Tourism and Moroccan development

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Tourism and Moroccan development Powered By Docstoc
					    A Monograph Submitted in partial
 fulfillment of the requirement for the B.A
 Degree By

Hassan Boulamjouj
    And
 Hamid kersit
                               Instructor:
                           Dr.Latifa Belfakir

              Academic year
                 2009/2010
     We are very grateful to our supervisor, Madam Latifa Belfakir, for
her incessant guidance, useful comments and important remarks to come
out with this humble research paper. Our sincere thanks and esteem for
her assistance.




                              Hassan & hamid




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       TABLE OF CONTENTS

I-Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………..4
  II-theoretical part…………………………………………………………………………………
     1-the kingdom of Morocco…………………………………………………………….5
     2-At the governance level……………………………………………………………..
     3-At the economic level………………………………………………………………..6
     4-At the social and human level……………………………………………………8
     5-At the geographical level…………………………………………………………..12
  III-tourism…………………………………………………………………..........................
     1-definition of tourism…………………………………………………………………14
     2-types of tourism………………………………………………………………………
       2-1-rural tourism…………………………………………………………………….15
       2-2-sahara tourism…………………………………………………………………17
       2-3-coastal tourism………………………………………………………………..20
       2-4-sexual tourism…………………………………………………………………22
       2-5-cultural tourism………………………………………………………………25
     3-challenges, governmental efforts and achievements……………..29
       3-1-challenges and objectives……………………………………............
              A-products……………………………………………………................31.
              B-training……………………………………………………………………..
              C-Air transport……………………………………………………………..32
              D-Marketing…………………………………………………………………33
              E-environment………………………………………………...............
              F-institutional reform………………………………………………….34
           3-2-governmental efforts and achievements……………………

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        a-The azur plan…………………………………………………………..38
        b-other investment projects……………………………………….39
        C-Recent governmental report…………………………………..43
VI-practical part………………………………………………………………………….
  1-Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………..45
    1-1-Methodology…………………………………………....................38
    1-2-Subjects……………………………………………………………………
    1-3-Procedures……………………………………………………………….39
    1-4-Results……………………………………………………………………..
    1-5-Surveys…………………………………………………………………….
    1-6-Analysis……………………………………………………………………40
    1-7-discussion………………………………………………………………..48
    1-8-deductions………………………………………………………………50
V-conclusion………………………………………………………….51




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I-Introduction:
   The most important demand of the Moroccan tourism sector claimed for is                    the
 recognition and integration of this lively sector by introducing it into the system of Moroccan
 development .Therefore, in January 2001 the ministry of tourism launched a long term
 campaign for the sake of improving tourism and all tourism-related services. The slogan of
 this campaign has been “Challenge to Attract 10 million Tourists by 2012”.
   This research paper, which is titled “Tourism and Moroccan Development”, revolves
 around the sector of tourism in the Moroccan context. Generally, the paper is divided into
 two major parts. Each part is sub-segmented into several subparts.
   On the first hand, the theoretical part sheds light on some of the different factors which
 take part in the Moroccan sustainable development. We will try to state a general entry
 about the Kingdom of Morocco in addition to some levels characterizing this rich country.
 From among these levels: the governance level, the economic level, the social and human
 level, the cultural level and finally the geographical level, which have recently drawn the
 greater governmental interest, are strongly present within the first handouts of this research
 paper. Specifically, tourism, the core essence of our research, its diverse types involving:
 rural, Sahara, coastal, sexual and cultural tourism. Moreover, we shall elucidate some of the
 governmental challenges as well as the objectives that have indubitably led to authentically
 constructive achievements that in turn have helped in the improvement of Moroccans’ living
 standard.
   Similarly, the second subpart includes some governmental efforts and achievements
 fostering the breakthrough of tourism and put all efforts into practice.
   On the other hand, the second major part of the research is globally practical. It shall focus
 on providing a wide range of documentation figures involving questionnaires accompanied
 with genuine statistics collected from direct enquiring of local and foreign participants.



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II-theoretical part:
  1-the kingdom of Morocco:
    Morocco is a democratic and constitutional monarchy, governed by a constitution
devoting to its citizen’s democratic freedom and human rights as they are universally
acknowledged. It assigns legislative power to the Parliament, which consists of two
chambers:’’ “the Chamber of Representatives” and ‘’the Chamber of Councilors’’ .The former
is elected by universal suffrage and the latter by electoral formed by Representatives elected
from local authorities, professional chambers and employees. It provides independence of
justice, careers of Magistrates governed by a High Council of Magistracy elected by judges
and presided by the King.
    The government is accountable to the King and the parliament. It exerts its constitutional
functions under the leadership of the Monarch enjoying a proven historical and popular
legitimacy and powers stated by the Constitution. The King is also, as a tradition established
by the Constitution as Amir Al Mouminine (Prince of the faithful).This confers upon him a
spiritual power and religious authority, which constitute in Morocco (where citizens are
deeply attached to Islam) the foundations of an effective and constant national consensus
around an acceptance of Islam favoring the doctrinal concept of happy medium, values of
tolerance and opening to modernity.
  2-At the governance level:
    The democratization of constitutional institutions is a process encountering an
enlargement in all aspects of national life. Fundamental texts have been adopted or are in
way of being so by the parliament, enabling the enlargement of public liberties, mainly those
of the press and the creation of associations, and instituting transparency in the management
of the Parties and electoral constitutions. In the same way, mediation institutions between
the citizens and the administration have been created : The Consultative Council of Human
Rights ensures the promotion and the pursuing of the human rights culture, and presents to

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the King an annual report on the subject ; and “Diwan Al Madhalim” is in charge of dealing
with complains and grievances of citizens. Moreover, “Equity and Reconciliation Committee”,
conceived as a Moroccan human rights and truth commission created on January 7, 2004 by
King Mohammed VI in order to reconciliate victims of human rights abuses and atrocities-
committed by Makhzen (the governing elite) during the Years of lead, with the State. Power
has been conferred to the committee to examine all administrative files and other required
references to establish the truth, and determine indemnifications and insertion conditions in
the national life of all the citizens who have been victims of arbitrary treatments.
    In the domain of justice, competent and specialized jurisdictions in administrative,
commercial and domestic matters have been created. Texts have been adopted guaranteeing
equality between the sexes and protection of the rights of children. The Special Court of
Justice, an exceptional jurisdiction in charge of judging crimes of fraudulent misuse of public
funds, corruption committed in the exercise of governmental functions, has been abrogated,
and its expertise devolved to jurisdictions of the common right, precisely to the Court of
Appeal.
    Regarding local governance, the new concept of authority, to which the King has called
upon the territorial administration to fully subscribe, aims to promote a process of proximity
in order to deal with problems of citizens and impulse the economic and social development
at the regional and local levels. In the same order, the expertise formerly belonging to the
central administration, notably that concerning investments promotion, has been transferred
to the Walis of the Regions. These measures appear in the setting of the devolution
reinforcement policy, in order to support the decentralization process. This process has been
strengthened by the adoption of a new communal charter, in 2002, enlarging the expertise of
elected instance and adapting the law on the tutelage of local authorities.




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  3-At the economic level:
    Economically speaking, Morocco is considered one of the most developed African
countries. The Moroccan economy depends on many resources, which in addition to the
governmental efforts made it into action.
    Morocco has opted very early, along with its choice for political pluralism, a liberal
economy, and open to the international market. It committed, during the 80’s, in a
consequent Structural Adjustment Program in order to get the level of competitiveness
required by this opening. Morocco’s economy is considered a relatively liberal economy
governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993, the country has followed a policy of
privatization of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of the government.
Morocco has become a major player in the African economic affairs, and is the 5th African
economy by GDP (PPP). Morocco was ranked the 1st African country by the Economist
Intelligence Unit' quality-of-life index, ahead of South Africa and the UAE. (Tough government
reforms and steady yearly growth in the region of 4-5% from 2000 to 2009, including 4.9%
year-on-year growth in 2003-2009 the Moroccan economy is much more robust nowadays
than it was just a few years ago. Economic growth is far more diversified, with new service
and industrial poles, like Casablanca and Tangier, developing. The agriculture sector is being
rehabilitated, which in combination with good rainfalls led to a growth of over 20% in 2009.
    Morocco’s economy is strongly enlisted in a transition process, where the market and
the free enterprise must constitute the main motors of growth dynamics. Reform policies of
the legal and institutional framework of the economy, conducted in order to improve the
growth profile, yielded a package of legislative and regulation measures that have notably
stimulated the liberalization of foreign trade and the alignment with international norms of
the charters and the management of the companies and the financial sector. A law on
competition and free prices, inspired by the norms applied in European countries, as well as
nation charter of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and Labor Code, instituting a


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larger flexibility in professional relations, aims to provide firms with a legal, institutional and
social incentive environment, and to promote employment.
    Sectors such as Tourism, Industry, Fishing, Agriculture, Telecommunications, Electricity
production and Audiovisuals have been liberalized. In this policy setting of redefining the role
of the state and privatization, important Public Establishments and Corporations, such as the
National Office of Railroads (ONCF), the National Office of Transportation (ONT), the Office of
Development and Exploitation of the Ports (ODEP) and the Agricultural Credit (CA), are
transformed in corporations, or are privatized, such as “Maroc Telecom”,”Somaca” or”Régie
des Tabacs” (Tobacco company).
     Tourism is thus a major contributor to both the economic output and the current
account balance, as well as a main job provider. In 2008 8 million tourists have visited the
kingdom. Tourist receipts in 2007 totaled US$7, 55 billion. Morocco has developed an
ambitious strategy, dubbed "Vision 2012", aimed at attracting 10 million tourists by 2012.
This strategy provides for creating 160,000 beds, thus bringing the national capacity to
230,000 beds. It also aims to create some 600,000 new jobs.
 4-At the social and human level:
        In His August 20, 2003 speech, the Majesty, King Mohammed VI, inaugurated a
public undertaking and participatory study of reflection and debate as a retrospective
evaluation of human development in Morocco since its independence and a vision of its
possibilities over the next 20 years. This project took the form of a report entitled “50 Years
of Human Development and Possibilities for 2025.”

    “It is up to us to make the Independence Jubilee an historic moment, and to pause in
order to evaluate the steps undertaken by our nation during this half century, in the area of
human development, focusing on our successes, difficulties and ambitions, and learning from
the choices made in this historic period, and the great turning points which have marked it.
Our objective is to reinforce our future choices and orientations, clearly and with all

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confidence, emphasizing, with complete objectivity, the extraordinary efforts that were
undertaken to put Morocco on the path to building a modern State. Such is the best way to be
faithful to the crafters of independence in our homeland.”

     In the 40 years following its independence, Morocco has seen significant Population
growth, which is today about to stabilize. Taking examples like the capital of Morocco Rabat
is a beautiful city which is located at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. It is the second most
important city after Casablanca. The population of Morocco according to 2008 estimates was
about 34,272,968 with an expected growth rate of 1.50%. There is a combination of ethnic
groups of Arabs, Berbers and mixed Arab and Berbers. They account for about the 99% of the
population while other groups like Spaniards, French, Algerians and a few others make for
the remaining 1%. The population is unevenly spread out over the country. About 59% of the
total population lives in cities according to 2005. That can be seen with the population of the
five major cities of Morocco. Rabat has about 1,622,860 inhabitants according to 2004.
Similarly Casablanca has 2,933,684, Fes has 946,815, Marrakech has 823,200 and Tangier
703,614 residents.

    Moroccan government has confronted the challenge to contain it in the long term, while
putting in place economic development programs and basic services, notably educational and
social, which would meet the needs of a growing population, in order to improve the
standard of living or, at least, hold off the risk of its decline.

        Thanks notably to the evolution of the matrimonial and procreative behaviors of
Moroccan women, the quality of education and social changes as well as programs of family
planning, which saw the participation of a large portion of the female population; the country
was able to manage the development of all its population.




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       Today it has, under the combined effects of the continued decreases in both mortality
and fertility, known an advanced demographic transition, which translates into a decrease in
population growth. Life expectancy has gone from 47 years in 1962 to 71 years in 2004 as a
result of reduced infant mortality, the improvement of medical training, the availability of
vaccination programs and better access to drinkable water. In spite of economic and financial
context difficulties, Morocco leads a voluntarist policy of social and human development,
which has gained, since its advent by King Mohammed V, a priority dimension. The part of
public expenditures, assigned to social sectors, widely speaking, represents about 50% of the
budget of the state. These expenses are comforted through the contribution of exceptional
funs taken from a fraction of the privatization returns, domiciled in the Hassan 2 fund for
Economic and Social Development. Education sector, as well as the widening of population
access to basic social services and facilities, notably water, sanitation, electricity and rural
roads constitute their main components.

        The modification of the population age structure is one of the most profound
implications of the demographic transition. In the years to come, the number of people to
reach working age will continue to grow. This seriously questions our educational system, our
enterprises and our global capacity to set in place and to maintain a more propitious
environment for the creation of adequate employment.




    The National Initiative of Human Development (INDH), solemnly committed on May 18,
2005, by the King in a speech to the Nation, came to reinforce the struggle against poverty,
mainly in the rural world, and the precariousness, more specific to the out-of-town
surroundings. These big projects institute the struggle against poverty as a constant and
important component of the economic and social development of the country.


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    In spite of the achieved progress, Morocco has a sharp conscience of the accumulated
delays concerning social development and struggle against poverty and the firm political will
to overcome them. This conscience and this will, constantly challenged by the King’s
speeches to the Nation, found their strongest expressions in the great societal reforms
launched by the King’s initiative and with his personal authority implication. Those reforms,
that enjoy a strong national consensus, mobilized all the social and political forces of the
country. Starting from the analysis of disparities between social categories, sexes and regions,
the reforms articulated around the progressive change of the woman’s statute, a system of
struggle against drought effects when it affects the rural world and the eradication of
precarious housing; all crowned by a large scope national project: the National Initiative for
Human Development (NIHD).

       The societal dimension of the family code reform will mark surely the becoming of
Moroccan society. This reform is the result, to all national and international observers’
opinion, of an innovating approach that makes it a model for the Moslem societies. It gives
legal foundation and judicial guarantees to the principle of equality between the sexes, and
reinforces child’s rights protection and the joined responsibility of the two parents in the
family’s management, within the respect of values of Islamic and human rights as universal
recognized.

       The problems of struggle against drought effects are specific to the rural world during
the years where it acts in the country. They have as objectives to come in help to the most
affected rural populations. They concern the supply of drinking water to the zones showing a
deficit, the safeguard of the livestock, the protection of the forest heritage and accompanying
measures aiming to sustain the income of the agriculturists through works of economic and
social utility, intended to create jobs and to alleviate the debtor’s indebtedness towards the
“Agricultural Credit” organism. These programs are executed, based on simplified


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administrative and budgetary procedures, a decentralized operational device, and
participating approach.

    The “slums-free cities” program, that aims precarious housing clearance, joins the same
orientation of struggle against poverty in the suburban districts. It has as subject the
promotion of social housing projects of low real estate value, and the eradication of the
precarious housing. These projects should benefit to 212.000 households in 5 years, and will
be achieved in partnership between the State, local authorities and private corporations.

  5-At the geographical level:
    Morocco has an area of 446,300 square kilometers, not including 250 square kilometers
of coastal waters, which makes it slightly larger than California. Western Sahara, claimed by
Morocco, has an area of about 266,000 square kilometers. Morocco’s land boundaries
measure 2,017.9 kilometers, including a 1,559 kilometer border with Algeria and a 443-
kilometer border with Western Sahara. Morocco is situated in the northeastern part of Africa.
It is a very magnificent and diverse country with its own identity even though it is situated so
close to Europe. There are not just various languages, cultures and customs but there are
diverse landscapes also. It is home to exotic cities like Fez, Marrakech, as well as coastal
villages. The country of Morocco has such a wide range of landscape that you have the snow
peaked parts of the Atlas mountains, the arid land of Western Sahara as well as the beautiful
Atlantic and Mediterranean beaches.
    Morocco fairly has a moderate, subtropical climate with cool sea breezes from the
Atlantic Ocean as well as the Mediterranean Sea. In the interior parts of the country the
temperatures are more extreme. The summers are known to be extremely hot and the
winters fairly cold. The average winter temperatures are 21º C (70 º F). In summers the
temperature peaks up to 38ºC 100º F. It is mostly sunny the entire year. The summers are
pleasantly warm. The time around April and May can be the best time to visit the country. If

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you visit the coastal region during July and August you may find it very pleasurable. However,
inland and in the desert region it can become very hot during this time of the year and more
so at Midday.
    The temperature and climate vary with the terrain. In the desert region in the south and
south eastern part of Morocco the temperature are high while in the mountain ranges it can
be freezing during night time. You can find a very beautiful range of flora and fauna that can
withstand log hot period of drought condition as well as the evergreen trees like cork oak,
cedar and cypress. In some parts of Morocco you can also find olive and Argan trees.
    In the Atlas Mountains the temperature can go below zero degrees and you will find the
mountain peaks snow capped throughout the year. While the winters are cold and rough, you
will find the summers moderately warm. On the western slopes of Central and High Atlas the
rainfall and snow are in significant amounts from November to April. During December to
March you can even enjoy downhill skiing and snowboarding.
    In cities like Marrakech it is bright and sunny the whole year round. The summers feel
pleasant and the hottest months are generally July, August and September with
temperatures above 36º C. There is no humidity at all and that makes these high
temperatures bearable. In winters there can be a heavy downpour that leaves the night
extremely cold.
    In cities like Fez, which has a continental climate, the temperatures are extreme. The
summers can be very hot with mercury rising to 45º C. similarly the winters are very cold with
minimum temperatures going eve below 10º C. The best time of the year to visit Fez would
be surely the spring and autumn when the weather is warm as well as dry. The average
temperatures of cities are Marrakech and Rabat 71º F, Casablanca 69º F, Fez 66º F, Meknes
68º F and Tangier 66º F.
    Though you can find sunshine the whole year through you can time your visits during
early summers which can surely be pleasant with warm days and cool nights without any
rains to disrupt your plans.
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iii-tourism:
 1-General definition:
    Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside
  their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and
  other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the
  place visited.
    Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a
  displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of means of transportation (he
  might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, an happens
  even in more developed ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers …). But all travel is not
  tourism.
    Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to
  tourism. The displacement must be such that:
    -It involves a displacement outside the usual environment: this term is of utmost
  importance and will be discussed later on.
    -Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purpose different from being96
  remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where tourism was
  restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now expanded to include a vast
  array of purposes.
    -Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism displacement
  can be with or without an overnight stay.
 2-Types of tourism:
    tourism as a major source of foreign currency earning and employment creation is
  perceived as a national priority that comes before secondary objectives as preserving
  cultural heritage, environment, fair distribution of economic growth, and other principles


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of sustainable tourism development.Sustaining growth in the tourism sector is one of the
Moroccan government's high priorities.
  Tourism in Moroccan context is of complexe diversity.This significant sector is broadly
divided into various types comprising: rural tourism, Sahara tourism, coastal tourism,
sexual tourism and cultural tourism.
 2-1-Rural tourism:
  With respect to the variety of definitions that are used in order to characterize rural
tourism it is necessary to explain the understanding of the term in this paper. Rural
tourism here is simply seen as touristic activities in rural areas. In nearly all parts of the
world those areas are confronted with a major challenge: Agriculture does not generate
the necessary income for life any more. Thus, rural areas have to look elsewhere for their
economic regeneration and employment (cf. Nicole Häusler/Wolfgang Strasdas 2002, p.
11).
  In rural areas different types of tourism can take place. Cultural and village-based
tourism are the prevailing types in southern Morocco. Cultural tourism is typical for the
so-called study tours. It focuses on culture as daily local life, traditional celebrations,
history and archaeology of a community. By this form of tourism local culture is often
being preserved or even revitalized. Village-based tourism on the other hand puts the
emphasis on experiencing the daily life of a community: Tourists share the villagers’
activities, and homestays are a typical form of accommodation. Although in practice it is
sometimes different to tell these two types of tourism apart, cultural tourists rather look
at the culture whereas visitors in village-based tourism projects participate in the daily
activities of a community.
  While the new tourism strategy has placed a strong emphasis on coastal resort
developments as a key driver, rural tourism is also recognised as an important area for
future development.


       15
  The development of trekking circuits, the renovation of shelters, and the improvement
of infrastructure are all underway. There are significant opportunities for small niche
operators and already a number of British companies are taking advantage of the
burgeoning interest in trekking and adventure holidays.
  Priorities for the rural population in Morocco however are initially the provision of
clean drinking water and healthcare, and educational opportunities particularly for girls in
rural areas. As a consequence, there is limited funding yet available for rural tourism and
the cultural heritage associated with the countryside areas.
  Tourism has long been an important sector for Morocco. As early as the beginning of
the 20th century, Morocco was positioned as a tourism destination for the people of
France.During the last twenty years the Moroccan Atlas has witnessed the arrival of ever-
increasing numbers of tourists, operating either individually or in groups, thus exposing its
inhabitants to outside life-styles and endangering their cultural identity. The visitors range
from adventure trekkers who tramp through the valleys, and ski-tourers tempted by
exhilarating runs on spring snow, to latter-day conquistadors in off-road vehicles.
  The Atlas mountain range is the most impressive feature of Morocco landscape. They
are divided as Middle Atlas, High Atlas and Anti Atlas. The High Atlas have vast fertile
valley where you would fall in love with the rivers and waterfalls. The overall terrain is
beautiful and offers something for everyone. There are hiking trails as well as mountain
biking tails. Tourists can also take mules and horses available in the villages in these
valleys if they don’t want to walk. The beauty of nature can be caught on camera and they
have amazing beauty to create a good collection. The High Atlas is home to the Amazigh
who come across as friendly and hospitable people. There are nice little villages like
Oukaimeden (which has the best know snow skiing resort in Morocco), Tinerhir, and
Immouzer etc, all with their specialties. The Northwest Atlas is also worth visiting as it is a
combination of fertile coastal plain, a dry steppe like but bit lesser fertile plateau and
strips at the foot of the mountains that is rich in water providing for many great orchards.
      16
  There are other mountains here which are a must visit for the adventure lovers. they
would find such a fine variety of flora and foliage as well as some fascinating variety of
natural structures here that they would wish to come back to explore more. The Amtoudi
Peak (known for the best preserved agadirs (granaries) in North Africa), Chefchaouen
Mountains (steep terrain offering maximum challenge), Setti Gatma (brilliant trails and
stunning waterfalls), Tafraoute Mountains (striking, pink colored Rocky Mountains),
Oregano Mountains (covered with oregano plants), Tan Tan mountains (the only flat
topped mountains) and the Sarhro Mountains make it a great location.
 2-2-Sahara tourism:
    Uncover the epic views and fascinating communities of the Sahara Desert, which lie
hidden from the curious gaze of Moroccan tourism. The part of the Sahara desert that
falls in Morocco is called as Moroccan Sahara or the Southern province. This is the part
which is mostly administered by Morocco but has been a disputed territory for sometime
now. Tourist arrivals in the Saharan Deep South of the country have increased
dramatically over the past few years. A comparison of the various tourist destinations in
1996, for instance, shows Ouarzazate to have been the year’s strongest performer (Hosni,
Ezzedine 2000). There are small towns that have sprung up around the oasis which can be
a great location for those wanting to enjoy the camel excursion into the desert. The
popular activities are sunrise and sunset camel rides over the sand dune, trips and dune
boarding. Tourists can catch a glimpse of the tradition Berber villages here that have been
beautifully preserved.
  The Sahara cannot be simply summed up as a vast and varied territory. Can we imagine
a territory of some 8 million square kilometers without evidence of occasionally
significant variations in morphological terms, in landscape and in wildlife? The fact is
frequently overlooked that the Sahara, in purely altimetry terms, comprises both
depressions whose altitude is below sea level and uplands that exceed 3,000 meters.


      17
Similarly, the Sahara is a subregion that extends from the Red Sea to the East as far as the
Atlantic in the most western part of Africa.
  While tourists visiting the Sahara are more varied in origin, they tend to comprise
middle and senior management executives, teachers, members of the professions,
medical circles, and industrialists (Hosni, Ezzedine 2000). They usually enjoy a comfortable
income.Travelling to the Sahara generally reflects an intellectual and spiritual initiative.
Sensitive as they are to respect for human beings and their environment, these tourists
are fascinated by the pristine nature of the Saharan environment, attracted by nomadic
life and ready to follow advice on behavior. Tourist arrivals in the pre-Saharan Deep South
of the country have increased dramatically over the past few years. A comparison of the
various tourist destinations in 1996, for instance, shows Ouarzazate to have been the
year’s strongest performer. Coastal resorts, on the other hand, suffered a significant
slowdown. Indeed, international tourist arrivals in Agadir and Tangiers fell by 3.3% and
4.9% respectively, whereas Ouarzazate showed a 19% rise (up from 248,000 in 1995 to
295,000 in 1996), followed by Fez (+11%) and Marrakech (+9.4%) (Hosni, Ezzedine 2000).
So the coastal-tourism trade may well have remained the biggest draw, largely thanks to a
high concentration of hotel capacity along the Moroccan seaboard, but it now looked
vulnerable to serious setbacks in the event of an unaccustomed slump in activity. This was
confirmed when Mediterranean tourism in the north of the country attracted 4.8% fewer
tourist arrivals in 1996 despite accounting for 11% of Morocco’s total hotel capacity. So
the industry’s decision-makers began turning their attention to the development of
tourism in pre-Saharan and desert regions - a form of tourism that features some
tremendous advantages, regardless of the factors hindering large-scale expansion. The
capacity on offer in terms of hotels and numbers of tourist beds in the pre-Saharan and
Saharan Deep South, displays a number of distinctive characteristics. Ouarzazate accounts
for barely 9% of tourist arrivals and 6% of the country’s total capacity, i.e. 32 out of 530
hotels in 1996. Agadir boasts 60% of hotels and similar establishments and 74% of tourist
      18
beds in the deep south, while the rest of the Saharan region as a whole contains but 55
establishments (i.e. 10.3% of the national total and 40% regionally) with a capacity of
7,659 beds. Ouarzazate, with 5,478 beds, has the lion’s share (71.5%), followed by
Taroudannt (9.7%), LaByoun (7.2%), T&nit (6.6%), Tata (2.7%), Tan-Tan (1.3%) and Oued
El Dahab (0.7%). One of the striking features here is that the number of four- and five-star
hotels exceeds the national average. Over half the bed capacity in Ouarzazate is offered
by first-class hotels, compared to 46% in the other Saharan towns (Hosni, Ezzedine 2000).
  Tourism in southern Morocco revolves around a combination of natural attractions and
cultural authenticity. It is here that one can admire the many palm groves, the Kasbahs
and magnificent ksour, testimony to the region’s ancestral architecture.
  The most visible oases and palm groves are found scattered around the Draa valley
between Ouarzazate and Zagora, or in the Dad& valley toward Tafilalt. The route linking
Dad& and the Todra Gorge passes through the Atlas mountains, leading the traveler into
the heart of a stony landscape then down to the Tinerhir palm grove and on to the fringes
of the Sahara as far as the Erg Chebbi dunes, which can rise as high as 150 meters
(Merzouga dune). Tafilalt - south of Erfoud - is where one finds Rissani, built in the eighth
century AD on the rubble of Sijilmassa and once one of the biggest caravan centres of the
gold, salt and slave trade. It is also the cradle of the Alaouite dynasty (founded in 1666),
which has just lost its seventeenth sovereign leader, King Hassan II. In Zagora, from which
point the plains stretch as far as the eye can see, stands Mhamid, the last administrative
centre of the central DraB and the start of the 576km western route running along the
Algerian border via Foum-Zguid, Tata and Ben Izarkan to Goulmina.From Goulmima, one
can reach the desert of Western Sahara desert via Tan-Tan and Lafyoune. Western Sahara
never attains an attitude of more than 450 m above sea level. It is composed of the
Seguiet el Hamra and Rio de Oro. The former covers an area of 82,000 km2 and stretches
from the south of Tarfaya (26”N), while the latter covers 190,000 km2 bordered by
longitude 12” West as far as the Tropic of Cancer. Its southern limits lie at the same
      19
latitude (21”20N) as the Zouerate mineral basin (Mauritania). Comprising six natural
regions (Hammada, Zemmour, Cap Bojador, Dakhla, the Tiris desert belt and the Adrar
Soutouf basalt massif), Western Sahara is home to a variety of tribes such as the
cameland goat-rearing Reguibat and Tekna.
 2-3-Coastal tourism:
  Since 1950, international travel has been increasing to such an extent (Figure 1), that
even in recent periods of economic crises it surpassed the growth rates of most other
sectors. Although no statistics exist on the relative proportion of recreational, cultural or
other types of tourism, it is obvious that presently, seaside vacations have worldwide
become very popular. This may be due to general social and behavioral changes. These
include a common belief, that coasts offer the best opportunities for leisure, physical
activities and pleasure of all age and social groups. This applies to the beaches of all
continents.
  Large scale tourism in coastal areas of developed and developing countries has positive
and negative effects on the regional and national economies, local culture, physical
infrastructure and environment. Whether the negative impacts of ‘western’ societies are
greater than those of the local ones remains to be analyzed. In the initial phase it is
frequently the case. Lateron, domestic tourism and recreation often have detrimental
consequences on the sensitive coastal landscapes. When mass tourism along the sea
shores first began, it was believed that few limitations existed with respect to the natural
resources which were regarded renewable. Meanwhile it has become evident that an
economically successful tourism can erode the characteristics and features of the original
attractiveness. It is therefore essential that governments not only issue the relevant laws
but also install the mechanisms for effective control and monitoring of the activities of
investors, tour operators and other private and official actors at all levels, not to forget
the tourists themselves. If all the participants cooperate efficiently under the common


      20
understanding of an ecologically sustainable development, then tourism may provide
positive contributions to the future of coastal areas.
   international tourist arrivals    and   accounting    for   29%    of   receipts     from
international tourism. In 2008, the Mediterranean countries received 300 million
international tourists, a number that is expected to reach 368 million 2020. About
half of the tourists in the Mediterranean visit coastal zones. Taking into account
domes tourism, coastal zones of Mediterranean countries were visited last year by
an estimated 250 million international and domestic visitors. This number will
increase substantially in line with the forecast outlined above: in the period
1990‐2008 averaged annual growth was in the order of 3.6% per year
the Mediterranean. As sun /sand/sea experiences dominate travel motives in the
Mediterranean, favorable climatic conditions and unsullied environmental resources
are an important precondition for holidaymaking. The Plan Azur is a key element in the
new Vision 2012 tourism strategy, and its most developed part. Six locations have been
chosen on Morocco’s 3,500km of Mediterranean and Atlantic coastline, and the aim is to
develop coastal resorts at these locations for the affluent international and North African
tourist. A selection programme for potential developers for the resorts is currently
underway.
  The Mediterranean is the world’s most popular destination, attracting 3 % of each
resort will be offering a slightly different product to appeal to different markets and
encourage repeat visitation.
  • Plage Blanche, the southernmost resort, will be positioned as ‘an oasis by the sea’,
with rare birds, fossils and archaeological sites to appeal to the ecotourism market.
  • Taghazout will be positioned as a resort for sport and leisure activities. This contract
has already been awarded to the Dallah Baraka Group.



      21
  • Mogador is close to the World Heritage Site of the Medina at Essaouira. It is probably
the most attractive proposition as Essaouira is already an established tourist destination
and much of the infrastructure is in place.
  • El Haouzia will be positioned to attract the seminar and training market, as well as
offering sports facilities.
  • Khemis Sahel will offer health and fitness facilities, and nature-linked sports.
  • Saidia will offer sports and leisure facilities. It is near to the border with Algeria,
which is currently closed.
  Of the six resorts, Plage Blanche and Saidia are the most challenging, as there is no
infrastructure at Plage Blanche, and Saidia lies next to the Algerian border.
  In addition to creating new coastal resorts, existing resorts such as Agadir and Tangier,
which have suffered from a lack of investment will be refurbished and relaunched. Up to
now, the concentration of Government investment has been in the south of Morocco,
and much investment will be needed in the north to bring the hotel stock up to an
acceptable standard.
 2-4-Sexual tourism:
  Sex tourism is an unsatisfying term. How can the exploitation of bodies of the most
destitute be placed into the same category as a form of tourism? According to the Global
Tourism Organization, tourism should help bring together people, understanding,
prosperity and peace. Sex tourism manages to find a loophole.
  There are, reports UNICEF, 200,000 supporters of sex tourism, which spares no region,
rich or poor. Sex tourists come from the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia,
China, etc. 4 out of 10 tourists in Thailand come alone. A small minority come on
organized sex tours. The majority travel independently, on traditional tours, or on
business trips. They come from all social backgrounds.
  Sex tourism can refer to a variety of commercial sexual activities, agencies and
academics sometimes distinguish between adult sex tourism, child sex tourism and
       22
female sex tourism. Attractions for sex tourists can include reduced costs for services in
the destination country, along with either legal prostitution or indifferent law
enforcement and access to child prostitution.
  Sex tourism includes domestic sex tourism, which is travel within the same country, or
international sex tourism, which involves travel across national borders. It is a multibillion
dollar industry that supports an international workforce estimated to number in the
millions. It has been argued by some people that sex tourism benefits not only the sex
industry but also the airline, taxi, restaurant and hotel industries. Human Rights
organizations warn that sex tourism contributes to human trafficking and child
prostitution.
  Sex tourism is becoming increasingly linked to child prostitution. According to UNICEF,
nearly 3 million children are victims of commercial sexual exploitation each year. This
type of pedophilic tourism is on the rise in Asia. Far from their homes, well-off family
men from Europe and America buy poor girls for a mouthful of bread. Some do not come
with the intention of exploiting children, but the fact of the matter is that a large number
of them will end up doing just that in the course of their trips. This tourism that exploits
children is by far the most stigmatized. Networks of pedophiles move around according
to repressive politics in the states. Sex tourism has spread into many regions: it has
exploded in the West, on the coasts of Morocco and Mauritania, in the east on the
Kenyan and Madagascar coasts. Nightclubs in Kampala (Uganda), Nairobi and Mombasa
(Kenya) are highly frequented meeting places for the white clientele. When certain
destinations are no longer convenient because of political situations or war, others take
over: such is the case with Saly, in Senegal. The recent legalization of prostitution in South
Africa will also probably give rise to tourist business. In Morocco, Sexual tourism started
to go up by 20% a year after the tsunami. Over the past decade there have been a few
cases that hit the headlines. Several years ago police in Marrakech dismantled a child
pornography network being run by French nationals and in the tourist city of Agadir
      23
southern Morocco last year a big sex scandal grabbed the attention of the national media.
In that case a German national was sentenced to three year’ prison and a fine of MAD
5,000 for pedophilia, inciting a minor to vice, fitting out premises for this purpose and
fostering sex tourism.
  This aspect of prostitution, whether it is male or female, falls under the category of
child exploitation and will not be confused with the prostitution of young men aged more
than 18, a limit that is arbitrarily assumed as the one of sexual autonomy, even though
their acts are illegal regardless of the age. It is the collision of a specific need on one hand,
and an existent offer on the other hand, which are both enhanced by a new international
context, where Morocco has become a major destination for sexual tourism. Prostitution
is more noticeable in the large cities like Marrakesh and Agadir that are frequented by
tourists. However, an important form of prostitution among Moroccans themselves exists
regardless of that for tourists. Therefore, it would be wrong to associate male prostitution
to tourism. Two main reasons pushing males to sell their bodies can be pointed out.
Masculine prostitution, as other social diseases, is caused in a large scale by poverty and
lack of education. In Morocco, male prostitution has different faces, as it is addressed to
various types of clients who are heterosexuals, homosexuals, and pedophiles.
  This part focused on male prostitutes dealing with male customers, since they are the
most numerous. Masculine sex work is not always hidden, but the phenomenon is a
taboo subject. It may be related to the Moroccan context which is strongly masculine, an
aspect which puts a veil on male prostitution. In addition, the society is Muslim and highly
attached to its religious values and principles, which hinder free speech about
homosexuality. Data is scarce concerning this phenomenon because it is kept concealed
by those who benefit from it. In Morocco as in the Arab Muslim world, male prostitution
is concealed and severely punished by law. Therefore, public health interventions cannot
reach male prostitutes since their profession is spread and undercover. In Morocco, high
levels of formal and informal prostitution can be caused by many factors. For instance,
      24
joblessness, poverty, migration, urbanization, the tourism industry, and need for financial
support.
  Ethnically, the kingdom of Morocco is a Muslim country where male homosexuality is
considered a punishable offence by both the Chariâ and the section 489 of the civil penal
code [of 26 November 1962].
  It is obvious that many researches have been conducted on Sexual tourism in Morocco,
but data about it is not sufficient and still does not respond to some questions.
 2-5-Cultural tourism:
  Culture is a main pull factor which influences visitors’ initial decision to travel to
destinations in different parts of the world. Thus in most regions of the world, particularly
in Europe and North America, cultural attractions have become important in the
development of tourism. At the global level, cultural attractions are usually perceived as
being icons of important streams of global culture. This global conception of culture has
led to the designation of World Heritage sites which attracts millions of tourists yearly.
Whereas, at the national and local level, culture is seen as playing an important role in
establishing and reinforcing people’s unique identities and a sense of belonging to a
particular locale. The recognition of the role of culture in creating and reinforcing people’s
identity has, in recent years, played a significant role in the growing interest in diverse
aspects of heritage tourism, especially in the developed world. As Richards in this volume
states, “it seems that the combination of nostalgia for the past, the need to reassert
national and local identities … have had a dramatic effect on the supply of cultural
tourism.” Thus, it can be argued that cultural attractions are critical for the development
of tourism at the local, regional and international level.
  The development of tourism in Africa in general, and the development of cultural
tourism in particular, is at its incipient stage. However there is a great variation in the
level of tourism development in the 53 African countries. The variation in the theoretical
tourism development continuum ranges from the dominant (i.e., most developed) to the
      25
late entrants (i.e., least developed). Within this spectrum of tourism development,
countries such as Kenya in the east, Mauritius and Seychelles in the Indian Ocean,
Morocco and Tunisia in the North, South Africa and Zimbabwe in the South, and Cote
d’ivoire and Senegal in the west, (the so-called African success stories), have a well
established tourism industry. Whereas, other countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon,
Eritrea, Sierra Leone, Angola and Zambia, for one reason or another, have limited tourism
development, but by comparison have considerable potential for future development.
  However, even in those African countries, especially in eastern and southern Africa,
which are considered a ‘success story’, the development of tourism is currently narrowly
focused on a limited tourism product based on wildlife safari and beach tourism. Even in
those countries, especially Senegal and Cote d’ivoire in West Africa which have developed
elements of cultural tourism, the product (usually referred to as ‘roots’ tourism) is
targeted to a narrow market segment, mainly the Africa-Americans and other Africans in
the Diaspora. Thus, in most African countries, the rich and diverse indigenous cultures
(i.e., the living heritage of the African people), with Africa’s multiplicity of ethnic material
and non-material culture has not been developed for tourism.
    Nevertheless, the diverse indigenous African cultures can be perceived as having a
latent comparative advantage in the development of cultural tourism because they
possess unique cultural and nature based attractions. These are the very tourist
attractions which people from major tourist generating countries are looking for.
     Within this global context of cultural tourism development, it is usually argued that
with the rapid economic growth and increasing affluence in most parts of the world, the
number of international and intra-country tourists visiting local communities and other
destinations in Africa will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Although the
recent terrorist events in the USA may well have a detrimental effect on global tourism in
the short-term, in the longer term it is hoped that the development of cultural tourism
will continue to be a major growth sector.
      26
  At a more utopian level, political analysts argue that the development of cultural
tourism in Africa will in the long-run assist in the promotion of cross-cultural
understanding between the local host communities and tourists. Tourism will, therefore,
assist in removing existing stereotypes and misrepresentations of indigenous African
cultures. In this regard, cultural tourism may well contribute to the promotion of
international harmony and cross-cultural understanding.
  Cultural tourism, which involves tourists visiting, places to experience local
  Cultures, is a growing worldwide phenomenon. Though having much to offer, the
Maghreb has still not taken full advantage of its potential in the sector. With some of the
world's best preserved ancient ruins, a diverse topography, mild year-round weather, and
a deep-rooted tradition in hospitality,
  The Maghreb should be a prime destination for international tourists. Yet, the area has
never been able to come close to the tourist arrivals of Europe or even Egypt -- North
Africa's prime tourist destination.
  Recent years have seen a sharp increase in cultural tourism, in which travelers are
visiting places to experience local customs and traditions and to meet people from
different backgrounds.
  Morocco is the most visited Maghreb country with an estimated 6.5 million visitors in
2005, followed by Tunisia with 5 million. Algeria saw 1.23 million foreign tourists.
  Morocco has a rich cultural heritage, with over 300 listed sites, including archaeological
sites, such as the Roman town of Volubilis, and Imperial cities such as Fes, Meknes and
Marrakech. Traditional crafts such as stone- and wood-carving, silver-smithing,
leatherworking and textiles continue to thrive and, in addition to this tangible heritage,
there is an important intangible heritage of storytelling, festivals, music, dance and song.
  Despite the strong emphasis placed on the importance of the cultural heritage in the
new tourism strategy, there seems as yet to be only a limited synergy between the
Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Culture, with the latter having only a
      27
comparatively small budget to maintain and develop the country’s key cultural heritage
assets.
  Morocco currently has seven World Heritage Sites, and further applications for World
Heritage Site status are being considered .The sites and their inscription dates are as
follows:
  • The Medina of Fes (1981)
   • The Medina of Marrakesh (1985)
  • Ksar Ait-Ben-Haddou (1987)
  • The Historic City of Meknes (1996)
   • The Archaeological Site of Volubilis (1997)
   • The Medina of Tetouan (1997)
  • The Medina of Essouira (2001).
  The impact of the recent elevation of Volubilis to World Heritage status has had a
dramatic effect on its visitor numbers.
  Morocco has a wealth of historic buildings, many of which are in a relatively poor
condition, but little Government funding is available for restoration, and the major works
have been undertaken by a limited number of private foundations. The Fondation ONA
has estored the twelfth-century Mouahedin Mosque of Tinmel, near to Marrakech, and
the Art Deco Villa des Arts in Casablanca, which is now an exhibition space. It has plans to
restore the nineteenth century Parc de l’Hermitage in Casablanca. The Fondation Omar
Benjelloun has restored the Medersa Ben Youssef and the Mnebhi palace in Marrakech,
both of which are now open to the public, the latter housing the Musée de Marrakech.
  In Casablanca, the Fondation Omar Benjelloun has restored the Art Deco Tourelles des
Arts, which, like the Musée de Marrakech, now houses changing exhibitions of Omar
Benjelloun’s private collections. The Fondation also has plans for restoring the early
twentieth-century Catholic cathedral in Casablanca as a performing space, and building a
maritime museum in Sale and another museum in Fes. Also in Fes, the Fondation
      28
   Mohammed Karim Lamrani has restored the Nejjarine complex of buildings to house a
   museum of wooden artefacts.
     The World Bank is providing funding for a loan to encourage the survival of traditional
   crafts in Fes, and has funded restoration works in Marrakech.
     There are development plans for the archaeological site of Volubilis, the most complete
   and dramatically sited of Morocco’s archaeological sites. This entails the construction of a
   visitor centre, designed by the British architectural practice, John McAslan and Associates,
   but no funding for its implementation is yet in place.
     All the tourism types discussed so far are crucially interdependent in that they
   collectively provide a fertile land for Moroccan development on all levels. Economically
   speaking, the five types are playing a chief role in attracting more foreign visitors which
   will, in turn, bring hard currency, provide supplementary job opportunities, fascinate
   foreign investments in terms of this sector, and increase development chances.

3-Challenges, governmental efforts and achievements:
  Endowed with important natural assets as well as with a rich and varied cultural heritage,
Morocco has opted for the promotion of the tourist sector, putting in place an ambitious
strategy of tourism development, which is likely to trigger a sustainable and integrated
development dynamics.
  With regard to Morocco’s tourism policy, the year 2001 witnessed a clear break away from
the politics of the past. The speech pronounced by His Majesty King Mohamed VI, on January
10, 2001 in Marrakech during the National Meeting on Tourism, marked the launching by
Morocco of a new tourism policy known as ‘’2012 Vision’’.
  3-1-Challenges and objectives:
  Morocco is full of heritage and its history goes back to the Roman, Medieval and Alouite days.
Considering its vast history and its cultural and natural beauty, Morocco decided to diversify its
economy and invest heavily into the tourism industry. Having a good proximity from Europe and

         29
Africa and GCC, Morocco is benefiting from an ideal location to increase tourism. Envisioning a
plan called “Vision 2012”, Morocco plans to increase the number of tourist to 10mn in 2012.
  Under the 10-year 2012 plan, which started in 2001, Morocco is trying to transform itself into a
tourist hub in a way to diversify its economy. The plan has several goals to achieve its vision.
Firstly, to increase the number of tourist to 10mn, of which 7 million are international tourist, while
the remaining are Moroccan non-residents. Secondly, to increase the number of beds by160, 000,
bringing the total to 230,000, and to increase investments in the tourism sector to Euro9bn. It
hopes to create 600,000 jobs in the tourism sector.
  Finally “the Vision of 2012” would expect tourism contribution to reach 20% of total GDP
based on the 8.5% growth annually in the tourism sector.
     Tourist Indicators:

                          2001    2002    2003    2004    2005      2006      2007    Change
                                                                                      % 06-07


  Arrivals                4.38    4.45    4.76    5.48    5.84      6.56      7.41    13%

  Number      of   Nights 12.70
                           in     11.32   11.17   13.16   15.22     16.33     16.89   3%
  Hotels
  Occupancy Rates         48      42      39       43     47        49        48      -1%
  Tourism Receipts        29.1    29.1    30.8    34.7    40.9      52.4      58.8    12%
      MAD Billion
   Source: Ministry of Tourism

  Tourism in Morocco has reached 7.41 million in 2007, an increase of 13.8%.tourism increased
11.0% during the period of 2001-2007. Based on the double digits growth rates we believe that
Morocco is on track to meet Vision 2012 plan. Tourism receipts have reached an equivalent of
US$6.6 billion, an increase of 15.1% during 2002-2007.
  Marrakech and Agadir are considered the main cities for tourists. The occupancy rates in
Marrakech reached 66%, Agadir 63%, Casablanca 55% and Al-Rabat 53%. Marrakech is filled with
heritage and cultural sites, Agadir are the city of the 5km beach. Casablanca is Morocco’s
economic city, and Al-Rabat is the capital of Morocco and the capital of festive lovers and majestic
monuments.
             30
  Hotel occupancy, stood at 48% in 2007, compared 49% in the same period in 2006. Occupancy was
48% in mid 2001, but kept on declining after the Sept 11 attacks. Occupancy rates reached their
lowest point in 2003 at 39%, but later, the pace went up after confidence was restored.
  In order to allow tourism to play fully its role as a driving force of socio economic development
of the country, a great deal of measures and action plans has been envisaged, with an
implementation plan, follow-up and assessment operations. The "2012 Vision "revolves around six
fundamental pillars, which are real operational levers permitting to achieve its objectives: Product,
Training, Air Transport, Marketing and Communication, Tourist Environment an Institutional
Organization.
   A-Product:
  The Tourism Department has launched an action plan relating to both seaside resort and
"Cultural" products and aims at dealing with the expected increase of the hospitality’s capacity of
the country through the achievement of an additional 80.000 rooms by the year 2012.
  This capacity, which is likely to ensure the visibility of Morocco destination on international
markets, is shared out within the national territory: 65.000 rooms in seaside destinations and
15.000 rooms in cultural destinations. The approach adopted for the creation of this additional
capacity, consists of:
  -The creation of suitable tourist areas that could meet the new trends of tourist demand;
  -The recourse/resort, as regards the planning and the development of these areas, to private
groups selected through a transparent procedure (invitation to tenders) on the basis of their
professional and technical references in the field of planning and tourist industry and of their
financial capacities for the realization of large-scale projects
   B-Trainning:
  The implementation of the ‘’2012 Vision’’ will generate a demand for direct employment of
about 72000 jobs in the hotel sector. To take up such a challenge, the national system of training
in hotel management and tourism is called upon to adopt an approach, which is centred on
synergy, optimization, flexibility and quality.
          31
  To this end, an Integrated Development Plan (PDI) has been elaborated in order to meet these
requirements, involving all the partners concerned: the Professional Training Department, the
Office of Professional Training and the Promotion of Employment (OFPPT) and the National
Federation of Hotel Industry (FNIH).
   C- Air transport: the open-sky policy:
  Since February 2004, Morocco has been engaged in a structured and clear policy concerning the
liberalization of its sky.
  -Entry of new airlines.
  -Creation of the first Moroccan low-cost airlines intended for tourism: Atlas Blue
followed by Jet 4 You.
  -Setting up of partnerships with integrated TO of the major issuing markets designed for
Morocco (France, Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy) with a view to enhance
some priority lines and to put in place new ones (mainly point to point) linking the
European cities with Moroccan destinations (Fez, Marrakech, Agadir,…etc)
  Nowadays, this open sky policy is confirmed by the next coming into force of the open
sky agreement between Morocco and the European Union (Signed in December 2006).
  This agreement provides Morocco with new prospects, thanks to the entry into the
Moroccan sky of some European low cost companies such as Ryan air or Easy Jet whose
low price and the great marketing capacity, via Internet, (95% of sales) will permit
Morocco to target new tourist segments.
  The impact of this liberalization has been almost immediate on the air traffic that
recorded satisfactory results: +8.5 million international passengers in 2006 against
5.5million passengers in 2003; international air traffic: +19% in 2006, +21% in 2005, +16%
in 2004, against +3% in 2003; 355 “point to point” international frequencies/week in 2006;
+160 frequencies/week over 2003-2006 period against +12% frequencies/week over 1999-
2002 period.


          32
   D-Marketing: a new approach:
  -The restructuring of the Moroccan National Tourism Office (ONMT) in order to ensure
the transition from an administrative structure to an efficiency-oriented organization.
  -The strengthening of the new budget of the ONMT.
  -The increase of the ONMT budget right from 2002;
  -The emphasis should be put on priority markets of Morocco: France, United Kingdom,
Italy, and Spain. In 2004, 80% of the budget was allocated to these five important markets.
  -The strengthening of the co-marketing.
  -The consolidation of the co-marketing with tour operators.
  -The re-introduction of Moroccan product into the leading network of the distribution,
through the signature of eight strategic partnership’s agreements with integrated Tour
Operators (T.O).
  - The conquest of four main markets: Germany, United Kingdom, Italy and Spain.
   E- Environment:
  Regarding the tourism environment, the Framework Agreement plans to achieve the
following actions:
  -The development of tourist entertainment at all regional levels.
  -The improvement of the hospitality infrastructure at frontier posts.
  -The control of tourist establishments.
  -The adjustment of new texts relating to travel agencies, to couriers and tour guides.
  -The conception of a legal framework governing the profession of tourist transport.
  -The setting up of the necessary regulations governing the marketing of handicraft
products.
  -The setting up of a legal framework that aims at the control of rental property for
tourist use.


            33
  -The harmonization of texts governing the licenses trade of hotels and restaurants.
  -The setting up of a quality control mechanism.
  -The setting up of a system that would motivate further the working staff and
personnel.
   F- Institutional reform:
  In order to ensure the success of the ‘’2012 Vision’’ and to accompany its projects, the
government has initiated with the collaboration of the relevant organizations and the
representatives of the private sector involved in tourism industry an institutional reform
targeting, inter-alia, the following sectors:
  -The reorganization of the ONMT, the public body in charge of the promotion of the
Morocco’s tourism policy.
  -The creation of the ‘’Tourism Observatory’’.
  -The establishment of Regional Development Program (PDR) in the main cities and
destinations (Marrakech, Agadir, Fes, Rabat, Casablanca, Ouarzazate, Meknes, Tetouan ) .
  3-2-Governmental efforts and achievements:
  No one would like to miss out on such a culturally rich and environmentally friendly country.
Morocco is a hot tourist destination for many people from every corner of the globe. The
government has made a conscious effort to make tourism the number one industry in the
country.
The Moroccan economy has been growing steadily for the last few years. It has been one of
the most politically stable countries and has been working hard to boost the tourism industry,
which has a high potential for growth. Morocco is called the land of mystery and a place worth
a visit. The sun shines bright nearly 300 days of the years and makes for a good setting for
some great vacations visiting deserts, beaches and snow capped mountains. There is such




           34
diversity you can hardly want to miss anything. The strong culture lures one and all to explore
the colorful lives of the Moroccans.
Under the guidance of King Mohammed VI and his plan of Vision 2012, the Moroccan
government is taking great efforts to improve infrastructure that is needed to support about
10 million visitors by 2012. Efforts are being taken to market Morocco as a cheap and exotic
location yet safer for all tourists. Domestic tourism is also being popularized. The government
is planning and executing good projects that are aimed at improving the rail and road links.
The open skies policy has also allowed more airlines to come in into the country. The airports
are being upgraded or new ones build to match the international standard and support larger
number of air traffic. With improved relations with Algeria, the borders have been opened and
air services between the two countries have resumed. The Algerian tourists are growing in
numbers with tourists coming in to even visit family and friends in Morocco. There are popular
ports like Casablanca and Tangier that often have cruise ships visiting. The road link as well as
the rail link is also good between the major cities and tourist destinations making it the most
popular mode of transport.
   The year 2006 showed a very satisfactory tourist activity. All the indicators are at this
stage positive, and the occupancy of star-rated hotels increased by 17%.
  All of these results are partially a result of the different following actions:
  -Marketing and promotion: 49 marketing agreements have been signed with the Tour
Operators and the leaders of the distribution in the field of tourism. Those agreements
concern mainly the strategic markets (nine agreements have targeted the French market,
eight the United Kingdom, six Germany and five Spain).
  - Air transport: the total number of weekly frequencies recorded an increase of +10%
compared with 2005 and a growth of +10% for the point-to-point flight (outside the hub of
Casablanca).


         35
  These different actions have had a positive impact on the evolution of tourist overnight
stays, both per market and per destination.
  As a result, the majority of the destinations showed positive results, compared with
2005: Agadir
(+ 11%, that is + 473000 overnight stays), Marrakech (+7% that is + 350000 overnight
stays), Casablanca (+10% that is 115000 overnight stays), Rabat (+9% that is + 47000
overnight stays) and Tangier (+3% that is + 25000 overnight stays).
  The same is true of the potential markets: a two-figure increase for the British market
(+40%), the Spanish market (+17%) and the Italian one (+11%) and one figure for both the
German (+9%) and the French market (+3%).
  Overall, the volume of overnight stays stated by hotel owners in 2006 witnessed a 30%
increase, compared with the former record of 2001.
  The demand/offer balance has experienced some positive modifications, in parallel with
the injection of about 10.000 additional beds on the market, and the average occupancy
rate of rooms has risen by 2 points.




         36
Annual progress of the main tourist indicators:


                      2001     2002     2003        2004        2005     2006     Var
                                                                                  06/05 (%)


 Arrivals at          4 379    4 453    4 761 271   5 476 713   5 843    6 558    12%
 frontier-post        990      260                              377      333
 Nights in            12 695   11 320   11 173 119 13 164 870 15 215     16 326   7%
 classified hotels    227      882                            589        807


 Capacity (in beds) 97 001     102      109 615     119 248     124      133      7%
                               097                              270      230
 Rooms                48       42       39          43          47       49       +2 points
 occupancy rate


 Trips receipts (in   29 196   29 159   30 881      34 794      40 967   52 933   29%
 MDH)


Monthly progress of the main tourist indicators:

                      2001     2002     2003        2004        2005     2006     Var
                                                                                  06/05 (%)


 Arrivals at          4 379    4 453    4 761 271   5 476 713   5 843    6 558    12%
 frontier-post        990      260                              377      333
 Nights in            12 695   11 320   11 173 119 13 164 870 15 215     16 326   7%
 classified hotels    227      882                            589        807


 Capacity (in beds) 97 001     102      109 615     119 248     124      133      7%
                               097                              270      230
 Rooms                48       42       39          43          47       49       +2 points
 occupancy rate


 Trips receipts (in   29 196   29 159   30 881      34 794      40 967   52 933   29%
 MDH)



          37
   A- The Azur Plan:
  A-Taghazout Resort (City of Agadir)
  - Foreign investor: Colony Capital (United States of America) - Area: 620 hectare -
Hotel capacity: 24 000 beds - Investment amount: 2 billions USD - Launching of
works: January 2007 - Opening of the first hotel: August 2009.
  B-Saïdia Resort (City of Berkane)
  - Foreign investor: Fadesa (Spain) - Area: 613 hectare - Hotel capacity: 17 000 beds
- Investment amount: 1.33 billion USD - Opening of works: April 2004 - Opening of
the first hotel: August 2007.
  C-Mazagan Resort (City of El-Jadida)
  - Foreign investor: Kezner International (South Africa) - Area: 504 hectare - Hotel
capacity: 3700 beds - Investment amount: 700million USD - Launching of works: 2007
- Opening of the first hotel: August 2009.
  d- Mogador Resort (City of Essaouira)
  - Foreign investor: Thomas-Piron (Belgium) and Accor (France) - Area: 580 hectare
- Hotel capacity: 6800 beds.
  - Investment amount: 750 million USD - Opening of the resort: August 2009.
  e- Lixus Resort (City of Larache)
  - Foreign investor: Thomas & Piron (Belgium) - Area: 461 hectare - Hotel Capacity:
12000 beds - Investment amount: 660 millions USD - Launching of works: February
2006 - Opening of the first hotel: August 2009.
  f- Plage Blanche Resort (City of Guelmim)
  - Foreign investor: Fadesa (Spain).
  - Area: 525 hectare.


         38
  - Hotel Capacity: 19.500 beds.
  - Investment amount: 1.2 billion USD.
  - Launching of works: 2007.
  - Opening of the first hotel: July 2012.
   B-Other foreign investment projects:
  3-1 ‘’Dubai International Properties’’ projects (Dubai)
  In March 2006, the government of Morocco has signed important agreements with Dubai Holding
which will pave the way for Dubai International Properties (DIP), the international real estate
investment arm of Dubai Holding, to develop a series of projects in major cities of Morocco over the
next five years for a total amount of 12 billion USD, including the 2 billion USD Amwaj Project
launched in 2005.
  a-The leading project: Amwaj
  The Amwaj project will cost US $2 billion and will sprawl across 100 hectares of space along the
banks of Bouregreg River, that separate the
  Capital Rabat from millennium-old Sale, aiming to create a unique waterfront development that
would make the area a great attraction.
  Already in progress and to be completed in two years, ‘’Amwaj’’ will help transform the valley to a
prestigious social centre, create 100,000 jobs, including about 40,000 direct ones, and boost
economic development.
  ‘’Amwaj’’ will be a complete city that provides all the needs of a modern lifestyle. Set on the
banks of the Bouregreg River, Amwaj offers an idyllic tourist, residential and commercial
destination. It will feature a marina, hotels, convention centres, multiplexes, various residential
units, shopping malls, commercial and residential towers and massive car parks,'
  ‘’Amwaj’’ is part of Oued Bouregreg project launched by His Majesty King Mohammed VI in 2004
in the historic valley of Bouregreg. The project covers over 4,000 hectares that will help turn the


         39
Bouregreg valley into one of the most important sites in the Arab States and Africa, and make of
Rabat an important tourism destination.
  a-The Dubai Towers - Casablanca
  The newly announced project will cover an area of 240,000 sq. m and will include two
buildings - a hotel and an office tower. A mall anchored by prestigious brand names will add to
the attractiveness of the development. The whole complex will offer office space, residential
apartments, and retail and entertainment facilities.
  Marina de Casablanca
  The other new project will feature offices, retail and entertainment facilities, marina hotels,
residential apartments, promenade and open landscape spaces, over a built-up area of
190,000 sq. m.'
  b- ‘’Emaar Properties’’ projects (Emirates)
  Emaar Properties, the world’s number one property developer, has further strengthened its
position in the Moroccan market with the company’s investments reaching 7 billion USD
covering six real estate projects across the country.
  The Memorandum of Understanding already signed with the government of Morocco
includes six unique developments stretching from the Atlas Mountains to the Atlantic coast
and includes world-class golf and ski communities, Riviera living and luxury spas and resorts.
Construction works have been started in 2006.
  The six distinct developments projects covered by the MOU are:
  b-1 Oukaimeden
  Located in the Atlas Mountains, Oukaimeden, the valley of four winds, is set to become the
ultimate four-season mountain destination for recreation, entertainment, relaxation and
residence as well as being the Middle East and Africa’s only golf and ski resort.




         40
  With 2,000 hotel rooms, more than 300 retail units and 25,000 sq. metres of business and
conference facilities planned, Oukaimeden will be a year round hive of activity.
  b-2 Saphira
  Situated on the City’s western side of the Capital Rabat, Saphira (Rabat Corniche) will
become the leisure and tourism hub of Rabat City, one of the country’s most famous historic
and cultural centres. With a striking Atlantic coastal position, Mediterranean and Moorish
architecture and an ancient commercial heart, Saphira will provide high quality residential
communities, as well as a vast array hotel and leisure facilities.
  Stretching along 11km of coastline, covering 330 hectares and comprising nine distinctive
districts, Saphira will include a road network of tree-lined boulevards, an electric tram system,
cycle-paths, parks and green spaces. At Saphira’s core will be the pedestrian, “Le Grand Souk”,
which will connect the old Medina with the new Medina, Maris district – a world-class marina
development with vibrant Riviera lifestyle and a host of leisure and retail opportunities.
  b-3 Tinja
  Nestled between seafront and natural indigenous forest, Tinja is a haven of peace and
tranquillity just 20 minutes from Tangiers. Offering a mix of high quality residential and
commercial zones arranged around a vibrant marina,
  Tinja is a world-class development located on the impressive Atlantic Ocean coastline.
  With more than 670 residential units and over 600 hotel rooms as well as leisure clubs and
facilities, Tinja offers Riviera living at its best - eye catching coastal views combined with
world-class facilities. Located close to the main coastal route and the Ibn Battuta Airport, Tinja
provides the perfect gateway from which to explore Tangier and Morocco as a whole.
  b-5 Amelkis I and Amelkis II
  Amelkis II is a luxury residential golfing complex in Marrakech that will allow individual
buyers to purchase plots of land and design and build their ideal home.


          41
  Amelkis II is being developed by Emaar and Onapar, part of the Moroccan ONA Group and
follows the highly successful Amelkis I project by Onapar. Work on the 1.25 million sq metres
site started in 2005.
  d- Fadesa Projects (Spain)
  In June 2006, the Spanish Fadesa Group announced the launching of a direct investment of
300 million Euro for the construction of a real estate and tourist complex of "high standing" in
Marrakech.
  The new project envisages the construction of 2,685 residences, 3 hotels, a golf and a
commercial centre of 30,000 sq. The project, which is located 4 km away from the centre of
Marrakech, will extend over a surface of 174 ha.
  With the new project, Fadesa reinforces its presence in Morocco as one of the large tourism
investor leaders. The Marrakech complex is part of a package of real estate and tourism
projects carried out or under construction in various regions of the kingdom.
  In April 2006, Fadesa had announced the launching of a tourism complex project dubbed
"feet in water" in Kabila, near Tetouan. The complex will cost nearly Euros 150 million. It
includes 2,189 residences of various types, a hotel and a zone of trade and entertainment.
  The ambitious real estate project of Tangier City Centre (hotels, residences and office
buildings) has also been attributed to a Spanish association made of Fadesa Maroc and Anjoka.
  The total investment in this project is expected to 63 million euros and will considerably
help the northern city increase by 20% the city's tourism capacity to 8,400 hotel beds.
  Fadesa is already in charge of various real estate projects in Morocco including the
Mediterranean resort of Saidia, a major component of the Azur Plan.




          42
  f- The latest agreed projects
      On 19 March 2007, the Government of Morocco has signed seven investment
agreements with international companies, worth 230 millions USD. Among those agreements,
five are relating to tourism:
  -The Spanish company "Iberostar Hotels and Resorts" will build a 3,000-bed capacity
residential complex in Marrakech.
  - The Emirate's Real Estate Company "Emaar Morocco" will build a resort in the northern
region of Tangier-Tetouan.
  - The company "Gilmaroc Seaside" will establish a resort also in the region of Tangier-
Tetouan in the province of Tangier-Tetouan.
  - The company "Leonard De Vinci International" of Luxembourg will build a 585-bed capacity
tourist resort in Marrakech.
  - The Moroccan Group "Addoha" will build a resort in Plage des Nations (close to Rabat).
          st
     On 1 April 2007, the founding convention of ‘’Reem Maroc’’ was signed in Abu Dhabi.
‘’Reem Maroc’’ is a branch of Emirati real estate group ‘’ Reem Investment’’. Following this
convention, "Reem Maroc" is to build a 1 Billion USD residential and tourism project in
Marrakech (321 km to the south of Rabat).
  The 200-hectare resort dubbed "Atlas Garden" includes an 18-hole golf course, 3 hotels with
a 2,500-bed capacity, housing compounds in addition to economic and commercial
infrastructure such as a crafts market and a mall centre. The Project will be operational within
five years.
   C-Recent governmental report:
      The Moroccan government today confirmed earlier signals of a record tourism season.
   According to new government statistics, foreign tourist arrivals have increased by 19




          43
percent the first half of this year compared to the same period last year. North Africa as a
whole has seen strong growth as a destination this year.
  The significant growth of 19 percent in foreign arrivals has now been confirmed by
Morocco's Tourism Minister. The statistical confirmation follows earlier reports of a strong
growth of the tourism sector in North Africa this year, published by European charter
companies jetting tourists to the region.
The new figures were presented today by Moroccan Minister of Tourism, Handicraft and
Social Economy, Adil Douiri. The Minister said that “3.16 million tourists had visited the
country during the first half of 2004”. The largest numbers of foreign tourists were
nationals of France - many of whom being ethnic Moroccans - followed by Spanish, German
and British nationals.
Only in the month of July, the number of arrivals reached the record level of 1.2 million
tourists. This represented an increase of 17 percent compared to July 2003, according to
Minister Douiri. The Tourism Minister presented the positive statistics at a workshop for
the tourism sector headed by Moroccan King Mohammed VI.
After several difficult years following the increase in terrorism, the North African region is
currently developing into the winner among the many competing tourist destinations this
season. Alone the German charter giant TUI, Europe's largest holiday broker, earlier this
season announced a growth of between 34 and 161 percent in its bookings for the
destinations Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. Egypt had noted the largest growth.
Morocco, for its part, after 11 September has had the double burden of last year's terrorist
attacks on Casablanca and being set in connection with this year's terrorist attack in Madrid
(Spain). The 34 percent increase noted by Touristique Union International (TUI), and the 19
percent growth in tourist arrivals registered by Moroccan authorities signal a strong
recovery of Morocco's tourism sector and an unexpectedly solid result for the industry.


      44
Meanwhile, the Moroccan tourism industry continues to prepare for its objective of
accommodating some ten million tourists annually by 2012. The government and private
investors are engaged in a large number of giant projects to reach this goal. Only next year,
authorities foresee the finalisation of seven new hotel complexes in Casablanca, El-Jadida,
Essaouira, Marrakech, Ouarzazate and Tangier.
Morocco with its Atlantic and Mediterranean cost strongly benefits from its location close
to the European continent. Just north of Morocco lies Europe's largest tourist zone, Spain's
Costa del Sol, and just south-west of Morocco lies the most popular winter resort for
European tourists, the Spanish Canary Islands. Morocco hopes to copy Spain's tourism
successes (Pablo, Garcia 2009).



  VI-practical part:
     1-Questionnaire:




      45
                   The Moroccan challenge to bring 10 million foreign
                                  visitors by 2012.
       This is a survey whose purpose is to gather valuable information about our topic
which is Tourism and Moroccan development. If you could take a few minutes of your
time to complete this survey, we will be very grateful. Your answers will be anonymous.


   1. What does Morocco need to develop the most in order to meet this challenge?
   … The infrastructure (e.g. roads, railways, public buildings)
     Air-links
     Quality of service/ Hospitality
     Hotels’ capacity

   Other:

   2. If Morocco is successful, do you think the impact will be mostly positive? Why?


      Yes                              No

   Why?:

                                            35
3. What will attract 10 million tourists to visit Morocco by 2012? (Choose as many as
   apply)
   Moroccan cultural tradition
   Moroccan landscapes
   Moroccan coastline
   Moroccan architecture

Other:
    4. What is the role of the Moroccan population in
    meeting this challenge? (Choose as many as apply)
     Avoid begging            Be friendly        Be open-minded        Be helpful
 Other:

    5. Does Morocco need foreign investors to develop tourism
       sector to meet this challenge?
     Yes                              No

    Why:


    6. What do you think are the three most attractive
    destinations for tourists in Morocco? (Please rate the
    following 1st, 2nd, 3rd) or add other cities Preferred.
     Marrakech       Agadir      Casablanca      Essaouira    Ouarzazate     Fez    Meknes
         1
         2
         3
Other:
________________________________________________________

    7. Before you came to Morocco, did you have any concerns about safety and
    security?
      Yes                                   No

    8. After you came to Morocco, did you feel that it was a safe country?
      Yes                                   No

    Please explain your answer:



                                            36
       9. Do you want to come back to Morocco for another visit one day?
        Yes                                   No

       Your reasons:
       10. In general how do you find Moroccans? (Choose as many as apply)


         Unsociable        Racist        Unfriendly        Kind    Helpful

       Other:


       11. Did you face any problems travelling in Morocco?

          Yes                   No

       If yes, please specify: ___________________________________________
       ___________________________________________________________

       12. Which sectors do you think will be affected the most once this goal achieved?

            Economic                Social            Political

       Why: ___________________________________________________________

       13. How do you evaluate the effectiveness of the use of media in meeting this
       challenge through advertising?

          Very effective               somewhat effective          Not very effective

       14. Which period of the year do you think will recognize the largest number of
       tourists? (You can choose more than one answer)

           Fall             Winter             Spring             Summer




                                                                       ☺ Thank you

1-1-Methodology:




                                               37
  Inspecting whether Moroccan tourism can achieve the promise of fascinating 10
million visitor by 2012 needs doing an explanatory research; analyzing datas from
different lens to come up with better understanding of the issue is necessary. Besides,
the future impact of achieving this challenge required predictive answers derived from
both local and foreign students. Emphasis was put on tourism and its contribution to
the Moroccan development.
  In finding out persuasive answers, the study made use of both quantitative and
qualitative methods. Concerning the quantitative methods, it consisted of an efficient
way for collecting valuable data necessary for statistics needed to support the findings.
On the other hand, a qualitative method in this investigation was also important
because it provided supplementary information for fulfilling the research.
      1-2-Subject:
  Concerning the surveys, we developed two types of surveys, one for Moroccan
students and the other for foreign students. In this study, both Moroccan and foreign
students were regarded as tourists: the Moroccans for local tourism and the foreigners
for external tourism.
  In terms of the participants’ size, it was 28 due to the small number of students and
time-pression. Also, this number of surveys has an acceptable.
  The participants were randomly selected; 20 surveys were given to foreign students
and 25 surveys to Moroccan students, either males or females from all levels of
studies. In fact, 28 surveys were returned back: 16 surveys of foreign students and 12
surveys of Moroccan students.




  1-3-Procedures:


                                                38
  The work was divided into two parts: Hassan Boulamjouj was responsible for
delivering and gathering surveys given to foreign student either through email or by
direct request. Whereas, the second part was conducted by Hamid Kersit who was
responsible for spreading and collecting the ones offered to Moroccan students.
Comprising general questions around the core essence of the research that cope with
the potential of meeting the 2012 challenge. Strategies were held to polish the near
future of Moroccan tourism and its expected hold on the country development. Within
the survey, both open and close inquiries were involved.
  1-4-Results:
  After handing on 12 surveys to Moroccan students and 16 surveys to foreign
students, many valuable results were found about the issue of the 2012 challenge to
attract 10 million foreign visitors by 2012. These results satisfied both the research
question and the assumptions about the issue.
  1-5-Surveys:
  Among 20 surveys that were distributed to foreign students, 16 surveys were
returned. These students were considered as tourists in order to evaluate their
opinions about tourism in Morocco.
  The chart below represents the level of priority accorded by foreign students to
develop different services that are important in meeting the 2012 challenge of
attracting 10 million tourists in Morocco.




  1-6-Analysis



                                                 39
  Figure 1: facilities to improve the most in order to meet this challenge




  As Figure 1 displays , the majority of foreign students (56%) argued that the
infrastructure of the country (e.g. public buildings, roads, railways) is the most crucial
thing that needs to be developed, followed by Quality of service (24%), then Hotel's
capacity (12%) and Air-links (8 %). In addition to that, some students had other
suggestions about what Morocco needs to develop to realize the 2012 Vision:
  -To create more entertainment industry
  -to improve the conservation of historical monuments and sites.
  - To clean streets.
  - add more vegetarian dishes to the menus, because there are many vegetarian
tourists who experience problems with food.
  Some of those participants said that they have no opinion concerning what should
be developed the most to meet this challenge.




                                                  40
  The students who found that the impact will be mostly positive if the potential
objective would be achieved were 17 of students surveyed for several reasons:
  - It is very beautiful and interesting country. There is a stereotype that it is a "wild"
  Country. It must be broken. Then there will be more tourists. Who visited Morocco
once? Most likely will want to visit it again.
  -Tourism always brings a lot of money and cultural exchange.
  -It will create a more positive economic balance in Morocco.
  -It important to improve sustainable tourism first, in order to avoid that the tourism-
boom affect the environment.
  Foreign student were asked about what will attract 10 million visitors to Morocco by
2012.The figure bellow illustrates the outcomes gained from the surveys.
  The informants were required to select at least two answers out of four elements
given to them: Moroccan culture, Moroccan landscapes, Moroccan coastline and
Moroccan architecture.
  Figure 2: Moroccan tourists attractions.




                                                  41
  Lots of students said that a synthesis of the four elements is essential to Moroccan
sector of tourism.besides,42% of participants claimed that cultural traditions is the
most tourist attracting element that needs to be enhanced, followed by landscape
scoring (30%),then architecture (15%) and coastlines (13%).
  Some of those students suggest other attraction. For example, The Olympic Games
or The World cup Soccer will attract lots of people and create jobs. They think about
this as an attractor of tourists.
  Figure3: The role the Moroccan citizens in meeting the challenge.




  Moroccan population may play a core role so as to meet the prospective
challenge.41%of students believe the Moroccan citizens’s role in meeting the goal is
inevitably to be open-minded,22%of them think they should be friendly,21%of them
claimed they need more tohelpful,and ultimately just 16% of them argued they should
avoid begging.
  In terms of the enquiry that investigated whether Morocco needs foreign investors
or not to meet this challenge can be analyzed as follows: 13 students out of 28



                                                 42
answered yes and the same number of them answered no. The respondents that
answered yes to this question gave many reasons for their choice. For instance, they
said that” foreign investors (if they will be) themselves would be interested in
attracting tourists to cover the expenses of their projects .” Others said that they
will create lots of job opportunities and are also a source of more capital and
expertise. Also they stated that Moroccan investors have qualification that can help in
meeting this challenge. For those who answered No, many of them claimed that
Morocco must be developed by the locals with their feelings and not with foreign
feelings. Whereas others justified that even though it may be a challenge, Morocco is
able to handle this on its own, and they should, to remain independent and in control
of their own country.
  Figure 4: The Most Attractive Destinations in Morocco




  In addition to these Moroccan cities pointed above,some students proposed other
attractive destinations such as Oulidya,Marzouga,Rabat,Ifran.




                                                43
  As an analysis of the figure 4 given so far,these attractive destination can be enlisted
in such a way:Marrakesh scored as the first visited city,folowed by fez,then Agadir and
Essaouira.
  Concerning the question that said wether Morocco is a safe and secure country or
not.The foreign students had different attitudes before and after coming. 40% of
students claimed that they had some concerns about safety and security in this
country; however, 60% have no concern about safety and security. 16 students
answered yes and 11 of them answered no.
  Regarding the survey distributed about whether they want to come back to Morocco
or not, 78% of students responded the country deserves paying another visit, 22% of
them answered they prefer not to come back for personal reasons. 22 students
answered yes and 6 of them answered no. For those who said yes the reason beyond
their choices are:
  -It is a fascinating country with a large variety of things to do and see.
  -Morocco is a beautiful country (e.g. good weather, beaches, landscapes, and its
culture)
  -discovering the whole richness of the country deserves coming back.
  -to explore the unknown side of the country, one should pay lots of visits to
Morocco.
  Conversely, those students who answered no said that it doesn’t merit another visit
without giving reasons behind their choices.
  As a complementary part of the fourth question discussed so far, the tenth question
tested how Moroccans are according to foreign comers. Students were asked to mark
as many answers as they apply. The outcomes are: 46% of students found Moroccans




                                                  44
kind, 40% helpful, 8% unsociable and 6% unfriendly. However, none of them described
Moroccans as racist.
  As justifications for their answers, the ones who answered yes commented that
generally Moroccans are very friendly, but unfortunately helpfulness is expected to be
paid with money. People are extremely helpful, But again, as tourists visit mostly
tourist destinations, there are some guys around trying to cheat (which again is the
poverty or wealth-difference related problem).they are welcoming but sometimes too
persistent. Others’ comment is that Moroccan are kind but they need a little more
understanding and .a slight more tolerance that tourists come from other countries,
with their own different culture and faith. Broadly speaking Moroccans are Proud of
their country.
  On the other hand those who commented that Moroccans are unsociable and
unfriendly defended their choices by claiming that Moroccan citizens are protective
and preservative.
   The foreign student survey results illustrated 58 % of them found some problems
while they were traveling in Morocco, and 42% of them reported that they confronted
no problems during their tours in the country. The yes-answers’ reasons are the
following:
  One’s comment was; “Not really me, but there were fake cabs in a town of Rissani,
saying they know my friend (or that they worked for the hotel of the other guys where
they were going). Actually they knew a lot about who was coming, because there was a
person in Fez at the bus station asking questions “Where are you from and where are
you gonna stay around Rissani”, etc. I’ve managed to avoid them, but there was a
couple of which the bags were taken somewhere just when they put it in, and they were
forced to pay to get them back. But once again, self-awareness is the key here.”


                                                45
  Another’s comment was;” Nothing big, just some pushy people from the bus company
who made me a return trip ticket when I didn’t even ask for it, just mentioned when I might
return from Essaouira. Again, I realize they’re trying to make a living, but it’s sometimes
way too aggressive, the urging to purchase”.
  Another one reason was;” Some disturbs with sellers when I didn’t want stop me to
discuss with us and to buy their stuff, sexual assaults, I’d feel not very comfortable if
travelling alone, we were chased on a local market by a stranger. Lack of language
understanding, cultural difference.”
  The last comment was;”trains are not on time and the roads are not safe.”
  The students who answered no hardly gave their reasons to name few; they faced
no obstacles and said that almost everything was fine.
  Figure 5: the most affected sectors by the accomplishment of challenge.




  The chart above obviously displays that the economy (scoring 65%) will be the most
affected sector by the meeting of this challenge, followed by the social sector (24%)
and finally the political sector (11%). Many reasons were given for choosing the
economic sector. Students responded that by fulfilling this objective, a decrease in the


                                                  46
    unemployment rate will occur and more job opportunities will be available. They added
    that Morocco will receive more hard currency which is supportive for its economic
    balance. Other participant said by word “I chose this option only when the government
    rules the nation with a good policy, otherwise the king will take it all and nothing goes
    to the people who need it the most.” Concerning the social sector, some students
    stated that Cultural midst and mentality will be deeply affected by intense contact with
    foreigners.Nevertheless, a few of them found that the political sector will be affected
    by the meeting of the challenge and generally gave no reasons.
        Figure 6: Media Effectiveness in Meeting this Challenge
Frfre                                   Numb Number of students
                          Percen Percentage
Very e Very effective                        46%                               13
Some Somewhat effective                      29%                                 8
Not ve Not very effective                    25%                                 7


        From the table above we can deduce that most of the participants think that the
    media would be very effective in meeting the challenge put forth by the Moroccan
    government. To involve statistics, 46% of students said that the role of media is very
    effective, 29% said the role is somewhat effective, and 25% said it is not very effective.
    The findings above may be explicated by saying that students are aware of the role that
    media can play and of its paramount importance in advertising and marketing any new
    project, especially if it is a huge project like holding the world cup or Olympic Games.
        Concerning the question that tested which period of the year will recognize the
    largest number of visitors. The informants were asked to pick at least two choices out
    of four. The results can be examined as such: 40% of students said that summer is the
    season that will recognize the largest number of tourists, sequenced by the spring


                                                     47
season which scored 30%, then the winter season by 18% and finally the fall season by
just 12%.
  1-5-Discussion:
  As a matter of fact, the part dealing with discussion is not independent by itself;
rather it is mostly included within the sub-parts stated so far. But this doesn’t deny
mentioning a so abridged discussion.
  Generally speaking, this research project was to identify whether Morocco is able to
realize the 2012 vision of bringing 10 million visitors into this country. The impact that
this active sector may have on whole country development was of overriding value
within the handouts of this research.
  The majority of students who were asked about the Moroccan capability to meet the
challenge of attracting 10 million tourists by 2012 believe that the Moroccan
government can achieve this goal. Their reasons were that they trust the Moroccan
willingness to attend the set goal by; for example, building-up new hotels and providing
a lot of conveniences for the investors in the tourism sector.
  However, almost all students are convinced that Moroccan government has to
develop and change many facilities including the infrastructures that are the aspect
that need to be developed the most. The reason standing beyond their choices was the
poor condition of the roads, railways, public buildings and other infrastructures. The
high percentage of students agreed that the quality of services, hotels’ capacities and
Air-links are other aspects to be developed. This means that Morocco has many things
to accomplish and improve in order to meet this challenge. It also means that a lot of
efforts and time have to be spent on this project to end up with the desired result.
  The outcomes of the surveys showed that the economic sector is the motor of
development. This is because all students are convinced that the improvement of the


                                                  48
tourism sector encourages the growth of the economy by affording hard currencies
and creating new investments. Secondly, the social sector had also a considerable
percentage. One of the interpretations is that students are afraid to loose their culture,
customs and habits because of the huge number of tourists that will visit Morocco by
2012. Concerning the political sector, few students think that it will be affected when
meeting this challenge. One possible reason is that students may think that Morocco
will not change its political approach by the coming of this number of tourists.
  Students who answered that Morocco is in a dire need for foreign investors to meet
this challenge are more than those who declined it. Their reasons were that these
students are aware of the fact that Moroccan investors can not be trusted and are
doubting their capability and experience in the tourism sector. This belief can be due to
the fact that Moroccan investors lack qualification. That’s why they preferred foreign
investments as the only path that can steer the country toward putting the dream into
practice.
  Safety and security are required aspects in host countries because tourists’ first
concern is to insure their safety before any other considerations, almost all Moroccan
students are optimistic about their country’s security system to assure the population
safety. Moroccans rely on their security system because the Moroccan government is
aware that any mistake, and even a very small one, will cause security chaos which will
cost the country a lot.
  The role of Moroccan population is very important since it is the Moroccan citizens
who interact directly with tourists. Most students thought Moroccans’ role in tourism
is to be helpful, open-minded and friendly while the minority thought that they should
avoid begging. These results demonstrated that tourists feel comfortable with the
helpfulness and friendliness of Moroccans. On the other hand, this data also confirms


                                                 49
that begging disturbs tourists during their tours in Morocco in spite of the
governmental efforts which are in progress of being done to avoid this social
phenomenon.




  1-6-deductions:
  After carrying out this research project, the pair tried hard to collect as many
assumptions as they were able about the topic. After analyzing the results gathered
from a variety of resources, the pair found out that the majority of the study’s subjects
are optimistic about Moroccan 2012 vision of meeting the challenge of attracting 10
million visitors. Moreover, the pair noted that the economic impacts of this challenge,
if met, will be mostly positive while the social impacts will be less positive. Concerning
the assumptions about this topic, the pair could also verify some of them. The first
supposition was that visitors’ volume will augment in many cities all over the country,
especially in the touristic destinations such as Marrakesh, Essaouira, Agadir, and fez.
Unfortunately, the pair could not prove if this supposition is right or wrong.
Furthermore, the results could not authenticate the second supposition which said that
insecurity will augment in the country because of the substantial number of tourists.
However, the pair could prove the third supposition which stated that many
Moroccans are pessimistic about the government’s ability to achieve this goal. This
supposition was shown to be wrong because the majority of participants believed on
the Moroccan capability to meet this challenge.




                                                  50
V-Conclusion:
  Researches recently confirmed that the key to the development of non-developed countries
is Tourism. In morocco as just one of many instances, it is said that tourism is the most
developmentally influential sector which makes the country in active action. Knowledge of the
incessantly great treasure that stands behind the discipline of tourism is what stimulated and
compelled the Moroccan government to take into account such a bigger struggle and longer
quest toward achieving this overriding challenge. Tourism is much more than solely a critical
sector for Morocco, and one that depends crucially on the stability of the regime in the current
political context of Morocco and the wider region. The fact that some of the reforms that we
have recommended so far are traditionally unpopular and makes the task a difficult
equilibrium for the Moroccan government. In particular, tourism brings host of currency to this
country which, in turn, will inevitably create lots of job opportunities and then polish the
Moroccans’ living standards on all levels. Sudden drop in tourism receipts could be difficult to
handle. With all these considerations in mind, improving the country wide competitive
environment, diversifying the types of tourism, reinforcing education in partnership with the
private sector, maintaining security and safety, rising the awareness of citizens, improving
infrastructure conditions and bringing foreign investors into the country are the crucial
components of the success of this sector. In short, the country’s qualifications as well as the
citizens’ are already existent; they need no more than being activated.




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