For each question please select the one best response.
1. Of the following actions, which can a researcher take to ensure ethical
b. informed consent
d. all of the above
2. The three primary types of reliability are _____.
a. similarity, validity, and correlation
b. validity, heterogeneity, and homogeneity
c. content similarity, construct accuracy, and sameness
d. equivalence, stability, and internal consistency
3. If a question on a survey asks a respondent to rank in order of priority what
they like most about their job, the researcher would be collecting data at
what level of measurement?
4. An event or condition that a researcher plans to measure or observe is called
5. It is possible for a survey, measure, instrument, or questionnaire to be valid if
it is not reliable.
6. Inductive reasoning is a key component of qualitative studies.
7. What should one use as a guide to determine which research methodology to
a. the quantitative approach since it is more rigorous
b. the nature of the research problem, the audience of the research report,
and the constraints associated with conducting the research
c. the number of people in the population and the availability of resources
d. the amount of time that one has to complete the study and the amount of
people in the sample
8. If a survey is measuring what it is supposed to be measuring, one can say
that it is _____.
a. easily administered
c. less likely to demonstrate multicollinearity
9. The fundamental difference between a formal experiment and an exploratory
study is _____.
a. the complexity of the design
b. measuring the dependent variable with more rigor
c. the complexity of the analysis
d. the ability to manipulate variables
10. Theories are used to test hypotheses.
11. _____ is to cause as _____ is to effect.
a. Construct; dependent variable
b. Independent variable; dependent variable
c. Dependent variable; independent variable
d. Independent variable; construct
12. Generalizability refers to the extent to which _____.
a. people are usually alike
b. one would get the same or similar results in a different time, setting, and
with a different sample
c. one can argue that their results are not due to the influences of
d. the questionnaire used is both reliable and valid
13. One reason to use open-ended questions is to _____.
a. reduce measurement error
b. ensure complete understanding by respondents
c. determine what is important to respondents
d. increase the ease with which survey items can be coded and analyzed
14. Sources of error, whether from situational factors or sampling and
measurement procedures, _____.
a. can be controlled by matching respondents based on characteristics of
b. are not a problem if the sample is large
c. are always present though researchers should strive to reduce them as
much as possible
d. can make it very difficult to analyze one’s data
15. The proper method of describing central tendency with nominal variables is
d. standard deviation
e. One does not assess central tendency with nominal variables.
16. Bill is interested in how people react to news of an impending snowstorm. He
informs participants that it is going to snow 2, 6, or 12 inches and then
assesses their anxiety levels. The different snow forecasts represent the
_____ variable in this study.
e. none of the above
17. In a study designed to increase knowledge of research methods among
graduate students, Professor Goombah distributed notes in his class and
administered a test late in the course. A potential moderating variable in
Professor Goombah’s study may be _____.
a. students’ prior knowledge of research methods
b. student attendance in class
c. the difficulty of the quiz
d. the length of the lecture
e. all of the above
18. Deductive reasoning is a key component of qualitative research.
19. Inductive reasoning is a key component of quantitative research.