidad
Juan de Cartagena commanded the San Antonio
Gaspar de Quesada commanded the Conception
Luis de Mendoza commanded the Victoria
Juan Serrano commanded the Santiago
1480: Ferdinand Magellan was born at Saborosa in Villa Real, Province of Traz os Montes in Portugal
Magellan was from a wealthy and influential family and he spent his early years at the Portuguese court
One of his teachers was believed to be the cartographer and navigator, Martin Behaim and Magellan become interested in making
great voyages of discovery
Ferdinand Magellan also studied the maps of Christopher Columbus
1505: Ferdinand Magellan joined the expedition of Francisco d'Almeida to India
1512: Magellan took part in the Portuguese expedition to Morocco and was badly wounded
1512: Had a major disagreement with a commanding officer and left the service without prior permission
1513: Ferdinand Magellan asked King Manuel of Portugal for permission to sail to the Spice Islands in the Far East. His request was
refused following the unfavourable reports from Morocco
He resumed his studies in Portugal for a couple more years but it was obvious he would not gain support from the Portuguese court.
He therefore renounced his Portuguese nationality
1518: Magellan left Portugal and headed for Spain
1519 March 22: Magellan convinced King Charles I of Spain to support his voyage to the Spice Islands. King Charles promised
Magellan one-fifth of the profits from the voyage to the Spice Islands
Ferdinand Magellan led the five Spanish ships and 251 men in what was to become the first voyage around the World
1519, 20 September: The fleet under Ferdinand Magellan sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to South America and Rio de Janeiro.
Magellan then started to search for a passage to the Pacific Ocean
1520, March: Magellan's fleet anchored for the winter at Puerto San Julian in Southern Argentina
1520 September : A storm destroys the Santiago and a mutiny breaks out
1520 October: Magellan and his crew resumed their voyage on the remaining ships
1520, 21 November: he entered the straits which would be named the Magellan Straits - they were to be the first Europeans ever to
sail across the Pacific
1521 13 February Magellan reached the Equator
1521 March 6: Magellan reached the Pacific island of Guam
1521 16 March Magellan discovers the Philippines
1521 April 27: Ferdinand Magellan was killed by natives on the island of Mactan
Only 110 of the original crew members remained so they abandoned one of the ships - the Conception
The Trinidad tried to return back to Spain the same way they had came but was forced to return to the Spice Islands where they were
imprisoned by the Portuguese
The Victoria was the last remaining ship
1522, September 6 the Victoria reached Sanlucar de Barrameda in Spain with only eighteen survivors
The momentous voyage of Ferdinand Magellan had taken nearly three years and many lives
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find a route to
India (in order to trade for spices). He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492-1504. The
First Trip:
 Columbus sailed for King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain. On his first trip, Columbus led an expedition with
three ships, the Niña (captained by Vicente Yáñez Pinzon), the Pinta (owned and captained by Martin Alonzo Pinzon), and the Santa
Maria (captained by Columbus), and about 90 crew members. They set sail on Aug. 3, 1492 from Palos, Spain, and on October 11,
1492, spotted the Caribbean islands off southeastern North America. They landed on an island they called Guanahani, but Columbus
later renamed it San Salvador. They were met by the local Taino Indians, many of whom were captured by Columbus' men and later
sold into slavery. Columbus thought he had made it to Asia, and called this area the Indies, and called its inhabitants Indians. While
exploring the islands in the area and looking for gold to loot, Columbus' men traveled to the islands of Hispaniola (now divided into
Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Cuba, and many other smaller islands. On the return trip, the Santa Maria was wrecked and the
captain of the Pinta sailed off on his own to try to beat Columbus back. Columbus returned to Spain in the Nina, arriving on March 15,
1493. The Second Trip:
 On a second, larger expedition (Sept. 25, 1493-June 11, 1496), sailed with 17 ships and 1,200 to 1,500 men
to find gold and capture Indians as slaves in the Indies. Columbus established a base in Hispaniola and sailed around Hispaniola and
along the length of southern Cuba. He spotted and named the island of Dominica on November 3, 1493. The Third Trip:
 On a third
expedition (May 30, 1498-October 1500), Columbus sailed farther south, to Trinidad and Venezuela (including the mouth of the
Orinoco River). Columbus was the first European since the Viking Leif Ericsson to set foot on the mainland of America. The Fourth
Trip:
 On his fourth and last expedition (May 9, 1502-Nov. 7, 1504), Columbus sailed to Mexico, Honduras and Panama (in Central
America) and Santiago (Jamaica). Columbus is buried in eastern Hispaniola (now called the Dominican Republic).

Nationality - Born in Italy. Lived in Portugal and in Spain. Patrons - King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
Lifespan - 1451 – 1506
Education - Limited due to lack of money in the family                            Career - Explorer and Navigator
Family - Respectable, but impoverished family. Christopher Columbus was the eldest of five children. Christopher Columbus had two
sons by different mothers. His heir was Diego Columbus (1480 - 1526). His second and favorite son was Ferdinand, better known as
Fernando ( 1488 - 1539)
Famous for discovering the New World, yet he died thinking he had reached the Indies. A man called Regiomontanus was famous as a
Medieval Scientist, Mathematician and Astronomer. His book Ephemerides was used by Christopher Columbus and Amerigo
Vespucci to measure longitudes in their explorations of the New World.
1451 was born in the Italian port of Genoa, the son of a wool merchant called Domenico Colombo
His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa, the daughter of a woollens merchant. Christopher Columbus had three younger brothers,
Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo, and a sister, Bianchinetta Columbus
1467 Christopher Columbus travelled to Iceland when he was sixteen years old
1470 The Columbus family moved to Savona
Christopher Columbus travelled the seas as a pirate, or Privateer, attacking ships belonging to the Moors
1476 Christopher Columbus ship is sunk in a battle off Portugal, but he swims ashore
1477 Christopher Columbus joined his brother Bartholomew who worked as a cartographer, in Lisbon
1479 Christopher Columbus married wealthy Felipa Perestrello Moniz, a daughter from a noble Portuguese family
Felipa's father was Bartolomeu Perestrello an explorer who had been involved with the discovery of the Madeira Islands ( Bartolomeu
Perestrello had died when Felipa was a young girl)
Felipa gave Christopher Columbus Bartolomeu Perestrello's charts of the winds and currents of the Portuguese possessions in the
Atlantic
1480 Christopher Columbus and Felipa had a son who they named Diego Colon
1484 failed to get the King of Portugal to back his plan to search for a fast trade route to the Indies
1485 Christopher Columbus wife Felipa dies of consumption
1485 Christopher Columbus moves to Cadiz in Spain opening another shop supplying maps and charts
1486 begins his relationship with Dona Beatriz Enriquez de Arana, a lady of a noble family from Cordova in Spain
1486 Columbus first petitions his plans to the Spanish court but is refused
1487 He was in the service of the Duke of Medina Celi, Don Luis de la Cerda
1487 submits his plans to King Henry VII of England & King Charles VIII of France but both decline his proposals
1488 His second & favorite son Ferdinand, or Fernando ( 1488 - 1539) was born. Mother was Dona Beatriz Enriquez
1491 Columbus again appealed to King Ferdinand taking his son Diego with him but he was again refused
1491 A priest called Father Perez interceded on behalf of Columbus and pleaded with Queen Isabella to fund Columbus who, if he
succeed would be able to convert heathen races to Christianity
1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain finally give Christopher Columbus the money and ships
Both the sons of Christopher Columbus served as pages to Prince Juan, the son of the King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
1492 August Columbus leaves Palos, Spain in search of the Indies
Christopher Columbus ship was called the Santa Maria. It was completely decked and carried the flag of Columbus as admiral. His
son, Fernando accompanied Columbus
The other two ships, the Pinta, and the Nina, were undecked caravels with cabins and forecastles
Martin Alonso Pinzon commanded the Pinta and his brother, Vicente Yanez Pinzon commanded the Nina
Christopher Columbus three ships carried 120 men
1492 September 8 - The Voyage of Christopher Columbus began
1492 September 15 The ships touched at the Canaries the conditions were favorable
1492 September 20 The Sargasso Sea - the conditions change. Columbus kept two log books to deceive the crew as to the real length
of the voyage
1492 September 23 The Crew Members Become Disgruntled
1492 October 7 False Landfall is spotted
1492 October 11 There is near Mutiny from the crew
1492 October 12 Land was seen plainly by one of the Pinta's crew
1492 October 12 Columbus lands on Watling's Island in the Bahamas, West Indies. The discoverers named the island San Salvador.
Columbus believes that he has reached the passage to India and China
1492 October 28 Cuba
1492 December 5 the Santa Maria sinks off the cost of Hispaniola
Christopher Columbus establishes the first Spanish settlement in the New World
1492 January 16 Christopher Columbus starts the return journey home to Spain
Timeline, Facts & History about the Later life of Christopher Columbus
 The following are facts and dates in a timeline format telling
the story about the later life and history of Christopher Columbus:
1493 Christopher Columbus arrives at Palos in Spain on 15 March, 1493
He brings the news to Europe of the New World
1493, 25 September The Second voyage of Christopher Columbus with 16 ships from Cadiz, carrying about 1500 men including Juan
Ponce de Leon
Columbus explores Hispaniola (Jamaica) and encounters the hostile Carib and Arawak native indians
Columbus establishes a Spanish settlement in Haiti and searches for gold
1494 September 29 Christopher Columbus returns to Spain
1498 May 30 The Third voyage of Christopher Columbus from Seville, Spain, with six ships
31 July 1498 Christopher Columbus arrived at the Cape Verde Islands, near Trinidad
Columbus crossed over to the mainland where he discovered pearls
Christopher Columbus was the first European to land in South America
News spreads to Spain about problems in the Spanish settlements. Columbus is heavily criticised for its handling
A visita was ordered - it was a much dreaded measure. The visitador chosen to investigate was Francisco de Bobadilla
24 August, 1500 Bobadilla landed at Santo Domingo
Francisco de Bobadilla believed that Columbus and his brothers considered themselves rulers of the new country. He ordered their
imprisonment, where they were harshly held in irons
1500 October Christopher Columbus and his brothers are sent home in chains
Royalty, nobility and the Spanish people were horrified at the injustices which ad been heaped on Christopher Columbus and all
previous property confiscated and rank was restored to Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus proposed yet another voyage of discovery
1502 Fourth and final voyage of Christopher Columbus leaves from Cadiz, Spain, with four ships
1504 7th November - Christopher Columbus returns to Spain
1506, May 20 Christopher Columbus dies at the Spanish court at Valladolid
Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who traveled through much of the Pacific coast of America along Peru.
He "discovered" the Incan empire and conquered it brutally and quickly, stealing immense hoards of gold, silver, and other treasures.
Pizarro landed at San Mateo Bay in 1532. After traveling through desert and snow-capped mountains, Pizarro and his men (who
included Hernando de Soto) arrived at Cajamarca (in 1533), where they captured Atahuallpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas.
Atahuallpa had just won a civil war against his half-brother (Huáscar), and had executed Huáscar and his family. Atahuallpa had
invited Pizarro to a celebratory feast, thinking that the Spanish were not much of a threat. Pizarro ambushed Atahuallpa and killed
thousands of his men. Atahuallpa offered a huge ransom for his own release, but Pizarro took the treasure and had Atahuallpa
strangled on Aug. 29, 1533; this was the end of the Incan empire. After looting and generally destroying the Incan capital of Cusco,
Pizarro founded Lima (which he called Ciudad de los Reyes, which means "City of the Kings"). Pizarro was assassinated in Lima,
Peru, in 1541, by followers of Pedro de Almagro (Cortes' captain) who wanted to seize Lima for its riches.

Francisco Pizarro:
Nationality – Spanish             Lifespan - 1478 - 1541
Family - Illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisca Gonzalez                                   Education - Illiterate
Career - Explorer and Conquistador                        Famous for : Conquering the Incas of Peru. Founding Lima, Peru
1471: Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain
1509: 10 November, Pizarro set sail from Spain with Alonzo de Ojeda where Ojeda 
 founded the city of San Sebastian
1513: Pizarro joined the expedition of Nunez de Balboa across the Isthmus of Panama 
 to discover the Pacific Ocean (29 September,
1513)
1515: Trades with the natives along the Pacific coast
1520: Joins Espinosa on his expedition into the present Republic of Costa Rica
1522: Pizarro receives funding to make his own expedition and explore the land south of Panama
1522: Pizarro only reaches the coast of Colombia but finds a small quantity of gold
1528: Pizarro received the backing of Spanish investors to make further explorations into South America and search for treasure. He
received two ships for the voyage
1529: Pizarro explored the South of Columbia as far as Equador reaching Peru
1529: Pizarro returned to the court of Spain to give an account of his expeditions
1529: Emperor Charles of Spain granted Pizarro permission to make further expeditions. He was given the title Governor and Captain
General which carried absolute authority in all the territories he might discover
1530, January 18 he sailed from Seville in Spain to Panama
1531, January he sailed from the port of Panama with 3 ships and over 200 men, including Hernando De Soto
1532: Pizarro landed at San Mateo Bay and started to explore the land
1532,15 November: Pizarro reaches Cajamarca and captures Atahuallpa, the emperor of the Incas. Thousands of Incas were killed
1533: Atahuallpa offers a massive ransom for his release. The Inca Emperor offered his captives enough gold to fill the 22 foot room,
as high as he could reach, in which he was held captive
1534: The treasure ransom was collected. Pizarro and the Spanish took the treasure and then had the last of the Incan Emperors
strangled
1535 6 January: Pizarro founded Lima, Peru which he called Ciudad de los Reyes meaning 'City of the Kings'
1535: Francisco Pizarro destroyed the Incan capital of Cusco
Pizarro built a palace in Lima. He became extremely arrogant and unpopular with his fellow Spanish
1541: Pizarro was assassinated by followers of Pedro de Almagro (Cortes' captain) who wanted to seize Lima for its wealth
1541: Francisco Pizarro died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541
Amerigo Vespucci was the one person for whom North and South America was named after. He had a wonderful life and found many
things on his voyages. Was born in Florence, Italy in March of 1451, and grew up in a considerable mansion near the river. As a
young boy, his happiest moments studying the stars. He excelled in mathematics and his hobby was copying maps. His dream as a
young boy was to travel and get a better picture about what the Earth looked like. Spent half of his life as a business man hoping to
strike it rich so he could explore. He was the third son, there were two older brothers, Antonio and Girolamo, the youngest was
Bernardo. The parents were Stagio and Elisabetta Vespucci. Italy, at this time was not yet a civilized country. Italy was a bunch of
city- states each self governed and looking for money for it's own purposes and not for the benefit of the country. Florence, where he
was born and grew up, was in the city-state governed by the powerful Medici family. Later in his life he ends up working for this
family helping govern the city-state. Italy, at this time was not a good country as it is today. In 1492 he left Florence for Seville, Spain
because Italy had the monopoly and didn't need, or want, exploration. Well into his forties, around 1495, became the director of a ship
company that supplied ships for long voyages. This was the first opportunity he had to make voyages and he was very happy about
this, therefore he was only looking for "new worlds" to discover and not money or rewards for finding exotic places. In 1497 he said
that he went on a voyage to the "New World." Little is known about this because there was not much evidence to support that he
actually made this voyage such as: journals, maps they used, or any crew members journals about what happened. He was said to be
back in 1498. Later on down the road, after this journey was said to take place people began to doubt this and Columbus became
known as the founder of the "New World" even though he thought he was in India. In 1499 he was said to have made his second
voyage with Alonso de Ojeda as the captain. This voyage could be backed by a great deal of evidence and is supposed to have
occurred. The watchman finally did spot land, the Cape Verde Islands, and this is the first time anyone has been purposely to the
"New World." On this first journey he explored the north eastern coast of South America and also came in contact with Cuba,
Hispaniola, and the Bahaman Islands. He got back to Spain in 1500 and told everyone about his findings of the land and the people.
On May 19, 1501 he left from the ports of the sponsoring Spain on his third voyage. On this voyage Vespucci was second in charge
behind Gonocalo Coelho, another one of Spains' explorers. They explored on this expedition the Cape Santo Agostinho at the shoulder
of present day Brazil. This voyage was one of the less successful because they explored only limited water area. On the fourth, and
last, voyage Vespucci explored more of South America. In 1503, on this journey, led by himself, the captain and crew explored the
south eastern side of South America. They ran along the coast and visited such places as Cape Soo Roque, Guanabara Bay, Rio de la
Plata, Cape Santo Agostinho, San Julian and spotted the Falkland Islands. His crew returned back to Spain in 1504 and told their story
to mapmakers to put on the maps. After the findings of the "New World" a mapmaker suggested they call it America, after the
knowing founder. Martin Waldseemuller a German mapmaker was one of the first to believe that he was the first European to reach
the "New World." In 1507, he suggested they call it America and soon this name was used throughout and eventually used officially in
the naming of the continent. Vespucci left a controversy when he died saying that he did not make the voyage that started in 1497.
Today scholars still doubt that Vespucci made the voyage. Vespucci also claimed, in his writings, that he captioned all the journeys
himself when he only captained one of the four reported expedition. The results to Vespucci's findings was that North and South
America were named after him, and back in the late 1400's and the early 1500's they would know that there was a "New World" out
there and they didn't have to go on believing that Asia was just beyond the horizon and that in reality there was two of the biggest
continents in the way of their destination, Asia.

Amerigo Vespucci:
Nationality - Italian - But became a naturalized Spaniard in 1505                        Lifespan - 1454 - 1512
Family - Vespucci was the third son of Ser Nastagio, a notary of Florence
Education - Well educated. Was taught physics, geometry and astronomy             Career - Explorer and Navigator
Famous for: America was named after Amerigo Vespucci in 1507. His book Ephemerides was used by Christopher Columbus and
Amerigo Vespucci to measure longitudes in their explorations of the New World.
1454 Born in Ognissanti, Florence born - 9 March, 1451
1478 to 1480 He was attached to the embassy in Paris, working for his relative Guido Antonio Vespucci, ambassador of Florence to
King Louis XI of France
1483 Amerigo became steward in the house of Lorenzo de Medici
1491 - 1492 He worked in Seville, Spain for the de Medici family where he learnt about the voyages of exploration and the men who
were searching for a northwest passage to the Indies
1497: He was granted permission to undertake a voyage of discovery by King Ferdinand of Spain
1497 10 May The First Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci
1497 10 April He reached the mainland of Guiana
1498 15 October Amerigo Vespucci returned to Cadiz, Spain
1499 16 May The Second Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci with Alonzo de Ojeda set sail for Cape Verde. They crossed the Equator and
explored the coast of Guiana and Brazil. They discovered Cape St. Augustine and the River Amazon
1500 September Returned to Spain. He reported his findings to the de Medici family
1501 May 14 The Third Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci setting sail for Cape Verde
1502 September 7 returned to Europe landing in Lisbon
1503 June 10 The Fourth Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci, sailing with Gonzal Coelho when he again set sail for Cape Verde and South
America. On the return journey he discovered Bahia and the island of South Georgia He established a trading agency for brazil wood
at Cape Frio - it was located exactly on the Tropic of Capricorn
1504 18 June Amerigo Vespucci returned to Lisbon in Portugal
1505 14 April Vespucci becomes a naturalized Spaniard
1505 Amerigo Vespucci married Maria Cerezo
1505 / 1507 Amerigo Vespucci made a fifth and sixth voyage with Juan de la Cosa
1507 German mapmaker Martin Waldseemuller, printed the first map that used the name America for the New World
1508 August 6 Vespucci becomes Piloto Mayor (chief pilot) of Spain
1512 Amerigo Vespucci died at Seville, 22 February, 1512
Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who was the first European to see the eastern part of
the Pacific Ocean (in 1513), crossing the Isthmus of Panama. In 1500, Balboa sailed with Rodrigo de Bastidas from Spain to
Colombia, South America. They searched for treasures (pearls and gold) along the northern coast of South America and in the Gulf of
Uraba (near San Sebastian). They were forced to abandon their leaky ship in Hispaniola. The penniless Balboa tried, unsuccessfully,
to farm for a living. In 1510, Balboa and his dog Leoncico stowed away on a boat going from Santo Domingo to San Sebastian. When
they arrived at San Sebastian, they discovered that it had been burned to the ground. Balboa convinced the others to travel southwest
with him to a spot he had seen on his earlier expedition. In 1511, founded a colony, the first European settlement in South America -
the town of Santa Maria de la Antigua del Darien. Balboa married the daughter of Careta, the local Indian chief. Soon after, in 1513,
he sailed with hundreds of Spaniards and Indians across the Gulf of Uraba to the Darien Peninsula.
Balboa headed an overland expedition west through very dense rainforests. Along the way they fought many local Indians and
destroyed one Indian village, killing hundreds of Indians. Balboa (accompanied by his dog) was the first European to see the eastern
part of the Pacific Ocean (in September 1513, from a peak in Darién, Panama). Balboa and his men (including Francisco Pizarro) then
traveled to the ocean and claimed it and all the land that touched it for Spain. They spent about a month conquering Natives along the
Pacific coast and stealing their gold. Balboa was charged with treason against Spain (although he was innocent and had been framed
by a friend, Arias de Avila). Francisco Pizarro arrested Balboa. Balboa was found guilty and was publicly beheaded in Acla in
January, 1519.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa:
Nationality – Spanish Lifespan - 1475 – 1519            Family - Poor Spanish family           Education - Uneducated
Career - Spanish Conquistador and Explorer
First European to see Pacific Ocean from its eastern shore after crossing Isthmus of Panama overland in 1513
1475 Vasco Nunez de Balboa was born in Jerez de los Caballeros in Estremadura, Spain
1500 Vasco Nunez de Balboa sailed with Rodrigo de Bastidas from Spain to explore Colombia, South America
1500 Balboa settled on the island of Hispaniola hoping to make a living as a farmer
1510 Vasco Nunez de Balboa, and his dog Leoncico, stowed away on a boat going from Santo Domingo to San Sebastian in Columbia
after his attempts at farming had produced debts. The expedition was headed by Nicuesa and Enciso who was second in command.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa had the position of a Spanish soldier
1510 Reaching San Sebastian, explorers discovered it had been burned to the ground. Persuaded his companions & Nicuesa & Enciso
to continue their voyage towards southwest. Had visited this land from his previous voyage
1511 Nicuesa founded town of Santa Maria de la Antigua del Darien which was first European settlement in South Am.
1511 There were power struggles between Nicuesa and Enciso. Nicuesa was deported from the settlement. Vasco Nunez de Balboa
then charged Enciso with usurpation and Enciso was forced to leave the colony
1511 The king of Spain then appointed Balboa as the interim governor
1512 Vasco Nunez de Balboa married the daughter of Careta, the local Indian chief
1513 Was appointed supreme commander of the colony but Encisco levelled charges of usurpation against Balboa
1513 September 1: Vasco Nunez de Balboa sailed with hundreds of Spaniards and Indians across the Gulf of Uraba to the Darien
Peninsula. The famous explorer Francisco Pizarro, who later conquered the Incas of Peru, was in his party
1513 Balboa and his party explored overland through dense rainforests in a west direction
1513 Sept. 27: Was first European to see Pacific Ocean from a peak in Darien, Panama - he had climbed the peak alone
1513 September Balboa travelled to the ocean and claimed it and all the land that touched it for Spain
1513 Oct.: Spent month natives along Pacific coast, he found fortune in gold, pearls, slaves then returned to Antigua
1513: Meanwhile Balboa had been charged with treason against Spain
1514: New governor named Pedrarias Davila been appointed. Balboa was acquitted of all charges by Pedrarias Davila
1516 Gained in popularity over Pedrarias Davila & to make matters worse between them Balboa became betrothed to Pedrarias
Davila's daughter and eventually married her
1517/18 Vasco Nunez de Balboa continued his explorations leaving Pedrarias Davila to plot against him
1519 Balboa the title of Adelantado of the South Sea, Governor of Panama but was then arrested for treason
1519 Vasco Nunez de Balboa was found guilty and this great man was publicly beheaded in Darien in January, 1519
Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East.
Da Gama was born to a noble family in Sines, Portugal. Da Gama's father Estavao was also an explorer. He was to have made the sea
voyage from Portugal to India that eventually made his son famous, but the elder da Gama died before completing the journey. Vasco
da Gama sailed from Lisbon, Portugal, on July 8, 1497, heading to the East. At the time, many people thought that da Gama's trip
would be impossible because it was assumed that the Indian Ocean was not connected to any other seas. Da Gama's patron was King
Manuel I of Portugal. Da Gama rounded Africa's Cape of Good Hope on November 22, and continued on to India. After many stops in
Africa, and problems with Muslim traders who did not want interference in their profitable trade routes, da Gama reached Calicut,
India on May 20, 1498. At first, da Gama and his trading were well-received, but this did not last for long. Da Gama left India on
August 29, 1498, after he was told to pay a large tax and leave all of his trading goods. When he left, da Gama took his goods with
him, together with some Indian hostages. Da Gama returned to Lisbon, Portugal, in September, 1499. Along the way many crew
members died from scurvy (a disease caused by a lack of Vitamin C). Upon his return, da Gama was treated as a hero and was
rewarded by the king. King Manuel I of Portugal then sent da Gama, now an Admiral, on another expedition to India (1502-1503). On
this second trip, da Gama took 20 armed ships (anticipating problems from Muslim traders). On this voyage, da Gama killed hundreds
of Muslims, often brutally, in order to demonstrate his power. After King Manuel's death, King John III sent da Gama to India as a
Portuguese viceroy (the King's representative in India). Vasco da Gama died of an illness in India on December 24, 1524; his remains
were returned to Portugal for burial.

Vasco da Gama:
Nationality – Portuguese           Lifespan - 1469 - 1524
Family - Father was Estevao da Gama a Portuguese noble and Courtier Education - Well educated befitting his status
Career - Explorer and Navigator
Famous for : Discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East, assumed to be impossible feat as it was believed that the Indian
Ocean was not connected to any other seas
Vasco da Gama was born in Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal
He came from a noble Portuguese family and his father was a distinguished soldier who attended the Portuguese court
Vasco da Gama was well educated as befitted his status and would have been taught several languages, physics, geometry,
mathematics and astronomy
1492 King John II of Portugal sent Vasco da Gama to Setubal, on the Lisbon coast, to seize French ships in retaliation for French raids
against Portuguese ships
1497 January the command of an expedition to find a sea route to the East Indies was given to Vasco da Gama
1497 July 8 Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon under the leadership of the three da Gama bothers: Vasco, Paulo, and Nicolao Coelho
accompanied by crews of about one hundred and fifty men
Four ships were in the fleet led by Vasco de Gama
The Sao Gabriel which da Gama commanded                  The Sao Rafael       The Berrio A storeship
1497 November 22 Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa
1497 December 25 da Gama reached the coast of Natal
1498 January Da Gama reached the mouth of the Zambezi
There journey was dangerous and they were attacked by Arabs
1498 May 20 The voyage of discovery reached its destination - the Indies and Calcutta, India
1498 October 5 Vasco da Gama sets sail for home and Portugal
1499 September: Vasco da Gama returns to Portugal to great acclaim. He is created Admiral of the Indian Ocean
1502 King Manuel I of Portugal sent da Gama on another expedition to India and da Gama returned in 1503
1519 the title of Count is bestowed on Vasco da Gama
1524 King John III sends Vasco da Gama to India as the Portuguese viceroy
1524 Vasco Da Gama dies in Cochin on the Malabar coast, India on 24 December, 1524
1539 The remains of Vasco da Gama are returned to Portugal and his body is lain to rest at Vidigueira
Juan Ponce de Leon (1460?-1521) was a Spanish explorer and soldier who was the first European to set foot in Florida. He also
established the oldest European settlement in Puerto Rico and discovered the Gulf Stream (a current in the Atlantic Ocean). Ponce de
Leon was searching for the legendary fountain of youth and other riches. Born in Santervas, Spain, in 1460 (the date is uncertain),
Ponce de Leon was a soldier fighting Muslims in southern Spain in the early 1490's. Ponce de Leon sailed on Christopher Columbus'
second expedition to the Americas in 1493. Ponce de Leon did not return to Spain with Columbus; he stayed in Santo Domingo (now
called the Dominican Republic).
He was appointed governor of the Dominican province of Higuey. He later heard of gold in the neighboring island of Borinquen (now
called Puerto Rico) and brutally conquered the island, claiming it for Spain. He was then appointed governor of this island. Due to his
extreme brutality to Native Americans, he was removed from office in 1511.
Ponce de Leon was then given the right to find and take the island of Bimini (in the Bahamas); he was searching for riches and the
fountain of youth (a legendary spring that gave people eternal life and health). He sailed from Puerto Rico on March 3, 1513, with
three ships, the Santa Maria, the Santiago, and the San Cristobal, and about 200 men. After stops at Grand Turk Island and San
Salvador, they reached the east coast of Florida (St. Augustine) in April 1513. Ponce de Leon named the land "Pascua de Florida"
(feast of flowers) because they first spotted land on April 2, 1513, Palm Sunday. He then claimed the land for Spain. They left on
April 8, heading south in the warm current now known as the Gulf Stream. This oceanic current would become very important for
Spanish trips from Europe to America. On the return trip, a fight broke out between Ponce de Leon's men and Native Americans in
southern Florida. They sailed to Cuba, then headed north, again trying to find Bimini (but instead, finding Andros Island). After
returning to Puerto Rico, Ponce de Leon resumed fighting with the Native Americans (putting down their rebellions against Spanish
rule). He returned to Spain and was named a Captain General by the King of Spain on September 27, 1514, and again sailed to Puerto
Rico to search for the elusive Bimini. His last expedition was another search for Bimini in 1521. His force of 200 men landed on the
west coast of Florida, but were met by Native American warriors, who wounded many of the men with arrows, including Ponce de
Leon. Ponce de Leon later died in Havana, Cuba, from this wound (in July, 1521). He is buried in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Juan Ponce de Leon:
Nationality – Spanish Lifespan - 1460 - 1521
Family - Juan Ponce de Leon was descended from the Spanish Royal family
Education - Well educated befitting his noble birth                   Career - Courtier, Explorer and Soldier
Famous as the first European to set foot in Florida. He also discovered the Gulf Stream and was famous for searching for the "fountain
of youth". He also established the oldest European settlement in Puerto Rico
Juan Ponce de Leon was born in Santervas, Spain
Juan Ponce de Leon came from a noble Spanish family and was well educated as befitted his status and would have been taught
several languages, physics, geometry, mathematics and astronomy
Ponce de Leon served as page to Pedro Nunuz de Guzman at the Spanish court
1490's Ponce travelled the seas as a Privateer, attacking ships belonging to the Moors
1493, 25 September The Second voyage of Christopher Columbus with 16 ships from Cadiz, carrying about 1500 men - including
Juan Ponce de Leon
Columbus explores Hispaniola (Jamaica) and encounters the hostile Carib and Arawak native indians
Columbus establishes a Spanish settlement in Haiti and searches for gold and Juan Ponce de Leon has gained a wealth of experience
from this voyage of discovery
1494 September 29 Christopher Columbus returns to Spain but Juan Ponce de Leon stays in Santo Domingo (now called the
Dominican Republic)
1512 23 February Charles V grants Juan Ponce de Leon a patent authorizing him to discover and people the Island of Bimini (in the
Bahamas) bestowing upon him the title of Adelantado and total jurisdiction
1508: Ponce de Leon founded the first settlement in Puerto Rico, Caparra (later relocated to San Juan)Ponce de Leon colonized Puerto
Rico using just a few troops and one greyhound who scared the natives
3 March, 1513, Ponce sets out from San German ( Puerto Rico ) with three ships, fitted out at his own expense
14 March, 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon reaches Guanahani, San Salvador ,where Christopher Columbus first sighted land
27 March 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon comes within sight of the coast ( Florida)
2 April 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon took possession of the land which Ponce de Leon named "Pascua de Florida" ( Feast of Flowers)
because they first spotted land on Palm Sunday
1513 Juan Ponce de Leon returned to Puerto Rico
27 September, 1514 Via his friend, Pedro Nunez de Guzman, he secured a second grant giving him power to settle the Island of
Bimini and the Island of Florida, ( at this point in time Florida was thought to be just an island)
1521 he set out with two ships ready to colonise Florida. Whilst building houses Ponce de Leon and his party were attacked by a tribe
of the Calusa (on Pine Island)
Ponce de Leon was injured by a poisoned arrow
Juan Ponce de Leon returned to Havana, Cuba, where he died of his wounds. His tomb is in the cathedral in Old San Juan
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (1510-1554) was a Spanish ruler, explorer and conquistador. He was the first European to explore
North America's Southwest. Coronado was a governor of New Galicia, a western province of Mexico. He searched fruitlessly for
treasure that was rumored to exist in northern Mexico: the fabled seven Golden Cities of Cibola. With a group of hundreds of
Spaniards and enslaved natives, he traveled through what is now northern Mexico and the southwestern USA (including Arizona, New
Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas). His expedition found only Zuñi, Hopi, and Pueblos, native Americans who repelled
Coronado when he demanded that they convert to Christianity. Coronado killed many native Americans during this expedition. Since
he did not find gold, silver, or other treasures, his expedition was branded a failure by Spanish leaders.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado:
Nationality – Spanish Lifespan - 1510 – 1554                        Family - Noble Spanish family
Education - Well educated befitting the status of his family
Career - Spanish Conquistador and Explorer
Famous as : the first European to explore the Southwest of North America in Arizona and New Mexico. He searched for the mythical
Seven Cities of Gold - El Dorado
1510: Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca, Spain
1535: Coronado went to New Spain (Mexico) with Antonio de Mendoza (1490–1552) the Spanish Viceroy
1537: Coronado had married the wealthy daughter of the colonial treasurer. They had eight children.
1538: Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was made governor of Nueva Galicia
1539: Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza is told of the Seven Cities of gold. The myth is given credence by a Franciscan friar named
Marcos de Niza (1495–1558) who tells of a gleaming city called Cibola that local Indians described as only the smallest of the seven
which holds more gold than the Incas
1539: The Viceroy tasks Coronada with searching the South West for Cibola and the Seven Cities of Gold
1540 Feb 23: Francisco Vazquez de Coronado begins his exploration of south-western North America in search of the Seven Cities of
Gold
The expedition leaves from Compostela (Senora) Fray Marcos accompanies the expedition as a guide
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado leads the expedition which consist of 340 Spanish, 300 Indians, 1000 horses, 1000 slaves and six
swivel guns indicating that the purpose was to colonise as well as explore
1540 July 7 Battle against the Peublo Indians at Zuni - Coronado is wounded but establishes a base
1540: Francisco Vazquez de Coronado reaches Cibola but it was not El Dorado the gleaming city of wealth described by Fray Marcos.
Fray Marcos de Niza was dismissed as guide and sent back in disgrace
1540: An Indian guide, nicknamed the Turk, tells of another rich kingdom called Quivira. Coronado believes yet another myth no
doubt fuelled by the fabulous gold and silver which was found in the cities of the Aztecs and the Incas
1541 April 23 Coronado sets out for Quivira
1541 Jun 29 The Spanish explorers cross the Arkansas River
1541: Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado arrives in Kansas in search of gold & silver and reach Quivira. Huge
disappointment again when Quivira is found to be no more than a poor indigenous village of the Wichita
When no cities of gold are found the Turk confesses under torture that the story was false and he was executed
1541- 1542 Coronado and his Spanish expedition spend the winter on the Rio Grande
1542 April: Francisco Vazquez de Coronado starts the journey home. He had failed to find El Dorado, the Seven Cities of Gold but
had made a tremendous voyage of discovery across America. During the expedition his men discovered the Grand Canyon
1542: The Viceroy brands the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado an abject failure but Coronado retains his post of
Governor
1544: Coronada was found guilty of atrocities against Indians and removed from office
1544: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado sent to work in a minor position in Mexico City
1554: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado died September 22, 1554
Sir Martin Frobisher (1535?-1594) was an English privateer (a pirate licensed by the British government), navigator, explorer, and
naval officer. After years of sailing to northwestern Africa, and then looting French ships in the English Channel, Frobisher sailed to
northeastern North America to search for a Northwest Passage (a sea route across northern Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the
Pacific Ocean, making the trip to Asia easier). In 1576, Frobisher began a series of three trips to what is now Canada, and found some
ore that he thought was gold (it was not - it was pyrite, also called Fool's Gold) on Baffin Island (Frobisher claimed Baffin Island for
England). He also discovered Resolution Island, which he claimed for England, and Frobisher Bay. On his third trip, in 1578,
Frobisher sailed 15 ships up the Hudson Strait, and set up a temporary mining settlement near what is now known as Frobisher Bay
and formed a mining company called the Cathay Company. The mining venture was a failure. Frobisher's stone house was discovered
in 1862 by the American explorer Charles Francis Hall. Frobisher is said to have held the first Canadian Thanksgiving feast in what is
now known as Newfoundland. Frobisher was one of the first people to explore this area of Canada, although he failed to find either a
Northwest Passage or gold. In 1585, Frobisher was a vice admiral on Sir Francis Drake's expedition to the West Indies. Frobisher died
on November 22, 1594, from wounds he got fighting the Spanish.

Sir Martin Frobisher:
Nationality – English Lifespan - 1535 - 1594
Family - Father was Bernard Frobisher, a Yorkshire merchant
Education - London School                                           Career - Explorer, Soldier, Pirate and Privateer
Ambition : To discover a Northwest sea passage via America to Cathay
Famous for his attempts to discover a North-West passage and his voyages to Labrador and Greenland
1535: Martin Frobisher was born in Yorkshire, England - the fourth son of Elizabethan merchant
Sent to stay with a relative, Sir John York, in London where he attended a London school
The early life of Martin Frobisher brought him into contact with the London seamen
1553: Martin Frobisher sailed on a merchant ship to Guinea
1555: Frobisher was captured by the Portuguese in West Africa but managed to escape back to England
1559, 30 May : Martin Frobisher married Isabel Richard
1555 - 1575 Martin Frobisher became an Elizabethan privateer
Elizabethan Privateers were lawful pirates who were authorised by their government and sovereign to attack the treasure ships of
enemy nations. The English government issued ‘letters of marque’ to the famous Elizabethan pirates which licensed these sailors to
plunder enemy ships - Spanish ships
1559, 30 May : Martin Frobisher married Isabel Richard
1564 : Martin Frobisher married Dorothy Wentworth
1566: Sir Martin Frobisher was fascinated with a treatise written by Sir Humphrey Gilbert entitled“A discourse of a discoverie for a
new passage to Cataia” which aimed to prove the existence of a northwest passage via America to Cathay
1569/70: Martin Frobisher fought in the Irish War for England
1575-78 Three exploratory trips by English buccaneer Martin Frobisher to Labrador in fruitless search for a Northwest Passage to
Asia. These attempts were backed by Queen Elizabeth and Humphrey Gilbert. Sir Humphrey Gilbert consulted John Dee on maps and
possible routes
1576 Jul 28, Martin Frobisher discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored Greenland and the Arctic region of Canada
1577 March - Second voyage of Martin Frobisher - he brings back three Inuit captives to London, Believes he has discovered gold
1578: Third voyage of Martin Frobisher -sailed into the Hudson 'Mistaken' Straits. The ore he brings back is not gold his backers
suffer huge financial loss
Out of favour, Frobisher spends the next few years guarding the seas around Ireland and making pirate voyages as a Privateer
1585: Martin Frobisher makes a successful pirate raid on the Spanish fleet with Sir Francis Drake
1588: Spanish Armada of 132 ships sails for England. Eng.'s navy consists of 34 ships & 163 armed merchant vessels
1588 Jul 29, The Spanish Armada was sighted off the coast of England
1588 Jul 30, The English exchanged fire with the Spanish Armada
1588 Aug 8, The English Navy destroys the Spanish Armada
1588: Martin Frobisher is knighted for his brave service fighting the Armada
1589: Sir Martin Frobisher and other famous seamen guard the sea approaches to Ireland
1590-1594 Sir Martin Frobisher again acts as a Privateer attacking Spanish ships
1594 Nov 22 Sir Martin Frobisher was killed while leading an assault on a Spanish fortress in Brittany
Hernando De Soto (1500?-1542) was a Spanish explorer who sailed the Atlantic Ocean and was the first European to explore Florida
and the southeastern US.
De Soto was born in the Spanish province of Extremadura (near Portugal). In 1524, he went on an expedition to Nicaragua, South
America, with Francisco de Cordoba. De Soto sided with Pedro Arias de Ávila (also called Pedrarias Dávila) against Cordoba (who
had tried to claim land for himself), and Cordoba was killed. De Soto lived for a while in Nicaragua, prospering by engaging in the
slave trade.
Francisco Pizarro enlisted de Soto for an expedition to Peru (1531-1532). During this expedition they met and killed Atahualpa, the
ruler of the Incas, and conquered the Inca empire.
De Soto returned to Spain in 1536, and was granted the rights to conquer Florida and was named governor of Cuba in 1537.
De Soto arrived on the west coast of Florida on May 30, 1539 with 10 ships carrying over 600 soldiers, priests, and explorers. They
spent four years searching for gold and silver, exploring the area, and brutally contacting native societies, including the Cherokees,
Seminoles, Creeks, Appalachians, and Choctaws. De Soto died during the explorations and was buried on the banks of the Mississippi
River in late June, 1542.

Hernando De Soto:
Nationality - Spanish
Lifespan - 1500 - 1542
Family - Second son of a Spanish hidalgo - a cross between a medieval knight and a country squire
Education - Educated to the age of 14 befitting the middle class status of his family
Career - Spanish Conquistador and Explorer
Famous as : the first European to explore Florida and South East America
1500: Hernando De Soto was born at Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Spain
1514: Hernando De Soto left home on a voyage to the Indies
1519: Hernando De Soto joins another exploration of discovery to Panama in South America where he makes his mark as a Captain of
the Horse
1524: Hernando De Soto went on an expedition to Nicaragua, South America, with Francisco de Cordoba
1525: De Soto engaged in the profitable slave trade in Nicaragua
1530: Francisco Pizarro recruited de Soto for his famous expedition to Peru
1531 January: Hernando De Soto sailed with Francisco Pizarro from the port of Panama with 3 ships and over 200 men
1532 November 15: Pizarro reaches Cajamarca and captures Atahuallpa, the emperor of the Incas. Thousands of Incas were killed.
The fabulous treasure of the Incas was stolen
1535 6 January: Pizarro founded Lima, Peru which he called Ciudad de los Reyes meaning 'City of the Kings'
1536: Hernando De Soto returned to Spain reporting to the King on the explorations of Pizarro. De Soto brought back his share of the
Incas gold - he was a rich man
1536: Hernando De Soto set up a household in Seville
1537 De Soto married Ines de Bobadilla the youngest daughter of Pedrarias Davila (Davila had been instrumental in the downfall of
Vasco Nunez de Balboa in 1519)
1537: Hernando De Soto was named the titles of Adelantado of Florida and Governor of Cuba by Charles V and granted the rights to
conquer Florida
1537/38: Hernando De Soto gathered together 950 armed soldiers, priests and 10 ships
1538 April 6: The Hernando De Soto expedition left Sanlucar, Spain for the Americas
1538: The expedition landed at Santiago de Cuba
1538/39 De Soto had been given the title Governor of Cuba, he spent some months in Cuba preparing for the voyage to Florida
1539: May 30 Hernando De Soto arrived on the west coast of Florida with 1000 soldiers
1538/42: Hernando De Soto spent four years exploring the area and searching for gold and silver. His contact with the native indians
was always violent and brutal
1542: Hernando De Soto died of a fever on May 21, 1542. He was buried on the banks of the Mississippi River
Hernán Cortés (also spelled Cortez), Marqués Del Valle De Oaxaca (1485-1547) was a Spanish adventurer and conquistador (he was
also a failed law student) who overthrew the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain (1519-21). Sailed with 11 ships from Cuba
to the Yucatan Peninsula to look for gold, silver, and other treasures. Hearing rumors of great riches, he traveled inland and
"discovered" Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. Brutally killed the Aztec emperor Montezuma and conquered his Aztec
Empire of Mexico, claiming all of Mexico for Spain in 1521. Treasures from the Aztecs were brought to Spain, and he was a hero in
his homeland. Appointed governor of colony of New Spain, but eventually fell out of favor with the royals. He then returned to Spain
where he died a few years later.

Hernando Cortes:
Nationality – Spanish Lifespan - 1485 - 1547
Family - Spanish nobility his parents were Martín Cortes de Monroy and Catalina Pizarro Altamarino
Education - Well educated attended University of Salamanca          Career - Spanish Conquistador and Explorer
Famous as: the Spanish conqueror of Mexico and the Aztec Empire
Mistaken for Quetzalcoatl, light skinned, bearded God-King of Aztecs - the 'Winged God - Feather Serpent'
Cortes conquers the Aztec nation of 5 million with less than 1000 soldiers
1485: Hernando Cortes born in 1485 in Medellin, Extremadura, Spain,
1499: Hernando Cortes was attended the University of Salamanca                  1501: Failed at Law and left University
1502: Heard stories New World, joined expedition to West Indies led by Nicolas de Ovando w/ Diego Velazquez
Hernando Cortes was under the command of a man called Quintero
1502: The Ovando voyage consisted of 2500 settlers and 30 ships. Ovando expedition reached Hispaniola and the young Hernando
Cortez proved popular with his mentor Quintero and Nicholas de Ovando
Cortes proved to be an excellent soldier under the command of Spanish soldier named Diego Velazquez (1460-1532)
1511: Diego Columbus, governor of Hispaniola, to conquer Cuba, selected Diego Velazquez commander of expedition
1511: Expedition to Cuba of four vessels with 300 men. Hernando Cortes was chosen to accompany Velazquez
Cuba was quickly subjugated by the Spanish expedition force
1513: The town of Bayamo on Cuba was established
1514: The towns of Trinidad, Santo Espiritu, Puerto Principe, and Santiago de Cuba were founded
1514: Hernando Cortes settles on the island of Cuba and becomes a rancher
1518 May 1: Fleet under Juan de Grijalva left Santiago de Cuba explores coast of Mex., favorable reports to Velazquez
1518: Velazquez explores further & chooses Hernando Cortes to captain expedition to establish colony in Mex.
1519: February 19, 1519, with a force of 600 men, and less than 20 horses Cortez sets sail for Mexico.
1519: Hernando Cortes and his soldiers sailed to the Yucatan Penisula and march inland to Tenochtitlan
1519 March: lands in Mexico, suppresses town of Tabasco. Meets Malinche becomes mistress, guide, interpreter
Cortes establishes town of La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz. To prevent any desertion and retreat he burns all of his boats
Cortes learns about fabulous riches of Aztec Empire and marches his troops inland to discover the land of the Aztecs
Cortes forces an alliance with the Aztec Indians of Tlaxcala and learns about their customs, culture and religion
Cortes learns of Quetzalcoatl the 'Winged God - Feather Serpent'. This Aztec legend was about a light skinned, bearded God-King of
Civilisation and learning who was revered by the Aztecs as Christians revered Jesus Christ
The arrival of Cortes & his Spanish soldiers coincided perfectly with the predicted return of the God-King Quetzalcoatl
Cortes heads further inland and reaches the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs believe that Cortes could be Quetzalcoatl their
light skinned, bearded God-King
Nov. 1519: Montezuma II, Aztec king doesn’t stop Cortes & his force from entering Tenochtitlan, Aztec capitl
Cortes meets no resistance and establishes a headquarters inside Tenochtitlan
To maintain his position he takes Montezuma as hostage and forces him to swear allegiance to King Charles V of Spain
Meanwhile Velasquez had sent 1,400 soldiers to arrest Cortes. Hernando Cortes decides to march to the coast to do battle with the
soldiers but instead he persuades them to join him
1520: Cortes is attacked by thousands of Aztec warriors on his return to Tenochtitlan. The Aztec attack was prompted by the slaughter
of 600 Aztec nobles whilst Cortes was away
Cortes tries to calm the Aztecs by releasing Montezuma but the Aztecs stone him to death
1520: Hernando Cortes and his soldiers are forced out of Tenochtitlan
1521: Hernando Cortes returns to Tenochtitlan with reinforcements
1521 August 13 Plague strikes the Aztec population and Tenochtitlan falls to Cortes
Hernando Cortes conquered 5 Million Aztecs with less than 1000 soldiers
1528: Cortes returns to Spain and was given the title "Marques del Valle de Oaxaca."
1530: Hernando Cortes returned to the New World and settles in Cuernavaca, Mexico
1533: Hernando Cortes makes his final expedition and discovers Baja in California
1534: Hernando Cortes explored California for a year before returning to Mexico
1540: Hernando Cortes returns home to Spain for the last time
1541: Spain fears the power that Hernando Cortes has in the New World - Cortes is denied any government post in Mexico and his
reputation is smeared by rumours that he murdered his wife, Catalina Xuarez but he is given permission to fight against the Moors and
the Pirates of Algiers
1547: Cortez died on December 2, 1547 near Seville
Bartolomeu Dias (1457-1500) was a great Portuguese navigator and explorer who explored Africa's coast. In 1488, Dias led the first
European expedition to sail around Africa's Cape of Good Hope, leaving Tagus, Portugal in 1487. This breakthrough of
circumnavigating the Cape of Good Hope opened up lucrative trading routes from Europe to Asia. Dias may have originally called the
southern tip of Africa the "Cape of Storms"; it was later renamed the Cape of Good Hope. On a later expedition (in 1500, with Pedro
Álvares Cabral), Dias sailed near South America on the way to Africa, and spotted land at Espírito Santo in Brazil, calling it the "Land
of the True Cross." Although they thought it to be an island, Dias was still among the first Europeans to see Brazil. Dias died during
this expedition; he was lost at sea near the Cape of Good Hope in 1500.

Bartholomeu Dias:
Nationality – Portuguese                      Lifespan - 1457 - 1500                      Family - Noble Portuguese family
Education - Well educated befitting the status of his family                              Career - Navigator and Explorer
Famous as : The first European to lead a 1487 voyage around the Cape of Good Hope on the Southern most tip of South Africa
1457: Bartolomeu Dias was born in Portugal
Bartolomeu Dias came from a noble Portuguese family and his father attended the Portuguese court. It is believed that Dias came from
a family of seamen and explorers including Joao Dias who sailed around Cape Bojador in 1434 and Diniz Dias who discovered the
Cape Verde Islands
Bartolomeu Dias was well educated as befitted his status and would have been taught several languages, physics, geometry,
mathematics and astronomy
He was a member of the royal Portuguese court and held the title of Sailing Master of the Portuguese man-of-war Sao Cristovao (San
Christovao)
1481: Bartolomeu Dias joined Diogo d'Azambuja to explore the Gold Coast of Africa
1486: 10 October King John II of Portugal appoints Bartolomeu Dias leader of an expedition to sail around the southern most tip of
Africa and make contact with a Christian ruler in the Indies called Prester John. Marco Polo and Vasco de Gama had both informed
the Portuguese court of the existence of Prester John, King of Ethiopia
1487: August - Bartolomeu Dias embarked from the River Tagus below Lisbon on his voyage of exploration around Africa to the
Indies with two armed caravels and one supply-ship, a square-rigger, which was commanded by his brother, Pero Dias
The voyage of exploration lasted sixteen months and the expedition route travelled as follows:
Sao Jorge de Mina, the Portuguese fortress on the Gold Coast to take on extra provisions
Sailed passed the coast of Angola
December 1487 they reached Golfo da Conceicão (Walvis Bay)
Sailed into Golfo de Santo Estevao (Elizabeth Bay)
January 1488 unknowingly the sailed through a terrible storm around the Cape of Good Hope which Diaz called called Cabo
Tormentosa - the Cape of Storms
Sailed North to Bahia dos Vaqueiros (Mossel Bay) where they landed February 3 1488
Landed at Bahia da Roca (Algoa Bay)
12 March 1488 west of Bushman's River mouth, they dropped anchor at a headland, called False Islet, now known as Kwaaihoek and
decided to embark on their return journey home
1488: December Bartolomeu Dias returned to Lisbon having opened up lucrative trading routes from Europe to Asia and with
invaluable information for future Portuguese voyages of exploration
These Portuguese expeditions were headed by Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama and Pedro Alvares Cabral who all used the
charts prepared by Bartolomeu Dias
1497: Dias accompanied the expedition led by Vasco da Gama to India
1500 Dias accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral on the voyage that resulted in the discovery of Brazil. This voyage mysteriously took a
course to the New World and Cabral discovered Brazil - the expedition then turned back towards the south coast of Africa
1500 May 24: Bartolomeu Dias dies in a violent storm in the Cape of Good Hope
Pedro Álvares Cabral (1467-1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, explorer, and navigator who was the first European to see Brazil (on
April 22, 1500). Cabral's patron was King Manuel I of Portugal, who sent him on an expedition to India. Cabral's 13 ships left on
March 9, 1500, following the route of Vasco da Gama. On April 22, 1500, he sighted land (Brazil), claiming it for Portugal and
naming it the "Island of the True Cross." King Manuel renamed this land Holy Cross; it was later renamed once again, to Brazil, after
a kind of dyewood found there, called pau-brasil. Cabral stayed in Brazil for 10 days and then continued on his way to India, in a trip
fraught with storms, shipwrecks (at the Cape of Good Hope), and fighting (50 of Cabral's men were killed after an attack from Muslim
traders in Calicut, India, who did not want competition on their spice routes). Cabral successfully traded for spices in Cochin (now
called Kozhikode), India (in early January, 1501). Cabral returned to Portugal on June 23, 1501, with only four of the original 13
ships. After this journey, King Manuel appointed Vasco da Gama to head the next expedition (1502), and Cabral retired. He is buried
in a monastery in Santarém, Portugal.

Pedro Alvares Cabral:
Nationality - Portuguese
Lifespan - 1467 - 1520
Family - Noble Portuguese family
Education - Well educated befitting the status of his family
Career - Navigator and Explorer
Credited as : the first European to see Brazil in 1500
1467: Pedro Alvares Cabral was born in Portugal
Pedro Alvares Cabral came from a noble Portuguese family and his father attended the Portuguese court. He was the third son of
Fernao Cabral, Governor of Beira and Belmonte and Isabel de Gouvea who was related to the royal family
Pedro Alvares Cabral was well educated as befitted his status and would have been taught several languages, physics, geometry,
mathematics, cartography and astronomy
He was a member of the royal Portuguese court of King Manuel I of Portugal and the King John II
1500: 10 October King John II of Portugal appoints Pedro Alvares Cabral leader of an expedition to sail for the Indies following the
success of the Portuguese explorers Christopher Columbus, Vasco de Gama and Bartolomeu Dias - but the expedition sails West for
the New World before heading for the Indies around the Cape of Good Hope
1500: Dias accompanied Pedro Alvares Cabral on the voyage. Vasco da Gama himself gave the directions necessary for the course of
the voyage
1500: March 9 - Pedro Alvares Cabral embarked from the River Tagus below Lisbon on his voyage of exploration with 13 ships and
1500 men
The voyage of exploration to the Indies lasted zzzz months and the expedition route travelled as follows:
Cape Verde Islands
Then sailed in a definite south-westerly direction towards the New World
April 22 1500 a mountain was visible, to which the name of Monte Pascoal was given
April 23 Pedro Alvares Cabral landed on the coast of Brazil
April 25 the entire fleet sailed into Porto Seguro harbour
Pedro Alvares Cabral and his companions believed that the new land was an island.
Pedro Alvares Cabral named the land the Island of the True Cross (or Island of Vera Cruz) and claimed the land for Portugal
The new land contained brazilwood, the source of an excellent red dye and the Portuguese merchants called it Terra do Brasil - the
name Brazil was eventually born
May 3 Pedro Alvares Cabral resumed the voyage of discovery back to the Indies via the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good
Hope
May 24 the fleet sailed through a terrible storm around the Cape of Good Hope in which four ships were lost including the ship of
Bartholomeu Dias
July 16 the expedition reached Sofala
July 20 Pedro Alvares Cabral reached Mozambique
August 2 Pedro Alvares Cabral reached Melinde where he employed a pilot to take them to India
August 10 one of the ships commanded by Diogo Dias was separated by bad weather
Diogo Dias discovered the island later known as Madagascar
September 13 Pedro Alvares Cabral arrived in Calicut in India where he traded for spices
January 16 1501 Pedro Alvares Cabral started on the journey home to Portugal
1501 June 23: Pedro Alvares Cabral arrived in Lisbon with just four ships of the thirteen that had started the adventure
Nothing more of Pedro Alvares Cabral is known. But it is believed that he died in 1520
Giovanni da Verrazzano (1485-1528) was an Italian navigator who, in 1524, explored the northeast coast of North America from
Cape Fear, North Carolina to Maine while searching for a Northwest passage to Asia. Verrazzano sailed for King François-premier
(Francis I) of France. Verrazzano's brother, Girolamo da Verrazzano, was a mapmaker who accompanyed Giovanni on his voyage,
and mapped the voyage. Verrazzano left Madeira, Spain, on January 17, 1524, and landed at Cape Fear on March 1. He first sailed
south, then returned and sailed north, to New York, anchoring the narrows that are now name for him. He sailed up to Maine and then
on to New Foundland, Canada, and back to Europe (landing in Dieppe, France on July 8). Verrazzano thought that North America was
a thin isthmus separating the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Verrazzano was killed and eaten by Carib Indians in 1528. The Verrazzano
Narrows Bridge, a suspension bridge that spans New York Harbor, connecting Brooklyn and Staten Island (New York, USA), was
named for Verrazzano.

Giovanni da Verrazzano:
Nationality - Italian who sailed for France               Lifespan - 1485 - 1528
Family - Noble Italian family                  Education - Well educated befitting the status of his family
Career - Italian Explorer and Navigator
Famous for : Exploring the northeast coast of North America from Cape Fear, North Carolina to Maine
He also discovered Manhattan and was the first European to enter New York bay
Facts, Timeline & History about the life of Giovanni da Verrazzano - Italian Explorer and Navigator
 The following are additional
facts and a timeline about the life and history of Giovanni da Verrazzano:
1485: Giovanni da Verrazzano was born in at Val di Greve, near Florence, Italy
Giovanni da Verrazzano came from a good Italian family and was a well educated Renaissance man
Giovanni da Verrazzano travelled the seas as a pirate, or Privateer sailing for King Francis I of France, attacking ships belonging to
the Spanish and the Portuguese
1522: Giovanni da Verrazzano captured a Spanish treasure ship sent from Mexico, by Hernando Cortes, to King Charles V of Spain.
The value of gold on the treasure ship was valued at nearly two million dollars
1524 January: Giovanni da Verrazzano was commissioned by Francis I to command a voyage of discovery to the New World
His ship was called La Dauphine
Giovanni da Verrazzano explored the coast of North America - Cape Fear, New York Bay, the North Carolina coast, Maine and Nova
Scotia
He also discovered a "beautiful" harbor naming it Angouleme - it would later be called Manhattan. He set anchor in the the straight
between Staten Island and Long Island, where he received a canoe party of Lenape
Giovanni da Verrazzano returned to Dieppe in France to report his findings
He made two more trips to the New World, including a voyage to Brazil
1527: Giovanni da Verrazzano was apparently captured by his old enemy - the Spanish
1527: Giovanni da Verrazzano was reportedly executed at Puerto del Pico, Spain in November, 1527 for Piracy
John Cabot (about 1450-1499) was an Italian-born English explorer and navigator. In Italy, he is known as Giovanni Caboto (which
is his original name). Cabot was born in Italy but moved to England in 1495. At the request of King Henry VII of England, Cabot
sailed to Canada in 1497, commanding the small ship called "Matthew." Cabot landed near Labrador, Newfoundland, or Cape Breton
Island (the exact spot is uncertain) on June 24, 1497. One of John Cabot's three sons, the explorer Sebastian Cabot, accompanied him
on this trip. Cabot claimed the land for England.
Cabot explored the Canadian coastline and named many of its islands and capes. The mission's purpose was to search for a Northwest
passage across North America to Asia (a seaway to Asia). Cabot was unsuccessful, although he thought that he had reached
northeastern Asia. Cabot undertook a second, larger expedition in 1498. On this trip, Cabot may have reached America, but that is
uncertain. Cabot's expeditions were the first of Britain's claims to Canada.
John Cabot died in England in 1499.

John Cabot:
Nationality - Italian-born English explorer               Lifespan - 1450 - 1499
Family - He had three sons, Ludovico, Sebastiano, and Sancto                    Career - Explorer and Navigator
Famous for: Exploring coastline of Canada, colonization of Canada. Was second European to find North Am.
1450: John Cabot ( Giovanni Caboto ) was born in the Italian port of Genoa
John Cabot was the son of a spice merchant Guilo Caboto
The Italian word ‘Caboto’ means “a coastal seaman” which was quite a common name given to sailors and navigators
1461: John Cabot moved to the bustling city of Venice with his family when he was eleven years old
His father continued to trade as a spice merchant and John Cabot helped with the family business
Learned about trading in spices obtained from the East. Access to Italian seamen & ships who sailed to East, provided him with
ambition to 'cut out the middle man' and travel spice trade routes himself and sell spices on his return
Learned about cartography, navigation, astronomy, mathematics and seamanship in his early life
Many connections in Europe - a knowledge of languages have also been requirement of skills acquired by John Cabot
1474: John Cabot married a girl called Mattea
1476: After living in Venice for fifteen years, gaining experience in trading voyages to the East and seamanship, he obtained Venetian
citizenship and was naturalized on 28 March, 1476
1490's: Moved to Bristol, England - launch expedition to North West & find sea trade route to Indies and China via a North West
passage
Bristol was an important European port and city
Bristol faced West and had a history of ship building with many experienced sailors living in the area
John Cabot had the reputation of an experienced seaman, navigator and spice merchant
Sought patronage of the English Tudor King Henry VII so he could do for England what Columbus had done for Spain
1496 March 5: King Henry VII granted Cabot the right to 'seek islands and countries of the heathen towards the west, east, and north'
sailing under the English flag
1497 May 2: embark on his ship, the Matthew, to explore lands across Atlantic, hope to find sea route, a north west passage to the
Indies and China
John Cabot and the crew of the Matthew sailed for fifty days
1497 June 9: John Cabot reached the New World
The landing spot is disputed as either being Cape Breton Island or Labrador
26 June Cabot began his return voyage
1497 August - John Cabot and his crew of the Matthew landed the ship in Bristol, England to great acclaim
1497 August 6: John Cabot achieved fame and glory. He was given a gift of £10 for having "found the new isle."
King Henry VII also granted John Cabot a pension of £20 a year
1498 February 3: Granted another patent to undertake a second expedition. Cabot was empowered to "take at his pleasure VI englisshe
shippes and theym convey and lede to the londe and iles of late founde by the seid John."
John Cabot assembled a small fleet of 5 ships and 300 men
1498 July 25: Fleet headed north sailed along east coast of America past Newfoundland, which Cabot named Bacallaos
One of the ships had to go to an Irish port because of damage
The remaining four ships of the John Cabot fleet continued their journey across the Atlantic
Cabot reached the east coast of Greenland which he named Labrador's Land
1498 June 11: The weather had become increasingly cold and the journey was made difficult by icebergs. The crews mutinied and
refused to proceed farther North
John Cabot had no alternative but to turn South along the coast of Greenland
John Cabot crossed the Davis Strait on to Baffin Land on to Newfoundland
He then followed the coast Nova Scotia and New England
At this point the John Cabot ships sailed for England
The death of John Cabot. There is no accurate record of the date or reason for the death of John Cabot, however, the pension which
had been granted to John Cabot by King Henry VII continued to be paid unti1 1499. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that John
Cabot reached England with his returning fleet
Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) was a French explorer who led three expeditions to Canada, in 1534, 1535, and 1541. He was looking
for a route to the Pacific through North America (a Northwest Passage) but did not find one. Cartier paved the way for French
exploration of North America. Cartier sailed inland, going 1,000 miles up the St. Lawrence River. He also tried to start a settlement in
Quebec (in 1541), but it was abandoned after a terribly cold winter. Cartier named Canada; "Kanata" means village or settlement in
the Huron-Iroquois language. Cartier was given directions by Huron-Iroquois Indians for the route to "kanata," a village near what is
now Quebec, but he later named entire region Canada.

Jacques Cartier:
Nationality – French Lifespan - 1491 - 1557
Family - Married Catherine Des Granches the daughter of Jacques Des Granches a chevalier du roi and constable of Saint-Malo
Education - Well educated          Career - Explorer and Navigator
Famous for : leading three expeditions to Canada. Cartier named Canada "Kanata" meaning village or settlement in the Huron-
Iroquois language
1491: Jacques Cartier was born at Saint-Malo in Brittany
There is little information about the early life of Jacques Cartier but he would have been well educated and would have studied
cartography, navigation, astronomy, mathematics and seamanship in his early life
May 1520: Jacques Cartier married Catherine Des Granches, but had no children. It was a good marriage
Jacques Cartier lived in Dieppe & acquired the skills of an experienced seaman. Dieppe was home of Giovanni da Verrazzano
1524-1527 : Jacques Cartier was believed to have accompanied Giovanni da Verrazzano on his expeditions to North America
exploring the northeast coast of North America from Cape Fear, North Carolina to Maine and also a voyage to Brazil
Giovanni da Verrazzano was an Italian who sailed under the French flag for King Francois I of France
Jacques Cartier acquired a significant reputation as an experienced seaman and navigator which would have been reported in Giovanni
da Verrazzano's reports to the French King
1532: Jean Le Veneur, the bishop of Saint-Malo, recommended to King Francois that Jacques Cartier be chosen to lead a voyage of
discovery to the New World and take the Catholic religion to the 'heathen natives'
1534: The King of France, Francois I sent Jacques Cartier to "discover certain islands and lands where it is said there is a large amount
of gold and other riches to be found."
Grande Hermine was the name of the ship used by Jacques Cartier. The Grande Hermine was a small ship of sixty tons. Another
small ship accompanied the Grande Hermine. Both ships had a crew of thirty men
1534 April: Jacques Cartier leads his first voyage to North America from Saint Malo
Jacques Cartier reaches Newfoundland and sails on to and explores the coast of Labrador
Cartier sailed inland, going 1,000 miles up the St. Lawrence River
Cartier named Canada "Kanata" meaning village or settlement in the Huron-Iroquois language
The first voyage of Jacques Cartier lasted 137 days
He returned to France and reported his explorations to the King of France
The King offers Jacques Cartier another commission to return to Canada
1535 May 26: Jacques Cartier leads a second voyage to Canada. On his second voyage, he had three ships and 110 men
Jacques Cartier travelled across the Atlantic and explored some land in Montreal before returning to spend the winter at Stadacona
(Quebec), near some friendly native villages
The winter saw an outbreak of scurvy which cost the lives of 25 of the men
1536 May 6: Jacques Cartier left Quebec and sailed for France
1536 July 16 Jacques Cartier returned safely to Saint-Malo
Jacques Cartier reported back to the King of France and the French council started to make plans to colonise Canada
1540: Jean Francois de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560) was commanded by the French king to take charge of the
colonization of Canada
1541: Jacques Cartier was instructed to lead a third voyage to Canada and redezvous with Sieur de Roberval who was to follow
Cartier's expedition
Jacques Cartier waited for Jean Francois de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval whilst enduring a bitterly cold winter
Jacques Cartier made the decision to return to France. He eventually met with Sieur de Roberval in Newfoundland. Jacques Cartier
warned de Roberval not to go to Canada because of the terrible weather conditions
1542: Jacques Cartier returned to France and waited for news of Sieur de Roberval
Sieur de Roberval ignored the warnings of Jacques Cartier and travelled to Quebec. His attempts to start a settlement was abandoned
due to the bitterly cold winter and the expedition returned to France on June 6 1543
1545: Jacques Cartier published an account of his expeditions and voyages of explorations
1557 1 September: Jacques Cartier died 1 September, 1557 at his manor of Limoilou, near Saint-Malo
1575 April: Catherine Des Granches, the widow of Jacques Cartier, died at Limoilou
Henry Hudson (1565-1611) was an English explorer and navigator who explored parts of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North
America. The Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson. Little is known about Hudson's early life. He was
hired by the Muscovy Company in 1607, to find a waterway from Europe to Asia. Hudson made two trips (in 1607 and 1608), but
failed to find a route to China. In 1607, he sailed to Spitzbergen (an island north of Scandinavia in the Arctic Ocean) and discovered
Jan Mayen Island (a tiny island off eastern Greenland). In 1608, he sailed to Novaya Zemlya (an island north of Russia in the Arctic
Ocean). Was then hired by the Dutch East India Company in 1609, to try to find the Northwest Passage farther south. On this trip in a
ship called the Half Moon, Hudson sailed to Nova Scotia, and then sailed south. He found what is now called the Hudson River. Is
credited with discovering the location which is now New York City (although da Verrazzano had previously sailed by the area in
1524). Hudson sailed into New York's harbor on September 3, 1609 and noted what an excellent harbor it was. Hudson sailed up the
river about 150 miles (240 km) and noted the abundance of rich land, but realized that this was not a waterway to India. His reports
resulted in many Dutch settlements in the area. A 1610-1611 trip through the Hudson Strait and into Hudson Bay ended in a mutiny.
Hudson died in 1611 after his crew mutinied and left Hudson, his son, and seven crew members adrift in a small, open boat in Hudson
Bay.

Henry Hudson:
Nationality – English                Lifespan - 1565 - 1611
Family - Henry Hudson had three sons called John, Richard and Oliver
Education - Well educated                        Career - Explorer and Navigator
Famous for: Voyages of exploration for the Muscovy Company and the discovery of the Hudson River. The Hudson River, Hudson
Strait, and Hudson Bay are all named after Henry Hudson
1565: Henry Hudson was born in London, England                          Henry Hudson came from a wealthy family.
The Muscovy Company was granted a monopoly of Anglo-Russian trade and aimed to search for the Northeast Passage
There is little information about the early life of Henry Hudson but he would have been well educated and would have studied
cartography, navigation, astronomy, mathematics and seamanship in his early life
Henry Hudson would have accompanied various voyages of exploration & discovery financed by Muscovy Company
Henry Hudson married a girl called Katherine
The Hudson family lived in London
1607: Selected by Muscovy Company command expedition "to discover a passage by North Pole to Japan & China."
The Muscovy Company financed the expedition and provided a ship called the Hopewell for the expedition
There were only about 20 crew members
1607 May: Henry Hudson set sail in the Hopewell from Gravesend in England
1607 June: Henry Hudson reached Greenland
Steered Hopewell further North & stopped in what would later be called Whale Bay 750 miles north of Arctic Circle
The conditions were terrible and the weather was freezing. Sighted whales inhabited waters & hunted by whale traders
The bad weather conditions prevented further exploration and the Hopewell turned South for the return journey
1607 September: Henry Hudson and the crew of the Hopewell landed at Tilbury in England
The reports that Henry Hudson provided resulted in fleets of Whaling ships being sent to the area
1608: Command his second expedition to discover a northeast passage through the Arctic waters north of Russia
The Muscovy Company again financed the expedition the Hopewell was again used for the expedition
1608 April: Set sail in Hopewell from St. Katherine's Docks, on Thames in London
Henry Hudson traveled past Norway and towards Russia
Conditions on board and the freezing weather and ice lead to near mutiny by the crew
Hudson was forced to sail back to England
1608 August 28: Henry Hudson landed at Gravesend, England
1608: Command third expedition but unable find backers due to failure to find a Northeast passage on previous voyage
Approached Dutch & sponsored to make an expedition to once again search for a Northeast passage north of Russia
1609 January 8: Hudson signed a contract with the Dutch United East India Company
Another old, small ship called the Half Moon was provided for the expedition - the Dutch United East India Company told Hudson
that if he had any complaints they would find another Captain
There were only about 20 crew members - a mixture of Dutch and English
1609 April: Henry Hudson set sail in the Half Moon from Holland sailing under the Dutch flag
Henry Hudson traveled towards the cold waters of Norway and towards Russia
Conditions on board & freezing weather & ice again lead to near mutiny by the crew just as in his previous voyage
Henry Hudson decided to completely change direction and head West towards warmer waters and the New World!
1609 July: The Half Moon and Henry Hudson passed Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
1609 July 14: Some of crew land in Maine off Penobscot Bay - trade with friendly natives and return to the Half Moon
1609 July 18: Sailed into George's Harbour and made first visit to the New World. His exploration lasted some days. Contact was
made with some native Indians who were referred to in the ship's log as 'savages'
Henry Hudson passed Jamestown and ventured on to Delaware Bay which proved to be too shallow to explore fully
1609 September 3: Henry Hudson reached the mouth of the Hudson River passing Staten Island and Coney Island and made the
decision to explore the river, still hoping to find a passage to the Indies
Henry Hudson, sailing under the Dutch flag, claimed the land for Holland
Henry Hudson and the crew traded with the natives, who came on board the Half Moon, but there was a skirmish and John Colman
was shot in the throat with and arrow and killed
1609 September 11: Henry Hudson sailed on and anchored off Manhattan in New York Bay
1609 September 18: Henry Hudson made contact with some more natives and was invited ashore. Hudson described the discovery as
follows: "The land is the finest for cultivation that I ever in my life set foot upon."
Hudson anchored near Albany and explored the land further, making more friends with the native Indians
Exploration of the river lead to a skirmish with some more hostile native Indians
1609 October 4: Henry Hudson decided that it was time to return home back across the Atlantic Ocean
1609 November 7: Henry Hudson sailed the Half Moon into Dartmouth in England
Henry Hudson wrote to the directors of the Dutch United East India Company informing them of his voyage and requesting finance
for another voyage
The Dutch United East India Company responded by ordering Henry Hudson to return to Amsterdam immediately
1609 December: No doubt news of his voyage of discovery had been spread around Dartmouth. The English merchants and traders
obviously wanted a part of the possible wealth to be found in the New World - Henry Hudson was arrested for sailing under the Dutch
Flag.
Henry Hudson was commanded to appear before King James I of England and was forbidden to continue 'voyaging to the detriment of
his country'
The Half Moon was returned to Holland with the ship's logs and records of the voyage
Henry Hudson never returned to Holland
The Dutch United East India Company subsequently sent further ships and settlers to colonise the area surrounding the Hudson river
that Henry had discovered
1610: Henry Hudson was backed by the Muscovy Company to command an expedition to once again search for a Northwest Passage
to the Orient
The Muscovy Company financed the expedition and provided a ship called the Discovery for the expedition
1610 April 17: The Discovery left St Katharine's Dock, right in the centre of London, and sailed up the River Thames to start his
voyage
Henry Hudson sailed passed Scotland, Greenland and Iceland
1610 June: Henry Hudson reached the Hudson Strait - he named the headlands Cape Digges and Cape Wolstenholme for important
members of the Muscovy Company
Hudson tried to enter the 'Furious Overfall' - the Hudson Strait but was prevented by massive icebergs
Henry Hudson sailed further South to James Bay still looking for a passage to the Pacific
The Discovery became frozen in the ice. Hudson and his crew were the first Europeans to winter in the Canadian Arctic
It was freezing cold, there was limited food, there were savage native Indians - the crew wanted to return home - but Henry Hudson
wanted to continue the voyage of exploration. The terrible conditions led the crew to mutiny
1611 June 22: Henry Hudson was cast adrift in a small boat together with his son John and eight loyal crew members
1611 June 22: Henry Hudson was never heard of again - no one knows how long he and the others survived or what was their cause of
death
The mutineers headed home but only eight made it back to England
1611 October: The Discovery sailed into London
The surviving mutineers were never punished although recommendations were made by the Muscovy Company that they should be
hanged
No attempt was ever made to search for Henry Hudson
The surviving mutineers were never punished
1618: The trial was delayed until 1618 - but the surviving mutineers were found not guilty
Two of them, Bylot and Prickett, were employed by the Muscovy Company to make further voyages of exploration...
Father Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) was a French Jesuit priest and explorer. He sailed to Quebec in 1666 and in 1671 started a
Chippewa mission at Chequamegon Bay (at the western end of Lake Superior). Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette (and five
others) found the Mississippi River in 1673; they were the first Caucasians to see the Mississippi River. They travelled along Lake
Michigan to Green Bay, canoed up the Fox River, and went downstream on the Wisconsin River to the Mississippi River. They
travelled almost to the mouth of the Arkansas, and then stopped because they were warned of hostile indians and Spanish explorers.
They returned via the Illinois River, then the Chicago River to Lake Michigan. Marquette died of dysentery on his way to the
Kaskaskian indians, to whom he had planned on preaching.

Jacques Marquette:
Nationality – French               Lifespan - 1637 - 1675
Family - Wealthy and Noble family who served France as soldiers and in civic capacities
Education - Well educated befitting the status of his family                               Career - Jesuit Priest and Explorer
Famous for: Discovering the Mississippi River with Louis Joliet
1636 June 10: Jacques Marquette was born at Laon in France
Jacques Marquette would have been well educated at a school run by Jesuit priests
1653: Jacques Marquette joined the Society of Jesus
Father Jacques Marquette spent the next 12 years studying and teaching in French Jesuit Colleges
The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) are a Christian religious order within the Catholic Church
1666: Father Jacques Marquette was sent to Canada by the Jesuits to convert native Indians to the Catholic religion
Father Jacques Marquette was assigned to Quebec where he studied to learn the language of the Huron to prepare him for his future
work in Canada
Father Jacques Marquette proved to be an excellent linguist and went on to learn a total of six American-Indian languages with the
Illinois, the Pottawatimis, the Foxes, the Huron, the Ottawa, the Mackinac and Sioux
1668: Father Jacques Marquette was sent to Montreal to join his first mission at the Holy Ghost at La Pointe with Father Dablon
teaching the local tribes
The Illinois tribe told Father Jacques Marquette about a great river - the Mississippi
The word 'Mississippi' meant 'big river' in the Huron language
Father Jacques Marquette started to make preparations to travel to the great river and meet different Native Indians
Accounts of the Mississippi had reached Quebec and Louis Joliet was ordered to join Father Jacques Marquette in an expedition
exploring the Mississippi River
1673 May: A seven man expedition including Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet set off in birch bark canoes to the north shore
of Lake Michigan to Green Bay, then up the Fox River
1673 June: Father Jacques Marquette reached the Mississippi
Father Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi, meeting different Indian tribes
Expedition realized Mississippi River did not lead to the Pacific Ocean but flowed into the Gulf of Mexico
Father Jacques Marquette drew a map of country which they passed and kept a diary of the voyage of exploration
The expedition were warned of hostile Indians ahead and there was also the possibility of being captured by the Spanish - so the party
decided to turn back towards Quebec
1674: Reached Lake Michigan where Marquette remained at mission of Saint Francis Xavier at head of Green Bay
Louis Joliet went on to Quebec
1675: Father Jacques Marquette set out on an expedition to make contact with some Illinois indians
Marquette reached the Illinois village but was exhausted by his travels. He became ill and believed that he was dying
Father Jacques Marquette wanted to end his days at the Mission at Mackinac
1675 May 19: Father Jacques Marquette died near Ludington, Michigan
The bones of Father Jacques Marquette were buried at the mission
Louis Joliet (1645-1700) was a Canadian explorer (born in Québec City) who explored the Canadian wilderness, including the Great
Lakes area. He and Father Jacques Marquette found the Mississippi River in 1673; they were the first Caucasians to see the
Mississippi River. Together, they travelled along Lake Michigan to Green Bay, canoed up the Fox River, and went downstream on the
Wisconsin River to the Mississippi River. They travelled almost to the mouth of the Arkansas, and then stopped because they were
warned of hostile Indians and Spanish explorers. They returned via the Illinois River, then the Chicago River to Lake Michigan.
Joliet's journal and his maps were lost when his canoe overturned on the rapids of the Montreal River. Marquette's diary is all that
remains of their journey. Joliet expanded fur trade westward, did extensive mapping, and established a fort on Anticosti Island.

Louis Joliet:
Nationality – Canadian                           Lifespan - 1645 – 1700                      Family - Son of a wagon maker
Education - Well educated at a Jesuit school in Quebec                            Career - Canadian Explorer
Famous for : exploring the Great Lakes area and discovering the Mississippi River
1645 September 21:Louis Joliet was born in Quebec, Canada
Louis Joliet was the son of a wagon maker
Louis Joliet was well educated at a Jesuit school in Quebec but had an adventurous spirit and wanted to explore
Louis Joliet started his life as a fur trader with the Native Indians
1669 - 1671: Louis Joliet then tries his hand at copper mining
1672 October: Louis Joliet was commissioned by the French Governor of Quebec, Louis de Buade Frontenac (1620-1698), to join
Father Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest, in an expedition exploring the Mississippi River
Joliet and Marquette make preparations for their expedition
1673 May: A seven man expedition including Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet set off in birch bark canoes to the north shore
of Lake Michigan to Green Bay, then up the Fox River
1673 June: Louis Joliet and his party reach the Mississippi
Louis Joliet explored the Mississippi, meeting different Indian tribes
The expedition eventually realized that Mississippi River did not lead to the Pacific Ocean but flowed into the Gulf of Mexico
Father Jacques Marquette drew a map of the country through which they passed and kept a diary of the voyage of exploration
The expedition were warned of hostile Indians ahead and there was also the possibility of being captured by the Spanish - so the party
decided to turn back towards Quebec
1674: The expedition led by Louis Joliet reached Lake Michigan where Father Jacques Marquette remained at the mission of Saint
Francis Xavier at the head of Green Bay
1674: Louis Joliet went on to Quebec
Louis Joliet had paddled 2500 miles in his exploration of the Mississippi
1674 August: Louis Joliet arrived in Quebec
Louis Joliet reported the findings of the exploration of the Mississippi River to Governor Louis de Buade Frontenac
Louis Joliet was consulted in the Governor's plans to colonise the area of the Mississippi River as an extension of the lands of New
France
1675 October 7: Louis Joliet married Claire-Francoise Bissot (1656 - 1710). Louis and Claire-Francoise had one child, Jean-Baptiste
Joliet
1680: Louis Joliet was granted the Island of Anticosti by King Louis XIV of France as a reward for discovering the Mississippi River
The Island of Anticosti was situated right at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River and 8,000 square kilometres in size
Louis Joliet built a fort on the Island of Anticosti
1690: The fort was captured by the English and his wife was taken prisoner whilst Louis Joliet was absent on explorations in Labrador
and around Hudson Bay
His wife was released and the fort was recaptured
1693: Louis Joliet was appointed royal hydrographer
1694: Louis Jolliet made another expedition exploring the coast of Labrador and visiting the Eskimos
1697 30 April: Louis Joliet was granted the seigniory (territory) of Joliet, south of Quebec, which is still in the possession of his
descendants
1700 May: Louis Joliet died on the Island of Anticosti in Canada
Samuel de Champlain (1567?-1635) was a French explorer and navigator who mapped much of northeastern North America and
started a settlement in Quebec. Also discovered the lake named for him (Lake Champlain, on the border of northern New York state &
Vermont, named in 1609) and was important in establishing & administering the French colonies in the New World. In 1603, sailed to
France on Francois Grave Du Pont's expedition. Sailed up the St. Lawrence River and the Saguenay River; explored Gaspe Peninsula.
He returned to France in 1603, decided to search for a Northwest Passage and to settle the Gaspe Peninsula. He returned to Canada in
1604 on Pierre de Mont's expedition. From 1604-1607, he sailed around & charted most of coast of Nova Scotia (to the Bay of Fundy)
and down the coast to Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts), and later to Rhode Island. After a short time in France,
returned to Canada & helped found a colony in Port Royal, Nova Scotia (1605). In 1608, led 32 colonists to settle Quebec in order to
establish it as a fur-trading center. Only nine colonists survived first bitter winter in Quebec, but more settlers arrived following
summer. In 1609, befriended Huron Indians & helped fight the Iroquois (this battle led to 150 years of bitterness and hostility between
the Iroquois and the French). It was during this venture that he discovered Lake Champlain. In 1613, he sailed up St. Lawrence,
explored Ottawa River. Two years later, after returning from France, he retraced this route and ventured into what is now northern
New York state and eastern Great Lakes (Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario). Headed Quebec settlement for years, until
English attacked & took Fort at Quebec in July, 1629. Once again returned to France. After a French-British peace treaty in 1632,
Quebec was once again French, and Champlain returned as its governor (1633). He died from a stroke on Dec. 25, 1635.

Samuel de Champlain:
Nationality – French Lifespan - 1567 - 1635
Family - Son of Antoine Champlain, a sea captain, and Marguerite Le Roy         Education - Well educated
Career - French Explorer, Cartographer and Navigator
Famous as : The Founder of Quebec City. Known as 'The Father of Canada'
1567: Samuel de Champlain was born at Brouage, Saintonge in France
The early life of Samuel de Champlain concentrated on preparing him for the life of a mariner
Accompanied his father and his uncle on various sea voyages
He was well educated and would have studied cartography, navigation, astronomy and mathematics in his early life
1587: joined French army and became the quartermaster of cavalry. His commanding officer was Marechal d'Aumont
1598: joined his uncle who was Pilot-General for the Spanish fleet transporting Spanish soldiers from France to Spain. France and
Spain were Catholic allies against the Protestant countries of the Netherlands and England
1598: When he was in Seville, Spain, offered command of 'St. Julien' as part of Spanish fleet in New World opposing the English
privateers in the Caribbean
1599 January: Samuel de Champlain set sail on the 'St. Julien' for the Caribbean
1599 - 1602: Samuel de Champlain made various voyages visiting Vera Cruz, Mexico, Columbia and Panama
1602 March: returned to Spain & reported on his voyages. Suggested that passage between Atlantic & Pacific could be explored
through the Isthmus of Panama
1602: return to France, rewarded by Henry IV, the King of France, with pension & appointed Geographer to the King
1602: Samuel de Champlain made his home in Dieppe where he met Aymar de Chaste the Governor of Dieppe
1602: Aymar de Chaste had obtained a monopoly of the fur trade and set up a trading post at the port of Tadoussac in Quebec ('New
France'). De Chaste offered him the opportunity to join an exploration and colonise his lands in Quebec
1603 March 15: The leader of the overall expedition was a merchant named Pontgrave. Samuel de Champlain set sail for Quebec from
Honfleur, France - there were two ships on the voyage
The expedition followed in the path of Jacques Cartier to the St Lawrence River and Tadoussac
Anchored at Port Royal (Annapolis) they set up a new colony. A fort was erected defended by canon and muskets
1603 June 5: Pontgrave's ships arrived at Port Royal with supplies and provisions for the colonists. Champlain preferred Quebec as the
site of the new colony
1603: Free to start explorations & search for passage to Indies. Need support of Indians (Algonquins & Hurons), agreed to help them
fight the Iroquois tribe
The expedition led by Samuel de Champlain consisted of twenty-four canoes, sixty warriors and only three white men
They discovered a great fresh water lake and named it Lake Champlain. After fighting with the Iroquois the expedition returned to
Quebec and the colony of Quebec started to grow
1603: Samuel de Champlain continued his explorations with Pont-Gravé ( Francis Gravé, Sieur du Pont Pontgravé c1554-c1629) a
merchant and fur trader, to explore the St. Lawrence.
1603 August : Samuel de Champlain sailed home to France
1604: Samuel de Champlain returned to Canada and joined the expedition led by the fur trader Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628)
to Acadia. Samuel de Champlain acted as historian and cartographer for de Monts
Pierre Du Gua de Monts supported Samuel de Champlain on all of his future explorations over the next few years
1607 Sept.: He and his fellow colonists in Acadia returned to France due to lack of support from their backers
1608: Samuel de Champlain returned to Quebec
1608 July 3: Samuel de Champlain laid the foundation of the Abitation de Quebec
1608: Samuel de Champlain joined the Hurons in an expedition against the Iroquois, who they defeated
1608 July: founded Quebec City which slowly began to grow. Jesuit priests were sent from France and built a church, convent, school
and hospital and Samuel de Champlain built his mansion there
1610: returned to France where he met Helene Boullé through her brother who had been at Port Royal. The father of Helene was
Nicolas Boullé who was the Lord Chamberlain of France
1610 December 29: married 12 year old Helene Boullé at Saint-Germain-L'Auxerrois in Paris. Despite her young age the marriage
was quite legal although her parents demanded a lapse of two years before cohabitation
Samuel de Champlain returned to Quebec and Helene stayed in Paris
1611: Champlain continued his exploration of the St. Lawrence
Samuel de Champlain named the island, opposite Montreal, Sainte-Helene in honour of his wife
1612 - 1613: Samuel de Champlain visited France and returned to Sainte-Helene from where he went on another exploration to the
region above Sault Saint Louis
1615: Samuel de Champlain made his last voyage of exploration to Lake Huron in Ontario
Samuel de Champlain travelled back and forth to France encouraging settlers to move to Quebec
1620: Helene visited Quebec
1628: War broke out between England and France
Samuel de Champlain surrendered Quebec to the English and returned to France
1630: A peace treaty was signed between England and France and Quebec was returned to France
1633: Samuel de Champlain returned to Quebec and resumed his duties as governor
1635 December 25: Samuel de Champlain died in Quebec
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca [Cabeza de Vaca means "head of a cow"] (1490?-1557?) was a Spanish explorer who sailed to North
America from Spain, leaving in 1527. The expedition of 250 to 300 men was led by Panfilo de Narvaez. After surviving a hurricane
near Cuba, the expedition landed on the west coast of Florida (near Tampa Bay) in April 1528, claiming the land for Spain. A series of
hurricanes and fights with Native Americans killed many of the crew, and the pilot of the ship sailed to Mexico without the 250 to 300
men. The stranded men hastily made 5 make-shift rafts on which they sailed west, hoping to reach a Spanish settlement in Mexico.
Three rafts sank, but the two surviving rafts (carrying 80 men) landed at Galveston Island (off what is now Texas). Narvaez did not
survive. After a very cold winter with very little food, only 15 men survived. In spring, the men traveled west by land, walking along
the Colorado River. By 1533, there were only four survivors, including Estevanico, Carranza, Cabeza de Vaca, and Alonso Castillo
Maldonado. The men were enslaved for a while by some Indian tribes along the way, and were helped by other tribes. They were the
first non-natives to travel in this area of the southwestern North America. He and his fellow travelers were the first Europeans to see
the bison, or American buffalo. The four men finally reached the Spanish settlement of Culiacan in early 1536 (8 years after being
stranded in Florida). Later that year they reached Mexico City, where they were welcomed by the Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. After
serving as a Mexican territorial governor, Returned to Spain (in 1537) and published an account of his travels, noting the appalling
treatment of Indians by the Spanish. His writing encouraged many other Spanish expeditions to the Americas, including those of
Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. In 1540, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed governor of the Spanish settlement
on the Rio de la Plata (now called Paraguay). He explored along the Paraguay River (in 1542, he was the first European to see Iguacu
Falls). The settlers threw him out of office in 1545, and he was put on trial - he was charged with many offenses, including usurping
the authority of the King of Spain. He was found guilty and died soon after.

Cabeza de Vaca:
Nationality – Spanish             Lifespan - 1490 - 1557
Family - Noble Spanish family Education - Well educated befitting the status of his family
Career - Spanish Conquistador and Explorer
Famous as: the first European to explore Texas and Southwest America
1490: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was born at Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia , Spain
His parents were Francisco de Vera and Teresa Cabeza de Vaca
Taught several languages, physics, geometry, mathematics, cartography and astronomy
1527: heard the stories about the New World and joined the expedition to the New World lead by Pamfilo de Narvaez
& had been commissioned by Emperor Carlos V to colonize entire Gulf Coast of New World from Florida to Mexico
June 17, 1527: Pamfilo de Narvaez leaves Spain from Cadiz with 300 men, including Cabeza de Vaca who is appointed crown
treasurer of the expedition, an important position in the fleet
The expedition and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca reach Hispaniola where they stay for over 1 month
From Hispaniola they travel to Santiago, Cuba on to Trinidad
1528 April 12: de Narvaez & Cabeza de Vaca arrive in Florida in vicinity of Tampa Bay. The land is claimed for Spain
May 1, 1528: Narvaez announces his plans for the expedition to split between land and sea expeditions
Various disasters befall expedition which eventually result in the party which includes de Vaca is whittled down from 80 men to just
four men who are captured by natives
Cabeza de Vaca and other survivors live on Isle of Misfortune as slaves but after a year escape to the mainland. They spend the next
eight years in hardship exploring land of Texas & Mexico, living & trading with natives. de Vaca viewed as a medicine man by the
Avavares tribe
January 1536: Cabeza de Vaca, Estevanico, Alonso del Castillo and Andres Dorantes meet Spanish soldiers of New Spain in what is
now the State of Sinaloa in northwest Mexico
February 1536: The four explorers arrive at Culiacan, a frontier outpost of New Spain
July 1536: Cabeza de Vaca, Estevanico, del Castillo and Dorantes wre welcomed to Mexico City by Cortes and de Mendoza, the
Viceroy of New Spain
April 1537: Cabeza de Vaca leaves for Spain but Estevanico, del Castillo & Dorantes stay in New World
1537: reports on expedition across Texas. Speaks of inhumane treatment of natives by Spanish Conquistadors & abuse of Encomienda
system. New laws concerning the treatment of natives
1537: Cabeza de Vaca is granted the post of Governor of the La Plata regions (Argentina)
1537: spends 3 years writing about expedition w/ descriptions of experiences, land & natives. It is called La relacion
1541: Cabeza de Vaca takes up his position as Governor of the La Plata regions (Argentina)
1542: La relacion is published
1543: Cabeza de Vaca introduces new edicts onfair treatment of natives & suppression of slavery for new laws in Spain
1543: The edicts of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca result in a reduction in revenue and his men rebel against him
April 1543 to March 1544: Cabeza de Vaca is held prisoner
1544: Cabeza de Vaca is returned to Spain
Cabeza de Vaca goes to Madrid to have his case tried before the Council of the Indies
1546: Cabeza de Vaca sentenced to the loss of all of his offices in the La Plata Province and was exiled to North Africa
1551: His exile to North Africa was rescinded and he takes up residence in Seville
1559: Cabeza de Vaca dies in Valladolid, Spain
Estevanico (pronounced es-tay-vahn-EE-co), also called Estevan, Esteban, Estebanico, Black Stephen, and Stephen the Moor (1500?-
1539) was a Muslim slave from northern Africa (Azamor, Morocco) who was one of the early explorers of the Southwestern United
States. Estevanico was the slave of Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, who took him on the Narváez expedition to Tampa Bay, Florida, in
1528. A series of hurricanes and fights with Native Americans killed many of the crew, and the pilot of the ship sailed to Mexico
abandoning the men. The 250 to 300 stranded men hastily made 5 makeshift rafts on which they sailed west, hoping to reach a
Spanish settlement in Mexico. Three rafts sank, but the two surviving rafts (carrying 80 men) landed at Galveston Island (off what is
now Texas). Narvaez did not survive.
After a very cold winter with very little food, only 15 men survived. In spring, the men traveled west by land, walking along the Rio
Grande. By 1533, there were only four survivors, including Estevanico, Carranza, Cabeza de Vaca, and Alonso Castillo Maldonado.
The men were enslaved by some Indian tribes along the way, and were helped by other tribes. They were the first non-natives to travel
in this area of the southwestern North America. The four men finally reached the Spanish settlement of Culiacan in early 1536 (8
years after being stranded in Florida). Later that year they reached Mexico City, where they were welcomed by the Viceroy Antonio
de Mendoza. Carranza then sold Estevanico to the Viceroy. The Viceroy sent Estevanico on an expedition in 1539 with the Franciscan
Fray Marcos de Niza. Francisco de Coronado outfitted Estevanico for this trip to find the fabled seven cities of Cibola. On this trip,
Estevanico was killed by Zuni Indians as he entered their pueblo (supposedly at the fabled city of Cíbola).

Estevanico:
Nationality - North African                              Lifespan - 1500 – 1539                         Date of enslavement - 1513
Slave and Explorer
Famous for: exploring Texas & Southwest America & heralded as having been “the first black man in North America.”
Description of Estevanico - Slave and Explorer
 Cabeza de Vaca described his explorer companion as follows:
 "Estevanico was a
large and powerful man, blessed with a shrewd and quick mind." Estevanico was an excellent linguist and was able to quickly learn
the languanges of the Native Americans. Estevanico undertook the role of scout and mediator in the explorations of the Cabeza de
Vaca party.
1490: Estevanico was born at Azamor in Morocco, North Africa
He was raised in the Muslim religion
1513: Estevanico was captured and enslaved by the Portuguese and converted to the Christian, Catholic religion
1520: Estevanico was purchased as a personal slave by Andres Dorantes de Carranza, a captain in the Spanish infantry
1527: Andres Dorantes de Carranza heard the stories about the New World and joined the expedition, with his slave Estevanico, to the
New World which was lead by Pamfilo de Narvaez
Pamfilo de Narvaez had been commissioned by Emperor Carlos V to colonize the entire Gulf Coast of the New World from Florida to
Mexico
June 17, 1527: Pamfilo de Narvaez leaves Spain from Cadiz with 300 men, including Andres Dorantes and his slave, Estevanico
The expedition and Estevanico reach Hispaniola where they stay for over 1 month
From Hispaniola they travel to Santiago, Cuba on to Trinidad
1528 April 12: Pamfilo de Narvaez and Andres Dorantes and his slave, Estevanico arrive in Florida in the vicinity of Tampa Bay. The
men disembark and the land is claimed for Spain
May 1, 1528: Narvaez announces his plans for the expedition to split between land and sea expeditions
Various disasters befall the expedition which eventually result in the party which includes Andres Dorantes and his slave, Estevanico
is whittled down from 80 men to 15 men and finally, to an expedition of just four men who are captured by natives
The four remaining explorers, thought to include the first Europeans and black slave in Texas, were:
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
Estevanico
Alonzo del Castillo Maldonado
Andres Dorantes de Carranza
Estevanico and the other survivors live on the Isle of Misfortune as slaves but after a year escape to the mainland. They spend the next
eight years in abject hardship exploring the land of Texas and Mexico, living and trading with the natives. Estevanico is viewed as a
medicine man by the Avavares tribe
January 1536: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Estevanico, Alonso del Castillo and Andres Dorantes meet Spanish soldiers of New
Spain in what is now the State of Sinaloa in northwest Mexico
February 1536: The four explorers arrive at Culiacan, a frontier outpost of New Spain
July 1536: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Estevanico, Alonso del Castillo and Andres Dorantes were welcomed to Mexico City by
Hernan Cortes and Antonio de Mendoza, the Viceroy of New Spain
1536: Estevanico is given his freedom
1539: Estevanicohe accompanies Fray Marcos of Nice as a guide to the Seven Cities of Cibola in western New Mexico
1539: Leading the expedition as a guide he reached Hawikuh which was the southern-most of the seven cities
1539: Estevanico is killed by the natives in Hawikuh, New Mexico - so ends the Timeline of Estevanico (aka Estevan, Esteban,
Estebanico, Black Stephen, Stephen the Moor)
Prince Henry (Henrique) the Navigator (1394-1460) was a Portuguese royal prince, soldier, and patron of explorers. Henry sent
many sailing expeditions down Africa's west coast, but did not go on them himself. Thanks to Prince Henry's patronage, Portuguese
ships sailed to the Madeira Islands (Joao Goncalves Zarco, 1420), rounded Cape Bojador (Eannes, 1434), sailed to Cape Blanc (Nuno
Tristao, 1441), sailed around Cap Vert (1455), and went as far as the Gambia River (Cadamosto, 1456) and Cape Palmas (Gomes,
1459-1460). These expeditions were sent to create much-needed maps of the West African coast, to defeat the Muslims, to spread
Christianity, and to establish trade routes. Prince Henry helped begin the Great Age of Discovery that lasted from the 1400's to the
early 1500's.
Early Life: Prince Henry was the third son of King John I (João I) of Portugal and his English wife, Philippa of Lancaster. When he
was 21, Prince Henry (with his father and brothers) attacked the Moslem port of Ceutha in north Morocco (in Africa, across the
Mediterranean Sea). This successful attack in 1415 inspired Prince Henry to explore Africa, most of which was unknown to
Europeans. Prince Henry was determined to see Portuguese sailors sail down the west coast of Africa to find the limits of the Muslim
world (in order to defeat the Muslims), and to find the legendary Christian empire of the priest-king Prester John (who did not, in fact,
exist). In 1419, his father appointed Prince Henry the governor of the province of Algarve (on Portugal's southern coast). School of
Navigation: About 1418, Prince Henry started the first school for oceanic navigation along with an astronomical observatory at
Sagres, Portugal. In this school, people were trained in nagivation, map-making, and science, in order to sail down the west of Africa.
Exploring West Africa: At this time, no Europeans had sailed past the treacherous Cape Bojador and returned alive. Cape Bojador is
on the coast of Africa just below latitude 27° North (off the western Sahara Desert) and had frequent, violent storms and strong
currents. The Europeans called the ocean beyond that point the "Sea of Darkness." Most sailors refused to go there. Prince Henry sent
14 expeditions there over 12 years, trying to go farther than Cape Bojador. Prince Henry convinced Gil Eannes to try, and Eannes
succeeded in 1434. Gil Eannes: Gil Eannes was a Portuguese explorer who was the first European to sail beyond the dreaded Cape
Bojador and return. Eannes worked in Prince Henry's household. On Eannes' first trip down the coast of Africa in 1433, he only sailed
as far as the Canary Islands. In 1434, Eannes rounded Cape Bojador, and then landed on the coastal desert. He found no people there,
only a few hardy plants, including "Saint Mary's roses," which he brought back to Portugal as proof of his accomplishment.
Eannes made another journey in 1435, again rounding Cape Bojador and sailing south; he sailed with Alfonso Goncalves Baldaya.
About 50 leagues past the cape, they entered a large bay and saw a caravan of men and camels. Eannes named the river Rio de Ouro
(meaning river of gold). Baldaya sailed farther south and collected thousands of seal skins; this was the first commercial cargo brought
to Europe from that part of Africa.
Goncalves and Tristao: In 1441, Prince Henry became involved in the slave trade, when Antao Gonçalves returned from Rio de Ouro
with captives. Nuno Tristao reached Cabo Blanco that same year. Alvise da Cadamosto: Many years later, in 1455, Prince Henry sent
the Venetian (from Venice, Italy) navigator Alvise da Cadamosto (1432?-1511?) on two expeditions. On the first, in 1455, Cadamosto
reached the mouth of the Gambia River (in west Africa). On the second, in 1456, Cadamosto sailed up the Gambia river to the Geba
River. He tried trading with the Africans but was unsuccessful. Cadamosto claimed to have discovered the Cape Verde Islands, but it
is uncertain if he was the first one there.
Diogo Gomes: In 1458, Prince Henry sent Diogo Gomes (1440-1482) on an expedition that sailed as far as Cape Palmas. Prince Henry
died in 1460, the year that this expedition returned.

				
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