Mifflin County by jennyyingdi


									         Mifflin County
Communities That Care®

        Annual Report

  “A Caring Community Becomes a Closer Community’
                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Vision, mission, brief history                         ....................................3
CTC coalition members and organizational structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 4
Key Leaders 2005-2006                      . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Board Members 2005-2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Grants obtained due to the existence of CTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Programs Benefiting from the Existence of CTC                                  ........................8
Mifflin County Community Assessment                                .... ......................... 9
2005 PA Youth Survey Results for Mifflin County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    A. Past 30-Day Underage Use                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    B. Perceptions of Risk                 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    C. Perceptions of Parental Disapproval                         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    D. Age of Onset of First Use                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Protective Factors              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Risk Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Summary Chart of Protective and Risk Factors                                   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Community Programs that Buffer Youth Against Risk Factors                                             . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Current Programs Funded by CTC Grants                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
CTC Action Team Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

For Statewide PA Youth Survey results, see the “2005 PA Youth Survey Report”:

For Nationwide Youth Survey results (“Monitoring the Future” report) see:

                                                  Mifflin County
                                              Communities That Care®
                                                144 E Market Street
                                               Lewistown, PA 17044

We thank our funders: PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency; Children’s Trust Fund; State
Incentive Grant; Drug Free Community Support Program

                 MIFFLIN COUNTY

                                  Vision Statement

Because of community-wide collaboration, Mifflin County will have safe, caring and
drug-free neighborhoods for all children.

                                 Mission Statement

To promote the healthy development of the children of Mifflin County and to prevent
juvenile delinquency, violence by and among children, teen pregnancy, truancy, school
dropouts, substance abuse, and undesirable actions and attitudes that may be harmful to

                                   A Brief History
In 1999, Rick Williams, then District Magisterial Judge, and Karen Goss, Director of
Mifflin County Children & Youth Services, spearheaded an effort to form a Communities
That Care® (CTC) in Mifflin County. First, a “Key Leaders” group was formed to write
an implementation grant proposal.

In 2000, an implementation grant was awarded to CTC by the Pennsylvania Commission
on Crime and Delinquency. This grant funded work to write a community-wide
prevention plan using the “Communities That Care” process. The goal was to determine
our community’s readiness to form a community coalition around prevention, and to:
     identify the “risk” and “protective” factors in Mifflin County;
     inventory existing prevention programs that are offered in our community; and
     identify gaps in prevention services in our community.

Representation from all sectors of the community was achieved; community members
were invited to become stakeholders in the healthy development of our youth.

Six years later, the CTC process continues to have a strong presence in Mifflin County.
CTC allows for agencies and community members to communicate and collaborate, and
funds the implementation of evidence-based prevention programs in our community.

Please join our community-wide collaboration as we focus on prevention efforts for our
youth. To achieve a long-last community-wide change, it is vital that we work together.

             Big Brothers Big Sisters                              Mifflin County Commissioner
             Boy Scouts of America                                 Mifflin County Courts
             Clear Concepts Counseling                             MC Correctional Facility
             Community-at-large members                            MC Domestic Relations
             Downtown Lewistown, Inc.                              Mifflin County Human Service
             Family Health Associates                              Mifflin County Library
             Grace United Methodist                                Mifflin County School District
             Juniata River Base Service Unit                       Mifflin County Probation
             Juniata Valley Tri-County Drug & Alcohol Abuse        Mifflin-Juniata WIC
              Commission                                            PSU Cooperative Extension
             Juniata Valley Tri-County Mental Health / Mental      PSU Prevention Center
              Retardation                                           Project YES
             Lewistown Hospital                                    Snyder Union Mifflin (SUM) Child Development
             Lewistown Public Works Dept                           State Health Center
             Lumina Center                                         TIU 11/Career Link
             Mifflin County 2000                                   United Way of Mifflin-Juniata Counties
             Mifflin County Children & Youth                       United Way Success By 6





                                                                                                    Media -


                                             Parent                    Involvement

                           KEY LEADERS 2005-2006
“Key Leaders” are individuals who represent our community’s schools, social services,
juvenile justice, law enforcement, medical and mental health, and business. Key Leaders
are responsible for providing support, encouragement and direction to the CTC
(Communities That Care®) Prevention Board.

Key Leaders:

Dr. Deb Aromatorio (Counselor)              Mifflin County School District’s Safe and
                                            Drug Free Schools

Adele Craig (Director)                      Work Force Development of the Lewistown

Dr. John Czerniakowski (Ass’t Superintendent)    Mifflin County School District

Karen Goss (Director)                       Mifflin County Children & Youth

Mike Grabill (Co-owner)                     Clear Concepts Counseling

Lori Hartman (Director)                     Juniata River- Base Service Unit

Gordon McAleer (CEO)                        Lewistown Hospital

Susan McCartney (Commissioner)              Mifflin County

Rick Williams (Judge)                       Mifflin County Courts

Larry Wolfe (Chief Probation Officer)       Mifflin County Probation

                          BOARD MEMBERS 2005-2006

The Board is a county-wide collaborative team that has representation from non-profit
organizations, county and local government, educational institutions, religious
organizations, law enforcement, the medical community, and businesses. We seek
representation from youth and consumers of children and family services.

Officers in 2004-05: Rev Rick Bender, President
                     Allison Fisher, Vice Presidents
                     CristyYoders, Treasurer
                     Aleta Kammerer, Secretary

Prevention Board Members:

Rev. Rick Bender               Molly Kunkel                   Jane Shearer
United Methodist Church        Big Brothers Big Sisters       State Health Center

Peg Carson                     Marie Mulvihill                Cheryl Stayton, Ph.D.
Historian                      United Way of MJ               Family Health Associates

Douglas Coatsworth, Ph.D.      Frank Hernandez                Ron Taverno
Assistant Professor, PSU       Public Works Department        PSU Cooperative Extension

Jeff Davis                     Nikki Hidlay                   Carol Veitch, Ph.D.
Probation Officer              MCSD, Physical Therapist       Mifflin County Library

Ray Dodson                     Aleta Kammerer                 Tom Walker
JV Tri-County Drug &           Early Head Start               PSU Cooperation Extension
Alcohol Commission
                               Karin Knode                    Sam Whitesel
Allison Fisher                 Project YES                    JV Tri-County MH/MR
Human Service Director
                               Nicole McMillin                Debbie Wilt
Barb Frankhouser               Children & Youth Services      Lumina Center
School Board Member
                               Ariele Mauery                  Cristy Yoders
Marybeth Irvin                 Indian Valley HS Student       Success By 6, United Way
MCSD Federal Programs
                               Mike McMonigal                 Bernie Zook
Mike Grego                     Boy Scouts of America          Mifflin County Correctional
Mifflin County 2000                                           Facility
                               Natalie Mochak
Helen Guisler                  WIC                            Jim Zubler
TIU #11                                                       Downtown Lewistown, Inc.
                               Jill Pecht
                               Clear Concepts


PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: Communities That Care - Mifflin County (2000-2001; $15,000)

PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: CTC Prevention Program (2001-2004; $150,000)

PA Dept of Welfare Children’s Trust Fund: Child Abuse/Neglect Prevention Grant (2001-2004; $150,000)

PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: Functional Family Therapy (2001-2005; $150,000)

Office of Juvenile Justice Programs: Drug Free Communities Support Program (2001- 2005; $369,606)

PA Dept of Public Welfare’s Office of Children, Youth and Families: Child Care Resource Developer
        (2002-2005; $120,123)

Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention: Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP) (2002- 2005; $218,000)

PA Dept of Education: Youth Mentoring Grant (10/04- 9/07; $475,000)

PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (2002- 2006; $297,000)

Pennsylvania Tobacco Settlement ($647,407 over 5 years)

PA Department of Health (Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs): SBIRT – Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral
and Treatment ($1,637,457 over 3 years)

Department of Health (Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs, State of PA): Community Prevention Collaborative -
State Incentive Grant (2003- 2006; $401,042)

PA Dept of Welfare Challenge Grant: Project YES. ($186,000/yr for 2 years)

Children’s Trust Fund (PA Dept of Welfare): Parent Child Home Program (4-years; $480,000)

Children’s Trust Fund: Child Abuse/Neglect Prevention Grant (2004- 2007; $150,000)

PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: Sustaining CTCs in PA (200- 2006; $75,000)

PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: Research-based Violence and Delinquency Prevention Programs
      (2005- 2009; $200,000)

SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration) Drug Free Community Support Program
     (2005-06; $100,000)

PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency: Sustaining Mifflin County CTC (2006-2007; $75,000)

                                          TOTAL = $5,896,635

•   The Abuse Network
•   Active Parenting classes - TIU 11
•   Big Brothers Big Sisters of the Juniata Valley YMCA
•   Crossroads Pregnancy Center’s M.O.M.S. (Making Our Moms Successful)
•   DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)
•   Drug Court – Probation Office
•   Early Head Start - SUM
•   ELECT - TIU 11
•   ELM Street Neighborhood Action Teams - DLI
•   Even Start - TIU 11
•   Functional Family Therapy - Children & Youth / Clear Concepts
•   Guiding Good Choices classes - TIU #11
•   Head Start - SUM Child Development Center
•   The Incredible Years – Success by 6
•   Juniata Council of the Boy Scouts of America
•   Life Skills classes - Mifflin County School District
•   LUMINA Center
•   Mifflin County Public Libraries
•   Mifflin County Heroin Task Group
•   Mifflin County Playground Association
•   Mifflin County Probation Office
•   Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care - Children & Youth
•   Neighborhood Block Watch – MCRPD
•   Parent Child Home Program - TIU 11
•   Parents Supporting Parents support group - Clear Concepts Counseling
•   Parenting Wisely program - Children & Youth
•   Parents Who Care classes - TIU 11
•   People Using Leadership Skills Effectively (PULSE) retreats - Clear Concepts
•   Pre-natal classes - Lewistown Hospital
•   Project YES - TIU 11 and Central PA Work Investment Board
•   Quality Early Care and Education - now United Way’s Success By 6 initiative
•   Reedsville Youth Center
•   School Assistance Program (SAP) - Clear Concepts Counseling
•   School Resource Officer (SRO) – MCRPD and MCSD
•   Skate Park Committee

                   Submitted by Nancy Records, Ph.D., Community Mobilizer

DEMOGRAPHICS: Mifflin County, situated in scenic, rural central Pennsylvania, has a
population of 46,235 (US Census 2005 estimate). The largest population center in the county is
the Borough of Lewistown, which has a population of 8,692 (2004 estimate US Census). Based
on the 2004 U.S. Census Bureau data, 98.6% of the population is white; 0.5% is African
American; 0.6% is of Hispanic or Latino origin; 0.3% is Asian; and the remaining is reported as
“other.” There is one school district in Mifflin County.

The Mifflin County labor market, now referred to as the Lewistown micropolitan statistical area,
has a 5.1% unemployment rate (PA Dept of Labor and Industry, May 2006), which is higher than
the 4.8% state unemployment rate for this same month. The median income in Mifflin County,
$34,024, is lower than the median income of the state, $42,952 (2003 US Census). Of the
county’s population, 23.8% are youths under age 18 years (2004 US Census). Of our residents,
12.0% live in a household below the poverty line, which is higher than the state average of
10.6% (2003US Census). In 2005-06, the Mifflin County School District’s Title I programs
served seven of the eight public schools in the district as well as two private schools; to qualify
for Title I programs, at least 35% of the students must be considered to be economically
disadvantaged. Taken as a whole, these data suggest acute economic deprivation in Mifflin

In 2005, the Mifflin County Regional Police Department serves a jurisdiction that had a resident
population of 18,264, which is about 40% of the county’s population. The remainder of the
county is served by the PA State Police and township police forces.

COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT: CTC’s assessment of the community involves: (1) surveying
secondary-school students; (2) surveying a random sample of community adults, which will be
completed in fall 2006; and (3) gathering community statistical crime, educational, and health
data. We will focus on the youth survey results in this report.

YOUTH SURVEY: We thank the Mifflin County School District for allowing CTC to survey the
youth in the county while they are at school. This information is one crucial part of our
community assessment. In 2000 and 2003, the Communities That Care® survey was
administered; in 2005, the PA Youth Survey was administered. Both surveys assess youth
behavior, attitudes and knowledge concerning alcohol, tobacco, other drugs and violence. These
surveys provide two sets of information: a) an important benchmark for alcohol, tobacco, and
other drug (ATOD) use and delinquent behavior among young Pennsylvanians, which helps to
indicate whether prevention and treatment programs are achieving their intended results, and b)
risk factors that are related to these problem behaviors and the protective factors that guard
against them.
        In spring of 2000, the survey was completed by 516 (53%) of the students in grades 8 and
10 in the Mifflin County School District public schools.
        In spring of 2003, the survey was completed by 329 (22%) of the students in grades 8, 10
and 12. (Note: In 2000 and 2003, “active consent” required parents to sign a letter to allow their
student to participate.)

       In October 2005, the survey was completed by 1,185 (82.5%) of the students in the 8th,
10 and 12th grades. Only 23 (1.9%) surveys were invalid for 1 of 4 reasons, meaning that
students were very cooperative in responding to this survey.


A. Past 30-Day Underage Use
Lifetime prevalence of use (whether the student has ever used the drug) is a good measure of
student experimentation. Past-30-day prevalence of use (whether the student has used the drug
within the last month) is a good measure of current use. Note: Scores reported are the percentage
of youth who used.

30-day use      Alcohol                     Binge drinking                 Cigarettes       Smokeless       Marijuana   Inhalants
        8th        17                                   7                         10            6               4          4
       10th        31                                  17                         29           17              10
       12th        38                                  23                         28           14              11         1.3

   Mifflin         28                                  16                         20                   13      8           3
    PA             26                                  15                         13                    6      9           3

                          Graph 2. Past-30-Day Use of Selected ATODs

                           Percentage Use




                                                        8th                10th           12th

                                             Alcohol          Cigarettes      Marijuana    Inhalants

NOTE: The above data can be interpreted as follows:

The “Norm” (how the majority behaves) for our youth based on what they themselves told us is:
      NOT to drink alcohol        72% of our surveyed youth DON’T drink alcohol!
      NOT to binge drink          84% of our surveyed youth DON’T binge drink!
      NOT to smoke cigarettes     80% of our surveyed youth DON’T smoke cigarettes!
      NOT to chew tobacco         87% of our surveyed youth DON’T chew tobacco!
      NOT to use marijuana        92% of our surveyed youth DON’T use marijuana!
      NOT to use inhalants        97% of our surveyed youth DON’T use inhalants!

B. Perceptions of Risk
Perception of risk is an important determinant in the decision-making process that young people
go through when deciding whether or not to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (Bachman,
Johnston, O’Malley & Humphrey, 1988). Data analysis across a range of Communities That
Care communities that used the Youth Survey generally shows that when the perceived risk of
harm is high, the reported frequency of use is low. Evidence also suggests that, at times,
perceptions of the risks and benefits associated with drug use may serve as an important
indicator of future drug use patterns in a community (Bachman, Johnston, O’Malley &
Humphrey, 1986).

Table 31. Percentage of Youth Who Reported Perception of “Great Risk” or Harm
% scores reported                        8th        10th        12th      Overall
Drinking Alcohol Regularly              40.4        40.1        39.0       39.5
Smoking Cigarettes Regularly            68.9        67.2        69.8       67.7
Smoking Marijuana Regularly             82.4        74.9        61.4       73.5
This table presents percentages of youths surveyed who assigned “great risk” of harm to 3 drug-
use behaviors: regular use of alcohol (one or two drinks nearly every day), regular use of
cigarettes (a pack or more daily), and regular use of marijuana.

NOTE: The above data can be interpreted as follows:
    Youth consider cigarettes and marijuana use as being harmful.
    However, youth do NOT consider underage consumption of alcohol as being harmful!
    This is a huge misperception of the risk of alcohol that must be corrected!

C. Perceptions of Parental Disapproval
In addition to peer attitudes, social norms toward drug use were measured by asking how most
neighborhood adults would view student alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Table 34 presents
the percentage of surveyed youth who thought other adults would feel it was “wrong” or “very
wrong” to use each drug.

Table 34. Percentage of Youth Who Indicated “Other Adults” Disapprove of Drug Use
% scores reported                        8th        10th        12th      Overall
Drinking Alcohol                        84.4        73.4        64.4       74.5
Smoking Cigarettes                      81.6        71.5        60.3       71.3
Smoking Marijuana                       93.8        90.5        87.7       90.5

NOTE: The above data can be interpreted as follows:
    Youth think that parents would disapprove of underage use of marijuana more than they
    would disapprove of underage drinking of alcohol or underage smoking of cigarettes.

D. Age of Onset of First Use
Mifflin County School District students were asked questions about the age at which they first
used alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. The topics covered include: trying alcohol (“more than a
sip or two”), drinking alcohol regularly (“at least once or twice a month”), smoking cigarettes,
and smoking marijuana.
        Responses of students in the highest grade level surveyed are used because these youth
can best reflect on their high school and/or middle school experiences and accurately report the
age they first started using drugs or engaging in other antisocial behaviors.

Table 15. Average Age of Onset of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use
       years of age reported      12th grade report of onset age           PA
       Trying Alcohol                          14.4                        13.9
       Drinking Alcohol Regularly              15.6                        15.4
       Smoking Cigarettes                      13.6                        13.4
       Smoking Marijuana                       14.8                        14.6


The following information is directly from the 2005 PA Youth Survey – Mifflin County
School District report:

PROTECTIVE FACTORS are conditions that buffer youth from exposure to risk by either reducing
the impact of the risks or changing the way that young people respond to risks. Protective factors
include strong bonding to family, school, community and peers. These groups support the
development of healthy behaviors for children by setting and communicating healthy beliefs and
clear standards for children’s behavior. Young people are more likely to follow the standards for
behavior set by these groups if the bonds are strong. Strong bonds are encouraged by providing
young people with opportunities to make meaningful contributions, by teaching them the skills
they need to be successful in these new opportunities, and by recognizing their contributions.

Based on Mifflin County youth survey responses, the eight CTC protective factors are ranked in
order from those perceived as being strongest (#1 having the highest percentile score rank) to
weakest (#8 having the lowest percentile score rank). NOTE: The scores reported in parentheses
are percentile scores, with the average being 50.

#1 Belief in the Moral Order (58)
When people feel bonded to society, they are more motivated to follow society’s standards and
expectations. It is important for families, schools and communities to have clearly stated policies
on drug use. Further, young people who have developed a positive belief system are less likely to
become involved in problem behaviors. For example, young people who believe that drug use is
socially unacceptable or harmful are likely to be protected against peer influences to use drugs.
Survey question was: “It is all right to beat up people if they start the fight.”

#2 School Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement (55)
Giving students opportunities to participate in important activities at school helps to reduce the
likelihood that they will become involved in problem behaviors. Students who feel they have
opportunities to be involved are more likely to contribute to school activity. This bond can
protect a student from engaging in behaviors that violate socially accepted standards. Survey
question was: “In my school, students have lots of chances to help decide things like class
activities and rules.”

#3 Religiosity (54)
Religious institutions can help students develop firm prosocial beliefs. Students who have high
levels of religious connection are less vulnerable to becoming involved in antisocial behaviors,
because they have already adopted a social norm against those activities. Survey question was:
“How often do you attend religious services or activities?”

#4.5 Family Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement (50)
When students have the opportunity to make meaningful contributions to their families, they are
less likely to get involved in risky behaviors. By having the opportunity to make a contribution,
students feel that they are an integral part of their families. These strong bonds allow students to
adopt the family norms, which can protect students from risk. For instance, children whose
parents have high expectations for their school success and achievement are less likely to drop
out of school. Survey question was: “My parents ask me what I think before most family
decisions affecting me are made.”

#4.5 Family Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (50)
When family members reward their children for positive participation in activities, it helps
children feel motivated to contribute and stay involved with the family, thus reducing their
risk for problem behaviors. When families promote clear standards for behavior, and when
young people consequently develop strong bonds of attachment and commitment to their
families, young people’s behavior becomes consistent with those standards. Survey question
was: “How often do your parents tell you they’re proud of you for something you’ve done?”

#6 Family Attachment (49)
One of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of problem behaviors among young people is
to help strengthen their bonds with family members who embody healthy beliefs and clear
standards. Children who are bonded to family members who have healthy beliefs are less likely
to do things that threaten that bond, such as use drugs, commit crimes or drop out of school.
Positive bonding can act as a buffer against risk factors. If children are attached to their parents
and want to please them, they will be less likely to threaten that connection by doing things that
their parents strongly disapprove of. Survey question: “Do you share your thoughts and feelings
with your mother?”

#7 Community Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (47)
Students who feel recognized and rewarded by members of their community are less likely to
engage in negative behaviors, because that recognition helps increase a student’s self-esteem and
the feeling of being bonded to that community. This protective factor is measured using the
Community Rewards for Prosocial Involvement scale. Survey question was: “There are people in
my neighborhood who are proud of me when I do something well.”

#8 School Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (42)
Making students feel appreciated and rewarded for their involvement at school helps reduce the
likelihood of their involvement in drug use and other problem behaviors. This is because
students who feel appreciated for their activity at school will bond to their school. Survey
question was: “The school lets my parents know when I have done something well.”


The following information is directly from the 2005 PA Youth Survey – Mifflin County
School District report:

RISK FACTORS    are conditions that increase the likelihood of a young person becoming involved
in drug use, delinquency, school dropout and/or violence. For example, children living in
families with poor parental monitoring are more likely to become involved in these problems.
Research supports the view that delinquency; alcohol, tobacco and other drug use; school
achievement; and other important outcomes in adolescence are associated with characteristics in
the student’s community, school and family environments, as well as with characteristics of the
individual (Hawkins, Catalano & Miller, 1992). In fact, these characteristics have been shown to
be more important in understanding these behaviors than ethnicity, income or family structure
(Blum et al., 2000). There is a substantial amount of research showing that adolescents’ exposure
to a greater number of risk factors is associated with more drug use and delinquency. There is
also evidence that exposure to a number of protective factors is associated with lower prevalence
of these problem behaviors (Bry, McKeon & Pandina, 1982; Newcomb, Maddahian & Skager,
1987; Newcomb & Felix-Ortiz, 1992; Newcomb, 1995; Pollard et al., 1999).

Based on Mifflin County youth survey responses, the twenty one CTC protective factors are
ranked in order from those perceived as being of most concern (#1 having the highest percentile
score rank) to lowest concern (#21 having the lowest percentile score rank). For the sake of
brevity in this report, only the top six risk factors that are of most concern to our youth are
included. NOTE: The scores reported in parentheses are percentile scores, with the average
being 50.

#1 Community Disorganization (61)
This scale pertains to students’ perceptions of their communities’ appearance and other external
attributes. This scale is measured by survey items that would indicate a neighborhood in disarray
(e.g., the existence of graffiti, abandoned buildings, fighting and drug selling) as well as feeling
safe in one’s neighborhood.

#2 Laws and Norms Favorable to Drug Use and Handguns (57)
Community norms—the attitudes and policies that a community holds in relation to drug use and
other antisocial behaviors—are communicated in a variety of ways: through laws and written
policies, through informal social practices and through the expectations parents and other
members of the community have of young people. When laws and community standards are
favorable toward drug use, violence and/or other crime, or even when they are just unclear,
young people are more likely to engage in negative behaviors (Bracht & Kingsbury, 1990). An
example of conflicting messages about drug use can be found in the acceptance of alcohol use as
a social activity within the community. The beer gardens that are popular at street fairs and
community festivals are in contrast to the “just say no” messages that schools and parents may be
promoting. These conflicting and ambiguous messages are not as effective as a clear community-
level anti-drug message. Survey questions: “How wrong would most adults in your
neighborhood think it was for kids your age to drink alcohol?” and “If a kid smoked marijuana in
your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police?”

#TIE 3 Low Neighborhood Attachment (53)
Higher rates of drug usage, delinquency and violence occur in communities or neighborhoods
where people feel little attachment to the community. This situation is not specific to low-income
neighborhoods; it also can be found in affluent neighborhoods. Perhaps the most significant issue
affecting community attachment is whether residents feel they can make a difference in each
other’s lives. This low sense of commitment may be reflected in lower rates of voter
participation and parental involvement in schools. Survey item: “I’d like to get out of my
neighborhood” and “If I had to move, I would miss the neighborhood I now live in.”

#TIE 3 Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Antisocial Behavior (53)
Students’ perceptions of their parents’ opinions about antisocial behavior are also an important
risk factor. Parental attitudes and behavior regarding crime and violence influence the attitudes
and behavior of children. If parents approve of or excuse their children for breaking the law, then
the children are more likely to develop problems with juvenile delinquency. Survey item was:
“How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to pick a fight with someone?”

#TIE 4 Parental Attitudes Favorable toward ATOD Use (52)
In families where parents use illegal drugs, are heavy users of alcohol or are tolerant of use by
their children, children are more likely to become drug users in adolescence. Survey item was:
“How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to smoke marijuana?”

#TIE 4 Poor Academic Performance (52)
Beginning in the late elementary grades, poor academic performance increases the risk of drug
use, delinquency, violence and school dropout. Children fail for many reasons, but it appears that
the experience of failure increases the risk of these problem behaviors. Survey items were:
“Putting them all together, what were your grades like last year?” and “Are your school grades
better than the grades of most students in your class?”


The following is from the 2005 PA Youth Survey – Mifflin County School District report (p.

    - 4-H Skate Club offered by the Penn State Extension Office in Lewistown
    - Batterer’s Group offered by Clear Concepts Counseling
    - Big Brothers Big Sisters programs
    - Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts programs
    - Bullying Prevention programs offered by The Abuse Network
    - Children &Youth Services
    - Crossroads Pregnancy Center’s programs: Bridges, REACH and Sexual Integrity
             program; M.O.M.S. (Making Our Moms Successful)
    - DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)
    - Department of Behavior Health at Lewistown Hospital programs
    - Even Start offered by the TIU #11
    - Facilities such as The Meadows, Northwest (Juniata River Center), and Bethesda
    - Functional Family Therapy offered by Children & Youth Services and Clear Concepts
    - “Get Real About Violence” program offered by the Mifflin County School District
    - Guidance Counselors at Mifflin County School District
    - Head Start offered by SUM Child Development Center
    - HERT (Helping to Educate and Recover with Time) parent support group
    - Juniata Valley Tri-County Drug & Alcohol Abuse Commission programs
    - Junior Achievement
    - Kiwanis Club work (Parade, Fishing Derby, etc.)
    - Lewistown pre-natal classes
    - Life Skills course offered by the Mifflin County School District
    - LUMINA Center programs
    - MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)
    - “MifflinFamilies”
    - MC Probation Community Service
    - MC Public Libraries
    - MC School District’s Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs)
    - Mifflin County School District programs around prom time
    - Mifflin County School District’s Safe and Drug Free Schools program
    - Neighborhood Block Watch groups
    - Parent Child Home Program
    - Parent Support Group facilitated by Clear Concepts Counseling
    - Parenting Classes (Guiding Good Choices, Active Parenting, Parents Who Care)
    - People Using Leadership Skills Effectively retreats/clubs offered by Clear Concepts
    - PLCB (Liquor Control Board) activities
    - Programs offered by our local churches
    - Project HOPE offered by Rev. Bernard Carpenter and the AME Church
    - Project YES offered by the TIU #11
    - Success By 6 of the United Way
    - Rotary Highway clean-up programs
    - SADD (Students Against Drunk Driving)
    - Salvation Army programs
    - School Assistance Program (SAP) offered by Clear Concepts Counseling
    - Skate Park Committee

       - State Health Center
       - TATU (Teens Against Tobacco Use)
       - The Shelter
       - United Way Day of Caring
       - United Way Youth Day of Caring
       - WIC programs
       - Work done by the Downtown Lewistown, Inc.
       - YBMC programs
       - Youth Centers (Reedsville, LUMINA)
       - Youthful Offenders program (Probation)

   These prevention programs were initiated in 2005-06:
       Big Brothers Big Sisters of the Juniata Valley YMCA: Middle-School Site-Based
          Mentoring Program
       Success By 6 initiative of the United Way of Mifflin-Juniata: The Incredible Years
       Mifflin County Children & Youth: Parenting Wisely

  Our grant goals were:
     1. Serve at least 12 families in Parent-Child Home Program (coordinated by TIU 11)
            o We have met this goal. Pre- and post-Test scores are being analyzed.
     2. Serve 20 families in the Parents Supporting Parents support group (coordinated by
        Clear Concepts Counseling)
            o We have met this goal.
     3. Reach at least 500 families with 8 parenting newsletters (coordinated by Cristy
        Yoders, Success by 6)
            o We have met and surpassed this goal: 1,016 copies of our newsletter have
               being distributed. Feedback surveys showed that 17 parents gave the most
               recent 3 newsletters an average rating of “9.6” (very informative). These
               parents report at least one thing they learned from 2 of the articles in each
               newsletter. Also, of the 17 parents who have provided feedback, 100% have
               reported doing something different based on the information they read in the

The grant goals that were set for 9-30-05 were:
1. Provide 42 contacts including intensive case management services (school visits, home visits,
mentoring activities, girls clubs, career exploration activities, family activities, parent/school
contacts, community activities, summer programming) to 35 middle-school youth and their
families in Mifflin County (coordinated by TIU 11’s Project YES).
       35 middle-school youths have participated (23 male and 12 female)

        There were an average of 32 sessions contacts per participate
        32 sessions / 42 contacts = 76% of our objective was achieved

2. Provide 42 contacts including intensive case management services (school visits, home visits,
mentoring activities, girls clubs, career exploration activities, family activities, parent/school
contacts, community activities, summer programming) to 35 middle-school youth and their
families in Mifflin County (coordinated by TIU 11’s Project YES).
       35 middle-school youths have participated (23 male and 12 female)
       There were an average of 32 sessions contacts per participate
       32 sessions / 42 contacts = 76% of our objective was achieved

Project YES Delinquency Prevention Program submitted by Karin Knode
Project YES is a delinquency prevention program that targets 75 students (40 elementary and 35 middle
school) ages 6 to 14 that are at risk for delinquent behaviors. Identified risk factors include early and
persistent anti-social behavior (incorrigibility, status offenses, summary offenses, curfew violation);
academic problems or failure; lack of commitment to school as evidenced by high absenteeism, truancy,
tardiness; and violent or disruptive behaviors. Project YES offers a wide variety of services. The program
works individually with the student as well as emphasis on working with the entire family. Services
              Intensive case management and home visiting (bi-weekly contact).
              Elementary Homework Club opportunities – once a week after school at the Lewistown
                 CareerLink. Transportation is provided.
              Elementary Lunch Program – offered once a 6 day cycle to each elementary student
              Mentoring opportunities – provide a weekly mentor/mentee activity at the Lewistown
                 CareerLink in collaboration with Juniata Valley YMCA Big Brothers Big Sisters
                 Program. In addition, collaborate with Juniata Valley YMCA Big Brothers Big Sisters
                 Program in their school based mentoring programs.
              Career Awareness Activities – complete an assessment to identify career interests and
                 skills and provide quarterly activities at the Lewistown CareerLink.
              Girls Club – meets after school once a week at the three Middle Schools in collaboration
                 with Clear Concepts Counseling.
              Needle Arts Club – weekly at the Lewistown CareerLink
              7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens Workshop – Series of 7 after school sessions at the
                 Lewistown CareerLink.
              Classrooms Inc – Series of 8 after school sessions for middle school students that
                 includes a computer simulated program that focuses on career awareness opportunities
              Intensive Summer Programming – offered twice a week for 6 weeks throughout the
                 summer (this schedule to be altered in 2006)
              Parent Education – Several workshops are offered through Project YES as well as
                 programs offered in collaboration with Clear Concepts Counseling, Mifflin County
                 School District and Communities That Care including, “Parents Who Care”, “Preparing
                 for School Success”,” Active Parenting” and “Guiding Good Choices”. These are all
                 blueprint programs or Promising Approaches.
              Family Activities – provide bi-monthly activities to encourage family togetherness.
              Parent School Involvement – work closely with the parent to enhance the parent school
                 relationship (attend parent teacher conferences, open house, back to school night, etc).
                 Review school reports with the parent and child.

               Provide an incentive program to assist in motivating the student to improve academic
                performance and attendance, reduce behavior incidents, and participate in the above-
                mentioned activities.
The expected outcomes of the program are to increase school attendance; increase academic performance;
reduce behavior problems and decrease incidents of violence and disciplinary actions, which have been
        Referrals are accepted from any school personnel, community agency/organization or concerned
community member. A thorough assessment to include information from the parent, school and other
involved agency is completed on each referral. This information is then reviewed with a Direct Service
Team to determine appropriateness for enrollment. Length of service varies based on the individual’s

3. Educate 10 new middle-school parents in Mifflin County in "Parents Who Care" curriculum
(coordinated by TIU 11)
       6 parents participated in this curriculum, (2 males and 4 females)
       60% of our objective was achieved.
       This parenting class is offered once a year. It was offered to 6 participants who attended 6
       classes. (Ten registered, but not all who registered attended and completed.)

4. Provide 128 units of individual counseling to middle and high school youth in Mifflin County
Schools District (coordinated by Clear Concepts Counseling)
       Eleven students participated in this program (9 males and 2 females). 98% of our
       objective was achieved; this program continues to do well.

5. Participate and/or offer community events to distribute drug and alcohol prevention awareness
materials to parents and general community in Mifflin County.
        CTC participated in the following events:
        07-22-05        Mifflin County Communities That Care® Annual Meeting
        08-02-05        National Night Out
        09-15-05        Cultural Awareness Festival, Lewistown
        09-24-05        Goose Day Festival
        10-05           HarvestFest
        10-28-05        Safe Night Trick or Treat
        12-05           Festival of Trees
        03-28-06        Town Hall on Underage Drinking Prevention
        04-29-06        Kid Connection
        05-10-06        Business Expo
        06-15-06        New Holland Employee Health Fair
        07-01-06        RiverFEST

Goal 1: Offer “People Using Leadership Skills Effectively” (PULSE) retreats, one for middle-
school students and one for high-school students (coordinated by Clear Concepts Counseling)
Goal 2: Strengthen the CTC coalition to achieve community-wide change around reducing
       underage substance use and abuse problems
Goal 3: Community Assessment (a mail survey that will be done by fall 2006)

                         CTC ACTION TEAM ACTIVITIES
CULTURAL DIVERSITY(chair Frank Hernandez)
GOAL: To bring awareness to the community on issues of cultural diversity and competency.
ACTIVITY: Partnered with Wal-Mart to sponsor a Cultural Awareness Festival in fall 2005.

GOAL: To strengthen communication among faith groups and our Mifflin County communities
and to build unity through God’s love, improving the quality of life for all young people and
their families. ACTIVITY: Conducted a resource assessment of local faith groups regarding
resources that could be shared with the community, such as meeting rooms for support groups
and activities, and volunteers to support CTC’s work.

MEDIA-EVENT (chair Jim Zubler)
GOAL: To communicate the mission, activities and events of other CTC Action Teams and the
Prevention Board to the general public. ACTIVITY: Update an event calendar of community
events in which CTC participates; Manage numerous press releases of various CTC events and
activities; Partner with South Hills Business School, Indian Valley High School computer classes
and ACS World to redesign and update our web page

PARENT INVOLVEMENT (chair Karin Knode)
GOAL: To expand opportunities for developing parenting skills to the entire community and to
encourage parental involvement in education at all developmental levels. ACTIVITY: Coordinate
various parent education and support activities in the community, such as Active Parenting Now,
Active Parenting for Teens, Guiding Good Choices, Preparing For School Success, and Parents
Who Care; Assist in coordinating a Parents Anonymous Support Group.

TEEN PREGNANCY (chair Natalie Mochak)
GOAL: To address the issue of teen pregnancy in Mifflin County; to develop strategies for
awareness and prevention in the community. ACTIVITY: A comprehensive resource booklet for
teens was developed and will be distributed in fall 2006.

GOAL: This advisory board gives voice to parents of youth who receive services; the advisory
board advises CTC regarding the need for, gaps in, barriers to, and quality of community
prevention services. The advisory board strengthens and increases parent involvement in the
educational and prevention process at all developmental levels, and serves to increase attachment
to the community in these adults.

GOAL: Our Youth Council will bring the concerns and feedback of youth in the community to
the attention of the Key Leaders, Prevention Board, Action Teams, and Parent Advisory Board.
The goals are to: empower youth by mobilizing participants to create change in themselves and
the community; and to encourage youth to choose healthy ways of living in their relationships,
and provide resources do this (ex: how to help a friend in need).


To top