Cold Fusion

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					      TERM PAPER
   NUCLEAR FUSION AT LOW TEMPERATURE
                   (COLD FUSION)

                       TERM PAPER



                       CHEMISTRY

                         CHE101




            Topic: NUCLEAR FUSION AT LOW
                   TEMPERATURE
                   (COLD FUSION)




DOS: 13-11-2010
Submitted to:                  Submitted by:

Mr MUKESH SIR                  Mr.TAMAL MANDAL

Dept. Of Chemistry             Roll. No. B-46

                               Reg.No. 11008316

Class…B.TECH-CE-MBA            Sec- E 5001




                 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
As usual large number of people deserves my
thanks for the help they provided me.
I would also like to thanks my friends for the
encouragement and information about the topic for
the preparation of this term paper.
First of all I would like to thanks my teacher Mr
MUKESH SIR for his support….
I am very thankful for his guidance provided
during my effort to prepare this topic.
CONTENTS




  Fusion
  Cold Fusion
    ITS WORKING
    IT’S IMPORTANTS
    EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR COLD FUSION
    CELLS ARE USED IN COLD FUSION
  COLD FUSION IS DRIVEN BY LOADING
  PROBLEM
  BIBLIOGRAPHY
    OPTIMAL OPERATING POINTS
INTRODUCTION
Nuclear fusion at low temperature is also known as cold fusion. In terms cold
fusion was used as 1956 in a NEW YORK TIMES about LEUIS .W.ALVAREZ work
on muon –catalysed fusion.

Cold Fusion




     Fusion
Fusion is the process of joining two atomic nuclei with the same charge
to form a heavier nucleus---for example, two hydrogen atoms can
combine to form one helium atom. This is accompanied by a release of
energy. Stars, for example, are powered by nuclear fusion. The fusion
occurring in the sun gives Earth the heat and light we need to exist.



Cold Fusion
Cold fusion is the generation of anomalous excess heat at low temperatures. It
began with experiments using an immersed palladium electrode activated in
heavy water.

Cold fusion is the fusion of two heavy hydrogen nuclei to form a helium
nucleus at near room temperature. Cold fusion happens when we take heavy
hydrogen and we load it into a metal such as palladium, much as water is
loaded into a sponge. When the hydrogen loading reaches a certain sufficient
threshold level, then all of the sites in the metal lattice that are available
become filled. If we keep pushing harder, then the lattice continues to fill, and
if we continue to push in a sufficient amount, then eventually, if the conditions
are correct and if we actually have prepared the metal a little bit, then we
know that there are certain sites in the loaded metal where these desired
reactions occur. Cold fusion then does occur. Under the appropriate
conditions, some of these pieces of palladium appear to generate reactions
that involve heat directly from the generation of new (de novo) helium-4."



ICCF (International conference on cold fusion) was a conference held in
1990-in Salt Lake City

1991-in Como villa Olmos

2010-in Chennai (India)




EXAMPLE
Electrolysis of Heavy Water Using Palladium


 The most famous case of alleged cold fusion was announced by two
scientists in 1989 named Pons and Fleischmann. They claimed to have
achieved fusion in a beaker at room temperature using heavy water
(water with a high percentage of deuterium) and an electrode made of
palladium. Putting an electric current through the heavy water
(electrolysis), Pons and Fleischmann claimed to have measured the by-
products of fusion (neutrons and tritium) as well as an excess of heat.
The results were never duplicated and most scientists and the media
and highly sceptical of cold fusion claims.
     ITS WORKING


     In theory, a palladium cathode is inserted into heavy water within a
     calorimeter, and electricity is applied. Because of the properties of
     deuterium and the ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen,
     theoretically the deuterium will accumulate within the cathode and
     nuclear fusion will take place, with the resulting energy release
     measured by the calorimeter. Fleishmann and Pons claimed that
     after several weeks, the temperature of the deuterium rose from 30
     degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius without any change in the
     input of power.




In practice, the results could not be replicated. A later review of
Fleishmann and Pons' results suggested that claims of nuclear fusion
had been made incorrectly. Although a few proponents still suggest cold
fusion will one day provide a viable energy source for the world, in
general it is considered a dead subject by physicists




IT’S IMPORTANTS


Cold Fusion is important because even if there is only 1/10 of 1% possibility of
its reality -- given its low expense and ubiquity - the fuel is contained even in
water - its safety - consider helium versus acid rain or radioactive isotopes -
and its impact - jobs, improved welfare in the short-term and a serious
potential reduction of energy requirements in the long-term.

"One important implication of cold fusion is that there are, at least, 300 gallons
of gasoline equivalent in every gallon of ordinary water. If you take the heavy
hydrogen contained in one gallon of water, normal water that you drink, or get
at the pond or the lake or the ocean, and fuse that heavy hydrogen into helium,
which is what is happening in cold fusion. This gives you heat, and that
amount of heat is the equivalent of 300 gallons of gasoline. That means that in
only one cubic kilometer of ocean, we have the energy equivalent of the entire
known oil reserves on Earth. And that means total energy independence from
any localized supply of oil plus the environmental benefit of not producing CO2
and other noxious pollutants.




      EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR COLD FUSION


    Metal (Palladium, nickel) in bulk thin film or powder.
    Deuterium and or hydrogen in the form of water ,gas or plasma and an
     excitation in the form of electricity, magnetism ,temperature , pressure ,
     laser beam or of acoustic waves




      CELLS ARE USED IN COLD FUSION


     In this reaction electrolysis cell can be either open cell or closed cell .



      OPEN CELL
      In open cell its products are gaseous are allowed to leave the cell.
     CLOSED CELL
     In closed cell the products are captured.




COLD FUSION IS DRIVEN BY LOADING


    The cold fusion reactions follow after successful loading of the metals by
     an isotope of hydrogen (protium or deuterium).
    In the figure on the right, the heavy water is composed of D2O molecules
     and is used to electrochemically load the palladium.
    The metallic palladium is on the left hand side of the figure, and is
     shown fully loaded.
Reaction container's core temperature and input electrical power



Above graph shows the results of a cold fusion system. The graph includes the
heavy water reaction container's core temperature, along with the input
electrical power to both the heavy water deuteron-loaded system, and an
electrical control, each as a function of time. Notice that there is a control
period of no electrical input, then a period of deuterium-loading of the
palladium from the heavy water, then a second period of no input, then that
followed by electrical input only to the electrical control [consisting of an
ohmic electrical resistor for joule (thermal) heating].
It can be seen that for equivalent input electrical power that there develops a
core temperature in the heavy water reaction container that is much higher in
the loaded metal when compared to the thermal (joule) control.
Runs such as this, over much longer times are used to determine device
performance as a function of input electrical power.
PROBLEM

Experimental Results: Neutrons

The major problems with Pons and Fleischmann’s “cold fusion” are that
there was no verified measurement of neutron radiation, impossibility if
fusion had indeed occurred. Cold fusion continues to be promoted and
studied but it is considered a "fringe" or pseudoscience by most. Cold
fusion experiments include using a metal like nickel or palladium,
deuterium and hydrogen, and a method to energize or excite the atoms.




                  OPTIMAL OPERATING POINTS

           Electrodes had to be driven at a precise in the input electrical
           power phase space for efficient operation, and that by considering
           such, different samples could be evaluated with respect to each
           other. This is optimal operating point of each system.
           Comprehending the "Optimal Operating Point"--the site at which
           the reaction is best operated--around which each device is designed
           and carefully constructed has been one major key to understanding
           and developing cold fusion. We have learned that the reactions
           occur only after successful loading of an active metal by an isotope
           of hydrogen (reactions to the left of the peak), and that excessive
           input of electrical power is wasteful (reactions to the right of the
           peak).
Optimal Operating Point and Peak Production Point
In a Pd/D2O/Pt Pharos System

The figure above shows power gain and the energy production
curves for a JET Palladium Pharos as a function of applied voltage
across the device. As Dr. Swartz has demonstrated in several cold
fusion systems, an optimal operating point can be seen. This
narrow peak (maximum) of the power gain and production curve
for the products is observed for the desired reactions (heat and
trace amounts of helium-4) as a function of input electrical power.
Driving with electrical input power beyond the optimal operating
point does not improve the production of the desired product or
power gain, but instead yields a less than desirable falloff of the
production rate and power gain with increasing input power.
PHUSOR CLOSE UP
Asymmetric Electrolysis At a Spiral Wound Cathode

This figure demonstrates an important finding of this system - asymmetric
electrolysis which is seen on only one side of the cathode (which is facing the
anode). In this high voltage system (~1500 volts), videos (including those
shown at ICCF-10 by Dr. Mitchell Swartz, of which the above figure is a single
frame grab) have demonstrated that cathodic electrolysis bubbling occurs, if the
conditions are appropriate, almost solely on the anode-side (left hand portion of
the spiral wound cathode in the photo) of this PHUSOR palladium cathode.

QUASI-ONE-DIMENSIONAL (Q1D) MODELS


      The applied electric field intensity produces migration in the electrolyte
       and loading of the metal.
      Q1D models have successfully predicted that the loading of hydrogen
       isotopes into the metal is an effect which is actually opposite the
       generation of bubbles which are classically associated with electrolysis.
      One important result is that If insufficient voltage is used, or if the metal
       is defective (like a balloon with a moderate leak) it may simply never
       adequately fill.



       Success of cold fusion
 cold fusion devices must be made safe and non polluting (catalysis
  process)
 cold fusion generator’s ,motor’s , heaters and other devices must have
  high power densities so they can be roughly as compact as competing
  motors.
 It should be possible to build a wide range of devices from thermo
  electric pace makers , batteries to automobile engines, to marine and
  airospace engines .


         BIBLIOGRAPHY


      o http://www.etisbew.com/coldfusion.html
      o http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5001977_cold-fusion-
        work.html
      o http://www.qbyrd.com/web?qsrc=0&o=15529&l=dis&fhp=1&q=c
        old+fusion+reactor
      o http://www.world.std.com

				
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