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					     “Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad
     L’Association Française de Psychologie Politique
     Romanian Association of Political Ecology




               Globalization
                and crises




VOLUME 1 ● NUMBER 2 ● 2010
sppir  societal and political psychology international review
       revue internationale de psychologie politique sociétale
       revista internaţională de psihologie politică societală
       revista international de psicologia politica societal
VOLUME 1 ● NUMBER 2 ● 2010 ● GLOBALIZATION AND CRISES




                          EDITORS-IN-CHIEF
          Lavinia Betea                          Alexandre Dorna



                       DIRECTOR OF HONOUR
                           Serge Moscovici




   “Aurel Vlaicu”         L’Association Française    Romanian Association
  University of Arad      de Psychologie Politique    of Political Ecology

                                                                             1
                               EDITORS
     “Aurel Vlaicu”       L’Association Française    Romanian Association
    University of Arad    de Psychologie Politique    of Political Ecology



                          EDITORS-IN-CHIEF
            Lavinia Betea                 Alexandre Dorna
SCIENTIFIC BOARD
Jacqueline Barus-Michel, France        Benjamin Matalon, France
Dorra Ben Alaya, Tunisia               Graciela Mota, Mexico
Natalia Cojocaru, Republic of          Akop Nazaretyan, Russian
Moldova                                Federation
Hélène Feertchak, France               Adrian Neculau, Romania
Edgar Galindo, Panama                  Andrei Rezaev, Russian Federation
Adela Garzon, Spain                    Eulogio Romero Rodriguez, Mexico
Patrice Georget, France                Annamaria Silvana de Rosa, Italy
Georgeta Ghebrea, Romania              Nicolas Roussiau, France
Li-Li Huang, Taiwan                    Constantin Salavastru, Romania
Jorge Correia Jesuino, Portugal        Cho Jung Shin, South Korea
James Liu, New Zealand                 Ricardo Yocelevzky, Mexico
Mireya Lozada, Venezuela
EDITORIAL BOARD
Simona Bealcovschi, Canada             Victor Negrescu, Romania
Cristina Diac, Romania                 Alina Pop, Romania
Alina Duduciuc, Romania                Paula Tomi, Romania
Eliza Dumitrescu, Romania              Ilarion Ţiu, Romania
Florin-Răzvan Mihai, Romania

MANAGERIAL BOARD
Lizica Mihuţ, Rector of “Aurel         “Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad
Vlaicu” University of Arad             Anton Ilica, Dean of Faculty of
Florentina Munteanu, Vice-Rector of    Education Sciences, Psychology and
“Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad      Social Assistance, “Aurel Vlaicu”
Alina Zamfir, Vice-Rector of            University of Arad

                                                     CONTACT
                ISSN                          http://www.ripps.uav.ro
              2068-6315                       revistapps@ymail.com

2
                                       Articles
Globalization and crises in interdisciplinary vision                              5
Mondialisation et crise dans une perspective interdisciplinaire                   6
Globalizare şi criză în viziune interdisciplinară                                 7
Globalización y crisis en una perspective interdisciplinaria                      8

GLOBALIZATION AND CRISES
  POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES
La psicologia politica: el retorno de los origenes                               11
   Alexandre Dorna

Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?                        23
    A.P. Nazaretyan

Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales:
  Argentina en el cambio de siglo                                               37
  María Julieta Oddone
  Gloria Lynch

Understanding of Globalization in Narratives of National Identity:
  the Case of Belarus                                                           55
  Marharyta Fabrykant

Global Self in local Worlds. Romanian students’ Environment Protection Values   65
   Loredana Ivan

GLOBALIZATION AND CRISES
  CORRELATIVE PERSPECTIVES
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise: phénomènes inter connectes              77
  Mirela Mazilu

Criză, personalitate şi comunicare                                               87
   Doina-Mihaela Popa

Global attitudes on death penalty                                                95
   Alina Duduciuc
   Ilarion Ţiu

The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s                 107
   Petre Opriş

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPROACHES
Science and Ideology: the Role of the Political Context                         121
   Adrian Neculau

                                                                                  3
Psychological characteristics of the image of politician in the
   consciousness of the Ukrainian electorate                          131
   G.Yu. Cherednik

SCIENTIFIC AGENDA
Dixième Conférence Internationale sur les Représentations Sociales.
   Tunis-Gammarth, 5-8 juillet 2010. Compte-rendu                     141
   Idan Balan
   Andrea Ernst
   Grégory Lo Monaco
   Anthony Piermattéo
   Jean-Louis Tavani

Latin America and politic psychology of the XXI century               145
   Lavinia Betea

DEBATE ON POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Serge Moscovici: La recherche c’est un travail d’artiste          149
    Lavinia Betea




4
Globalization and crises:
interdisciplinary vision

On the beginning, historians had                their way back in the present of the unifying
associated the word of “Globalization”          paradigms of socio-human sciences.
with Americanism: faith, ideal and vision           Identity, memory, thinking or political
who dominated the end of Cold War’’.            actions reset, combine and originate in
Thinking in a positive and pragmatic            values, aspirations, attitudes and motivations
manner, globalization urged the promotion       of the individual and social psychic.
of universal human rights by eliminating        The researches of the political scientist,
cultural borders, capital and trade. The        sociologist, historian or economist on the
schemes of economical convergences              immediate past find a result by appealing to
included implicitly the systems of values,      political psychology.
norms and options of the communities.               We have decided that starting with
    The perverse effects of the new planetary   this number of the Societal and Political
policy have generated unforeseeable             Psychology International Review, which is
crises such as the redistribution of power      dedicated to the phenomena of globalization
or the increased offset between rich and        and crisis, to add political psychology studies
poor. A human crisis, at the scale of           and “related expectations’’ on the theme
community and individual, deeply marks          from the researches of other socio-human
the age. Is psychology or the other socio-      specialists. A globalizing background of a
human sciences, prepared to battle their        variety of theories, experiments and models
symptomatic?                                    of approach.
    Some theories that recognize and
reproduce the necessities of political
research on psychological entities make         Editors




                                                                                             5
Mondialisation et crise
dans une perspective interdisciplinaire

Dès le début, les historiens ont associé       politique et ses fondements psychologiques
le terme de modialisation (globalisation)      reviennent actuellement dans des paradigmes
avec l’américanisme: croyance, idéel et        unificateurs des sciences socio-humaines.
vision qui ont dominé la fin de la “guere           L’identité, la mémoire, la pensée ou
froide”. En termes positifs et pragmatiques,   l’action politique jalonnent et génèrent des
la modialisation signifiait la promotion        valeurs, des aspirations et des motivations
des droits universels de l’homme par la        psychiques individuelles et sociales. Les
suppression des frontières culturelles, du     études du politologue, du sociologue, de
capitale et du commerce. Les schémas des       l’historien ou de l’économiste sur le passé
convergences économiques intégraient, de       immédiat s’enrichissent par les apports de la
manière implicite, les systèmes de valeurs,    psychologie du politique.
de normes et les options des communautés.          Par conséquence ce numéro de la Revue
    Les effets pervers de la nouvelle          Internationale de Psychologie Politique
politique planétaire ont généré des crises     Sociétale, consacré aux phénomènes de la
«imprévisibles» comme la rédistribution        mondialisation et de la crise, se propose
du pouvoir ou l’approfondissement du           de rassembler les études de la psychologie
décalage entre les riches et les pauvres de    politique et les «perspectives connexes» qui
la planète. Une crise humaine, à l’echèlle     ont comme source commune les recherches
de la communauté et de l’individu, marque      sur la société et l’homme. En somme, un
profondément l’époque. La psychologie, et      panorama globalisant de la diversité des
les autres sciences du socio-humaine sont      théories, des expériences, des modèles et
elles prêtes à une confrontation avec les      des approches.
symptômes de cette crise?
    Des théories qui reconnaissent et qui
répondent à la nécessité des recherches du     La rédaction




6
Globalizare [i criz`
\n viziune interdisciplinar`

Dintru-început istoricii au asociat termenul      paradigmelor unificatoare ale ştiinţelor so-
de “mondializare” (globalizare) cu america-       cio-umane. Identitatea, memoria, gândirea
nismul: credinţă, ideal şi viziune ce-au do-      sau acţiunea politică se reculeg, întreţes şi
minat sfârşitul “războiul rece”. În termeni       îşi au originea în valori, aspiraţii, atitudini şi
pozitivi şi pragmatici, mondializarea îndem-      motivaţii ale psihicului individual şi social.
na la promovarea drepturilor universale ale       Studiile politologului, sociologului, istoricu-
omului prin desfiinţarea frontierelor cultura-     lui sau economistului asupra trecutului ime-
le, capitalului şi comerţului. Schemele con-      diat se împlinesc prin recursul la psihologia
vergenţelor economice integrau, implicit,         politicului.
sistemele de valori, norme şi opţiuni ale              Ne-am propus, la rându-ne, ca începând
comunităţilor.                                    din acest număr al Revistei Internaţionale
    Efectele perverse ale noii politici plane-    de Psihologie Politică Societală, dedicat
tare au generat crize imprevizibile precum        fenomenelor globalizării şi crizei, să alătu-
redistribuirea puterii sau creşterea decalaju-    răm studiilor de psihologie politică şi “per-
lui între bogaţii şi săracii planetei. O criză    spectivele conexe” ale temei, provenite din
umană, la scara comunităţii şi a individului,     cercetările specialiştilor din alte domenii ale
marchează profund epoca. Este psihologia,         socio-umanului. O panoramă cuprinzătoare
sunt celelalte ştiinţe ale socio-umanului, pre-   a diversităţii de teorii, experimente şi mode-
gătite de confruntarea cu simptomatica ei?        le de abordare.
    Teoriile care recunosc şi redau trebuin-
ţele cercetării politicului pe temeiul entită-
ţilor psihologice revin astfel în actualitatea    Redacţia




                                                                                                  7
Globalización y crisis
en una perspective interdisciplinaria

Los historidores han asociado desde sus         politico y de sus fundamentos psicologicos
comienzos el termino de mundializacion          vuelven actualmente en los paradigmas
(globalizacion) con el (norte) americanismo:    unificadores de las ciencias socio-humanas.
creencias, ideal y vision que han dominado          La identidad, la memoria, el pensamiento
el fin de “la guerra fria”. Lo que significa,     o la accion politica jalonan y generan valores,
en terminos positivos y pragmaticos, la         aspiraciones, y motivaciones psicologicas
promocion de los derechosuniversales            individuales y sociales. Los estudios de
del hombre, a traves de la supresion de         politologos, sociologos, historiadores o
las fronteras de las culturas, del capital et   economistas sobre el pasado inmediato se
del comercio. Los esquemas economicos           enriquecen con los aportes de la psicologia
convergentes integran de manera implicita,      de la politica.
los sistemas de valores, las normas y las           En consequencia, este numero de la
opciones de las comunidades.                    Revista Internacional de psicologia politica
    Lo efectos perversos de la nueva            societal consagrada a los fenoemenos de
politica planetaria han generado crisis         la mundializacion y de la crisis propone de
“imprevisibles” como la redistribucion del      reunir los estudios de psicologia politica y de
poder o la profundizacion de la distancia       las “perspectivas conexas” que tienen como
entre ricos y pobres del planeta. La crisis     fuente comun las investigaciones sobre la
humana, a escala de la communidad y del         sociedad y el hombre. En otras palabras,
individuo marca profundamente la época.         una vision panoramica globalizando la
La psicologia y las otras ciencias socio-       diversidad de las teorias, las experiencias,
humanas se encuentran dispuesta a una           los modelos y aproximaciones.
confrontacion con los sintomas de de la
crisis?
    Las téorias que reconocen y responden la    La redaccion
necesidad de una necesaria busqueda de lo




8
Globalization and crises
 POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES




                                 9
La psicologia politica:
el retorno de los origenes

Alexandre Dorna
Universidad de Caen
Francia



La crisis global actual contiene números         quien hablo de “anomia” social, a lo cual
ingredientes que hacen posible el retorno        hay que agregar una anomia “ideológica y
de la psicología política luego de casi          política”, que se traduce en un conformismo
un siglo de ausencia. Grandes arreas             generalizado y un statu-quo frustrante.
del conocimientos psicológico han sido               Si la ciencia hace unos siglos fue
engullidas por las arenas del tiempo de la       ensalzada como fuerza objetiva de verdad, la
híper- especialización y la fragmentación de     realidad presente es otra. La duda ontológica
las ciencias humanas y sociales (SHS). Las       se ha introducido en la epistemología
razones son metodológicas y políticas. La        moderna. En el fondo la verdad científica
necesidad de un retorno a las fuentes mismas     es cuestionada.Las teorías generales han
del conocimiento (en este caso psicológico y     prácticamente aparecido bajo una multitud
político) hace parte del síndrome de la post-    de micro-teorías. Y así la investigación
modernidad.                                      se ha vuelto gris y monótona. Las grandes
    El debilitamiento de los valores             “catedrales” de la filosofía de la historia se
comunes, la falta de proyecto alternativo,       encuentran cubiertas de arenas y de cenizas.
la desaparición del debate publico (doxa),       Algunos pensadores actuales han llegado
la perdida del deseo de vivir juntos, la         a proclamar con mucho ruido el fin de la
ausencia de conciencia histórica y una           historia.
profunda amnesia política. Además, habría            El “mundo imago”, optimista y racional,
que agregar : una demisión del pensamiento       del hombre renacentista, artista y científico
critico y la aceptación tácita de una sociedad   (Leonardo de Vinci fue el prototipo) se ha
sin alma dominada por referencias ideologías     desfigurado y se ha vuelto una caricatura:
de inspiración individualista y tecnocrática.    funcionarios y operadores de computadoras
El espectro del mercantilismo recorre el         inteligentes forman la elite tecnocrática
mundo. De allí que algunos especialistas         del poder. Tal vez la causa se encuentra
hayan hablado de la “sociedad bloqueada”         en la perdida degusto por la cultura, y
(Crupier 1970)                                   el retraimiento delante las cuestiones
    Se trata de una crisis de civilización,      históricas, seapor omisión u olvido, sea
compleja, crónica y asolapada, cuyo              por vanidad o ignorancia. Probablemente
diagnostico sociológico fue propuesto            la poderosa burocracia tecnocrática y la
por Durkheim a comienzos del siglo XX,           presencia de una tecno cultura uniforme han


                                                                                           11
Alexandre Dorna
La psicologia politica: el retorno de los origenes


destruido los puentes que antes unían las                La psicología social se desarrollo durante
fuerzas creadoras, los sueños de grandeza,           todo el siglo XX bajo la tutela del enfoque
las cualidades espirituales y la búsqueda            experimental (primero conductista, luego
científica de un mundo mejor para los                 cognitivista) y elaboro un conjunto complejo
hombres del futuro.                                  (muchas veces confuso) de procedimientos,
    En la medida que las actividades                 teorías, y técnicas. Los resultados parecieron
científicas se atomizan, la tradicional               a primera vista espectaculares. Se crearon
separación entre ciencias “duras” y ciencias         departamentos de psicología social en todas
blandas” se agudiza. Así los acuerdos                las universidades del mundo, la profesión
metodológicos de base se pierden bajo la             se desarrollo y sus aplicaciones tuvieron
proliferación de nuevos contenidos teóricos          una significativa influencia. Pero el costo
(micros) y nuevas técnicas omnipresentes.            de ese éxito es alto. Los objetivos iniciales
La tecnología ha invadido la ciencia como la         se han abandonado paulatinamente. Casi
hierba que asfixia las plantas.                       nadie habla, hoy, de utilizar el conocimiento
    Peor aun, los lazos entre científicos             para cambiar las condiciones de vida de las
de un mismo dominio se quiebran y los                gentes y buscar la solución a los problemas
caminos se bifurcan. La falta de un marco            concretos de la sociedad.
de referencia común se hace cada vez más                 Que hace verdaderamente la psicología
evidente. Estamos en presencia de una                social académica? En pocas palabras: crea
“balkanizacion” de la ciencia moderna y de           objetos cada vez más abstractos de estudio y
una verdadera epidemia de micro-teorías.             teorías asombrosamente virtuales que poco o
La competencia entre ellas es ruda y la              nada tienen que ver con la realidad concreta.
voluntad de sobrevivir las vuelve agresivas,         La mayor parte de los investigadores pasan
dogmáticas y conflictivas. En suma: son               su tiempo a la buscar de prueba del valor
pequeñas ideologías con intereses propios            empírico de sus hipótesis de laboratorio.
que pululan en los campus universitarios y           Lo importante es la validez de su micro-
cuya finalidad consiste en reproducirseen             teoría de laboratorio. Y así de hipótesis en
una cadena sin fin.                                   hipótesis los hombres de laboratorio pasan
                                                     sus mejores años en laberintos artificiales
La psicología social: insuficiencias                  que se transforman en círculos viciosos
teóricas e institucionales                           autónomos, hasta que por la usura del
                                                     tiempo, y a veces por la desaparición física
La historia reciente de la psicología (social        de los creadores, otra micro-teoría será
en particular) ilustra perfectamente lo              propuesta como “paradigma” de referencia.
quehemos descrito. Pero como dice E.                 Y así sucesivamente en una cadena de cursos
Crespo (1995) no es la insatisfacción “de            y coloquios, publicaciones para iniciados y
una historia que esté siempre empezando,             discursos cerrados.
sino de una reflexión que nunca termina”.                 Las tensiones internas (metodológicas
Algunos psicólogos sociales (Billig, Gergen,         y epistemologías) no se formulan
Ibañez, Fernandez)han abordado el tema               abiertamente. Los conflictos existen, pero sin
desde perspectiva distinta. Pero si muchos           debate de fondo. Cierto, aquí y allá, se viven
de sus argumentos me pareen compatibles              las pequeñas luchas entre los partidarios de
con los míos, pienso que las soluciones              unas u otras micro-teorías, y del uso de los
epistemologías que proponen aun distan muc           métodos cuantitativos y aquellos otros que
de ofrecer un lugar de encuentro pluralista          prefieren los cualitativos. Pero pocos son
y transversal. Bien entendido se trata de            los que se atreven ha proponer alternativas
búsquedas valiosas que pueden servir de              frente al statu-quo. En cambio, muchos
puente con la nueva psicología política aun          adoptan estrategias individuales de evitación
en fase de refundación.                              que remedan la famosa política del avestruz.

12
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 11-21


    Que podemos hacer?                           Allport lo dice de manera perentoria: “no
    Lo peor es permanecer dentro del             existe una psicología de grupos que no sea
círculo cerrado de las imposturas. De allí       una psicología individual”. De hechos los
la necesidad de un pensamiento positivo y        autores postulan que los comportamientos
crítico, para plantear seriamente las cuatro     individuales son sociales únicamente porque
necesidades imperativas para salir del           responden a estímulos institucionales.
“impasse”:                                           Por cierto, entre ambas corrientes
    a) la necesidad de una re-evaluación         extremas se ubican una serie de autores
critica del enfoque científico clásico            que juzgan severamente la oposición entre
    b) la necesidad de volcarse al estudio de    individuo y sociedad, individualidad y
las perversiones que paralizan la sociedad       colectividad. Esta tercera posición es la de
humana, incluyendo los sectores que nos son      Sheriff (1936) quien lo expresa claramente;
más cercanos.                                    “la psicología individual es psicología social
    c) lanecesidad de tomar una posición         y viceversa. No hay dos psicologías, sino
frente a la auto-reproducción de las micro-      una sola”. Otros como Mead (1935) y Linton
teorías psicosociales                            (1936) desarrollaran una argumentación mas
    d) la necesidad de observar nuevamente       amplia para insistir sobre el carácter cultural
la problemática social concreta.                 de la relación entre personalidad y sociedad.
    De hecho, desde sus orígenes, ha             Sin embargo, veremos mas adelante que la
comienzos del siglo XX, la psicología            aceptación de una posición intermediaria no
social ha escamoteado su doble inspiración:      logra resolver los problemas epistemológicos
“individualista y colectiva”. En los anos        planteados hace un siglo. Nunca las terceras
30, bajo la tutela norteamericana, estas         vais han resulto los impasses, solo sirven
tendencias se desarrollan de manera desigual     para aliviar el peso del statu-quo.
y combinada, pero lentamente los enfoques            Mas tarde, la investigación experimental
“individualistas”     lograron      imponerse    de laboratorio se apodera prácticamente
completamente hasta ocultar la perspectiva       de la totalidad del espacio académico
de una psicología de masas. Bien entendido,      de la psicología social universitaria y
esta transformación se produce dentro de un      su influencia se extiende fuera de las
contexto epistemológico dado y una realidad      fronteras de los EEUU una vez terminada
social e ideológica determinante.                la 2ª guerra mundial. Los universitarios
    La posición “colectivista”, la más antigua   europeos seincorporan, por “la force des
cronológicamente, y de origen europeo,           choses”, primero lentamente y luego de
había postulado la existencia de una supra-      manera acelerada. La “imbricación” de la
individualidad. Ross (1912) lo dice de la        investigación en ciencias sociales reduce
manera siguiente: “las ideas convergentes        y condena al olvido los aportes cumulados
de los miembros de un grupo se transforman       por lustros de reflexión. La adhesión a los
y devienen una estructura espiritual. La         enfoques teóricos y a los métodos de trabajo
individualidad del grupo reemplaza la            de la psicología experimentalnorteamericana
personalidad individual”. También lo afirma       se vuelve hegemónica.
Le Bon como punto de partida para una                Los estudios de Sherif y de Asch sobre
psicología política. Y otros cuyos rastros       las normas y la presión de las mayorías,
se han esfumado con el tiempo: H. Berr, A.       forman la base del “éxito” de la psicología
Hamon, I. Meyerson y varios otros.               social académica: actitudes y cambio
    La segunda posición, “individualista”,       de actitudes. K. Lewin y sus discípulos
mucho mas reciente, desplaza la primera          tratan de sobrepasar la psicología social
gracias al formidable impulso dado por los       individual, pero no lo logran. Peor aun:
trabajos experimentales iniciados en los anos    refuerzan la metodología cuantitativa y la
40 por los universitarios norteamericanas.       voluntad de construir teorías extraídas de

                                                                                               13
Alexandre Dorna
La psicologia politica: el retorno de los origenes


la experimentación de laboratorio. Luego,            Moscovici y sus seguidores, buscan un
la celebre experiencia de Lewin, Lippit y            puente entre la tradición europea y la
White sobre el liderazgo provoca una serie           experimentación norteamericana. Se trata de
de aplicaciones prácticas (entrenamiento             un esfuerzo por reorientar la epistemología
de supervisores, cambio de actitudes,                psicosociología. Sin embargo, la vorágine
psicoterapia, etc.) y algunas teorizaciones          experimental “jivariza” su reflexión teórica
puntuales en torno a la dinámica de grupos.          original y sus partidarios la transforman
Paralelamente, los trabajos de Havland, y            en una “escuela” donde el pensamiento”
de sus colegas de la Universidad de Yale,            original se dogmatiza a través una
proporcionan las bases para la emergencia de         proliferación de experiencias repetitivas en
un nuevo “paradigma”: la influencia social.           serie y un arsenal de técnicascada vez mas
    El enfoque cuantitativo gana así en              sofisticados ( y una fuerte dosis de “retórica”
credibilidad y se expande al resto de las            estadística) que sirven para justificar y mas
universidades del mundo occidental.                  que evaluar las hipótesis de la (micro) teoría
    En los años ’60, una nueva ola de                de las representaciones sociales.
investigaciones experimentales perpetua                  Hasta aquí esta descripción rápida del
la supremacía de los enfoques cognitivos             “síndrome de la formación de las micro-
y comienza la era de las micro-teorías en            teorías”. Veremos ahora lo sustancial de
psicología social. La teoría del equilibrio          la critica, que espero sea entendida como
cognitivo de Heider dará origen a una gran           constructiva. La consecuencia es similar a la
variedad de trabajos experimentales sobre la         que observamos en el conjunto de ciencias
coherencia, la congruencia y la persistencia de      sociales: la pérdida de inter-inteligibilidad
“patterns socio-cognitivos”. Posteriormente,         en el seno de misma disciplina. Cada micro-
es el turno a la teoría de la disonancia             teoría se trasforma en un asunto de iniciados,
cognitiva de Festinger (discípulo de Lewin)          hasta el extremo que una misma palabra (la
que marca profundamente la investigación             famosa clave de los catálogos informáticos)
de laboratorio. Numerosas teorías vendrán            adquiere una poli-significación tan grande
mas adelante. A su vez Kelley explica la             que la comunicación se reduce cada vez mas.
mediación de los mecanismos cognitivos                    En palabras mas directas: la proliferación
en las situaciones de racionamiento y                de las micro-teorías, estimulada por la
juicio social. Mientras que Kiesler aportan          astucia de teoría global y la ingeniosidad
la teoría del “compromiso” (commitment)              de los procedimientos de laboratorio, ha
según la cual son nuestros propios actos (en         hecho perder de vista la utilidad social
lugar de las ideas o los sentimientos ) que          del conocimiento psicológico social y
nos hacen adherir psicológicamente a una             estructurado a su alrededor un verdadero
acción. Otros enfoques se suceden: la teoría         sistema de “clanes” académicos. La laboriosa
de la internalidad-externalidady el “locus de        actividad experimental de los primeros
control” propuestos por Rotter. Y hay más,           tiempos provoca un enorme entusiasmo,
pero por razones de espacio las pasaremos            y una expansión institucional. Vale decir:
por alto.                                            la formación de discípulos. Luego los
    Mientras tanto, en Europa, Tajfel y              resultados empíricos forman un formidable
otrospromueven un enfoque sobre la                   y multicolor fuego de artificios que ilumina
categorización social que reformulan en              el cielo de la investigación para el gran
términos cognitivos los estudios sobre el            placer de los seguidores. Toda virtud posee
prejuicio, la categorización, la identidad,          sus defectos. En este caso, la luminosidad
los estereotipos y el socio centrismo. La            localizada del micro-teoría nubla la visión
micro-teoría parcial de la identidad lograra         del conjunto de la realidad. Al mismo
ganar audiencia dentro del medio académico           tiempo, la memoria histórica se debilita y los
anglo-americano. Por su parte, en Francia,           aspectos culturales son omitidos. Lo virtual

14
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 11-21


reemplaza lo real. Lo importante deja de ser         - La influencia del pensamiento único
la predicción generalizable de los hallazgos     impuesto por la ideología tecnocrático-
significativos. Lo urgente cubre el horizonte     liberal.
académico y se convierte en una carrera              - La presión de los “lobbies” en el seno de
de obstáculos para producir publicaciones        los centros decisiones de las universidades y
y obtener las primas de investigación. En        las instituciones de tutela.
suma: la notoriedad se vuelve efímera, pero          - La super-racionalizacion a la cual la
terriblemente atractiva en un mundo en el        realidad virtual de laboratorio no es ajena.
cual los esfuerzos académicos no se miden            - La tendencia ha “formalizar”
en función de sus aportes a la humanidad         (matematizar dirían los ortodoxos) la
sino mas bien a su capacidad de suscitar         investigación, que si bien es una aspiración
imagos lo mas cercanas posibles de un            legitima de las ciencias “duras”, se ha
producto publicitario. Así la consagración       transformado en una suerte de “fetichismo
se produce cuando son difundidas por la          estadístico”, cuya utilización sirve de
televisión.                                      justificación y de seriedad científica en las
                                                 ciencias “blandas”.
Algunas observaciones criticas sobre                 - La irrupción en las universidades
los hallazgos de la psicología social            de la mentalidad gestionaría que hacen
                                                 de la “producción ciencia” una actividad
Primera observación critica: El oficio del        asimilable a una producción industrial.
psicólogo social se ha impuesto empírica             Segunda observación critica: cuando
y técnicamente. Pero, paradojalmente,            algunos tratan de buscarle aplicaciones
pese a la multiplicación de las teorías, la      practicas a las micro-teorías, la formula de
formulación de leyes generales se encuentra      Zimbardo sirve de coartada: “la mayoría de
en un impasse. Matalon (1996), uno de los        técnicas estudiadas nunca han sido probadas
mejores metodólogos en ciencias sociales,        en la realidad, y en consecuencia puede que
en Francia, lo escribe en forma lapidaria:       no funcionen”. En resumen, la magia del
“no existe un cuerpo de conocimientos que        laboratorio hace que su secreto se exprese
sea aceptado por todos los investigadores de     en dos palabras: “todo depende ...” !!! Así
una misma disciplina”. Se trata entonces de      se realiza la autonomía funcional del trabajo
un serio bloqueo teórico del conjunto de las     universitario y su alejamiento progresivo de
ciencias sociales.                               la realidad del mundo social y político que
    En un registro mas irónico, Bem y            lo rodea. Poco importa entonces que los
McConnell, decían hace algún tiempo: “en         resultados sean útiles o no, lo que cuenta es la
el momento actual la elección de una (u otra)    creación de un espacio independientemente
de las teorías, se reduce a una cuestión de      de sus consecuencias, pero altamente
gusto o de estética”.                            valorado por los grupos representantes del
    Cabe una vez mas preguntarse: Que            poder académico e indirectamente del poder
(nos) paso? En que momento la brújula de la      político. Curiosa amalgama que produce
investigación social dejo de funcionar? Para     investigadores creativos, pero ciudadanos
que sirven los artefactos de la investigación?   socialmente individualistas y políticamente
    Las respuestas hay que buscarlas en          neutralizados.
múltiples direcciones:                               Tercera observación crítica: el enfoque
    - La super-especialisacion con sus           “liberal” en ciencias sociales (individualismo
efectos paradojales de rigidez intelectual y     metodológico) ha acentuado tres rasgos
celotipias de grupos.                            típicos de la psicología de nuestro tiempo:
    - La decepción provocada por las macro-      su carácter “a-histórico”, su postura
teorías históricas: Hegel y Marx, Spengler y     “a-cultural” y la omisión del rol que juegan
Toynbee, etc.                                    los elementos emocionales en la formación

                                                                                               15
Alexandre Dorna
La psicologia politica: el retorno de los origenes


de los comportamientos sociales complejos.           en momentos agudos de revoluciones
    Cuarta observación critica: las muestras         científicas la tendencia es a las rupturas
experimentales en la investigaciones de              incluso personales. La multiplicación
laboratorio sufren de varios sesgos anti-            de encuentros, congresos, seminarios y
científicos: el n° limitado de sujetos, su            coloquios permiten la difusión planetaria de
poca      representatividad      (estudiantes),      las micro-teorías y la consolidación de redes
la simplificación de los protocolos, las              internacionales à través de asociaciones que
condiciones artificiales del control de las           juegan a la geopolítica académica.
variables, y sobretodo el uso abusivo y                  Séptima observación critica: utilizando
la manipulación obsesiva de las pruebas              una metáfora, podríamos decir que los
estadísticas. A lo cual cabe agregar lo poco         investigadores se han convertido en “topos”
que se toma en cuenta el peso de la infinita          de jardín, cuya laboriosa y rutinaria actividad
variedad de aspectos culturales, ideológicas,        consiste en construir galerías subterráneas
e históricas que generalmente son expulsados         cada vez mas intrincadas y de difícil acceso.
del análisis de la “situación” investigada.          Y que de tanto vivir en la oscuridad se han
    Quinta      observación      critica:    la      vuelto miopes y torpes. Hasta tal punto
notoriedad de algún micro-teoría obedece             que al salir a la superficie y a la luz del día
más a sus efectos de “charme” y a la                 son incapaces de reconocer sus verdaderos
habilidad persuasiva de sus promotores que           objetos de trabajo y sus utilidades sociales.
a sus reales competencias científicas. Las            La vieja expresión de “rata de biblioteca
redes de influencia hacen que la “verdad              “aplicada a los filósofos de antaño, hoy
científica” se haya vuelto “democrática”.             puede transformarse en la de “topo” de
El numero de partidarios cuenta. Un                  laboratorio respecto a todos aquellos que
clima de “in grups” domina las eventuales            ejercen una actividad de investigación.
infidelidades teóricas o metodológicas, y
una actitud de desconfianza (out-grups) reina         Psicología social o psicología política?
frente a los otros grupos de investigación.
Los laboratoriosrecuerdan esos viejos                Algunos piensan que entre la psicología
“castillos” feudales, en torno ha ciertas            política y la psicología social existe una
figuras intelectuales fuertes que administran         rivalidad de fondo. Otros hablan de un
la carrera de “sus” investigadores                   verdadero pleonasmo. Para clarificar estas
(generalmente antiguos estudiantes) y                interpretaciones, vale la pena recordar tres
determinan los temas de investigación de             hechos históricos básicos que deben ser
los nuevos. Aun más cuando el “maestro”              reincorporados a la perspectiva común:
ocupa una posición importante en alguna                  Primer hecho histórico: contrariamente
universidad prestigiosa del primer mundo.            a una creencia impuesta por la vulgata
Así se logra crear una red internacional             académica, la psicología social no es la
en los piases dependientes y cuyo cordón             “madre” de la psicología política. Los hechos
umbilical difícilmente se corta.                     muestran más bien lo contrario. La razón de
    Sexta observación crítica: el mundo              este equivoco tiene sus antecedentes en sus
exterior poco influye en las problemáticas            orígenes ideológicos: la psicología política
teóricas. Hay muchas teorías pequeñas,               tiene un origen popular, tumultuoso y a
pero ninguna verdaderamente aplicable a              veces hasta sulfuroso. En efecto, ninguno
una escala social. La “ciencia” se hace en           de sus principales representantes hacia
medio de luchas abiertas que transforman             parte del mundo académico establecido:
los campus en zonas de conflictos y de                ni Le Bon ni Tarde, tampoco Sighele,
enfrentamientos para imponerse dentro                mucho menos Hamon cuyo romanticismo
del mercado del conocimiento.Se trata de             libertario lo ubica fuera de las normas de la
una caricatura? De ningún modo, pues                 época. Comentario similar merecen otros

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                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 11-21


pensadores cercanos: Sorel, Canetti, Rossi,       primeras o no, la polémicanos parece
Draghichesco, Cattaneo y otros que han sido       bizantina. No se trata del regreso de la hija
enterrados en las arenas del olvido.              prodiga. Al contrario se trata de saber dejar
    El rasgo común de estos pioneros es           atrás, aquello que causa obstáculo. Pero
escuchar sin filtros institucionales los           eso no quiere decir ni olvidar ni destruir,
dolores y las pulsaciones de la sociedad.         sino integrar. La psicología política posee
Su virtud: poseer una mirada penetrante           una larga vida anterior y las herramientas
y un pensamiento refractario a las modas          intelectuales como para retomar su lugar
teóricas de la época. Otro elemento               dentro del conjunto de las ciencias sociales
común:hacer cohabitan, sin jerarquía, las         (Dorna 1998). Más aun: puede convertirse
diversas disciplinas que componían las            en el centro de la re-integración y en su
llamadas “ciencias humanas”: la historia, la      motor esencial.
moral, literatura, el derecho, la sociología,         Por su pasado, la psicología política es
la economía política, la antropología y la        portadora de un método tolerante donde
psicología general. Probablemente estas           lo cuantitativo conlleva lo cuantitativo,
características determinaron la singular          mientras que la visión transversal le permite
marginalidad del enfoque psico-politico.          recomponer el puzzle problemático de la
Pero, paradójicamente, la marginalidad de         realidad humana tanto en su dimensión
ayer esta más cerca de la realidad presente.      “holística” e individual. Y otro elemento
    Segundo       hecho      histórico:     La    juega un rol importante: la psicología
investigación en psicología social y en           política mantuvo los lazos entre lo
parte por extensión las ciencias humanas y        emocional y lo racional, pese a la fuerte
sociales que se interesan en el hombre se ha      tendencia à la separación que las corrientes
contentado de explorar los comportamiento         neo-positivistas impusieron al conjunto de
individuales. Mientras que la psicología          las ciencias sociales y humanas.
colectiva de los pioneros ha perdido                  Cuando ciertos pensadores de ciencias
formalmente vigencia. Los procedimientos          sociales se reclaman de un retorno alenfoque
de laboratorio se han extendido como un           psicológico.
inmenso lago artificial alimentado por las             La masa de psicólogos sociales por
lluvias de la demanda social y la crecida de      falta de dialogo con otras disciplinas de las
los ríos académicos, pero pese a su extensión     ciencias humanas y demasiado absorbidos en
considerable solo tiene unos cuantos              los trabajos experimentales, se han aislado
centímetros de profundidad.                       de una problemática cultural y política que
    Tercer hecho histórico: la metodología        ha evolucionado rápidamente en los últimos
psico-politica en sus originescontiene un sello   años. Resulta curioso observar como la gran
indeleble: la transversalidad metodológica        mayoría de los pensadores contemporáneos
y la pluralidad teórica. En consecuencia,         han reconsiderado el lugar que ocupa la
una de las tareas de las psicosociologías         psicología dentro de la problemática social
interesadas en el estudio del hombre y de         moderna.
las sociedades políticas actuales consiste            Aquí y allá, de manera más o menos
en rescatar el legado cultural común. La          explícita pensamos que un regreso a la
psicología política tiene sobradas razones        cuestión del sujeto abre las posibilidades de
para exigir una mayor autonomía y proponer
                                                  un reencuentro interdisciplinario. Por cierto
un dialogo (intra y extra científico) a fin de
poder enfrentar los grandes desafíos de la        no se trata de un sujeto puramente individual,
sociedad contemporánea.                           sino de una integración de la parte histórica,
                                                  política y social del hombre con su vida
                                                  psíquica. Esta idea esta latente en los trabajos
De la psicología política                         de Alberoni (1977) Touraine (1984) y desde
Que la psicología social vuelva a sus fuentes     hace varios años en el redescubrimiento de

                                                                                                17
Alexandre Dorna
La psicologia politica: el retorno de los origenes


los escritos de Elias (1939), así como en            las formas de gobierno. A través de errores
los planteamientos de Foucault (1969) a              y ensayos, los primeros hombres acumulan
propósito del poder y del individuo en tanto         un saber positivo y una cierta idea de la
practica social y concepto filosófico. Sin             trascendencia de la especie humana, así
olvidar la obra de E. Morin. Estos enfoques,         como una cierta idea de la necesidad de lo
como muchos otros, muestran una tendencia            colectivo y más adelante de la autonomía
que ha desembocado en un cuestionamiento             individual pese a la compleja madeja de
epistemológico de fondo, frente al cual las          relaciones afectivas y utilitarias.
ciencias humanas han reaccionado en forma                En consecuencia, no nos parecer
desordenada y atomista, demostrando en               exagerado decir que la primera matriz
forma redundante el síndrome de nuestra              epistemología construida por el hombre es
época: la fragmentación del “mundo imago”            de inspiración profundamente psicológica.
de lamodernidad.                                     La psiquis juega un rol primero. Hace
     La falta actual de una teoría general de        parte del antropomorfismo primitivo. Así,
la sociedad contemporánea no hace más que            el hombre se piensa y piensa el mundo
agravar el sentimiento de malestar en el seno        en términos psicológicos. Las diversas
de las ciencias sociales. Pero se trata de un        mitológicas son verdaderas canteras de
momento que puede conducir a re-evaluar              interpretaciones psicológicas. Los usos
las interrogaciones que estaban en el centro         culturales son posteriores à la elaboración
de la psicología política clásica: lo colectivo,     de creencias y representaciones colectivas.
la masa, la soledad de la muchedumbre.               Pero, la cultura es la consolidación de las
En suma, el alma de la humanidad y sus               habilidades comunes.
crisis, sus perturbaciones, y sus patologías             De hecho, la política, tal cual la
explícitas.                                          entendemos hoy, es una invención
     A fin de razonar estas cuestiones se             “psicológica” que se manifiesta en el seno
puede ir al encuentro de la ideo-lógica que se       de la cultura griega en un momento dado de
estructura en los orígenes del pensamiento           su evolución. Se trata de una herramienta
político greco-latino pre-y-post-socrático. Y        de mediación entre los hombres frente a
allí, de buena fe y buscando para ver, (nos)         sus propias violencias. Luego de un largo
encontramos ante la matriz del saber en plena        proceso de ensayos y errores, la colectividad
ebullición. En ese sentido hay una hipótesis         construye una lógica y una racionalidad (el
heurística de los fundamentos comunes, bajo          logos de los griegos donde lo emocional y lo
una forma genealógica, de la manera como             racional forman un todo) a fin de proponer
se gesta la psicología política en sus inicios.      una realidad humana alternativa, con otras
     Una hipótesis heurística de la psicología       reglas de convivencia, que aquella realidad
política                                             “salvaje” impuesta por la naturaleza.
     Se trata de rescatar una evidencia que se           En suma: la política sintetiza la
pierde en la noche de los tiempos. Debemos           experiencia social y la psicología colectiva
recordar con Aristóteles que el hombre es            como mediación y puente entre los múltiples
un animal social que llega ha transformarse          mundos posibles (almas individuales) para
en un ser político. Su transformación                formar un conjunto de reglas comunes que se
es el producto de una experiencia cuyo               transformaran en normas y roles, los cuales
epicentro es su propia relación subjetiva            serán mas adelante leyes y constituciones
con la realidad externa a través del tiempo.         que regirán las relaciones inter-personales de
Y en su dimensión practica es el creador             los miembros de las comunidades humanas.
de una cultura que lo trasforma a su vez.                Hipótesis (in)verosímil dirán algunos?
De esa acción nace la invención del sujeto           Probablemente, pero plausible si recordamos
y la creación de la “naturaleza” humana,             la significación remota de las palabras de
la invención de la política y la creación de         Protagoras : “el hombre es la medida de

18
                                              Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                           volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 11-21


todas las cosas”.                                   humana que están en los origines de todas
   Por cierto se trata de una cuestión              las ideologías políticas y las metafísicos
permanece evidentemente abierta al debate           religiosas.
contradictorio y a la cual se asocian las               Un modelo descriptivo para la psicología
diversas interpretaciones de la naturaleza          política (Fig. 1)




 Fig. 1. Esquema heurístico de la psicología política.
A modo de síntesis, les propongo un esquema         sus características sociales, selectivas,
sobre el cual nos detendremos solo unos             constructivas y culturales. Al mismo tiempo
instantes, puesto que nuestro objetivo era          que una “normalización” de lo percibido
hablar mas de la psicología social que de la        dentro y fuera del marco ahora y aquí de
psicología política. Sin embargo, puesto que        la situación. Otros elementos mayores
de reflexión en reflexión hemos avanzado              concurren a la formación de percepciones:
algunos pasos, tal vez la esquematización           los antecedentes lejanos y cercanos (la
permita dar una visión rápida del conjunto.         historia y sus memorias) y las consecuencias
    La percepción ocupa un lugar central            de los actos posibles (las expectativas) dentro
en la perspectiva que hemos denominado              de una situación cultural. Habría que agregar
psicología política. Se trata de una cuestión       una explicación sobre los mecanismos de
capital, pues detrás de cada hecho hay una          cohesión, pero nos es el caso de hacerlo
construcción individual y colectiva en base         en este contexto. Solo haré notar que todo
a los mecanismos sociales de la percepción.         diagnostico político exige plantearse los
Por cierto lo esencial consiste en recordar         elementos que mantienen la cohesión y dan


                                                                                                 19
Alexandre Dorna
La psicologia politica: el retorno de los origenes


coherencia a las acciones.                           desde el alfabeto a la computadora, pasando
    La convergencia de los enfoques:                 por la imprenta. Axioma: la obra humana
Mayerson                                             (colectiva por definición) no es susceptible
    La reflexión de Ignace Meyerson,                  de ser disecada en laboratorio.
(ampliamente comentada por Bruner1996),                  e) Otro rasgo del hombre : su preocupación
psicólogo histórico, juega un papel de primer        por el avenir. Mas aun, sutendencia ha
plano en nuestra demostración.                       proyectarse en el futuro tanto en lo personal
    Retengamos, por ahora, algunas de sus            que en la historia. Todas sus obras se hacen
principales tesis:                                   en relación a una percepción del y en el
    a) La paradoja humana: el hombre,                tiempo. Los proyectos colectivos que los
contrariamente a otros animales, acuerda             hombres conciben ( por ejemplo el proyecto
un enorme valor a una serie de actividades           de la modernidad),refuerzan esta orientación
superfluas a la luz de la actividad                   de expectativa. He allí el zócalo histórico que
fundamental común: la sobrevivencia.                 nos ayuda a comprender algunos aspectosde
Una enorme energía es empleada para                  la interacción social, y evidentemente de la
producir, conservar, transmitir y transformar        política. Los actos tienen necesidad de una
la naturaleza y cambiar las conductas                justificación colectiva: “unidas múltiplex”.
humanas. De allí han nacido: el arte, el
derecho, las religiones, la guerra, la ciencia,      Algunas palabras finales para no
laespeculación, y evidentemente la política.         concluir
Resulta conveniente entonces interrogarse
como los seres humanos invierten tanto               La psicología política, Dorna (1998) postula
esfuerzo en proyectos colectivos que van             su vocación científica sin caer en el círculo
mas allá de la pura sobrevivencia.                   vicioso de las micro teorías y de sus prácticas
    b) Lo humano se empapa de sus obras.             institucionales. Al mismo tiempo permite
El mundo del hombre es el mundo de sus               reexaminar los postulados impuestos por la
obras: la civilización es la obra. De allí que       psicóloga individualista, la ideología liberal,
sea parcial querer comprender lo psicológico         a fin de retomar contacto con el conjunto
sin comprender la significación de las obras          de la realidad, incluyendo los fenómenos
humanas. La memoria juega aquí un papel              afectivos, dentro de una perspectiva
irremplazable. La psicología política se             metodológica transversal.
alimenta del recuerdo.                                   La tarea urgente es proponer un
    c) Los psicólogos sociales han demostrado        modelo heurístico abierto y un pluralismo
en forma ejemplar que la percepción es:              metodológico, capaz de ubicar el estudio de
selectiva, construida y cultural. Meyerson           la cultura y de la historia en un lugar central,
se adelanta a todos ellos cuando muestra lo          única manera depensar en una coherencia
ambiguo de la realidad humana. La cuestión           global (razón y emoción, universalidad y
de las obras permite encontrar un nexo de            concretizaron) en la cual los sujetos y la
continuidad, puesto que son ellas las que            realidad percibida formen una nueva síntesis
justifican la existencia humana, no solo              abierta.
porque prueban su continuidad, sino porque               La crisis de la modernidad se refleja en
forman una sólida estructura de referencia.          todos los planos intelectuales, y en particular
Así, el hombre es historia en la medida que          en la espiritualidad y en la ciencia. De
actualiza sus recuerdos.                             allíquela psicología se encuentra maniatada
    d) La memoria como la percepción                 por los excesos del cientismo y del
se forman y se transmiten socialmente.               reduccionismo racionalista que se apodero
El mundo humano se humanizo con la                   de la ciencia en un momento de exaltación
mediación de los sistemas de signos que la           de nuestra historia, existen numerosos
técnica ha permitido conservar y trasmitir:          territorios de conocimiento que es necesario

20
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 11-21


re-visitar. Para ello debemos reconstruir los    Paris, Seuil.
puentes que nos unían a otras disciplinas: la
                                                 Dorna A. (1998): Les fondements de la
historia, la sociología, la antropología, etc.
                                                 psychologie politique. Paris, PUF.
                                                 Elias N. (1970): Wasist soziologie? Juven-
Este texto retoma en parte una conferencia       ta verlag. Trad. Française: Qu’est-ce que la
en la Universidad Iberoamericana de              sociologie? Paris, Ed. de l’Aube, 1991.
Mexico y una versión breve fue publicada
por la revista Castalia (Chile).                 Foucault M. (1969): L’arqueologie du
                                                 savoir. Paris, Gallimard.
                                                 Linton R. (1935): The study of man. New
                                                 York, Appleton-century-crofts.
                                                 Matalon. (1996): Laconstruction de la
                                                 science. Genene, Delahau.
Bibliografia
                                                 Mead M. (1936): Sex and temperament in
Alberoni F. (1977): Movimento e institutione.    three primitis societies. New York, Merton.
Bolona. Il molino. Traduccion española.
1984. Madrid. Editora nacional.                  Ross E.A. (1912). Social psychology. New
                                                 York, Mcmillan.
Bruner J. (1996): Meyerson aujourd’hui:
quelques réflexions sur la psychologie            Sherif M. (1936, re-édttion 1966): The
culturelle. In Parot F.: Pour une psychologie    psychology of social norms. New York,
historique. Hommage à I. Meyerson. Paris,        Harper et Row.
PUF.                                             Touraine A. (1984): Le Retour de l’acteur.
Crozier M. (1970): La société bloquée.           Paris, Fayard.




                                                                                               21
22
Virtualization of Social Violence:
a sign of our époque?
A. P. Nazaretyan
Faculty of Psychology, Moscow State University
Russian Federation



   Absract: An upward trend in social violence is an illusion conditioned by the basic
   mechanisms of attention, perception and memory. In fact, social violence is becoming
   more indirect and symbolic. Its displacement into virtual reality is perhaps one of the
   most remarkable trends in the development of civilization. The author argues that the
   problem indeed is the insufficient dynamics in decreasing multiple forms of physical
   violence, which is fraught with global catastrophe in the context of more and more
   sophisticated technologies. Some assumptions are made about probable developments
   in the next decades.

   Keywords: physical violence, moral violence, virtual violence, sublimation, techno-
   humanitarian balance, retrospective aberration, mass media, Gresham’s Law in
   information, anthropological constant, recreation zone.




Elimination of all forms of physical            to somehow “prohibit” cruelties, etc.
violence is a crucial challenge for the             Here, we address the two most popular
modern civilization: its further destiny may    myths. One is that violence has escalated
conclusively depend on the ability to solve     in contemporary society and continues
this problem. It goes without saying that a     to escalate. Another is that (supposedly)
constructive discussion of the issue on all     escalating violence is boosted by the
levels, ranging from school education to        abundance of cruelty in mass media.
global policy, requires adequate assessments
of the current situation, trends and real       Historical dynamics in violence and
threats. Meanwhile, the issue has created       nonviolence: the pattern of techno-
a set of myths in public and even in the
academic literature. As a result, sober
                                                humanitarian balance
analyses are substituted by declarations,       To begin with, I briefly outline here the results
the causal links are distorted, and instead     of a long-term interdisciplinary survey on
of reasonable projects we see endless cries     the mechanisms of man-made crises and
about “this horrible world”, or naïve appeals   catastrophes, which involved both historical

                                                                                             23
A. P. Nazaretyan
Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?


and modern time case studies [Nazaretyan             over, even most potentially destructive
2004, 2008, 2009]. The survey has revealed           weapons became a life-protecting factor:
a systemic relation between three variables          our calculations show that after fitting, the
– technological potential, cultural regulation       more potentially threatening a weapon was
quality, and social sustainability. Namely:          the less sanguinary it turned out in fact.
the higher the power of production and war
technologies, the more advanced aggression-                We see a similar situation in the modern
regulation means is required to enable the                 society as well. There has not been a single
self-preservation of society.                              human victim of the intercontinental
    This pattern – the law of techno-                      ballistic missiles that threatened the very
humanitarian balance – helps to understand                 humankind’s existence half a century ago.
in causal terms both the cases of unexpected               The atom bombs of the first generation,
collapse of flourishing states and                          yet relatively low-powered, killed
civilizations and the cases of revolutionary               (including also the delayed victims) about
breakthrough in world history, which remain                300 thousand people. Tanks, artillery and
                                                           bombers have taken millions of human
even more mysterious till now. The generic                 lives. Tens of millions have fallen victim
model demonstrates how the spread of new                   to small arms. Meanwhile, kitchen knives
technologies entailed the superiority of                   and other home utensil used sporadically
instrumental intelligence (human capacity                  in everyday conflicts are continually
to handle energies) over humanitarian                      killing more people than the professional
intelligence (the capacity to forecast                     weaponry altogether.
the delayed consequences and control
aggressive impulses, which is embodied in
cultural values and norms).                          To verify one of the non-trivial corollaries
    Imbalance between the two attributes of          of the techno-humanitarian balance pattern,
intelligence provokes bursts of ecological           a comparative cross-cultural index was used
and/or geopolitical aggression accompanied           – Bloodshed Ratio (BR), i.e. the ratio of the
by a typical set of mass psychological               average number of killings per unit of time
symptoms that have been surprisingly                 k(Δt) to the population size during that pe-
repeated in various cultures and epochs:             riod p(Δt). Rough calculations (carried out
euphoria, sense of omnipotence and impunity,         by the author together with military historian
irrational thirst for “small victorious wars”,       V. Litvinenko and clinical psychologist S.
and so on. Non-restrained aggression has             Enikolopov) demonstrate that in a long-term
often subverted natural or organizational            historical retrospective, while demographic
foundations of social sustainability: the            densities and technical capacity for mutual
accumulation of destructive effects led to a         destruction have been increasing throughout
phase of catastrophes.                               millennia, violent death rate has had a down-
    At those dramatic phases, the selection of       ward trend. The trend has been highly non-
social systems, values, norms and mindsets           linear – bloodshed splashes correspond to
compatible with the grown technological              the escalation of anthropogenic crises – but
might was intensified. Advanced regulation            as we consider long time periods, the decline
means could balance the new technologies             is rather distinctly manifested.
so that humans learned to handle more                    This paradox cannot be explained by
powerful instruments avoiding catastrophic           the assumption that the humans have been
aftereffects. As a result of cultural and            decreasing their aggressiveness: on the
psychological fitting, society “tamed” more           contrary, growing population density most
and more potentially destructive tools,              probably stimulated aggressive impulses.
which thanks to that became relatively safe.         Nevertheless, culture, while passing through
As soon as the dramatic fitting process was           the crucible of man-made crises and catas-

24
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 23-36


trophes, has been perfecting and multiplying     makes up 0,008% of 6 billion population
its mechanisms of aggression-sublimation.        (the same paper informs us that even more
Were it not so, neither consecutive growth of    people, 815000, fell victim to suicides). To
population and its density nor progressively     be compared: in our calculations, average
increasing technological power would have        annual violent death rate in the 20th century
been possible in history. Moreover, human-       was 0.15%; in the Paleolithic tribes it was
kind could hardly have lived till our time had   about 5%1.
it been unable to develop more and more ad-          In the large, we can single out two se-
vanced means of self-control to balance pro-     ries of facts: empirically obvious growth in
gressively growing means of destruction.         virtual violence and sociologically provable
     Thereby, the evolution of behavior-reg-     decline in physical violence. Is this coinci-
ulation has not been driven by humans’ or        dence accidental or are the two circumstanc-
heavens’ arbitrary will but has followed the     es causally linked? I will argue that the sec-
logic and pragmatics of sustainability. The      ond assumption is more reliable (although
perfection of moral and other values and         certainly, the links cannot be either linear or
norms was an indirect, mediated and usu-         one-dimensional) and will demonstrate that
ally delayed response of cultures to the chal-   the problem that is topical and global indeed
lenges of dangerously growing instruments        is not the increase but insufficiently dynamic
of violence.                                     decrease in all forms of physical violence.
     For instance, the 20th century, with its    Before that, however, it is time to clear up
two world wars and multiple civil wars, the      why the illusion of growing violence is that
nightmare of genocides and Hiroshima, had        persistent.
lower BR than previous centuries and ex-
celled them in many other indicators of the      Retrospective aberration
quality of human relations. The appraisals of
it as an extraordinarily cruel epoch are based   Political psychologists are well aware of
on a set of sociologically and anthropologi-     this effect described in particular by the J.
cally incorrect premises. First, much higher     Davis’s [1969] graph. As soon as the situation
humanistic standards are applied to this ep-     in certain significant sphere (economy,
och as compared to the previous ones (which      political freedoms, or vertical mobility, etc.)
is due to the optimistic expectations the Eu-    improves, it becomes outpaced by public
ropeans had in the beginning of the century).    needs and expectancies, in the light of which
Second, the relative criteria are substituted    the collective consciousness perceives the
for the absolute ones, and war and political     dynamics contrariwise. This paradoxically
victims are over-emphasized while the rate       entails mass dissatisfaction and a belief
of victims in everyday violence is ignored.      that living conditions are getting worse.
Third, the estimations are traditionally Eu-     The analysis of multiple social explosions,
rocentric: in the 20th century, the European     riots and revolutionary situations has
military losses made up about 65% of the         demonstrated that they are usually preceded
total sum of world losses, whereas in the 19th   by the improvements in the objective
century they made up no more than 15%. As        indicators and respectively, by the growth in
to the current situation, I would refer here     expectations. Then, while the expectancies
to a competent paper. The calculations of        continue increasing, a relative descent in
the World Health Organization show that          objective opportunities (compared to the
the general number of people perished in         peak) provokes frustration and aggression,
the armed, everyday conflicts and political       which can end up in mass disturbances.
repressions on Earth in the year 2000 was            Retrospective aberration is one of the
about half a million [Krug et al. 2002]. The     mechanisms distorting the evaluation of
figure is monstrous by itself. However, it        social dynamics. Most of the facts qualified

                                                                                               25
A. P. Nazaretyan
Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?


as blatant violence by modern Western                      in the streets and in the educational
individuals were not perceived in the same                 institutions.
way by people of traditional and, all the
more, archaic cultures.                              Up to the 20th century, the experience of
     To describe the ordinary life of our not        bringing up children without corporal
remote ancestors, I consider mostly the              punishment had been scare. The English
data about Russian history, although any             saying teaches us: “Spare the rod and spoil
other country or region might serve as well.         the child”. Not only little commoners but
Wars followed one another regularly: for             also princes’ and kings’ children were
instance, during the 304 years of Romanovs’          subject to flogging. The Russian Household
dynasty (1613 – 1917) Russia waged 349               Management Code (The Domostroy) of the
years of war (sometimes two or three wars            16th century regulated the means of wives’
were simultaneous) [Burovsky 2003], while            “upbringing” in the noble (boyar) families:
during 1500 years since Kievan Rus, the              it did not recommend to cane the (noble!)
country has lived in peace for about 150 years       wife, punch or beat her in front of the
in aggregate2. Class, confessional factions,         servants and children – the punishment was
police repressions and commonplace crimes            meant to be done in private and by means
complete the picture. Still, all of those            of a lash; commoner women did not deserve
calamities were exceeded by everyday                 such ceremonies. In Western Europe,
violence. Regular wife battering and                 Hexenhammer (Malleus Maleficarum, 1486)
children beating (sometimes to death), public        was more severe: bad wives and sometimes
executions and whippings in the streets,             just good-looking women (who diverted the
everyday conflicts and mass fisticuffs in the          males from the sacred thoughts) could be
holidays (a kind of entertainment; although          burned at the stake. There is still a law in
it followed certain rules, it normally resulted      London that prohibits beating a wife after
in individuals being killed and crippled)            21-00, because her yells can disturb the
made the background of morals and manners            neighbors’ rest.
[DeMause 1982, Burovsky 2008, Flier 2008,                The traditional attitudes to women and
Nazaretyan 2008].                                    children look even more horrific in the
                                                     Eastern countries. It is enough to mention
     We may easily find evidence of this all
                                                     here the suttee tradition in India, by which
     not only while studying biographical and
     ethnographical sources but also reading         the wife regardless of her age is obliged
     classical belles-lettres. A well-known          to drown herself or burn herself after her
     rhyme by the Russian poet N. Nekrasov           husband’s death – otherwise, she must be
     (1821-1877) describes an ordinary               stoned to death by her own relatives – or
     episode on the central square of the            astonishingly multiform and sustainable
     Russian capital: a young peasant woman,         tradition of children’s sacrifices. In the
     while being given a public flogging, is not      Confucian philosophy, a baby does not have
     even crying or groaning, and the idea to        consciousness and so, is not yet a human
     intervene and stop the execution does not       being within three days after his (her) birth.
     cross the minds of the passers-by (among
                                                     Therefore, the mortification of a new born
     them the poet himself) – the event is quite
     normal and accustomed [Nekrasov 1953,           baby by its parents is not condemned either
     p.13].                                          legally or morally.
                                                         Not only in India and China but in all
     The masterpieces by L. Tolstoy, F.              cultures of the world, until contraception
     Dostoevsky, A. Ostrovsky, N. Leskov, M.         and medical intrauterine abortion began
     Gorky and other outstanding writers show
     us incidentally abundant and impressing
                                                     to spread, endless practices of postnatal
     sketches of everyday violence in families,      abortion were popular as well: parents


26
                                                 Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                              volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 23-36


used to get rid of the “excess” or unhealthy              against    artificial     interruption    of
babies. Hunger, poisoning, supercooling,                  pregnancy never objected to postnatal
primitive smothering and other means were                 abortions in the past, nor did they protest
used for that (primitive tribes behave even               against public executions (which still in
                                                          the first half of the 19th century were the
simpler: some of them sacrifice their babies,
                                                          favorite entertainment of the European
especially female, others leave them alone in             mob) or against war per se [Contamine
the camps to be eaten by the predators and                2003; Kornev 1987]. Christianity, like
neophron beasts). Such actions were and                   most other religions, has known the only
somewhere still are normative and do not                  peacemaking technique: reconciliation of
arouse protest.                                           the enemies by indicating a new common
                                                          enemy; since the 5th century AD, the church
   Again, we can gather information                       repressed pacifists as dangerous heretics.
   about infanticide not only in special                  Warfare was regularly “sanctified” and
   ethnographic papers (see for instance                  genocide of the unfaithful population was
   [Clastres     1967,     DeMause      1982,             often declared a sacred duty of a good
   Kanevsky 1998]) but also in the classical              Christian (Muslim). Family violence
   belles-lettres, including the Russian ones.            was also encouraged by the official
   “Resurrection” by L. Tolstoy tells us in               documents or by direct quotations of
   the very beginning “how this is usually                the sacred texts. It is not by chance that
   made in the villages”: after a baby is                 the sociologists have more than once
   baptized, mother ceases feeding him                    demonstrated a positive relation between
   (her) and the child quickly dies of hunger             population’s religiousness and violent
   [Tolstoy 1993, p.7]. A typical episode has             crimes [Gannushkin 1964].
   been described in the biography of the
                                                          Apart from physical violence, which
   great Russian general Alexander Suvorov
                                                          is primarily discussed in this section,
   (1729-1800). After his military career
                                                          an individual was subject to most cruel
   was over, the old general went to his
                                                          moral and psychological violence.
   ancestral estate to care about his peasants
                                                          Regular intimidation by anticipated social
   and their children as “prospective king’s
                                                          and heavenly penalties is a separate topic
   soldiers”. Following the army habit, he
                                                          (see [Dawkins 2008] about that). Here, I
   governed the village in an original way –
                                                          would give only one rather unexpected
   by means of written decrees. One of those
                                                          and almost funny example.
   says: “We found out that some parents
   did not protect their sick children from               In the town Alcala near Madrid, my
   cold and fed them purposely with bad                   Spanish colleagues told me how negligent
   food (to accelerate their death – A.N.).               students had been traditionally punished
   The negligent fathers are to be whipped                in this oldest university (founded in
   mercilessly in public and then they will               1499) in the 16th century. A young man
   teach properly their wives” [Osipov-                   who failed an exam was to leave the room
   Kuperman 1961, p.68].                                  through the special door marked “Exit for
                                                          the donkeys”. A cap with donkey’s ears
   In the beginning of the 20th century, the
                                                          was put on his head and the guy was
   famous writer and professional physician
                                                          not allowed to get out his home without
   V. Veresaev (1867 – 1945) told a story
                                                          this cap on until he improved the score
   about how the peasants protested against
                                                          (sometimes he had to wait for this chance
   urban doctors’ efforts to treat their sick
                                                          for a year). When passers-by saw a fellow
   children. He quoted a striking public
                                                          with donkey’s ears on his head, they spat
   saying: “Lord, give us more cattle litter
                                                          on him; this was called “Alcalian snow”
   and more children’s deaths” [Veresaev
                                                          in the intrinsically graceful Spanish
   1988, p.274].
                                                          language…
   By the way, as far as we know, Christian,
   Muslim or other clericals who actually
   organize PR-campaigns with philippics                  A typical manifestation of retrospective

                                                                                                        27
A. P. Nazaretyan
Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?


aberration is that a modern Western                  of the 20th century, and those doubts were
individual as compared to his or her not             not groundless. An all-out nuclear war could
remote ancestors has become exceptionally            destroy our planet’s civilization and the fact
sensitive and intolerant to violence, as well        that political collisions of the 1960s (the
as to pain, death, dirt and bad smells. Some         Berlin, the Caribbean and the Near East
people tend to equate intrauterine abortion          crises) did not lead to a global crash was
with murder, and the very concept of                 indeed a greatest success of the humanity.
violence has shifted essentially.                        Meanwhile, it was not only a nuclear war
                                                     that menaced the future. In the conclusion
     A mother who spanks her playful son             of modern ecologists, had aggregate human
     to prevent his dangerous activities in          activity remained as “ecologically dirty”
     the street runs a risk of prosecution. A        as it was in the 1950s, life on Earth would
     presidential candidate of the Humanist          become intolerable by the 1990s [Yefremov
     party in Chile in 2006 was wrathfully
     condemning the growth of political
                                                     2004]. The Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963)
     violence at the party meeting; as the most      had conclusive importance. Even those
     glaring example, he mentioned a newly           nations that rejected the Treaty (France and
     inaugurated elite university where “not         China) had to gradually reduce their nuclear
     all comers are welcome”, and the listeners      weapons testing under the pressure of the
     approvingly applauded. Even inaction            world public opinion, and as soon as some
     does not free one from similar reproach.        other nations got weapons of the kind they
     Thus, the American psychologist R. May          had to follow the worldwide requirements.
     [1972] wrote that his compatriot who                In whole, the second half of the
     although objecting to the war in Vietnam        20th century was marked by a new and
     continued to pay taxes, also was taking
     part in the “dispersed violence”. Some
                                                     almost unprecedented in political history
     Postmodernist philosophers are inclined         phenomenon: international treaties and
     to qualify any artistic text as an act of       coalitions not aimed against any outside
     violence (see [Flier 2006] about that).         enemy. Nevertheless, the politicians
                                                     managed to escape a total collapse at the
     Probably, our grandfathers would doubt          price of channeling the global contradictions
     about their native language competence
     if they were said that the meaning of the
                                                     into a riverbed of almost continuous local
     word “violence” might relate to education,      wars: humans had not yet learned to live
     persuasion and suggestion, creation of the      without wars at all. True, the odious word
     university and even nonresistance to evil.      “war” was a taboo: after 1945, there has
                                                     been only one official declaration of war,
                                                     the “Soccer War” between Salvador and
Besides the unprecedented sensitiveness              Honduras (July 1969) that lasted six days.
(retrospective aberration), there are also           Yet, the ideologists’ fantasy was consoling
other factors that distort the estimation            the world by inexhaustible euphemisms like
of historical dynamics; I will consider              “deterrence”, “pacification”, “peacemaking
them below. However, we must see the                 operation” and “enforcement to peace” or
unconditionally objective reason for                 “fraternal international aid” and so on. Up to
anxiety: the development of technologies             50 million people fell victim to those local
has extraordinarily elevated the social cost         conflicts of 1945-1991 in the aggregate. Still,
of violence.                                         that period in the world politics has been
                                                     designated by a cunning journalist metaphor
“Knowledge-enabled destruction”                      “The Cold War”, as far as the victims were
Half a century ago, many people were not             dispersed in space and time and in the
sure that the humankind would see the end            context of expected billions of victims (the
                                                     worst case scenario) they looked like a kind

28
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 23-36


of a “pay off with small losses”.                 task: to remove physical violence from
    However, the approved mechanism of            social reality. In the new conditions, most
preventing a big war by means of “vapor           of the habitual mechanisms (like religion
escape” in the far regions has become             and ideology) are demonstrating boomerang
counterproductive as the technologies and         effect [Nazaretyan 2010].
methods of terror continued developing.               From there the central point of this
At the turn of the 21st century, the U.S.         article comes, which is worth reiteration: the
scientist and computer engineer B. Joy            topical problem of the modern civilization is
[2000] suggested that the epoch of weapons        insufficiently dynamic decrease of physical
of mass destruction was changing into the         violence. Here, however, we should pay
epoch of knowledge-enabled destruction.           attention to the positive effects of the
The distinctions between combat and non-          illusion of growing violence around us and
combat technologies are being blurred; the        to the role mass media play in creating this
newest weapons are becoming cheaper and           illusion.
more widely available while knowledge
and habits are transcending the frontiers of      Gresham’s Law in information pro-
states, classes, confessional cultures and        cesses
even education qualifications. Respectively,
the newest weaponry is slipping out of            Apart from retrospective aberration, there
control of the nation-states and their            is at least one more essential factor that
responsible governments, whose role in            strongly contributes to this illusion. The
handling the global processes is decreasing.      factor is also closely related to the qualities
The activities of new kinds of informal           of our attention, perception and memory.
groups are delocalizing conflicts so that each         In the beginning of the 1960s, as TV
particular conflict is more than ever before       had achieved a highest influence on mass
fraught with global aftereffects.                 consciousness, the American cultural
    The fact that the technological               scientist D. Boorstin [1961] revealed a
development increases the role of individual      subtle analogy between financial and
decisions and actions is a direct corollary       information processes. The financiers are
of the techno-humanitarian balance pattern.       familiar with the so called Gresham Law:
Further development of nuclear mini-bombs,        “Bad (i.e. cheap) money drives good money
hackers’ tricks, nanotech, gene engineering       out of circulation”. For instance, if there are
and so on entails increasing availability         golden coins and paper money of the same
of sophisticated destructive options for          face value in the market, assignations soon
the aggressive groups or individuals with         supplant the coins.
“brilliant” computer abilities but no political       Boorstin likened TV “pseudo-events”
responsibility or habits to anticipate the        to the paper banknotes as their fabrication
system consequences of their own activities.      is relatively cheap. Respectively, as far as
It is a big question whether or not human         pseudo-events are much more dynamic and
culture would be able to continue opportunely     vivid they drive the real life events out of
perfecting mechanisms of outside and inside       human attention and retention. People fail
control to prevent dangerous imbalances.          to distinctly discriminate between what
    The new challenges have led to a              they have seen with their naked eye and
historical complication of tasks. During the      the images formed by means of a script, a
whole previous history, cultures” pivotal         camera, actors and arrangement.
functions were to structure violence or               Presence effect and eyesight primacy
avert its chaotic forms as much as possible.      (I’ve seen it with my own eyes!) made
Currently, for the first time in history           TV extraordinary effective in organizing
humankind is facing a qualitatively new           the perceptual field and respectively, in

                                                                                                29
A. P. Nazaretyan
Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?


manipulating social beliefs, moods and                     public attention given to a terrorist attack
attitudes. A psychopathologist may even                    with the attention paid to traffic accidents
call it a controlled mass confabulation,                   and other spontaneous disasters, which
but with one specification: the process has                 regularly take much more human lives.
to do with clinical signs no more than the                 Prior attention and memorization of
rest of spiritual phenomena. In fact, we are               emotionally negative information has its
observing the acceleration of a trend, which               deep evolutionary roots, and it has been
started with the first artificial sign systems               manifested in the work of artists and
and then steadily developed. Currently,                    historians since long ago. It is commonly
we can note how even adults are regularly                  known that “negative” characters are
                                                           described and performed more vividly,
confusing their immediate impressions with                 than “positive” ones (isn’t it sublimation
the on-screen imitations, while similar faults             of the repressed aggression?). The
sometimes indeed take a pathological form                  medieval annalists wrote in details about
in case of the computer-addicted youngsters.               wars, cruelties and tragedies while after
     However, what mass media give                         the years without such events they put
preference to is also considerably conditioned             a dash or just laconically recorded that
by the basic qualities of human psyche                     there had been peace, or that nothing
that only slightly depend on cultural and                  had occurred. Respectively, we mostly
historical transformations. In spite of great              read about wars, catastrophes, heroes
diversity in individual tastes and priorities,             and betrayers in history textbooks while
                                                           peaceful life is in the shadow.
information channels within the context
of free (“market”) democratic relations                    Those who lived in the Communist
give prior attention to the emotionally                    countries     remember      the    specific
negative messages. They better respond to                  practices of the totalitarian mass media.
the event-trigger criteria; therefore, they                Administrative and censorial control
are more willingly perceived and valued                    guaranteed that negative messages from
                                                           inside the Socialist camp were almost
higher. Among them, we see uppermost the                   totally lacking. Even natural disasters
messages about destructions, tragedies and                 were mostly ignored. Thus we do not
disasters: “If it bleeds it leads”.                        find any information about the terrible
     In the flow of emotionally negative                    earthquake in Ashkhabad (1948) in
events, priority is given to those, which are              the Soviet press of that time; as to the
somehow related to human conflicts (or are                  similar earthquake in Tashkent (1965),
open to such interpretation). Among them,                  which also completely destroyed the
conflicts with participation of different                   city, the Soviet media informed about
macro-groups (class, race, ethnical or                     four (!) victims. A curious culture of
confessional) look more “interesting”; as                  whimpering was formed in the networks
                                                           of informal communication under a layer
soon as any signs of inter-group conflict are               of the brilliant official reports: men and
noticed these become central in a message.                 women were permanently complaining
                                                           about their lives, and very frequently, an
     In 1996, 100 times (!) more Russians                  innocent question: “How are you?” made
     perished      of     immediate     alcohol            pretext for lamentation.
     intoxication (an effect of cheap fake
     vodka) than in the Chechen war. However,              As soon as the gateways of M. Gorbachev’s
     as we compare the volume of newspaper                 “glasnost” (publicity) were opened in the
     pages or TV time allocated to bothtopics,             late 1980s, a flow of information about
     we get a graphic illustration of “interest”           defects and misfortunes gushed out on
     priority of inter-ethnic conflict over non-            the pages and the screens, which was
     deliberate human calamity, which is more              not just a “political design”. Journalists
     massive but not enemy-centered. We may                and mass audience longing for “the
     see a similar correlation if we compare               truth”, now relished masochistically the


30
                                                 Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                              volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 23-36


   messages about hopelessness of the past,           civilization. A conclusion easily comes to
   present and future. The information and            mind: medicine and “social progress” on
   the interpretations that had circulated in         the whole are to blame for our diseases.
   the rumors and confidential conversations           However, as we look at the situation in a
   before “glasnost” poured into the media
                                                      system context we find out that the totality
   channels, and that looked breathtaking.
                                                      of modern life styles (including medicine,
   In the 1990s, the Russian media began to           nutrition, ecology, etc.) has increased the
   work according to near-market principles           average longevity of humans 3-4 times
   (true, with the scarcity of legal thinking,        during the two centuries: according to the
   but this is a separate issue). Since then,         data of historical demographers, as late as at
   emotionally positive items, if they are not
   a political order from the top, have been
                                                      the beginning of the 19th century it did not
   treated as “advertizing” and have had              exceed twenty years even in Europe [Cohen
   difficulties in penetrating into the media          1989; Kapitsa 1999].
   without payment.                                       We can see a similar situation in the case
                                                      of mass media. Provocation incidents are
                                                      indisputable; however, to evaluate adequately
Thus, the abundance of more or less                   the system correlation of provocative and
artificially designed violence in the media            the opposite “cathartic” effects, we appeal to
is in a sense a natural and self-replicating          the conception of anthropological constants.
phenomenon. But how does this influence                    The conception claims that the level
the processes “on our side” of newspaper              of some social spirits, such as social fears,
pages, radio receivers, cinema and television         for instance, is more or less invariable in
screens and monitors?                                 big human populations, although their
                                                      forms and stimulants modify with time
Anthropological constants                             and with cultures [Guggenbűhl 1997].
Some authors attempt to prove the                     Besides, in catastrophic situations, as fears
destructive influence of mass media by                 are intensified the constant is sustained
publishing impressive figures, which testify           thanks to the polarization law discovered
that most TV characters have to do with war           by P. Sorokin [1963]: social and moral
or criminality and the major part of air time         pathologies, apathy and panic, anger and
is occupied by violent scenes. Meanwhile,             aggression are exacerbated on the one pole
causal dependence between virtual and                 while positive will, selflessness, heroism and
“out-of-the-screen” violence is not that              “altruistic transformation” are actualized
elementary.                                           on the other. (It is shown in [Nazaretyan
    Indeed, we have enough evidence that              2008] that this mechanism had far reaching
cruel scenes can provoke antisocial actions           consequences in the development of the late
of a child or a psychopathic person [Hare             Medieval Europe).
1999]. Still, in order to abstain from hasty              Most probably, social violence is one
conclusions, we may use the following                 of such anthropological constants, and it
analogy.                                              is “ineffably attractive for both adults and
    Everyone is familiar with numerous                children” [Zelensky 2000, p.198]3. This
examples of medical errors. We know many              responds both to the general conception of
cases of wrong diagnoses or unsuccessful              functional needs and to neuropsychology.
surgeries that have damaged a patient’s                   Electrical stimulation of certain neuron
health. We also know how one’s health                 groups in the limbic system creates respective
can be damaged by the traffic exhaust or               emotional experiences, fear and rage among
by immoderate or inadequate nutrition,                them [Barinaga 1992]. It is also well known
hypodynamia and other defects of the modern           that long deprivation of adequate stimuli
                                                      lowers the neuron’s excitability threshold

                                                                                                    31
A. P. Nazaretyan
Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?


[Lorenz 1981]. This is manifested in one’s           will turn to another social-psychological
behavior by the unconscious search for               observation.
dangers and conflicts. Intensified searching
behavior accompanied by “disinterested               Recreation zones
risks” in the conditions of guaranteed
wellbeing has been also observed in the              This observation is derived from the
experiments with mammals [Lorenz 1981;               historical, memoir literature, the stories of
Rotenberg, Arshavsky 1984].                          my colleagues and my personal experience.
    In the large, a living organism must             We have got multiple proofs that usually,
experience all the emotions programmed               in the midst of the turbulent war, specific
in its nervous system. Wild nature ensures           peaceful territories emerge (self-organize)
the balance of emotions, while the artificial         more or less spontaneously on which
conditions (in which humans normally live)           opposite fighters can meet without a risk
causes “negative” emotions deficit driving            of mutual aggression. I call such territories
us to seemingly senseless actions aimed at           recreation zones.
provocation and actualization of deficient                At the height of the world wars in
experiences.                                         Europe there remained neutral countries,
    The paradoxical tendency of highly               where the armed staff of military missions
organized systems to irrationally escape             were not shooting at each other and even
excessive wellbeing is designated by a               military secret service agencies tried to
general formula in complexity theory:                escape violating local laws as much as
provocation of instabilities. Although a             possible. We could see something similar
system is naturally aimed at retaining               in other regions of war. For example, in a
of sustainable non-equilibrium with its              specific commercial district Spenzar (Kabul,
environment, as soon as super-sustainability         Afghanistan) in the late 1980s, the Soviet
is achieved the agent tends to deviate from          soldiers and the Mujahidin fighters were
it and intentionally (without an immediate           neutral to each other.
external necessity) provokes risky situations            In 1970-80s, an amazing country
that sometimes menace its own existence.             Costa-Rica peacefully flourished in Central
This basic quality is distinctly manifested          America surrounded by the civil wars in
in the experiments with other mammals as             Salvador and Nicaragua. Costa-Rica did not
well.                                                have a regular army and had a small police
    To all appearance, it is just a functional       contingent, whereas the law permitted all
drive for intensive emotional experiences            citizens to possess firearms. Some of its
that is conditioning the “sinister fascination”      citizens who felt “satiated” with their calm
of violence and fear. From there, we can             life used to cross the frontier and fight on
specify one of our key theses. By the                this or that side in the neighboring countries
historically downward trend we only mean             and then turned back to their peaceful and
that social violence has been progressively          law-abiding life at home. In turn, guerillas
evolving (sublimating, or “ennobling”) from          from the neighboring countries were coming
its primary, i.e. primitive, coarse and brute        to Costa-Rican territory where they had a
forms towards the culturally modified and             secured respite.
symbolically mediated forms4. As we have
seen, the semantic rows and denotata of                    I saw a vivid evidence of the recreation
                                                           zone’s unwritten law in Costa-Rica in
respective concepts have been evolving as                  April 1989, one kilometer away from the
well.                                                      Nicaraguan frontier.
    In order to understand better what
additional options in this respect have been               The Sandinistas (left revolutionary) who
provided by the modern mass media, we                      had been in war against the right-wing


32
                                                Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                             volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 23-36


   regime of A. Somoza for many years were           ally raging war. Thus, screens and monitors
   governing at that moment in Nicaragua;            are absorbing a good deal of violence from
   now, the Somozian soldiers were waging            the “in-front-of-the-screen” social relations
   guerrilla war against the left government.        and mitigating the manifestation of all kinds
   The episode I refer to took place in the
                                                     of social contradictions – from family to po-
   deserted mountains. A group of four men
   who sympathized with left (three Costa-           litical ones.
   Ricans and one foreigner) were travelling              This ought not to be interpreted as an
   in a car and met a larger group of fifteen         appeal to connivance as far as the effects of
   right-wing guerrilla fighters (dressed as          screen violence are ambivalent. However, a
   peaceful peasants). The car stopped, the          moderate social control is to be aimed not
   travelers got out of it and the foreigner         at elimination but at optimization of both
   addressing his companions started to              volume and forms of virtual cruelty repre-
   say loudly provoking words about the              sentation. By the way, we can judge the cor-
   Nicaraguan “contras”. I expected that             relation of violence volumes “on that side”
   the guerrillas would get involved in the
                                                     and “on this side” of the screens from the
   conflict (after which the offender and
   his friends would most probably escape            situation in the regions with traditionally re-
   with their car). However, I was rather            ligious lifestyle. The sterility of mass media
   surprised to see the professional fighters         is severely supervised in such regions and
   who were near their frontier and had four-        sex is prohibited; as to the cruel scenes, one
   fold superiority in number moving away            can watch by TV mostly the execution of
   from the place of probable conflict on the         the criminals. Meanwhile, like in the “old
   neutral territory.                                good times”, the gapers can contemplate
                                                     public executions in the streets; landowners
The formation and sustainment of recreation          “educate” their farm laborers by lash and in
zones is a classical synergetic (complex-            the same manner husbands treat their wives
ity theory) effect of “order out of chaos”           and parents treat their children. Ethnical and
[Prigogine, Stengers 1984]: the island of            confessional contradictions regularly turn
peaceful order crystallizes out of the chaotic       out to become bloody tragedies in those re-
ocean of violence by using its energy for            gions. Although examples of the kind cannot
self-organization process. This effect is very       directly prove our thesis, they look rather
important for our issue to reveal the relation-      didactic.
ship between the “beyond-the-screen” and                  I see a much stronger argument in the
“in-front-of-the-screen” worlds.                     fact that the inverse feedback between virtu-
    An armed conflict with several dozens of          al and physical violence can be traced back
victims now quickly becomes a subject of             in the historical development.
attention and anxiety for millions of people.
A boy beaten by his parents or a woman               Evolution… and a bit of fantasy
killed by a maniac, a street fight and other          The independence of dynamic mental
events of the kind are multiply replicated in        processes from the immediate stimuli has
press, radio and TV in addition to the war           been progressively growing in the course
and criminal series. In correspondence with          of biological evolution and respectively, the
the “Gresham Law in information”, the im-            specific weight of the individual images in
portunate cruelty on air is experienced as           behavior determination has been increasing.
empirically perceived reality, which helps to        With the development of artificial world
satisfy the functional demand for “negative”         of culture this global trend has been
emotions. Accumulated fatigue of cruelty             accelerating and modern mass media now
creates the desire to hide from it in the recre-     represent its logical extension.
ation zone of real life, in the middle of virtu-         Among the basic functions of the

                                                                                                   33
A. P. Nazaretyan
Virtualization of Social Violence: a sign of our époque?


mammals’ games are deexcitation and                  for poly-sensorial immersion into the
regulation of intra-species contacts [Lorenz         virtual reality of active war that anyone can
1981]. We also know that all of human                intentionally enter but cannot then get out
cultures have always exploited games and             until the plot is completed. The evolution
other compensatory activities to sublimate           of the plot may essentially depend on the
aggression. Art, sports and other rituals,           actors’ individual and collective qualities,
which were sometimes amazingly cruel,                their will, courage and ingenuity; I may
served for this. Identification and empathy           even assume that political processes would
triggered the mechanism of psychological             be influenced by the results of the virtual
stress relieve, which was called catharsis by        combats. In this case, however, each
Aristotle. However, eventually the emotions          participant is authentically experiencing
caused by simulated conflicts became boring,          the entire complex of associated emotions:
the feelings lost their spontaneity and zest so      fury, fear, pain and thirst for vengeance,
that individuals and masses unconsciously            the grief of losses, the bitterness of defeats,
experienced stronger and stronger thirst for         desperation, the happiness of self-sacrifice,
the “not-for-fan” passions.                          and occasionally – the enthusiasm of victory.
    The new information technologies                 After all, as one returns emotionally fatigued
have essentially perfected and amplified              from the virtual nightmare back to the extra-
this ancient mechanism of culture and                computer reality, he/she feels pacified and
thus stimulated the next leap into the               happy with physical and psychological
“virtualization” of violence. How can we             comfort of the “recreation zone”.
imagine further course of events?                        I am far from being enthusiastic about
    In the end, the elimination of fatal violence    this futurological fantasy. My own feelings
from social reality presupposes a radical            perhaps resemble those of a savage who
reconstruction of political worldviews: this         first in his life came to a modern megapolis
is possible if the intelligence outgrows the         (we know ethnographers’ descriptions of
infantile religious and ideological attitudes,       such episodes). Anyway, the perspective
rejects the macro-group identities (“them            of further drift of human existence towards
vs. us”) and builds the world community              denaturalization and virtual reality continues
according to the “network” principle                 the evolutionary mega-trend that is the
[Nazaretyan 2010]. This prospect can be,             “digression from the natural condition”, and
in particular, provided by evolutionary              I cannot find a more reliable scenario. I am
transformations of the very agent. Inevitably        sure, our sense of humor should be always
increasing portion of artificial elements             switched on as we are thinking about the
in human organisms and minds, on the                 future; otherwise, the only other option left
one hand, and growing complexity of the              is sobbing.
artificial information systems, on the other,
may entail the formation of symbiotic
“human-machine”          intelligence,     which
overcomes the inherent shortcomings of
human thinking.
    Yet, anyway, humans so as they are               Endnotes
remain the leading agent of civilization in
the near future. Having recognized violence               A much more particular fact has been dem-
                                                           1

                                                     onstrated by the Russian sociologist A. Burovsky
as an anthropological constant, we must              [2009]. Trying to verify the declarations about
assume that perfecting the mechanisms                grown aggressiveness among the youth, he inter-
of its further “virtualization” is an integral       viewed respondents of different ages in St. Pe-
component in the scenario of survival.               tersburg. The survey shows that both male and
    We may imagine, for example, programs            female youngsters have considerably less been

34
                                               Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                            volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 23-36


subject to corporal punishment in their families     A Social-Psychological Perspective. New
and have less participated in street fights than      York: Free press, 85-108.
their fathers.
    2
      This calculation was made by V. Litvinenko     Dawkins, R. (2008). The God Delusion.
using the chronology in [Handbook… 2008].            Boston – N.Y.: A Mariner Book.
    3
      I think that not aggression [Markov 1997]
but just violence remains constant: as was men-      DeMause, L. (1982). Foundations              of
tioned above, the growth of population density       Psychohistory. N.Y.: Creative Roots.
ought to progressively elevate the common level      Flier, A.Ya. (2006). Culture as Repression.
of aggressiveness.
                                                     Moscow: Diagramma. (In Russian).
    4
      A similar trend in the individual develop-
ment has been shown by both psychologists            Flier, A.Ya. (2008). The culture of life
[Piaget 1997] and ethnographers [Munroe et al.       deprivation. Historical Psychology &
2000]: in any culture, the number of physical con-   Sociology, v.2, #2, 146-162. (In Russian).
flicts decreases as children are growing up.
                                                     Gannushkin, P.B. (1964). Voluptuousness,
                                                     cruelty and religion. Gannushkin P.B.
                                                     Selected Proceedings. Moscow: Medicine,
                                                     80-94. (In Russian).
                                                     Guggenbűhl, A. (1997). Die Unheimliche
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Barinaga, M. (1992). How scary things get            Umgang mit Aggression und Brutaltat unter
that way. Science, 258, 887-888.                     Kindern. Schweizer Spiegel Verlag Raben-
                                                     Reihe.
Boorstin, D. (1961). The Image, or, What
Happened to the American Dream. London:              Handbook of the Officer of the Armed Forces
Weidenfeld & Nicholson.                              of Russian Federation. (2008). Moscow:
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Burovsky, A.M. (2003). Crash of the Em-
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                                                     disturbing world of psychopaths among us.
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Burovsky, A.M. (2009). Youth and “the cult           Kanevsky, L. (1998). Cannibalism. Moscow:
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Clastres, P. (1967). El arco у el cesto. Alcor,      growth in human population. How many
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(Zur naturgechichte der agression).                  Nekrasov, N.A. (1953). Selected rhymes and
Munchen: Dt. Taschenbuch Verlach.                    poems. Moscow: State Editorial of Fiction.
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Petersburg: S-Pb. State University.                  victories. Moscow: Soviet Writer. (In
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                                                     Academic Project, 196-218. (In Russian).




36
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001
en las biografías individuales:
Argentina en el cambio de siglo

María Julieta Oddone
Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales
Argentina

Gloria Lynch
Universidad Nacional de Luján
Argentina


   Resumen: El artículo que presentamos tiene como objetivo indagar en la vinculación
   entre las memorias históricas, nacionales y generacionales y las memorias
   autobiográficas a partir del análisis del impacto que la crisis económica, social,
   política e institucional que estalló en la Argentina en 2001 tuvo sobre las vidas
   individuales. La perspectiva teórica que fundamenta nuestro trabajo es el enfoque
   del Curso de la Vida, enfoque que posibilita el establecimiento de vinculaciones
   entre el nivel del contexto socio-histórico y el de las trayectorias individuales. Los
   interrogantes que intentaremos responder son: ¿En qué medida la crisis del 2001
   forma parte de la memoria de los argentinos? ¿O se trata, más bien, de un impacto
   percibido diferencialmente por las distintas generaciones? ¿Cómo perciben y evalúan
   los individuos, ya sea la crisis en sí o el impacto que ha tenido en sus vidas? ¿De qué
   manera se articula el impacto contextual con las trayectorias personales? ¿Fue la
   crisis un “un punto de inflexión” en las vidas de los argentinos? Nos basamos en los
   resultados de una investigación internacional, el estudio CEVI – Cambios y Eventos en
   el Cursos de la Vida-, cuyo trabajo de campo en Argentina se realizó en el año 2004.

   Palabras Clave: crisis, memorias, curso de la vida, puntos de inflexión.




Introducción                                    que estalló en la Argentina en 2001 tuvo
                                                sobre las vidas individuales desde la
En este artículo nos referiremos,               perspectiva del paradigma del Curso de la
principalmente, al impacto que la crisis        Vida.
económica, social, política e institucional

                                                                                             37
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


    Nuestra atención se focalizará en la             aceptación.
articulación entre las memorias históricas,              El curso de la vida es un enfoque que
nacionales y generacionales y las memorias           estudia interdisciplinariamente el desarrollo
autobiográficas. Con ese propósito,                   de la vida humana, estableciendo puentes
indagaremos sobre la percepción que los              conceptuales entre: a) los procesos evolutivos
ciudadanos argentinos tienen acerca de               biológicos y psicológicos, b) el curso de la
la crisis y de la evaluación que realizan            vida como institución social, en la doble
de sus efectos. Así mismo, analizaremos              perspectiva de las regulaciones sociales y
similitudes y diferencias en el curso de             culturales y de su construcción individual y
la vida respecto de ambos aspectos y                 c) el contexto socio-histórico y los cambios
estableceremos vinculaciones entre el nivel          ocurridos. Puede definirse conceptualmente
del contexto socio-histórico y el de las             como “el estudio interdisciplinario del
trayectorias individuales.                           transcurrir de la vida humana (ontogénesis
    El interés en el estudio del impacto en          humana)” (Elder, 1998) y, operativamente,
las vidas individuales de un hecho socio-            como “una secuencia de eventos y roles
histórico significativo en la historia reciente       sociales, graduados por la edad, que están
de nuestro país, tal como lo fue la “crisis de       incrustados en la estructura social y el
2001”, nos llevó a plantearnos los siguientes        cambio histórico.” (Elder, 2001, en Blanco,
interrogantes: ¿En qué medida la crisis              2003)
del 2001 forma parte de la memoria de                    El objeto de estudio del enfoque del
los argentinos? ¿Se trata, más bien, de un           curso de la vida es una vida individual o
impacto percibido diferencialmente por las           su trayectoria. El propósito es describir
distintas generaciones? ¿Cómo perciben y             y explicar el proceso social en el cual se
evalúan los individuos, ya sea la crisis en sí       construyen los cursos de la vida individuales
o el impacto que ha tenido en sus vidas? ¿De         en relacióncon otros cursos de la vida. En el
qué manera se articula el impacto contextual         macro-nivel, el tema central es reconstruir
con las trayectorias personales? ¿Fue la             cómo se produce el interjuego entre
crisis un “un punto de inflexión” en las vidas        cambios sociales yedad, a través de cohortes
de los argentinos?                                   sucesivas.
    Las respuestas a estas preguntas                     El desarrollo del curso de la vida implica
se basaron en los resultados de una                  cambios y eventos que se producen en las
investigación internacional, el estudio CEVI         diferentes esferas de la vida, modelando
– Cambios y Eventos en el Cursos de la               una suerte de patrón o modelo. Los
Vida1, cuyo trabajo de campo en Argentina            eventos pueden constituirse en puntos de
se realizó en el año 2004. El instrumento            inflexión o pueden significar una transición
fue un cuestionario semi-estructurado que se         normativa de un rol a otro. Es decir que
aplicó a una muestra de varones y mujeres            las transiciones aparecen como puntos de
pertenecientes a cinco grupos de edad                inflexión o como experiencias clave; son
quinquenales.                                        parte de las trayectorias y les otorgan un
                                                     sentido (Hareven, 1996). Las transiciones
La perspectiva del curso de la vida                  pueden estar de acuerdo con las normas o
                                                     pueden suceder de manera impredecible.
La perspectiva del curso de la vida comenzó          En el primer caso, se habla de transiciones
a desarrollarse en las décadas del 60 y del          normativas, esperadas a una cierta edad
70. Pero, a partir de los 80, resultado tanto        en un determinado tiempo y espacio (por
del proceso de envejecimiento generacional           ejemplo, de la escolarización primaria a
como de la demanda creciente de estudios             la secundaria, de la esfera educacional a
comparativos a nivel internacional en el             la del trabajo, el casamiento y el retiro).
marco de la globalización,se aceleró su              Son períodos de cambio y crecimiento, en

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                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


los que las concepciones del sí mismo y           un modelo general del curso de la vida.
de la propia vida se transforman. Algunas             En otras situaciones, las personas
transiciones devienen puntos de inflexión y        mencionan las rupturas, lasdiscontinuidades,
pueden redireccionar el curso de la vida y        es decir, las bifurcaciones notadas en sus
fortalecer la identidad. Sin embargo, no se       trayectorias. Estas bifurcaciones pueden
espera que ciertos roles sigan a otros en un      ser el resultado de hechos sociales (crisis
orden fijo.                                        económica y pérdida del empleo, guerra y
    La     modernización        significó     la   movilización, etc.) y, por tanto, reenviar a
institucionalización del curso de la vida.        la historia, o de eventos idiosincráticos (un
Mientras las trayectorias sufrieron un proceso    accidente que provocó alguna discapacidad,
de individuación, las definiciones de las          una crisis existencial, etc.).
transiciones y las etapas etarias se volvieron        Esta ambivalencia semántica es útil
más unificadas. La totalidad del curso de la       para la investigación. En efecto, permite
vida se volvió homogéneo, comprendiendo           examinar en qué medida una persona
cuatro fases: infancia, escolarización, vida      define su trayectoria más bien en términos
laboral y retiro (Antikainen & Komonen,           de continuidad o más bien en términos de
2003).                                            ruptura, y en qué medida la discontinuidad
    Por el contrario, en las sociedades           está explícitamente vinculada con el
actuales, caracterizadas por la heterogeneidad    contexto socio-histórico.
y la fragmentación, los modelos instituidos           Por otra parte, la comprensión de las
de trayectorias y transiciones se han             trayectorias y transiciones individuales
flexibilizado. Los patrones se guían por un        desde el enfoque del curso de la vida implica
timing verdaderamente errático.                   entenderlas como una cadena de eventos
    La estructura teórica del curso de vida       personales y sociales, como un fenómeno
abarca la interdependencia temporal de            temporal e histórico, como un proceso en el
la trayectoria individual analizada con           que las tendencias de una época repercuten
los diferentes colectivosinteractuantes y,        en generaciones particulares y se entrecruzan
finalmente, la interdependencia de todos           con las decisiones individuales y con las
éstos con las instituciones y con los procesos    influencias de las estructuras económicas y
más extensos de cambio social (Oddone y           las instituciones sociales.
Gastron, 2008).                                       En un texto clásico de la teoría
    Muchos estudios en el campo del curso de      sociológica, Karl Mannheim (1928)
la vida incluyen una cuestión retrospectiva       planteaba      que     aquellos    individuos
sobre los grandes cambios de rumbo o puntos       pertenecientes a diferentes generaciones
de inflexión en las biografías individuales        que compartieron el mismo mundo en un
(Clausen, 1993; Fiske et Chiriboga, 1990;         momento histórico determinado, si bien
Hareven et Masaoka, 1988). Los resultados         debían considerarse contemporáneos, no
obtenidos han puesto en evidencia una cierta      lo eranen el nivel efectivo de lo vivido.
ambigüedad en los conceptos utilizados.           Según esta perspectiva, los miembros de
    En efecto, para algunos, los “grandes         una sociedad dada tendrían horizontes
puntos de inflexión y cambios en la vida”          temporales diferentes según su pertenencia
incluyen los cambios normativos o aquellos        a una u otra generación y compartirían,
que tienen mayor probabilidad de ocurrir          con sus pares generacionales, una suerte de
a lo largo de la vida (casamiento y, para         “melodía” común.
la mujer, la viudez; la llegada del primer            Ahora bien, aunque la posibilidad de que
hijo o la partida del hogar, la inserción en      se constituyan “generaciones históricas” está
el mercado laboral o la jubilación, etc.). En     relacionada con los procesos de la memoria
estos casos, la persona ubica las grandes         colectiva, nacional y/o generacional;
transiciones de una trayectoria conforme a        también se diferencia de ellos.

                                                                                                39
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


    La memoria histórica es la memoria               distintos mundos históricos, con específicas
trasmitida de acontecimientos no vividos             restricciones y opciones, sobre todo en
por el individuo. La memoria autobiográfica,          sociedades tan cambiantes como las actuales.
por su parte, es la memoria “de los eventos          Los cursos de vida individuales suelen
que se experimentaron personalmente en               reflejar esos tiempos (Elder, 1994). El ritmo
el pasado, surgiendo de lo vivido por las            de la historia puede producir “situaciones
personas en el marco de su contexto social.”         generacionales” propicias a la formaciónde
(Aguilar, 1996: 11) Los sujetos recuerdan            conjuntos o lazos generacionales. Un
sólo en tanto pertenecen a un grupo social y         conjunto generacional es portador de una
viven en un contexto específico; la memoria           memoria histórica que se forma desde la
reconstruye el pasado desde el presente,             adolescencia, momento en que el ser humano
desde un presente específico. (Aguilar, 1996)         se abre al mundo que lo rodea y toma
    La noción de memoria colectiva,                  conciencia de sus eventos. Esta experiencia
introducida por Hallwachs en 1925 y                  del mundo se cristaliza en la memoria y es
reformulada en 1950, hace referencia al              así como un grupo de edad se transforma en
conjunto de recuerdos más importantes                un conjunto generacional o una generación
compartidos por un grupo y a la transmisión          histórica (para diferenciarlo de la generación
entre generaciones del conocimiento de               biológica o genealógica) (Cavalli, 2006). El
los eventos o cambios que modificaron la              principio de conformación de una generación
sociedad de manera importante. La memoria            histórica es la memorización compartida de
colectiva es constructiva y no reproductiva,         episodios históricos y del sentido que llevan
lo que significa que no es estable sino que           asociados. Así, la manera en que la gente
es una recreación del pasado que se realiza          piensa sobre el mundo que lo rodea depende
desde las necesidades del presente. Está             tanto de lo que estaba pasando en el mundo
asociada a las experiencias vividas durante          en el momento en que estaba creciendo
los años de formación de la identidad de             como de lo que está pasando en el presente
una cohorte o generación. De esta manera,            (Mortimer and Shanahan, 2004).
cada generación recuerda como importantes                Diversos estudios actuales sobre los
diferentes eventos o cambios (Oddone y               eventos y los cambios históricos (Deschamps,
Lynch, 2008). Un “efecto cohorte” o de               Paez et Pennebaker, 2001; Pennebaker,
generación que se manifiesta, bien sobre el           Paez et Rimé, 1997; Schuman et Scott,
tipo de eventos que la gente recuerda, bien          1989; Scott et Zac, 1993) han mostrado
sobre la visión de conjunto de la historia           que los hechos mencionados como más
(Deschamps, 2001).                                   significativos son aquellos que ocurrieron
    Una “generación” emerge cuando los               durante la transición del individuo a la vida
eventos ocurren de manera tal que demarcan           adulta, confirmando la temprana intuición
a una cohorte en términos de conciencia              de Mannheim sobre la apertura al mundo
“socio-histórica”. El concepto “generación”          y a la historia en la adolescencia, proceso
se define, entonces, como una creación                que constituye a lamemoria como principio
social. “Cohorte”, por su parte, significa el         diferenciador de las generaciones. El hecho
agregado de individuos que experimenta los           de que un determinado grupo otorgue mayor
mismos eventos durante el mismo intervalo            importancia a un hecho histórico que a
de tiempo (Schuman y Scout, 2004). Por lo            otro, también dependerá de las necesidades
tanto, una generación puede surgir a partir          y motivaciones presentes de dicho grupo
del contexto y de los acontecimientos socio-         (Pennebaker, 1993: 49).
históricos que le corresponde vivir a una                Ahora bien, la definición de los eventos
determinada cohorte.                                 históricos importantes parece ser un proceso
    En síntesis, las diferencias en el año           psicosocial, en el que intervienen tanto las
de nacimiento colocan a los individuos en            memorias autobiográficas como colectivas

40
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


y en el que colaboran las familias, las              Los resultados que presentamos en primer
instituciones, los gobiernos, los medios         término surgen del análisis de la respuesta
de comunicación y las prácticas culturales       brindada por nuestros entrevistados a la
(Pennebaker, 1993).                              pregunta: “Consideremos ahora los grandes
    El pasado deja huellas que deben ser         eventos y cambios que se produjeron en su
evocadas y ubicadas en un marco que les          país y en el mundo en el curso de su vida.
de sentido para convertirse en memoria. Las      ¿Cuáles son los que más le impactaron?”.
memorias son simultáneamente individuales        El individuo encuestado debía describir cada
y sociales porque están mediatizadas por         evento (cuatro como máximo), situarlo en el
los discursos culturales, que siempre son        tiempo y el espacio, indicar la edad que tenía
colectivos.                                      al momento de ocurrir el hecho evocado y,
    “Sin embargo, no se puede esperar una        finalmente, dar las razones por las cuales
relación lineal o directa entre lo individual    esos eventos habían sido significativos.
y colectivo. Las inscripciones subjetivas            Operacionalmente,           entenderemos
de las experiencias no son nunca reflejos         por “memoria histórica” la codificación
especulares de los acontecimientos públicos,     selectiva de episodios socio-históricos.
por lo que no podemos esperar encontrar          Hablaremos de “memoria colectiva” cuando
una ‘integración’ o ‘ajuste’ entre memoria       una fracción calificada de las personas se
individual y memoria públicas, o la presencia    refiere a los mismos acontecimientos. Esta
de una memoria única” (Jelin, 2001).             memoria colectiva será “generacional”
                                                 cuando una fracción calificada de los
Aspectos metodológicos                           miembros de una cohorte dada comparta
                                                 la referencia a uno o varios episodios y se
Este artículo presenta resultados parciales      separe así de las otras cohortes. La memoria
del estudio CEVI – Cambios y eventos             será “nacional” cuando una fracción
en el curso de la vida. Específicamente,          calificada de los miembros de cada cohorte
nos ocuparemos de la percepción de los           existente al momento de ocurrencia de un
entrevistados argentinos acerca de la crisis     episodio histórico, lo menciona (Oddone y
económica, política e institucional que          Lynch, 2008). Siguiendo a Lalive D’Epinay
estalló en 2001, de la evaluación de los         y colaboradores (2008, 2009) hablaremos
efectos mencionados y de su articulación con     de fracción calificada cuando la mitad
la conformación nacional y/o generacional        aproximadamente de las personas del
de la memoria histórica. Haremos referencia,     conjunto considerado mencione un mismo
así mismo, a la vinculación de estos hechos      cambio.
con las biografías individuales.                     Expondremos, a continuación, algunas
    El trabajo de campo en la Argentina se       características de la “memoria histórica” de
realizó durante el año 2004 en la Ciudad de      los argentinos y de las “memorias colectivas
Buenos Aires y en localidades de provincia       generacionales”.2 Luego, analizaremos
de Buenos Aires. La muestra, de tipo             en profundidad el impacto diferencial
intencional, se estratificó en cinco grupos       de la crisis que estalló en 2001 en la
de edad quinquenales, abarcando el total de      Argentina en las cohortes seleccionadas,la
la vida adulta: 20-24, 35-39, 50-54, 65-69       percepción, evaluación y reconocimiento
y 75-84. Este recorte, que responde a una        que de ella hacen los diferentes grupos y
aproximación cronológica de posiciones           su interpretación en términos de “puntos
típicas en el recorrido de vida, circunscribe,   de inflexión” en las biografías individuales.
al mismo tiempo, cinco cohortes distintas,       Sin embargo, antes, será necesario relatar
nacidas entre 1920-1924, 1935-1939, 1950-        el proceso que hemos denominado “crisis
1954, 1965-1969 y 1980-1984. Quedó               de 2001”, proceso que involucra una serie
constituida por 572 casos.                       de sucesos que se extendieron entre 1999 y

                                                                                               41
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


2004.                                                de las empresas públicas, desregulacióny
                                                     reforma del Estado.
La crisis del 2001                                       En ese contexto, el conjunto de
                                                     reformas económicas y monetarias (entre
La sociedad argentina atravesó reiteradas            las que se destaca el establecimiento de
crisis a lo largo de su historia, todas ellas        la convertibilidad en 1991 con un tipo
resultado de la combinación de la fragilidad         de cambio fijo: un dólar igual un peso)
de los equilibrios políticos y de los vaivenes       implementadas por el gobierno nacional
de la economía. Sin embargo, ninguna de              presidido por Carlos Menem (1989-1999)
ellas puede compararse con la que estalló en         dio lugar a un proceso de crecimiento basado,
los comienzos del siglo XXI debido a que             fundamentalmente, en el endeudamiento
fueron de diferente naturaleza.                      externo. Dado que en los países desarrollados
    En efecto, las crisis características de la      había sobreabundancia de capitales, éstos se
segunda mitad del siglo XX aparecían luego           dirigieron a paísesque, como Argentina, eran
de períodos en los que se había estimulado           considerados “economías emergentes”.
el crecimiento económico por medio de la                 Así fue como la deuda pública, que era
emisión de dinero. El resultado era un proceso       de alrededor de 60 mil millones de pesos
inflacionario acompañado por un déficit de la          al inicio de la década, subió a unos 90 mil
balanza de pagos, cuya resolución implicaba          millones en 1994 y a unos 120 mil millones
un ajuste o devaluación que derivaba, a su           a fines de 1999, cuando concluyó su período
vez, en una recesión. En cambio, la crisis           el presidente Menem. Las debilidades
de 2001 estalló tras varios años de recesión,        del modelo se hicieron evidentes cuando
con deflación de precios. Veamos, a grandes           finalizó el proceso de privatizaciones que,
rasgos, cómo fue el proceso.                         junto con laventa de empresas privadas
    Entre los rasgos principales del escenario       nacionales,representó una pérdida del
internacional de los años 90 pueden                  patrimonio nacional y una consecuente
mencionarse: la caída del muro de Berlín             extranjerización sin precedentes de la
y del bloque soviético y sus consecuencias           economía argentina.
políticas e ideológicas y un proceso de                  Las tasas de crecimiento relativamente
globalización financiera, impulsado por               altas de comienzos de la década del 90
cambios tecnológicos y por la expansión de           resultaron ser muy frágiles, tanto por su
los mercados especulativos.                          impacto social parcializado y desigual como
    La ideología neoliberal o neoconsevadora         por su insostenibilidad. En efecto, al mismo
que se consolidó a partir de la caída del muro       tiempo que la economía crecía, aumentaban
-cuyo fundamento es la teoría que sostiene           la exclusión, la marginalidad, la pobreza y el
que los estados no deben intervenir en la            desempleo como resultado tanto de la nueva
economía, en tanto es el libre juego de las          matriz productiva como de la desarticulación
fuerzas del mercado el mejor asignador de            definitiva del Estado del Bienestar (iniciada
la riqueza, los recursos productivos y el            por la dictadura militar, 1976-1982).
trabajo – promovió el conjunto de principios             Hacia mediados de la década, la
y reglas propuestos en el llamado “Consenso          economía comenzó a desacelerarse a raíz
de Washington”. Sus recomendaciones                  de problemas internos y externos. Las crisis
(convertidas en imposiciones en el ámbito de         internacionales de México, Brasil, Rusia y
los organismos multilaterales de crédito, FMI,       del Sudeste asiático agravaron la situación
BID, BM, etc.) se organizaban alrededor de           debido a la baja de los precios de las
los siguientes postulados: control del gasto         exportaciones y al cambio de la tendencia
público,disciplina fiscal, liberalización del         mundial respecto del flujo de capitales hacia
comercio y del sistema financiero, fomento            los países emergentes.
de la inversión extranjera, privatización                Así, a fines de 1998 comenzó una larga

42
                                           Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                        volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


recesión que presentaba características         como presidente provisorio el Dr. Eduardo
novedosas para la sociedad argentina. La        Duhalde (2002-2003) quien inició su gestión
nueva administración, que asumió en 1999,       con una ley de emergencia económica. Se
intentó ganar confianza en los mercados          decidió abandonar la convertibilidad con
internacionales para obtener tasas de           nuevos y disímiles tipos de cambio, a los que
interés más bajas. Con ese fin, y siguiendo      se convertirían los créditos y depósitos en
los lineamientos impuestos por el FMI           los bancos y todas las obligaciones públicas
(Fondo Monetario Internacional), tomó un        y privadas. Como consecuencia de esta
conjunto de medidas cuyo resultado fue una      devaluación, los precios subierony cayeron
acentuación de la recesión que se tradujo en    los salarios reales, lo que permitió una
menor actividad y menor recaudación.            baja del gasto público. Al mismo tiempo,
    En 2001, y tras una serie de intentos       el déficit externodisminuyó porque no se
fracasados para sostener la situación fiscal,    pagaron las deudas.
se cerraron todas las posibilidades de              Los organismos internacionales, con
obtención de créditos internacionales y la      la anuencia del gobierno de los Estados
crisis se hizo imposible de detener.            Unidos, retiraron cualquier tipo de apoyo
    Durante todo ese año, se registraron        al gobierno nacional, ya que interpretaron
vastos movimientos de protesta, encabezados     que, contrariamente a lo acontecido
por las organizaciones de desocupados y         anteriormente (en México, sobre todo), el
acompañados por trabajadores privados y         de argentina no había sido un caso de crisis
estatales y docentes y, posteriormente,por      del sistema financiero internacional, sino un
productores agropecuarios, comerciantes y       ejemplo de comportamientos irresponsables.
pequeños industriales, asambleas barriales,         En 2003, y sin que se hubiera superado
grupos de ahorristas, etc.                      la crisis, se realizaron elecciones generales,
    La protesta social devino general,          resultando elegido como presidente el Dr.
manifestándose en los ámbitos económicos,       Néstor Kirchner. La situación social y
políticos y culturales, dando origen, así       política comenzó a tranquilizarse lentamente,
mismo, a una suerte de reivindicación de la     mediante la creación de una multiplicidad
soberanía nacional frente a la subordinación    de planes de asistencia social destinados
del gobierno nacional a las imposiciones de     a paliar la difícil situación de más de la
los organismos internacionales.                 mitad de la población que, como resultado
    En diciembre, se produjo un movimiento      de los procesos hasta aquí descriptos, se
de extracción de depósitos por parte de         encontraban sumergidos en la pobreza y
los ahorristas, que se detuvo impidiendo        en la indigencia. Sin tomar en cuenta las
los retiros en efectivo (corralito), lo que     variaciones de la deuda, el gobierno logró un
provocó un recrudecimiento de lasprotestas y    superávit de caja y se estabilizó el cambio.
manifestaciones en las calles (cacerolazos).    Se inició así un nuevo ciclo económico en
Finalmente, se arribó a una explosión social,   el país, cuyos primeros síntomas favorables
el 19 y 20 de diciembre de 2001, que produjo    comenzaron a evidenciarse en 2005.
por primera vez la caída de un gobierno,
el de la Alianza, sin que hubiera habido        La memoria histórica de la crisis del
intervención militar alguna. El presidente      2001
de la Rúa – sucesor de Menem – abandonó
la casa de gobierno en medio de violentos       Con el fin de describir la “memoria colectiva”
enfrentamientos entre los manifestantes y la    de los sucesos relatados en el apartado anterior
policía que dejaron un saldo de 30 muertos.     y a los que denominamos genéricamente
    Durante los meses que siguieron a la        “crisis del 2001” tomamos como universo
renuncia de de la Rúase sucedieron varios       el total de eventos mencionados (1469) por
gobiernos interinos,3 hasta que fue designado   los 572 entrevistados que constituyeron la

                                                                                              43
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


muestra.                                             nacional” de los argentinos y nos brinda
   La cantidad de personas de cada cohorte           interesantes indicios acerca de la posibilidad
que mencionó determinados acontecimientos            de identificar la existencia de “memorias
socio-históricos, nos habla de la “memoria           generacionales”4 (Cuadro Nº 1).

       20-24               35-39                50-54             65-69                 75-84
                          Gobierno           Proc. Reorg.      1º y 2º Gob.          1º y 2º Gob.
     Crisis 2001
                          Alfonsín              Nac.              Perón                 Perón
        84 %
                           51 %                 53 %               42 %                  40 %
     Atentados                                                 Proc. Reorg.
                         Crisis 2001          Malvinas                               Proc. Reorg.
      Torres                                                       Nac
                            50 %               44 %                                   Nac.40 %
       31 %                                                        40 %
                                              Gobierno          Gobierno
 Atentados Amia           Malvinas                                                    Malvinas
                                              Alfonsín           Alfonsín
      20 %                 41 %                                                        35 %
                                               38 %                27 %
      Gobierno           Proc. Reorg.
                                             Crisis 2001         Malvinas
       Menem                 Nac                                                  Crisis 2001 22 %
                                                29 %              26 %
        15 %                24 %
                          Gobierno                                                    Gobierno
     Guerra Irak                            3º Gob. Perón       Crisis 2001
                           Menem                                                      Alfonsín
       14 %                                     16 %               24 %
                            20 %                                                       13 %
                                                                              Fuente: Elaboración propia
Cuadro Nº 1: Personas que citan hechos socio-históricossegún grupo de edad (%) [Las cifras
presentadas son el resultado de calcular el porcentaje entre la cantidad de menciones que un determinado
hecho posee en una determinada cohorte y el total de personas entrevistadas pertenecientes a esa misma
cohorte]

El análisis de los datos obtenidos indica            adulta descubriendo la historia a partir de
que los hechos más mencionados por la                dos grandes catástrofes sociopolíticas, una
cohorte nacida entre los años 1980-84 son            internacional y otra nacional, ligadas a los
los relacionados con la crisis5 que estamos          efectos de la globalización.
considerando. En efecto, el 84% hizo                     Los miembros de las otras cuatro cohortes
referencia a acontecimientos y/o procesos            mencionaron como significativos aquellos
vinculados con la recesión económica o               eventos socio-históricos relacionados con la
con la crisis social, política e institucional       “dictadura militar” vigente en el país entre
acontecida en ese momento histórico.                 los años 1976 y 1983 y con la Guerra de
    En segundo lugar, esta cohorte parece            Malvinas.7 Las detenciones y desapariciones
haber sido fuertemente impactadapor los              de personas, el miedo omnipresente en la
atentados a las Torres Gemelas en EEUU               vida cotidiana y la muerte de jóvenes en la
y los eventos relacionados con ellos, como           guerra fueron los hechos más recordados
la guerra de Irak. El 42% de las personas            por los entrevistados. El 65% del grupo que
que tenían entre 20 y 24 años mencionaron            transita los treinta años, el 97% de quienes
uno de estos dos hechos. Otros atentados             tienen alrededor de cincuenta, el 66% de los
sangrientos, los perpetrados en Buenos               de sesenta años y el 75% de los de ochenta
Aires en 1992 contra la Embajada de Israel           mencionaron la dictadura, la Guerra de
y en 1994 contra la AMIA (Asociación                 Malvinas o ambas.
Mutual Israelita Argentina)6, se encuentran,             Otro acontecimiento recordado, con una
asimismo, entre los hechos más mencionados.          tendencia descendente a medida que aumenta
Es decir que esta generación entró en la vida        la edad, por estas cuatro cohortes fue el


44
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


gobierno de Alfonsín (1983-1989), tanto en             Es el caso de la “crisis de 2001”, con
sus aspectos políticos (recuperación de la         la particularidad de que es el único cambio
democracia) evaluado positivamente, como           socio-históricoque atraviesa a todos los
en los económicos (crisis, hiperinflación,          grupos de edad; siendo mencionado por el
etc.) considerados, predominantemente, de          84% de los más jóvenes y descendiendo
manera negativa.                                   hasta el 22% entre los mayores.
    Asimismo, todas las cohortes fueron                Es decir que pueden identificarse
marcadas, en mayor o menor medida, por la          especificidades en el peso relativo que los
crisis del 2001: el 50% del grupo de 35 a 39       eventos socio-históricos compartidos por
años, el 29% del segundo, el 24% del tercero       todos adquieren al interior de cada cohorte,
y el 22% del grupo de entre 75 y 84, así lo        lo que estaría indicando la presencia de
indican.                                           una “memoria colectiva generacional”
    Pero, como puede observarse en el              yuxtapuesta con una “memoria colectiva
Cuadro Nº 1, además de la importancia              nacional”.
otorgada por cada cohorte a la dictadura, a
la guerra y al gobierno de Alfonsín, existen       Percepción y evaluación de la crisis en
otros eventos que fueron recordados en             el curso de la vida
mayor o menor medida, en función de sus
propias experiencias históricas, por los               Nos interesa en este punto elucidar
distintos grupos de edad.                          algunas cuestiones relacionadas con la
    En conclusión, es posible observar             interpretación que los entrevistados dieron a
la presencia de una “memoria colectiva             la crisis de 2001.9
nacional” identificable en los cuatro grupos            El análisis de las razones que los individuos
de mayor edad, producto de los hechos              que mencionaron este evento evocan, indica
relacionados con la dictadura militar              que el tipo de impacto10 preponderante en los
(1976-1983) y con la Guerra de Malvinas            cuatro grupos más jóvenes es el individual;
(1982).8Esta memoria nacional se complejiza        mientras que el grupo de mayor edad esgrime
por las reminiscencias de acontecimientos          razones predominantemente de tipo colectivo
propios de cada grupo y por el peso dado a         (Cuadro Nº 2).
aquellos por todos mencionados.
                            20-24          35-39          50-54           65-69          75-84
 Colectivo                    39             45             45              36             60
 Individual                   59             52             55              64             40
 Ambos                        2              3               0              0              0
 Total
                          100 (107)       100 (60)       100 (33)       100 (25)       100 (20)
                                                                        Fuente: Elaboración propia
Cuadro Nº 2: Tipo de impacto de la crisis del 2001 según grupo de edad (%)
Sin embargo, existen diferencias importantes       individuales fueron: “perdí mi negocio”,
al interior de los distintos grupos de edad.       “me quedaron los ahorros en el banco”,
Los grupos que se sintieron más afectados en       “tuve miedo por mis hijos”, entre otras.
términos personales fueron, en primer lugar,       Con razones colectivas designamos a
el de entre 65 y 69 años (casi los dos tercios     aquellas tales como: “el hambre y la pobreza
del total); seguido por los más jóvenes (59        que afectó a la sociedad”, “la violencia
%).                                                desenfrenada” etc.
    Respuestas típicas clasificadas como                Respecto de la naturaleza de los efectos

                                                                                                  45
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


de la crisis, aunque en menor medida que              tenían entre 50-54 y de los mayores indican
en el caso anterior, también se evidencian            que sus consecuencias fueron concretas
diferencias entre las distintas cohortes.             (pérdida del trabajo, de los ahorros,
Mientras que alrededor de los 2/3 de los              muertes), la cifra crece a más de 3/4 en los
entrevistados de menor edad, de los que               dos restantes grupos (Cuadro Nº 3).

                           20-24            35-39            50-54           65-69         75-84
 Concreto
                             62              80                64             76            60
 Simbólico
                             38              20                36             24            40
 Total
                         100 (107)       100 (60)          100 (33)         100 (25)     100 (20)
                                                                        Fuente: Elaboración propia
Cuadro Nº 3: Naturaleza del impacto de la crisis del 2001 según grupo de edad (%)

Por supuesto, el comportamiento es inverso            cívica, reconocimiento de la necesidad de
cuando observamos las evaluaciones que                participación en los procesos de cambio).
remiten a consecuencias simbólicas (pérdida               Observemos, ahora, la distribución de las
de legitimidad política, pérdida de confianza          razones brindadas según la dimensión a la
en la democracia, aumento de la conciencia            que hace referencia (Cuadro Nº 4).

                                     20-24           35-39          50-54      65-69       75-84
 Socio-económico (*)
                                       36             53             49            60        20
 Político-institucional (**)
                                       14             12              6            4         25
 Político-ideológico (***)
                                       26             10             18            8         20
 Psicológico (****)
                                       24             25             27            28        35
 Total
                                   100 (107)        100 (59)    100 (33)      100 (25)    100 (20)
                                                                         Fuente: Elaboración propia
Cuadro Nº 4: Ámbito afectado por la crisis del 2001según grupo de edad (%)
                             (*) (políticas económicas, corralito, desocupación)
                             (**) (gobernabilidad democrática, corrupción, renuncia del presidente)
                             (***) (participación ciudadana, lucha por los derechos, protestas)
                             (****) (muerte/ temor/ inseguridad)

La mitad o más de la mitad de las razones             estar más preocupados por las cuestiones
mencionadas por los tres grupos de edad               institucionales. Los temas ideológicos, por
intermedios se relacionan con la esfera               su parte, tienen más peso entre los más
socio-económica.Mientras, en los grupos               jóvenes, mientras que las respuestas ligadas
extremos, este ámbito da cuenta de un tercio          al miedo y la inseguridad son estables en
de las justificaciones de los más jóvenes              todos los grupos, alrededor del 25%, salvo,
y un quinto de las de los más viejos. El              como ya se mencionó, entre los mayores en
ámbito más mencionado por éstos últimos               donde alcanza un 35%.
es el psicológico y son quienes parecen                   La evaluación de los efectos de la


46
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


crisis de 2001 es, en términos generales,            un sentido positivo y uno de cada diez
mayoritariamente negativa en todos los               considera que los efectos mencionados no
grupos de edad. Sin embargo, es de destacar          son ni positivos ni negativos (Cuadro Nº 5).
que uno de cada cinco jóvenes le otorga

                            20-24          35-39             50-54        65-69         75-84
 Positiva
                             21               9               6               0           15
 Negativa
                             68              88               94             100          80
 Ni una ni otra
                             11               3               0              0            5
 Total
                          100 (107)       100 (59)        100 (33)       100 (25)      100 (20)
                                                                         Fuente: Elaboración propia
Cuadro Nº 5: Valoración de los efectos de la crisis según grupos de edad (%)

Como contrapartida, vemos que el grupo               que lo sigue en edad, el de los más viejos,
de 65 a 69 en su totalidad, la valora en             en el que tuvieron mayor peso las menciones
forma negativa. Este grupo parece haber              a lo colectivo, simbólico y político-
resultado específicamente perjudicado por la          ideológico; alcanzando una evaluación
crisis, pues son sus miembros los que más            positiva o indiferente del 20%.
mencionaron efectos concretos, individuales              Esto indicaría que según cuál sea la
y referidos a cuestiones socioeconómicas.            esferainvolucrada por la crisis, la evaluación
    Contrasta, en este sentido, con el grupo         tiende a ser más o menos negativamente
                                                     ponderada (Cuadro Nº 6).

                                                Político-             Político-
                       Socio-económico                                              Psicológico
                                              Institucional          ideológica
 Positiva
                                5                    20                 46                0
 Negativa
                               94                    67                 37               97
 Ni una ni otra
                                1                    13                 17                3
 Total
                           100 (104)              100 (30)           100 (46)         100 (64)
                                                                         Fuente: Elaboración propia
Cuadro Nº 6: Valoración de los efectos de la crisis según ámbito involucrado (%)

En efecto, vemos que aquellas razones                a sus intereses, así como el hastío de la
que remiten a la esfera político-ideológica          ciudadanía respecto de la clase política.
reciben más valoraciones positivas que               Coherentemente, dos tercios de menciones
negativas. Casi la mitad de los entrevistados        referidas a las cuestiones estrictamente
para quienes la crisis del 2001 fue un hecho         institucionales de la crisis fueron valoradas
socio-histórico significativo, rescata sus            positivamente, tales como la renuncia del
aspectos representacionales, participativos,         presidente de la Rúa y el cambio de gobierno.
las movilizaciones y protestas de la                     Por el contrario, casi la totalidad de
población en contra de una política contraria        respuestas que mencionan la esfera socio-

                                                                                                  47
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo




económica o la psicológica como las                  diferencias en los distintos grupos de
más afectadas por la crisis, implican una            edad, en tanto la exposición a la crisis ha
evaluación negativa.                                 demostrado ser desigual entre ellos.
   Es esperable, además, que existan




                                                                       Fuente: Elaboración propia
 Grafico Nº 1. Evaluación positiva de los efectos de la crisis según esfera involucrada y grupo de
              edad (%)




                                                                      Fuente: Elaboración propia
 Gráfico Nº 2. Evaluación negativa de los efectos de la crisis según esfera involucrada y grupo de
              edad (%)

48
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


Efectivamente, la lectura de los datos nos         que generó la crisis. Así como ocupaba un
indica que existen importantes diferencias         rango que iba entre un 25% y un 35% de
entre las distintas cohortes. Los más jóvenes      las menciones en todos los grupos de edad,
muestran más variaciones respecto de sus           también en todos es evaluada negativamente
valoraciones de los distintos ámbitos afecta-      en su totalidad, a excepción de un 8% de
dos por la crisis. Así vemos que más de la         jóvenes para quienes ese aspecto de la crisis
mitad de los jóvenes le da un sentido posi-        no es ni positivo ni negativo.
tivo en su aspecto representacional, mien-
tras que, también, uno de cada cinco evalúa        El impacto autobiográfico de la
positivamente sus resultados institucionales.      memoria de la crisis
Destaquemos, así mismo, que para un 10%
de los jóvenes la crisis resultó ser positiva en   Sabemos que el impacto de estas memorias
términos económicos.11                             históricas en las biografías individuales no
    A medida que avanzamos en la edad, los         es directo ni inmediato. Sin embargo, cree-
efectos negativos de la crisis se incremen-        mos que pueden surgir algunas hipótesis in-
tan. Así, en el grupo de 35 a 39 años, si bien     teresantes a partir del análisis de los datos
se mantiene una mayoría de evaluaciones            referidos a la identificación de los “puntos
positivas de la esfera ideológica, quienes la      de inflexión” realizados por los mismos en-
consideran negativa aumenta a un tercio de         trevistados.
los entrevistados. Así mismo, aunque casi              En ese caso, se solicitaba a los individu-
un 15% de los miembros del grupo aún con-          os que respondieran a la siguiente pregunta:
sideran positivo los cambios en el ámbito          “Considere su vida en general, ¿cuáles han
institucional, la valoración negativa es muy       sido los principales puntos de inflexión, esos
alta, al igual que en el ámbito económico, en      momentos que hayan significado un cambio
el que alcanza un 97%.                             importante en su vida?
    En el caso del grupo de 50 a 54 años, la           De las 114 personas que mencionaron al-
tendencia mencionada continúa, al punto de         gún hecho relacionado con la crisis de 2001
que sólo aparece evaluada positivamente en         como cambio socio-histórico que afectó su
un tercio de sus menciones la esfera político-     vida, 17 (es decir, 15%) también lo mencion-
ideológica. Las demás dimensiones son con-         aron como un “punto de inflexión” en su bio-
sideradas completamente negativas.                 grafía personal.
    El grupo de 65 a 69 años completa la               Las razones por las cuales los identifica-
tendencia; la totalidad de las razones en las      ron como “puntos de inflexión” remiten, en
cuatro esferas son evaluadas negativamente.        su mayoría, acambios en la situación labo-
Efectivamente, parece haber sido el grupo,         ral. En efecto, más de la mitad (9 personas),
si no más extensamente (ver cuadro Nº 1),          mencionaron que “haber perdido el trabajo”
si el más intensamente afectado por la crisis.     había provocado trastornos profundos en sus
    Por último, el grupo de las personas           vidas y en la manera de vivirla; tres vieron
mayores tiene una mirada diferente de la sit-      partir al exilio a hijos o hermanos en busca
uación. Si bien todos sus integrantes evalúan      de trabajo, dos tuvieron que modificar sus
negativamente la esfera económica, sólo un         costumbres a raíz de haber perdido sus ahor-
40% lo hace de igual manera con la cuestión        ros y otros dos se sintieron profundamente
institucional, diferenciándose en este punto       afectados por la pobreza y la violencia de-
de los demás grupos. Mientras, un cuarto de        satada.
los mayores piensa positivamente sobre el              Siendo el trabajo una de las más impor-
matiz político ideológico de la crisis.            tantes dimensiones del curso de vida de las
    Un comentario aparte merece la esfera          personas y ocupando lugares privilegiados
psicológica, aquella que remite a los miedos,      en los modelos de transiciones normativas;
la muerte, la inseguridad, la desconfianza          la pérdida del trabajo y la imposibilidad de

                                                                                                49
María Julieta Oddone ● Gloria Lynch
Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


cumplir con los roles sociales y familiares          producto de la “hiperinflación” ocurrida en-
que de él derivan, puede, para muchos indi-          tre 1989 y 1990 fue un hecho muy recordado
viduos, transformarse en un acontecimiento           por esta generación que, en aquel momento,
disruptivo, dando lugar a transiciones no            tenía entre 20 y 24 años. La incidencia que
normativas en el curso de la vida y con-             tanto dicha experiencia como la diferencia
virtiéndose, así, en “puntos de inflexión”.           en el lugar (y por consiguiente, el cambio
                                                     en las circunstancias personales, familiares
Conclusiones                                         y sociales) ocupado en el curso de la vida en
                                                     uno y otro momentos pudieron haber tenido
Los resultados obtenidos indican que el              en la percepción y en la evaluación de la cri-
conjunto de sucesos y procesos que hemos             sis reciente, son cuestiones que deberán pro-
identificado como “crisis de 2001” formaba            fundizarse en futuras investigaciones.
parte, hacia el año 2004, de la memoria de               Los dos grupos que siguen en edad,
las distintas cohortes con las que trabaja-          aunque en menor medida, también regis-
mos en nuestra investigación. Se trataba de          traron el impacto de la crisis del 2001, sien-
acontecimientos muy cercanos en el tiempo            do muy variadas la percepción y evaluación
que impactaron en todas las generaciones,            de sus consecuencias. Las transformaciones
mostrando una tendencia a la disminución a           socio-económicas afectaron de manera espe-
medida que aumentaba la edad.                        cial a estos grupos de edad: la privatización
    El grupo que, al momento del relevami-           de empresas públicas y retiros voluntarios
ento, contaba entre 20 y 24 años fue el que          durante la década el noventa, el refugio en
más extensamente sintió el efecto de la cri-         actividades por “cuenta propia” que con la
sis. Sin dudas ha sido para ellos un evento          recesión demostraron ser insostenibles, la
histórico poderoso, en un momento de la              privatización del sistema de retiro, la confis-
vida especialmente receptivo a las experi-           cación de cuestas bancarias y ahorros, etc.
encias ligadas al cambio. Tal vez, esta im-          sin dudas incidieron en la manera en que los
pronta de la juventud explique la evaluación         miembros de estas cohortes vivieron esta
positiva predominante de las dimensiones de          etapa histórica.
la crisis más ligadas al mundo de las trans-             Los más ancianos fueron quienes menos
formaciones políticas y a las estrategias de         significado asignaron a esta crisis, una más
movilización y protesta.                             entre las tantas que les tocó vivir en sus ex-
    No es aventurado esperar que este grupo          tensas trayectorias. Y, en esta etapa, lo más
registre a lo largo del curso de a vida, la influ-    importante fue el resurgimiento del miedo y
encia de la exposición a un conflictivo espa-         la muerte.
cio social, económico y político al momento              En este sentido, es posible pensar que
de su “apertura al mundo”. Sin embargo, las          la persistencia de la preocupación por la
implicaciones respecto de cambios en los             muerte y la inseguridad y la reaparición de
“patrones de vida” o en la consolidación de          sentimientos de miedo y temor estén relacio-
una memoria generacional que evidencie las           nadas con una memoria histórica nacional.
huellas de esta crisis, podrán ser registradas           En efecto, en todos los grupos de edad
sólo en el largo plazo.                              (exceptuados los más jóvenes) otros hechos
    La cohorte de nacidos entre 1964 y               socio-históricos tuvieron impactos más
1969 también manifestó una extendida re-             profundos que la crisis del 2001. Sucesos
percusión de la crisis en sus vidas individu-        terribles, que bañaron de sangre a la socie-
ales, sin embargo, una percepción menos              dad argentina, como lo fueron las variadas
ligada a sus aspectos políticos devino en            dictaduras militares, sobre todo la denomi-
evaluaciones más negativas del conjunto              nada “Proceso de Reorganización Nacion-
de sucesos. Para este grupo, no fue ésta la          al” vigente entre 1976 y 1983 y la Guerra
primera crisis: las dificultades económicas           de Malvinas, llevada a cabo por esa misma

50
                                                Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                             volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 37-53


dictadura militar en 1982 han dejado huel-            Suiza y la Argentina y el de J. Oddone y G. Lynch
las de muerte y miedo permanentes en estas            (2008).
generaciones, huellas que se reactualizan en
                                                          3
                                                             Durante una de esas breves gestiones, el
situaciones traumáticas como las generadas            presidente Rodríguez Saa anunció que el país
                                                      dejaría de pagar sus obligaciones financieras,
durante los sucesos que hemos analizado.
                                                      entrando en default.
    En cuanto a la articulación del contexto              4
                                                            Hemos desarrollado este tema en Oddone, J.
socio-histórico con las trayectorias de vida          y Lynch, G. (2008).
personales, consideramos que los resulta-                 5
                                                             En este trabajo consideramos dentro de
dos encontrados constituyen una importante            la categoría “Crisis del 2001” eventos que en
línea de indagación que deberá ser retomada           trabajos anteriores fueron considerados de
en próximos trabajos. La puesta en relación           manera independiente: “Gobierno de la Alianza”
entre la percepción de eventos socio-históri-         y “Post-Alianza”.
cos relevantes y su identificación como
                                                          6
                                                              Estos atentados produjeron más de un
“puntos de inflexión” en las autobiografías            centenar de muertos.
                                                          7
                                                             Recordemos que la Guerra de Malvinas fue
parece ser un recurso valioso para indagar
                                                      declarada en 1982, durante el Proceso. La hemos
acerca de la forma en que se conectan las             considerado como un evento específico por la
memorias colectivas y las memorias indi-              envergadura de su impacto.
viduales.                                                 8
                                                            La última cohorte (1980-1984) es posterior a
    Pero la persistencia que los eventos rela-        la dictadura; algunos de sus miembros no habían
cionados con la crisis de 2001 tengan en la           nacido y otros sólo podían tener tres años de edad
sociedad argentina en su conjunto y en las            al momento del retorno a la democracia.
distintas generaciones en particular, es decir,           9
                                                            De las 251 menciones a la crisis del 2001, 6
la posibilidad del surgimiento de una “me-            entrevistados no brindaron razones que explicaran
moria de la crisis” dependerá del devenir             su elección, de allí que en esta sección se trabaje
                                                      con un N= 245.
histórico y de la manera en que las periódi-              10
                                                              Para una profundización de las categorías
cas y superpuestas capas deinterpretaciones           de análisis utilizadas, tanto desde un punto de
y reinterpretaciones, enmarcadas en rela-             vista teórico como metodológico, ver Aeby,
ciones sociales y de poder, reconstruyan el           G. (2007) En este trabajo, nos basamos en las
pasado desde los sucesivos presentes.                 categorizaciones allí presentadas aunque hemos
                                                      realizado algunos ajustes en beneficio de la
                                                      claridad expositiva.
                                                          11
                                                             Recordemos que es uno de los dos grupos
                                                      que mencionó más efectos individuales, junto con
                                                      la cohorte 65-69.
Notas al pie
    1
      El estudio CEVI – Cambios y eventos en el
curso de la vida – tiene como objetivos estudiar
la articulación entre la historia y la biografía,
la dinámica de los cambios y eventos propios
de una sociedad determinada y las trayectorias        Bibliografía
de vida de los individuos que participan en esta      Aeby, G. (2006). L’impact del’histoire
historia. Responsables Internacionales: C. Lalive     sur les mémoires individuelles Mémoire
d’Epinay y S. Cavalli (Universidad de Ginebra).       de license. Dir: Sandro cattacin et Stefano
Para acceder a la información completa sobre
este proyecto ver http://cig.unige.ch/recherches/
                                                      Cavalli. Université de Geneve.
cevi.html.                                            Aguilar, P. (1996). Memoria y olvido de la
    2
      Para profundizar estos temas ver los trabajos   Guerra Civil española. Madrid. Alianza
de C. Lalive D’Epinay y S. Cavalli (2007) en el       Editorial.
cual se presenta un análisis comparativo entre


                                                                                                      51
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Memoria e impacto de la crisis de 2001 en las biografías individuales: Argentina en el cambio de siglo


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                                                                                                53
54
Understanding of Globalization
in Narratives of National Identity:
the Case of Belarus
Marharyta Fabrykant
Faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences, Belarusian State University
Republic of Belarus



   Abstract: The article presents the results of research on national identity with regards
   to the issue of globalization. Four versions of globalization are identified, that of
   normative liberal unification, Westernization, glocalization and hybridization. The
   latter is taken as a point of departure for the empirical study by means of narrative
   analysis separately focusing on the content, structure and the interpretation of
   meanings of the corpus of collected narratives. The case of Belarus offers a possibility
   of considering the allegorical mode of narration of national identity. Allegory, defined
   as uniinterpretational imagery, transcends the boundaries of both ethnic and civic
   types of nationalism and between historical and ahistorical. These findings lead to
   a conclusion that not only supranational institutions may be modeled after a nation-
   state, but also a nation in the globalizing world may be narrated following the standard
   of the world history. As a result, globality may become more familiarized for late
   modern individuals than nationality, and ‘the end of history’ on the individual level
   might coexist with ‘the clash of civilizations’ on the level of international relations.

   Keywords: globalization, national identity, narrative analysis, allegorical mode of
   narration.




The issue of globalization since 1990’s has       so far no agreement with regard to the preva-
maintained its status of the central subject of   lent versus supplementary sides of globaliza-
discussion in social sciences, not only as a      tions, so theoretically all its manifestations
general background of virtually every con-        deserve equal scope of attention (D.J. Bou-
temporary social phenomenon and event,            dreaux, 2008). However, in practice the glo-
but also as a forefront motif of the late mo-     balization studies are primarily represented
dernity. It is generally agreed that globaliza-   by economical, political and legal aspects,
tion is a complicated multifaceted process,       which are supplemented by cultural effects,
but, despite the intensive debate, there exists   while psychological dimension of global-


                                                                                              55
Marharyta Fabrykant
Understanding of Globalization in Narratives of National Identity: the Case of Belarus


ization remains almost entirely in the dark.        be neither positive nor rational nor univer-
This aspect comprises a range of issues like        sal. On the contrary, it emphasizes the nega-
the features of the new vision of the world,        tive side of cross-cultural psychological uni-
changing attitudes towards others, not only         formization as propagation and imposing of
the generalized Other, and innovative ways          one personality type at the cost of others by
of attaining coherence and meaning in indi-         means of symbolic domination (G. Ritzer,
vidual life (F.J. Lechner, 2009). The impor-        2010). This Westernization process, or, to
tance of these issues is hardly disputable, but     use the term coined in by Ritzer, Macdon-
the conceptual framework and methodology            aldization, nevertheless, has not so far been
of psychological studies of globalization are       confirmed by cross-cultural and cultural
unclear.                                            psychological research, which continues to
    Some general suggestions of the psycho-         reveal both quantitative and qualitative vari-
logical changes in the globalizing world are        ety across cultures and nations.
implicitly present in the works dedicated to             It is precisely this relative stability and
the cultural aspect of globalization. Some-         self-maintenance of cross-cultural differ-
times they take form of the supposedly un-          ences in psychological traits that the third
changing human nature underlying historical         position takes into account. It seemingly
transformations and helping to make sense           paradoxical name of glocalization signifies
of them in broader historical context (A.           the psychological resistance to symbolic
Martinelli, 2005), but occasionally a more          domination in the form of reaffirming the
radically social constructionist perspective        old identities and autostereotype traits of
is adopted, and in that case the psychologi-        the so-called national character (U. Beck,
cal changes on microsocial and intrapersonal        2000). On one hand such purposeful asser-
levels constitute a part of macrosocial socio-      tion of specific attitudes, personality types
cultural situation (Z. Bauman, 1998). Cross-        and behavioral patterns may serve as a cause
cutting these two extreme viewpoints, but           of national pride and a trademark necessary
also partly overlapping with them, specific          in order to increase the prestige of a certain
positions emphasizing certain psychologi-           nation in the global village, but, on the other
cal changes may be reconstructed. We have           hand, the same process is instrumental in
identified four such positions, as follows.          bringing to the forefront both ancient inter-
    First, in some works, especially those fo-      cultural controversies and conflicts and un-
cused on the normative side of globalization        solved intranational problems, thus breeding
and its legal implementation and institution-       the feelings of ressentiment, alienation and
alization, there prevails a notion of globaliza-    hostility.
tion as a progressive trend leading to world-            The forth position, which has been ini-
wide realization of the positive potential of       tially assumed as the starting point of our
modernity, with rationality and inclination to      own research, aims at simultaneously hold-
prosocial behavior constituting the prevail-        ing in view both unifying and specifying
ing psychological traits of a new transcul-         trends and concentrates on the potentially
turally dominant personality type (J. Haber-        unlimited variety of individual coping strat-
mas, 1998). However, this position, besides         egies with regards to unique assembling
lacking sufficient empirical evidence, does          of relevant features and resources of every
not clarify to what extent the psychological        particular case. The diversity of hybridized
transformations it assumes must be regarded         identities (A.D. Smith, 2010), while serving
as prerequisites or consequences of legal and       as the short-term means of psychological
institutional innovations.                          adaptation to globalization, may in the long
    The second position, while sharing the          term evolve into qualitatively new types.
general notion of the ongoing psychological         This position does not contain a predomi-
unification, does not presume its character to       nantly positive or negative stance, and in its

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                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 55-63


neutrality provides a possibility to the whole   reliance on empirical data, as in the purely
range of empirical research.                     ethnographical research (J. Hearn, 2007),
     In our research on the contemporary         and treating the specific details as illustra-
Belarusian national identity we initially ad-    tive examples, rather than innovative sourc-
opted the view that the global context may       es, as is often, and of necessity, the case
have as great an impact on its current state     with sociohistorical overviews of national-
as the national past, partly because the pre-    ism studies (S. Grosby, 2005). Unlike most
vailing mode of narration of the national his-   other research on narrating national identity
tory might be dependent on the intercultural     (H.K. Bhabha, 1990), ours does not attempt
information flows as well as on the specific       to reconstruct great narratives and counter-
inherited content, and that this mode of nar-    narratives constituting the identity of the na-
ration is most productively conceptualized       tion, but explores the variety of individual
as neither a neutral medium of nor an ob-        narratives of national identity, following the
stacle to the content, but as a separate sub-    afore-mentioned distinction between the two
ject of study by means of narrative analysis.    concepts.
Unlike the prevailing tradition in the stud-         The narratives were collected in written
ies of nations and nationalism (C. Calhoun,      form, because the pilot study revealed the
1997), we presume the necessity of the dif-      fact that during the narrative interview par-
ferentiation between the identity of a nation    ticipants persistently prompted an interview-
as a whole on the macrosocial level and the      er, whom they considered a specialist on the
national identity in its proper sense as one     subject, for clues, declaring themselves at a
among other kinds of the social identity of      loss when choosing particular topics related
an individual. According to such differen-       to the subject. As the selection of rhemes
tiation, national identities are not to be au-   relevant to the theme of national identity,
tomatically deduced from the identity of a       not merely discovering opinions on an im-
given nation, but studies separately in their    posed and predefined set of issues, was the
diversity. The methods of such empirical re-     primary object of interest regarding the con-
search, its results regarding the case of the    tent of narratives, providing such clues was
contemporary Belarus and discussion of the       undesirable. Therefore, participants were
possible wider theoretical significance of        asked to produce a written narrative with
these findings are consequently presented in      the following fixed instruction: “Compose
the further three part of this article.          a narrative of yourself as a representative
                                                 of a certain nation or nations. You may de-
Methods and Sample                               scribe your experience of initial awareness
                                                 of your national identity, its role in your life,
Sociopsychological research on national          significance to you of nationwide important
identity by means of narrative analysis          events, experience of contacts with represen-
seems both justified and promising, because       tatives of other nations and any other rele-
this method corresponds to the central issue     vant events”. The instruction was available
of the contemporary debate on identity as a      for every participant either in Belarusian or
logical category, which has time at the core     Russian (the two official languages in the
of its famous paradoxes (R.A. Sorensen,          Republic of Belarus since 1995), according
2005), and also because narrative analysis       to one’s individual choice. The equivalence
allows to approach the allegedly intangible      of instruction texts in both languages was
intricacies of complicated psychosocial dis-     obtained by means of the standard procedure
cursive formations and does so in a struc-       of multiple reverse translations. Neither the
tured way, enabling interpretation that is at    size of a narrative nor the time of its writing
once data-oriented and theory-driven. Thus,      were limited.
narrative analysis escapes both one-sided            In total, 500 narratives were collected

                                                                                               57
Marharyta Fabrykant
Understanding of Globalization in Narratives of National Identity: the Case of Belarus


between 2007 and 2009 from Belarusian               to explicit criteria and then classifying each
citizens of various nationalities according         fragment separately. This procedure was
to self-definition, while 83% declared them-         described in detail by Barthes (R. Barthes,
selves representatives of Belarusian nation,        1985). In our case, the fragments were not
which corresponds to the number of self-            linguistically defined lexies, but what we
defined Belarusians in the last national cen-        named temporal episodes. The transition
sus. All 6 regions of the country were rep-         from one temporal episode to another occurs
resented proportionally, the same being true        with the change of time (past, present, fu-
for other principal demographic parameters,         ture with regard to the moment of narration),
such as gender, education, type of locality         tense (unique events, repeated events, com-
and age. With regard to the last parameter,         plete prolonged states similar to Braudel’s
the youngest research participants who dur-         notion of long durations (F.Braudel, 1980),
ing the pilot study proven themselves able of       or states started in the past and continuing up
constructing a coherent narrative of national       to the present, regarding the moment of nar-
identity were those 11 years old. Given this        ration) and/or modality (real, hypothetical or
considerable age variation, comparison be-          imaginary, according to the narrator’s own
tween different age groups became one of            viewpoint). Each temporal episode was then
the principal motifs of study and yielded           classified considering its main topic (e.g.
some important results, as will be specified         statement of one’s national self-identifica-
in the next section.                                tion, attitudes towards other nations etc.),
    The primary data were interpreted ac-           way of narrator’s self-positioning (as a bear-
cording to the three types of narrative             er of universal truths, defendant of subjec-
analysis differentiated by László (J. László,       tive opinions, sufferer for one’s nation etc.)
2008). Content of the corpus of narratives          and, when appropriate, stylistic peculiarities
was examined, which allowed to define pre-           ( e.g. use of quotations, fragments in a for-
vailing topics and, what is also important,         eign language etc.). As a result, we were able
topics that are almost entirely absent from         to identify the most typical topics and ways
Belarusian narratives of national identity,         of positioning and analyze their relation to
but ought to occupy prominent positions ac-         the temporal aspect of narratives.
cording to general theories of nationality. It          The second procedure, corresponding
is the configuration of these topics, and not        primarily to the hermeneutical and also in-
merely separate explicitly voiced opinions,         directly to the structural types of narrative
that contains a full notion of narrator’s un-       analyses, was derived from Fludernik’s re-
derstanding of the subject. The analysis of         search program of the ‘natural narratology’
content was supplemented by that of the             (M. Fludernik, 1996). It is based on the no-
form, revealing the predominant temporal            tion that modes of narration are not invented
structure of narratives. The third, hermeneu-       by any person in absolute isolation, but are
tical version of narrative analysis was instru-     socially constructed and then learned and, to
mental in establishing links between formal         different extents, interiorized by individuals.
and contentual features of the narratives, un-      In this ongoing process, literature, where the
covering variety of in-depth meanings and           form is the essential part of the message,
placing the research results into a broader         plays the generative function, while the non-
framework of relevance.                             fictional field of the ‘natural narratives’, far
    This combined model of narrative analy-         from passively adopting certain modes of
sis involving all the three types was realized      narration, actively reconstructs and inter-
by means of two procedures. The first, cor-          twines them activating various mechanisms
responding to analysis of content and formal        of metatextuality. Therefore, the analytical
structure of the narrative, was based on di-        resources originally developed in literary
viding each text into fragments according           theory might be applied to non-fictional ev-

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                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 55-63


eryday narratives. In our attempt to adjust        distant past or the extended present of their
the program of the ‘natural narratology’ to        own nation (which is the grassroot genesis
the psychological study of national identity       of nationality as presented, accordingly, in
we were able to identify the predominant           primordialist and modernist theories), but in-
mode of narration of the contemporary Be-          stead are developed from tacit or, much rarer,
larusian national identity as a metaphor of a      open comparison of one’s own nation with
certain literary genre. This helped to develop     other nations, which serve as a model. These
a mutual interpretation of separate temporal       results challenge the established view that
episode and the corpus of collected narra-         nationalism as an ideology, political system
tives as a whole in the hermeneutical circle,      and/or worldview originally developed in a
as described in the next section of the article.   certain geographical region and then export-
                                                   ed in the form of an abstract scheme, while
Results                                            gradually adjusting itself to local conditions
                                                   and subdividing into a very limited number
The first significant feature of Belarusian          of variations like Cohn’s binary opposition
narratives in their contentual aspect is that      of Eastern and Western nationalisms or Gell-
the issues related to globalization are raised     ner’s four climate zones of nationality. The
in most narratives, even though this particu-      narrative analysis proves ideas of what is a
lar elaboration of the theme of national iden-     nation on the individual, everyday level to
tity is neither necessary nor obvious, espe-       be much more numerous, intrinsically plural
cially considering the relatively minor role       and logically incoherent. Far from develop-
contemporary globalization theories play in        ing a complete scheme of an ideal or proto-
influential theories of and approaches to na-       typic nation in the cognitivist sense, and then
tionality. These issues include not only the       applying them to particular cases, narrators
topic of intercultural contacts, but also het-     actively reconstruct specific notions of their
erostereotypes of the narrator’s own nation,       own and other nations which are deeply in-
heterostereotypes of other nations, status of      grained in varying contexts of national and
the narrator’s own nation in the world com-        individual histories without apparent medi-
munity, and future of the world of nations.        ating of an abstract prototype. This narrative
Besides, some topics of a more abstract na-        identity of a nations makes room for subtle
ture were introduced, like ethical principles      qualitative gradations. For instance, the Be-
of international relations (statements of          larusian nation may be considered more or
equality of all nations, the necessity of op-      less of a nation in some historical cases, and
posing xenophobia and racism, relative un-         also in comparison with certain other na-
importance of a person’s nationality in com-       tions, which is not essentialist and static, but
parison with her unique personality traits         derived from a context of international rela-
among the most frequently mentioned) and           tions. Therefore, we may contrast two sides
generalized criteria establishing either an in-    of globalization – intensification of intercul-
dividual’s national identity or an identity of     tural contacts vs. worldwide popularization
a certain nation.                                  of certain ideas and practices – and conclude
    The last topic deserves special consid-        of prevailing significance of the former for
eration. Unlike in the theoretical discourse       the contemporary national identity.
on the correct definition of the nation, in             The reason and, partly, cause of this
Belarusian narratives of national identity the     features of the corpus of narratives may be
features of a given community that are nec-        suggested by supplementing the analysis of
essary and sufficient for recognizing it a na-      content by considering their temporal struc-
tion are derived neither from a general per-       ture. The two prototypical modes of histori-
spective (which is overtly characteristic of       cal narration are historicist and positivist,
the theoretical discourse itself) nor from the     developed accordingly by the German and

                                                                                                59
Marharyta Fabrykant
Understanding of Globalization in Narratives of National Identity: the Case of Belarus


Prussian schools of historical science. While       lishing the homogenious uneventful meta-
the positivist historian regards history as co-     present time.
herent collection of facts of the past, in von          The mode of narration of Belarusian na-
Ranke’s famous words, “wie es eigentlich            tional identity with relation to globalization
gewesen ist” – ‘as it really was’ (L. von           evolves in the ahistorical present of univer-
Ranke, 2008, 1), the proponent of histori-          sally, that is, globally valid truths. Histori-
cism aims and providing an interpretation           cal components of narratives are introduced
grasping the sense and meaning of a stud-           in the form of miniplots with no immediate
ied region or epoch, and therefore relies on a      connection between them even within the
general philosophy of history providing the         same narrative. The marked absence of great
unity of the past, present and future. While        narratives, be it of individual, national or
the positivist concern almost exclusively           world history, nevertheless, does not mean
with the past dominates historical science          in this case the lack of unity. On the contrary,
both in its positivist and antipositivist ver-      the atemporal mode of narration is present to
sions, the consistency and continuity of in-        a certain extent in all the collected narratives
dividual history is considered a norm in both       and is culturally shared. So are the prevail-
narrative (M. Bal, 2004) and non-narrative          ing topics. This atemporal narration of uni-
(E.H. Erikson, 1993) psychological theories         versal truths embedded in particular contexts
of identity.                                        gives impression of a coping strategy aimed
    Surprisingly, Belarusian narratives of na-      at understanding of narrator’s nation, as well
tional identity correspond to neither of these      as her own, place in the globalizing world.
modes of narration. Only a relatively small         Instead of deriving abstract notions from ev-
minority of all temporal episodes describes         eryday factual experience or, contrariwise,
the past, an even smaller minority refers to        adjusting imported theories and values to lo-
the future, while the majority of episodes          cal realities, narrators consistently try to blur
correspond to the present state of events. Be-      the boundary between universal and particu-
sides, in all times of narration the prevailing     lar, temporal and atemporal, national and
tense is that of prolonged states rather than       global. This structure suggests a notion of an
events, and periodically repeated recurrent         individual inhabiting two separate world of
events rather than individual changes, al-          nationality and globality, instead of the tradi-
though the last ones theoretically constitute       tional hierarchy of local, national, regional,
the backbone of what is termed the “good            global.
narrative”.                                             The combination of contentual and struc-
    This narrative present, in turn, can be         tural perspectives in narrative analysis pro-
subdivided into two types, neither of which         vides a functional explanation of the strat-
resembles the present time in the literal,          egies of understanding globalization in the
mathematically precise sense, that is, a mo-        corpus of narratives under consideration.
ment without duration. The first type of the         Adding the hermeneutical perspective al-
present-oriented temporal episodes narrates         lows to analyze the significance of this par-
the states of limited, albeit sometimes quite       ticular mode of narration and its probable
vaguely specified duration, with a defin-             practical consequences.
able beginning and end. The other and more              Following the program of the ‘natural
numerous type, which might be named the             narratology’ offered by Fludernik, we re-
ahistorical present, describes allegedly eter-      vised the wide range of prototypical liter-
nal states of matters, purportedly universal        ary narratives in order to discover the genre
truths. Such parts of narratives do not pro-        characteristics of which most closely resem-
vide continuity between the past, present           ble those of the structure of narratives of Be-
and future, but go further up to the very dis-      larusian national identity. The only literary
solution of their external borders and estab-       genre that shares the features of focusing on

60
                                              Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                           volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 55-63


universal truth with strong ethical stance and      in Latvia, when returning with my university
presents them not abstractly, but in the form       group from etudes, I heard “Russian swine”
of illustrative images, heroes and events, is       addressed at us. I did not think myself Rus-
that of allegory. Allegory can be succinctly        sian and could not accept it. After that event
defined as uniinterpretational imagery. This         we all started speaking Belarusian, and then
mode of narration of national identity is un-       they took us for Poles or Ukrainians”. The
usual for two reasons.                              narrator gives no evaluation and no com-
    First, allegorical literature was typical in    ment. She does not explain why the group of
the form of long poems and novels for the           Belarusian students initially spoke Russian,
medieval literature and, in the form of fables      why the derogatory remark made them turn
and plays, for the Classicism. Both these pe-       to the Belarusian language instead of, for
riods are characterized by prevalence of uni-       instance, ignoring or opposing it, and why
versalism over particularism, be it in ethnic,      even that measure did not lead to recognition
national or other version, and especially so        of their true nationality. The understanding
in the high culture of ruling elites.               of the bitter irony conveyed by the outcome
    Second, the allegorical mode of narra-          of the story requires not only the through
tion corresponds to neither civic nor ethnic        acquaintance with the linguistic situation
nationalism (A.D. Smith, 1991). Civic na-           in Belarus and its historical background,
tionalism presupposes agreement on a set of         but also viewing it from the committed in-
nationally relevant views that construct the        sider’s perspective. The allegorical narrative
nation as a political unity, but, unlike in the     relies on a shared cultural code and presup-
allegory, these views are primarily abstract        poses initial mutual understanding, therefore
and rational, with imagery playing a small          it may serve for presenting the globalized
and occasional part, mainly because the             world to other members of one’s own nation,
agreement on their truthfulness is developed        but not vice versa.
in the process of open discussion, not nar-
ratively retold and enacted. Ethnic national-       Discussion
ism, on the other hand, represents the nation
as an ethnocultural unity and is character-         The issue of extrapolation of results of any
ized by deep symbolism opening via nation-          sociopsychological research to a broader
al identity the way to metaphysical truths.         context of potential relevance has to be ap-
Both the symbol and the allegory share the          proached in a very cautious way. In this ar-
form of images, but, unlike the allegory, the       ticle, we did not aim to exhaust the subject
symbol presupposes the potentially illimit-         of Belarusian national identity, nor to derive
able variety of interpretations, with its initial   from it some general rule, but to broaden the
image serving as a starting point for multiple      understanding of the variety of ways of nar-
and diverse content. The allegorical image is       rating national identity in the context of glo-
at once a beginning and an end of interpreta-       balization by means of empirically proving
tion and, unlike a symbolic image, it can be        thepossibility of cases non sufficiently ex-
either understood or misunderstood, but not         plicable by existing theories. The Belarusian
interpreted in various ways. Allegory relies        case is likely to abound in such examples,
on a shared cultural code and reaffirms al-          because Belarus still remains underrepre-
ready known and accepted notions, without           sented in many fields of research, especially
putting forward new ideas or offering new           on the global level.
justification.                                           The allegorical mode of narration of nar-
    The following narrative fragment pro-           rative identity, which diffuses historical and
vides an example of such allegorical mode           ahistorical, transcends the limits of civic vs.
of narration.                                       ethnic nationalisms and presupposes un-
    “When I was 19, during artistic practice        derstanding instead of its intersubjesctive

                                                                                                 61
Marharyta Fabrykant
Understanding of Globalization in Narratives of National Identity: the Case of Belarus


construction, reminds of an anecdotal fig-           Bauman, Z. Globalization: the human con-
ure of a Belarusian who enters a bookshop           sequences. NY: Columbia University Press.
and demands a globe of Belarus. Not only
                                                    Beck, U. What is globalization? Oxford:
Belarus and the global world are presented
                                                    Blackwell Publishing.
in the narratives as two separate realities,
but Belarus is constructed as a model of the        Bhabha, H.K. (1990) Nation and narration.
world, with the same level of representation        London: Routledge.
of universal truths and the same self-suffi-
ciency. In the past, the nation, or, more pre-      Boudreaux, D.J. (2008) Globalization.
cisely, the nation-state served as a prototype      Westport: Greenwood Press.
for supranational structures like the Euro-         Braudel, F. (1980) On history. Chicago: The
pean Union, transnational corporations with         University of Chicago Press.
their elaborate organizational culture and the
projects of the unified world. The results of        Calhoun, C. (1997) Nationalism. London:
our research show that in the near future it is     Open University Press.
possible that, contrariwise, the structure of       Erikson, E.H. (1993) Childhood and society.
the global world may become a prototype,            New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
so much so that the nation might be psycho-
logically and, as a result, even institutionally    Fabrykant, M. (2009) National identity cri-
reconstructed according to that model. Hav-         sis in globalization era: Iliad vs. Odyssey
ing inherited the mental image of one’s own         paradigms. A paper presented at the 7th inter-
nation against the background of transcen-          national interdisciplinary young scientists’
dent reality, we may create the limited, im-        conference ‘Shevchenkivska vesna-2009’,
manent world which familiar unity contains          Kyiv, Ukraine.
and hides on the opposite side the unfamiliar       Fludernik, M. (1996) Towards a `Natural’
multitude of nation-worlds instead of na-           Narratology. New York and London:
tion-states (Fabrykant, 2009). This order of        Routledge.
things may lead to increasing individualism
in the form of transworld identity, moving          Grosby, S. (2005) Nationalism: a very short
freely from one historical narrative to an-         introduction. Oxford: Oxford University
other, which reproduces ‘the end of history’        Press.
on the microsocial level of global citizens         Habermas,      J.     Die            postnationale
and ‘clashes of civilizations’ on the level         Konstellation.    Frankfurt           am    Main:
of international relations. Such perspective        Suhrkamp Verlag.
is merely a suggestion and for its detaliza-
tion and verification requires much further          Hearn, J. (2007) National identity: banal,
research.                                           personal and embedded. Nations and
                                                    nationalism, 13, 657–674.
                                                    László, J. (2008). The science of Stories: An
                                                    introduction in Narrative Psychology. New
                                                    York and London: Routledge.
                                                    Lechner, F.J. (2009) Globalization: The
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Ranke, L. von. (2008) Geschichte der ro-     don: Penguin Books.
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Smith, A.D. (1991) National identity. Lon-




                                                                                           63
64
Global Self in local Worlds. Romanian
students’ Environment Protection Values
Loredana Ivan
National School of Political Sciences and Public Administration, Bucharest
Romania



   Abstract: Using “cultural creatives” concept (Ray & Anderson, 2000) and the idea
   of self-actualized individual suggestd by Maslow (1954), we predict that people with
   high self actualized scores would be more ecological values’ oriented. The research
   was based on an omnibus questionnaire applied on 705 convenience student sample.
   The results suggest that Romanian students are in the process of adapted new global
   ecological values to their self identity so they are willing to pay more for products
   and utilities in order to pollute less. However their interest in environment protection
   issues is moderate, bellow the mean EU level. The article argues abut some possible
   explanations on such paradox: on the one side students are more concern about new
   job creation and less concern about environmental issues, on the other side they
   express they willingness to pay for things that pollute less.

   Key words: cultural creatives, self-actualization, ecological values




Ever since ’70 we talk about the postmodern      as to redefine the existing ones in relative
individual, who is looking for self-actualiz-    terms is quite new (Robertson, 1992, 25).
ing and self-enhancing to the greatest poten-    However the public discourse has the mark
tial, constantly re-model his own values so      of a global conscience: we use the word
to include those concerning general preoc-       “global order” or “international economic
cupation to the humanity well-being and to       crisis” to describe current economic and
the environment protection. There is a great     political problems, “global product” or
pressure for contemporary individuals to in-     “global human rights” and we also reffer
clude in their self-identity ecological values   to “saving The Planet” when we claim the
and this became clear when the ex American       necessity of convergent ecological measures.
vice-president, Al Gore received The Peace          In 2007 an environmental protection
Nobel Price in 2007 due to his interest in          organisation suggested for the first
ecological issues.                                  time the celebration of Earth Hour in
     The idea of a global self as a way to in-      Sidney, Australia to draw the attention
                                                    on global warming issue. Aproximately
clude global preferences and values as well         two million people took part and turned

                                                                                              65
Loredana Ivan
Global Self in local Worlds. Romanian students’ Environment Protection Values


     off the electricity in their households for   exotic places and simple life styles
     one hour, but this was only the beginning.    attraction, increased concern about nature
     Next year, in 2008, the last Sunday of        and ecological issues, voluntary behavior
     March, between 20:00-21:00 oficially           and altruistic actions, self actualization
     became Earth Hour and 50 million
                                                   and interest to new spiritual or religious
     people from all around world, in 35
     countries and 370 cities agreed to turn       movements. In fact, the focus on ecological
     off entirely electricity in their houses      values is a core factor which differentiates
     and offices. The most important media          between cultural creatives and moderns.
     companies broadcasted the event and           Ray and Anderson argue that environment
     cultural, sports and political leadears       protection values are core values shared by
     offered their support, while concerts         cultural creatives. Although environment
     accompanied the event in the largest          protection movements       are     generally
     participant cities. Such a impact of an       accepted and embraced, cultural creatives
     ecological manifest was not expected and      group exceeds not only by accepting
     even created a competition among cities
                                                   ecological issues as important in their lives
     concerning the amont of saved evergy.
     Probably having still bad memories            but also by acting according to such values
     about forced turning off the electricity in   willing to engage themselves in environment
     communistic period, Romanians reacted         protection actions.
     with schepticism to the Earth Hour event          Cultural creatives are not necessarily
     and only few cities, including Bucharest          better at tuning in to ecological needs
     and Timisoara, partially took part and            than anyone else, but they want to be.
     tuned off electricity within the main             In their personal lives and in the social
     institutional buildings.                          ventures they are creating, they are
                                                       eagerly – sometimes awkwardly and
                                                       haltingly – making room to learn wholly
The Earth Hour event is a good illustration            new ways of working. And they are
of the way individuals could proceed in re-            taking time, or trying to, to listen to how
building their selves so to include global val-        their consciousness and their conscience
ues. Time and space compression (Harvey,               respond (Ray & Anderson, 2000, 164).
1989) meaning to reduce time of individual
behavior outcome and to reduce distance            The values surveys conducted in US by Ray
among different community actions could            and collaborators estimate the percentage
be seen as the main challenges to our self-        of those very much concerned about
identity. Individual is facing the action con-     environment issues from 79% to 85%. These
centration on global level and the localiza-       are the individuals who value a life change
tion of value spectrum (Giddens, 1990) and         in order to become environment friendly.
he has to adjust to both of them.                  Although such percentage are higher in
    The anthropologist Paul Ray and                European surveys and especially during past
psychologist Sherry Ruth Anderson (2000)           ten years, between 70% and 90%, Ray and
are talking about a new value spectrum that        Anderson (2000) noticed that almost all
emerges on global level, called cultural           (96%) of the respondents from the cultural
creatives. They described a new cultural           creatives group appreciate and are willing
group expanded in US and West Europe,              to embrace an environment friendly life
aside to the traditional oriented and modern       style, proving that ecological values are
individuals, who shares a common life style        core values to this group. Cultural creatives
and preferences about spiritual, ecological,       value nature as scare and treat ecological
consumption and relational aspects. In terms       values similar to religious or spiritual ones.
of values, cultural creatives are described        The relationship between us and The Planet
by the need to rebuild communities,                changes, in their opinions, the way we react
concern about families and human rights,

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                                                Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                             volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 65-73


toward everything else.                              behavior to the self-actualize concept. Later
    Identifying themselves with ecological           in the literature (see Yonge, 1975) self-
values, cultural creatives are changing their        actualization is associated with spontaneity
perspective over self-actualization process          and creativity, simplicity in everyday life
including patterns of ecological behavior            and lack of inhibition or concern about
as a way to achieve maximum potential and            social conventions reinforcement. Thus, the
ecological values within values spectrum             self-actualized individuals are willing to
shared with significant others:                       adopt the emergent values so we expect to
   they are concerned with redesigning every         find them among the cultural creatives. Even
   aspect of our culture to be ecologically          though Maslow is talking about individual
   sound: how our cities and towns can be            personality while Ray and Anderson are
   laid out; how our transportation system           talking about value orientation, a research
   could work; how new technology can
   be used in products, businesses, and
                                                     conducted on a homogeneous sample (similar
   industrial processes; how business can be         social-demographic characteristics) would
   organised; how to measure the value of            reveal whether cultural creatives’ values,
   a company or the cost of a government             particularly the ecological ones are to be
   project; how we live in our homes; how            found among the self-actualized individuals.
   we can get our clubs and associations             Such a hypothesis is supported also by the
   involved in a new way of life; how we             fact that cultural creatives is described as
   live in community, or fail to; and how we         a militant, activist group, always involved
   partifipate in civic culture, or not (Ray &        in social or environment protection actions
   Anderson, 2000, 166).                             they believe in.
                                                         Interestingly, the Ecologists often
We predict that the probability to find                   recognize their interdependence with
                                                         other new social movements […] many
cultural creatives’ values are higher among
                                                         Ecologists were, and still are, engaged
those with actualized-self and particularity,            in the women’s movement, the peace
the ecological values are predominant                    movement, and other movements (Ray &
among the individuals who are looking                    Anderson, 2000, 166).
for individual enhancing and spiritual
development.
    The idea of self-actualized individuals          Other contemporary researches (Sijuwade,
belongs to Abraham Maslow (1954),                    1996) have proved experimentally that self
describing individuals that, in a process of         actualized individuals prefere intimacy and
achieving their maximum self potential, tend         authonomy and also they are more interna-
to judge others more objective and accurate,         lists than externalists. Cultural creatives are
are less affected by cognitive errors and            also described by Ray and Anderson as loo-
stereotypes, accept the complexity of                king for unicity in consumer behavior and
human nature, are centered on external               generally speaking individualised goods and
problems more then on individual problems.           services.
“They think about themselves as having a                 “The innocent look” Maslow is talking
mission, a role to play in solving humanity          about when he reffers to self actualizing in-
problems so they follow a broader value              dividuals denotes pleasure for simple things,
spectrum, not necessary local but universal          for “natural beauty” or for what individuals
and general” (Maslow, 1954/2007, pp.                 considered to be beautiful and also ethical
263-276). It is similar to fully functioning         behavior using a clear means-purposes se-
individual, concept suggested by the                 paration. Such atributes are common to cul-
humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers (1959),          tural creaties group who are also described
although Maslow associates sincerity, lack           as nondiscriminatory individuals, feeling
of hypocrisy, and natural non-deceitful              the connection with others and the rejecti-

                                                                                                   67
Loredana Ivan
Global Self in local Worlds. Romanian students’ Environment Protection Values


on of profit oriented corporations in favor         ous” for a sample of individuals with similar
of environment protection actions. In other        age, gender, occupation.
words we expect that democratic values and
respect of others to be common features for        Method
self-actualized individuals.
    Self-actualized individuals are also de-       Cultural creative values were identifying
scribed as strongly connected with others,         on Romanian students using a sociological
preffering strong ties instead of numerous         survey conducted on national level. A con-
weak ties, so similar to cultural creatives        venience 705 students sample has been se-
ones who are preocupied to rebuild commu-          lected from the biggest five university cities
nities and to return to community life style.      in Romania. The respondents had to fill an
Maslow argues that self-actualized individu-       omnibus questionnaire refer the cultural cre-
als resist enculturalization process, rejecting    atives dimensions explained above. As a part
dominant culture and its values. This parti-       of ecological values dimension of the cul-
cular form of cultural resistance practically      tural creatives concept we address questions
defines them as a group sharing the same va-        about their perceived importance of different
lues, while neither following the dominant         environment protection issues (e.g. “The en-
trend, nor caring about wearing fasionable         vironment protection is less important than
clothes or leading fashionable lives in gene-      job creating”, “A radical change in our life
ral, since such things are of less relevance       is needed if we want to stop the environment
to them. Nevertheless, they are preoccupied        destruction”. Additionally they were asked
with creating their own style of simplicity        to express the level of concern to current
and indifference to trends. Such a portrait        environment issues debated in public sphere
of self-actualized individuls is similar to the    (e.g. air, water and soil pollution, ozone
one constructed by Ray and Anderson when           layer destruction, global warming) and to
defining cultural creatives, especially on the      mention the frequency of the ecological be-
consumerism dimension: they are interested         haviors as the sorting the domestic waste,
in clothes’ functionality and are generally re-    saving electricity and water, buying organic
luctant to embrance an opulent lifestyle.          products). Questions about their willingness
    Regarded by Ray and Anderson as a di-          to pay more for certain goods and services
mension of cultural creatives concept and          in order to pollute less were also addressed
relatively ignored in their data analysis, self-   in the end.
actualization may well be the aspect diffe-            In order to measure the self-actualiza-
rentiating various degrees of ecological va-       tion, we used Personal Orientation Inven-
lues orientations, especially in homogeneous       tory (POI), released by Everett L. Shostrom
research groups. All the more so, since the        (1963/1996). POI is a 14 scales a standard-
term “self-actualization” has been much un-        ized instrument following self-actualization
der discussion in the social-psychological li-     dimensions suggested by Maslow. Forgaty
terature for over half a century, standardised     (1994) has proved POI validity on student
scales have been used to measure it.               samples but this is the first large scale re-
    With these two concepts defined as such,        search in Romania using POI test. A proper
we hypothesize a correlation between the le-       translation and adaptation was conducted
vel of self-actualization and ecological valu-     prior to the current survey and as a result we
es orientation, meaning that individuals with      selected only Self Actualising Values Scale
high self-actualizing scores will integrate        (SAV) due to its validity for the sugested
environment-protection values to a higher          sample and for the research puoposes. SAV
degree than those with low self-actualizing        reffers mainly to a positive view towards
scores, especially when analysing homoge-          life in general and to highly self-conscience.
neous groups. We use the term “homogene-           We expect that subjects with high self-actu-

68
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 65-73


alizing scores would be also more oriented        actualized individuals (using Shostrom
towards ecological values .                       concepts) are larger in our sample compare
                                                  to the standard one. As a result, we devide
Results                                           the respondents in two groups, based on
                                                  mean score on SAV (M = 22.9): non self-
    Scores for SAV have been calculated           actualized individuals with scores lower than
for each individual from the sample and           22.9, called here group 1 and self-actualized
compared to the standard ones obtained by         individuals with scores above 22.9, called
Shostrom (Table1). Compare to Shostrom            group 2. Finnally 576 students (81,6%)
data, our sample is more homogeneous,             were placed in group 1(non-self-actualized)
probably due to social-professional and           and 130 in group 2 (self-actualized) and we
life style similarity of the respondents, all     proceed to a comparative data analysis on
students, having between 20 and 30 years of       those two groups in terms of environment
age. Nevertheless the differences between         protection values and behaviours (Table 1).
self-actualized individuals and non-self
 Self-actualized individuals             Normal scores               Non self-actualized
                                                                         individuals
  Shostrom       Romanian          Shostrom       Romanian        Shostrom       Romanian
   sample         students          sample         students        sample         students
                   sample                           sample                         sample
 Mean     SD    Mean     SD       Mean      SD    Mean SD         Mean SD Mean           SD
 20,7     3,6   22,9     0,9      20,2      3,0   20,5    0,5     18,0    3,7 16,93      2,3
Table 1. Mean SAV scores on our students sample and standardized values on Shostrom sample (1996).

Both group 1 and group 2 shared moderate          states. While ecological values seem to be
concerns about environment protection             among the core European values, largely
issues. Students agreed that environment          share by individuals in different countries,
protection is less important that creating        around 8% of Romanians consider
new jobs (F = 0,314, p = 0,575). The self-        environment protection issues as “not at
actualized individuals in our sample are          all important”, the larger percentage from
not necessary those who have internalised         the EU of “non-interested” individuals.
ecological values more than non-self              There is also no difference among the two
actualized individuals. The data are not          analysed groups on the level of concern for
what we expected, since we predict a large        the current environment issues discussed in
number of cultural creatives especially           public sphere and again the level of concern
among students. However, when we look             is moderate (using a five points scale, with
to last five years Eurobarometers – survey         “1” – “not at all concern” and “4” – “very
periodically conducted in EU on national          much concern” as we can see in Table 2.
representative sample – the data reveals also         However, when we talk about ecological
a moderate Romanians’ interest towards            values internalization, individuals real be-
environment protection issues, bellow the         havior could not be neglected. The the “soci-
mean EU percentages. Less than half of            al responsible consummer” (Webster, 1975),
the Romanians answering the question              the one who purchases goods with positive
“How important is for you the environment         outcomes for the entire society could be
protection”, have chosen “very important”         found among the self-aclualized students
and Romania has constantly one of the             from our sample. Therefore we adressed qu-
lowest percentage of “interest” individuals       estionnes related also to subjects environ-
in ecological issues among the 27 member          ment protection actions as “buying products

                                                                                                69
Loredana Ivan
Global Self in local Worlds. Romanian students’ Environment Protection Values


with recycled packages”, “checking you              (Table 3). We conclude that group 1 en-
own car toxic emission”, “recycle domestic          gage more in social responsible behaviours
waste”. This time self-actualized individusls       than group 2 or at least they believe so about
declared they engage more in social respon-         themselves. However, since we did not find
sible behaviours as “buying products with           any differences on the level of concern on
recycled packages”, “checking you own car           ecological issues between the two groups,
toxic emissions” than those in non self-aclu-       we migh think that such social responsible
alization group and the differences are sig-        behaviours are not necessarily chosen to
nifict at least for those two specific actions        protect the environment.
                                                                Group 1                  Group 2
                                                              M       SD               M       SD
 Air, water and soil pollution                                2,2     0,8              2,2     0,9
 Ozone layer destruction                                      3,1     0,7              3,2     0,7
 Global warming                                               3.6     0,5              3,7     0,4
 Deforestation                                                2,1     0,9              2,0     0,9
 Genetical modify products                                    3,3     0,7              3,3     0,7
 Atomic power stations and radioactive waste                  3,2     0,7              3,2     0,7
 Natural resources desapearance                               3,3     0,7              3,3     0,7
 Endanger species of plants and animals                       3,1     0,7              3,2     0,7
 Urban pollution (traffic and noise)                           3,3     0,6              3,3     0,7
Table 2. In the present you have ”very concerned”, ”some concern”, ”not much concern” or ”not at
         all concern” about […].
It is also possible for students in group 1         small percentage of students who declare
(self- actualized) to perceived themselves          they are saving water, electricity and sorting
only as acting more as environment friendly         domestic waste (43%, 47% , respectively
compare to students in group 2 (non-self            30%) and urgent measures probably should
actualized). In such case, the nonexistent          be taking as such. The last five years
difference between the two groups in terms          Eurobarometers on social responsible
of level of concern with environmental              consume for EU countries reveals also
issues could be explained by the fact that          a small percentage of Romanians (18%)
subjects are in the proccess of ecological          declaring they are soring the domesticwaste,
values orientation and they are trying to           the smallest percentage in entire EU where
adjust their selves to integrate also the           the mean percentage of citizens sorting
global environment protection values.               domestic garbage is 59%. Similary, 36% of
    Nevertheless we are worried about the           Romanians are saving electricity (compare

                        Behaviors                             Chi-square         df.     Asymp. Sig
                                                                 (χ2)                     (2-sided)
 Using public transportation                                    33,227           38         0,690
 Buying products with recycle packages                          70,678           38        0,001**
 Buying organic products                                        35,742           38         0,574
 Saving water                                                   22,891           38         0,975
 Saving electricity                                             30,130           38         0,815
 Sorting domestic waste                                         34,162           38         0,648
 Cheking toxic emissions of the personal car                    53,202           38         0,052*
Table 3. The relation between self actualization and social consumer behavior.
         * Significant for p < 0.05
         ** Significant for p < 0.01

70
                                                 Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                              volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 65-73


to 47% mean percentage in EU) and 30%                  hand 63% of the respondents partially or
declared they are saving water, while mean             totally agree on “environment protection is
EU percent is 37%. Compare to those data               less important than creating new jobs”, and
on national level, the percentage of students          on the other hand 80% of them partially
engaged in social responsible behaviors are            or totally agree on “environment should be
higher in our student sample. Still smulating          protected even if jobs will disappear in such
measures so that such behaviors would be               process” and are also willing to pay for goods
daily routine also for Romanins have to be             or services that are environment friendly.
taken.                                                 We conclude that students are very much
    The social responsible consumer is also            preoccupied and worried about job creation
willing to pay more so that others around              and less about environment protection but
him will enjoy wellbeing. Therefore we                 if ecological measures would be taken, they
asked students if they are willing to pay more         will agree to pay for them. The results reveal
for goods and services if those will pollute           a positive trend for environment protection
less. Surprisingly, students from our sample           measures acceptance and urge for some
largely agreed to pay more for utilities or            policies especially in the area of domestic
goods so that they would pollute less (Table           waste sorting, where 83% of the students
4). The data reveal a paradox: on the one              declared they are willing to pay more.
 Domestic runnig water                                                                        63,3%
 Personal car                                                                                 65,3%
 Fuel                                                                                         59,0%
 Sorting and recycle domestic garbage                                                         82,9%
 Heating and electricity in households                                                        62,0%
 Food                                                                                         69,6%
 Airplane transportation                                                                      51,7%
 Public transportation                                                                        59,7%
Table 4. Willigness to pay […] if they pollute less.
We could not identify any significant                   population, according to last Eurobarometer
difference between din group 1 (non-self-              data and could be more interpreted as a
actualized) and group 2 (self-actualized)              tendency of young academics to embrace
in their willingness to pay for goods and              ecological values as part of universal value
services that pollutes less, both group                spectrum. To oppose such values would
showing supportive reactions especially for            probably mint for subjects to react in a
buying food and using cars that pollutes less          traditional and not open minding way.
and also sorting and processing domestic
waste. We can wonder why subjects accept               Discussion
to pay more for things they are not enough
worried about. One possible explanation                The analysis presented is looking for the
would be that students perceived that such             relation between ecological values inter-
behaviors are social desirable due to intense          nalization as a core dimension of cultural
media presentation of the environment                  creatives and self actualization. Self actual-
protection policies and discussions. Both on           ized individuals, as Maslow described them,
national and international level have been             are people who accept themselves and oth-
debated about the imminence of policies                ers sharing humanistic values. Researchers
implementing in environment protection                 (Brooker, 1976) have already proved that
area so that subjects feel the pressure not to         self actualised individuals are more social
oppose them. However such willingness to               responsible that non self-actualized ones,
pay does not exist on the entire Romanian              meaning they feel responsible for others


                                                                                                    71
Loredana Ivan
Global Self in local Worlds. Romanian students’ Environment Protection Values


wellbeing and are willing to pay more for          necessarly been related to unrealistic cost
goods and services that entire community           estimation but to an optimistic life approach
would benefit from. On contrary data from           in general. Such an explanation is supported
our sample show that both self actualized          by scores on SAV scale in our students
and non self actualized students are willing       sample which are larger than standardized
to pay more for collecting and processing          adult sample scores. Because of their age
domestic waste, cars, food and water that          and limited life experience they tend to
pollutes less and even transportation means        be less worried about costs in general. If
and fuels which are environment friendly.          they share an optimistic general view, this
    The willigness to pay more is not share        could explain also the moderate concern on
by the entire Romanian population since            ecological problems.
in 2008, March Eurobarometer 66% of                    However we should not neglect the fact
the Romanians answered positive to the             that the entire Romanian population is less
following question: “Should Romanian               concerned about environmental problems
goverment buy only safe products for the           compare to other EU citizens and that
environment, even if those would cost              environment protections measures are not
more?” The percentage of Romanians                 considered a prioity as such. The absence
agree with such government ecological safe         from the public agenda of environmental
measures is bellow EU mean percentage              issues could be a cause of such lack of
(73%) and personally I believe that there          concern, since       ecological debates are
will be even less people expressing their          scarcerly caught on public agenda priorities.
agreement when the question would be                   The data reveals that some environment
adressed more directly as we formulated it         problems create more concern than others,
in the present research:“Would you agee to         for example global warming or genetic
pay more...?”.                                     product modification and our hypothesis is
    The data colected on the Romanian              that such topics have been more on public
student sample indicates they are adjusting        debate than others.
the ecological universal values to their selves        The SAV scores about the level of self
and they are in the process of becoming            actuaization have dicrisciminated between
social responsible consumers starting with         those who are buying more products with
largerly accepting the importance of goods         recycle packages or check more toxic
and services that pollute less regarless to the    emissions of their cars an those who engage
costs involved.                                    rarely in such behaviors. Self actualised
    One could argues that student from our         individuls are those involved in more
sample are young and not involved yet on           consumer responsible behaviors. Because
the labor market so that they will share an        we did not find any difference of concern
unrealistic view on costs of environment           about environement problems between the
protection public policies. However,               two groups we suggested that differences
more than on third of Romanians (not               in social responsible behaviours could be
only students) are demanding informtion            no real but more a self projection, a part of
about environment protection from their            self reconstruction to intergrate the emergent
goverbnment, at least according to 2008            ecological universal values.
Eurobarometer. Only 30% of the Romanian                If indeed the self actualized individuals
citizens feel they are proper informed on          are one step ahead to those with less self
ecological problems by their Government            actualization in the proccess of ecological
and this is the smallest percentage in the EU      values internalization and self adjusting
for 2008.                                          to the global world, then we expect also
    The willigness to pay more for a clean         future different behaviour patterns from the
environment in case of students could not          two groups in terms of social responsibility

72
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 65-73


because values are connected to attitudes        of Cultural. Change. Oxford & Cambridge,
and predict behaviours.                          MA: Basil Blackwell.
    The large percentage of those willing
                                                 Maslow, Abraham [1954](2007). Motivaţie
to pay more for collecting and recycling
                                                 şi personalitate (Motivation and Personality,
domestic waste (82% of the students)
                                                 a 3-a edition). Bucharest: Trei.
combined with the percentage of those
declaring they are not engaging in selecting     Robertson, Ronald [1995](1997). Glocaliza-
domesting waste (70%) is in the line with last   tion: Time-spare and Homogeneity-Hetero-
years discussions in Romania when several        geneity. În Mike Featherstone Scott Lash &
NGO’s and also media companies have              Ronald Robertson (eds.) Global Modernities
presented the importance of recycling and        (pp.25-45). Londra: Sage Publications.
sorting . Subjects from our research repeatly
claimed the lack of necessary facilities for     Ray, Paul & Anderson, Sherry R. (2000).
people to recycle as a prohibitor factor for     The Cultural Creatives. New York: Harmony
those willing to engange themselves in such      Books.
actions. A compplementary research basen         Rogers, Carl (1959). Theory of therapy,
on structured observation would reveals          personality and interpersonal relationships,
if the amount recycle centers in large and       as developed In the Client-Centred
small cities is a real factor who plays a role   Framework. In Sigmund Koch (Ed.),
in the equation or just a easy way for the       Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. 3. New
subjects to justify the non active behavior.     York: McGraw-Hall.
                                                 Shostrom, Everett L. [1963](1996). Personal
                                                 Orientation Inventory. An Inventory for the
                                                 Measurement of Self-Actualization, San
                                                 Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing
                                                 Service.
Bibliography
                                                 Sijuwade, Philip O. (1996). Self-
Brooker, George (1976). The self-actualizing     actualization and locus of control as a
socially conscious consumer. The Journal of      function of Institutionalisation and non-
Consumer Research, 3, 2, 107-112.                institutionalization in the elderly. Social
Forgathy, Gerard J. (1994). Using the            Behaviour and Personality, 24, 4, 367-374.
Personal Orientation Inventory to measure        Yonge, George D. (1975). The experience,
change in Student self-actualization.            self-actualizing values and creativity.
Personality and Individual Differences, 17,      Journal of Personality Assessment, 36, 6,
3, 435-439.                                      601-606
Giddens, Anthony (1990). The Consequences        Webster, Frederick E. (1975). Determining
of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.           characteristics of socially conscious
Harvey, David (1989). The Condition of           consumer. Journal of Consumer Research,
Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins       2, 188-196.




                                                                                               73
74
Globalization and crises
       CORRELATIVE PERSPECTIVES




                              75
76
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise:
phénomènes interconnectés
Mirela Mazilu
Université de Craiova, Centre Universitaire Drobeta Turnu Severin
Roumanie



                                     Motto :
                                     «Dans les pays en développement, la crise commande
                                     la vie quotidienne des plus pauvres… Les effets
                                     de la crise économique et financière menacent
                                     d’aggraver le manque d’emplois; avec pour résultat
                                     une augmentation du nombre de jeunes travailleurs
                                     bloqués dans la pauvreté, prolongeant le cycle de la
                                     pauvreté au travail d’une génération au moins».
                                     Juan Somavia, Directeur général du Bureau
                                     international du travail (BIT)

   Résumé: Un débat multiple, controversé et vu toujours sous des nouveaux angles…
   Beaucoup de questions et de plus en plus réponses…Mondialisation et crise ? Il ne
   s’agit pas de dire qu’il n’y a rien de nouveau sous le soleil. À l’évidence, l’échange
   des marchandises et des capitaux, les formes de production, les modalités de l’inter-
   vention de l’État dans les sociétés, sans parler des techniques de communication,
   ont énormément changé. Les circuits esclaves-sucre-biens manufacturés du XVIIIe
   siècle ont eu pour le développement capitaliste un tout autre poids que le circuit
   diamants-armes d’aujourd’hui. Simplement je plaide pour plus de rigueur: il faut
   regarder en détail comment ces circuits de marchandises sont constitués, comment
   les connexions dans l’espace s’étendent ou trouvent leurs limites et, dans l’analyse
   de processus amples et de longue durée tels que le développement capitaliste, prêter
   toute l’attention nécessaire à leur puissance, à leurs limitations et aux mécanismes
   qui les façonnent. On peut bien sûr appeler cela mondialisation mais, ce faisant, on
   ne fait que dire que l’histoire se produit à l’intérieur des limites de la planète et qu’en
   conséquence toute histoire est histoire mondiale. Toutefois, si l’on veut voir dans la
   mondialisation l’intégration progressive de différentes parties du monde en un tout
   unique, alors la thèse peut être accusée d’être linéaire et téléologique. Les« globali-
   seur sont raison de nous inciter. Bien sûr, toutes les formes changeantes de connexions
   transcontinentales, toutes les formes d’intégration et de différenciation, de flux et de
   blocages, du passé et du présent peuvent être vues comme des aspects d’un processus
   unique mais complexe qu’on peut appeler mondialisation. Les mots ont un poids.


                                                                                                 77
Mirela Mazilu
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise: phénomènes inter connectes


Introduction                                        et l’intensification des communications
                                                    et du commerce sont à la fois inéluctables
Le bavardage incessant sur la mondialisation,       et souhaitables. En chaque pays, le thème
la structure du mot lui-même, les images            est très présent, mais «le santi» sont plus
qui lui sont associées, les arguments pour          visibles que les «pro».
et contre «elle», tout cela reflète et renforce          Il faut savoir si l’on étudie la
la fascination pour une connectivité sans           mondialisation comme discours, c’est-
rivages. Les chercheurs ne sont tout de même        à-dire affirmation portée sur le monde,
pas obligés de choisir entre une rhétorique         ou bien comme processus, ensemble de
du contenant et une rhétorique du flux. Les          changements ayant des effets réels sur la
questions, nullement secondaires, qu’il faut        population de la planète. La difficulté est
nous poser concernent le présent: qu’y a-t-         que nombre de ceux qui développent le
il de réellement nouveau? Quels sont les            discours font reposer l’essentiel de leur
mécanismes des changements en cours et              argumentation (normative) sur le postulat
par quoi sont-ils limités? Et surtout, est-il       que la mondialisation est: réelle, inévitable,
possible de mettre au point un vocabulaire          en marche. Les chercheurs qui l’utilisent
assez subtil pour favoriser la réflexion sur         de manière analytique risquent d’être pris
les connexions et leurs limites?                    au piège des structures discursives mêmes
    Derrière la vogue de la mondiali-               qu’ils voudraient analyser.
sation, il y a l’ambition de comprendre                 Surtout, la popularité du terme au sein de
l’interconnexion entre différentes parties          l’université1 en dit long sur la pauvreté de la
du monde, d’expliquer les mécanismes                science sociale contemporaine confrontée à
nouveaux qui président aux mouvements               des processus certes gigantesques, mais non
des capitaux, des hommes et des cultures,           universels, et à la réalité des liaisons certes
et questionnement historique ainsi que              transfrontalières et transculturelles, mais
l’analyse précise de la structure des               fondées sur des mécanismes spécifiques à
mécanismes de connexion et de leurs                 des espaces bornés. Que l’on se contente
limites. Certes, il est salutaire de cesser de      d’opposer le global au local – fût-ce pour
penser les processus sociaux, économiques,          étudier comment ils se construisent l’un
politiques et culturels dans les seuls cadres       l’autre – souligne bien l’inadéquation des
nationaux ou continentaux; mais, à adopter          outils actuels à l’analyse de tout le reste.
un vocabulaire impliquant qu’il n’y a pas de            Les Français mondialisent quand les
cadre du tout, sauf le planétaire, on risque de     Américains globalisent, mais il ne faut
mal poser les problèmes.                            pas chercher longtemps pour trouver des
    Le monde a longtemps été – et est               anglophones (universitaires, il est vrai),
encore, malheureusement – un espace ou              qui mondialisent et même certains qui
les relations économiques et politiques             parlent de worldization… En Français,
sont très inégalement réparties; il est plein       le vocabulaire de l’économie recourt
de grumeaux, de lieux ou s’agglutinent le           également au mot globalisation, et les
pouvoir et les relations sociales, baignant         articles savants ne manquent pas, qui tentent
dans des zones dans les quelles tout cela           de cerner la différence entre globalisation et
reste diffus. Structures et réseaux s’installent    mondialisation
en certains points ou dans certaines activités,         La mondialisation, le développement
mais pour se diluer un peu plus loin. Amis et       durable et la compétitivité2 sont trois grands
ennemis de la mondialisation discutent de ses       défis et les jalons de notre présent. Par
effets. Les premiers sont en force aux États-       conséquent, ces dernières années, presque
Unis, où hommes politiques, journalistes et         partout, est entré dans le langage courant,
universitaires en vue expliquent que la levée       l’usage ordinaire de concepts tels que:
des obstacles aux mouvements de capitaux                - la mondialisation, la gouvernance,

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    gouvernabilité, l’organisation,                 investisseurs, et en adoptant des politiques
    - la durabilité, les parteneriats, les          de rejeter parfois générer de graves
    connaissances, les performances,                conséquences sociales.
     économique et politique                            La mondialisation est aujourd’hui un
    - les marchés et des formes d’intervention      phénomène incontournable des relations
    des pouvoirs publics,                           internationales; elle représente le contexte
    - la restructuration, le chômage,               global au sein duquel se comprennent les
    licenciement, sociaux                           différentes tendances et lignes de force de la
    - la pollution, l’écologisation, etc .et dont   planète.
    les significations ne sont pas toujours              Sur le plan de la typologie, on peut
    complètes et ne sont donc pas évalués,          distinguer quatre caractéristiques de cette
    ou pire encore, peuvent devenir des             évolution multidimensionnelle:
    armes avec une seule cible.                         Sa dimension économique: le libre
    Dans le début des années 90, en affirmant        échange tend à s’imposer comme système
les tendances de l’internationalisation             dominant, les frontières économiques
de l’économie, mise en évidence par                 s’estompent;
la mondialisation des marchés et le                     Sa dimension culturelle: on assiste
renforcement des institutions financières,           à la rencontre des valeurs, des modèles de
l’ordre social et la politique ont subi de          pensée et de comportement;
profondes transformations. Les forces du                Sa      dimension        politique:     la
marché à partir dès maintenant peuvent              mondialisation se caractérise par une
définir les limites de la politique, les             reconfiguration du rôle de l’État, qui doit
différents pays étant sous la pression des          composer avec de nouveaux acteurs et faire
sociétés transnationales, à leur solidité           face à de nouveaux enjeux;
financière.                                              Sa dimension militaire: la tendance
    Fondamentalement, la globalisation, à           dominante est celle d’une régionalisation de
la suite de la mondialisation des marchés,          la sécurité (OTAN- l’Organisation du Traite
crée de nouvelles formes d’intégration3             de l’Atlantique du Nord), OUA-Organisation
et encourage et développe et stimule la             de l’Unité Africaine), avec des réussites plus
concurrence entre les acteurs économiques           ou moins avérés, et l’existence de menaces
et sociaux. Mais c’est toujours elle qui peut       transnationales (criminalité, terrorisme)4.
engendrer de nouvelles formes d’exclusion               On nous pose souvent une question,
qui conduisent au chômage ou des emplois            en qualité de professeur: Mondialisation
précaires, à une culture du consumérisme,           ou globalisation? La distinction a-t-elle
insoutenable à long terme.                          un sens, puisque l’une est la traduction
    Globalement, dans la littérature sont           française de l’autre, expression utilisée par
des avertissements sur la spécificité                les anglo-saxons?
et la complexité sociale des processus                  Les interprétations varient, mais l’on
responsables de la production de tels               peut en réalité donner un contenu différent à
phénomènes. Au cours de ces processus,              chacun de ces deux termes:
l’émergence du problème social est un                   La mondialisation renvoie à l’idée
élément clé étant associée à la pauvreté            d’une unification du temps et de l’espace.
qui peut atteindre de nouveaux groupes              Elle est en quelque sorte l’ère géopolitique
de population et aussi conduire à une               des années 1990, se caractérisant par le
différenciation accrue dans la même société.        progrès scientifique et technologique ainsi
    Sont particulièrement aggravantes dans          que par la libre circulation des hommes, des
le cadre du processus de restructuration            marchandises, des idées, des capitaux. Elle
économique qui implique, outre l’adoption           participe en quelque sorte de ce que certains
de nouvelles technologies, de nouveaux              ont appelé «l’accélération de l’histoire» pour

                                                                                                 79
Mirela Mazilu
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise: phénomènes inter connectes


qualifier l’évolution rapide de la société               politique;
internationale;                                         - La littérature et la philosophie à sa
    La globalisation quant à elle suggère               dimension discursive...
l’universalisation des enjeux, l’avènement              Le point de départ est cependant socio-
d’un monde d’interdépendances économi-              logique:
ques, politiques et sociales, et le recours             La mondialisation renvoie à une pers-
nécessaire au multilatéralisme pour faire           pective portée sur les sociétés humaines.
face à ces questions. Elle pose finalement               Il s’agit de les concevoir dans leur globa-
la question de la mise en œuvre du principe         lité (élargir la perception par cercles concen-
de responsabilité de la communauté                  triques) même de voir et de revoir les deux
internationale5.                                    concepts dans la perspective du développe-
    Les deux termes sont la plupart du              ment durable, qui englobe plus de notions en
temps utilisés de manière indifférenciée            interconnexion: solidarité, intérêt collectif,
sans que cela prête à conséquences. Il faut         responsabilité7, préservation de la nature, du
simplement retenir que la mondialisation            climat de la biodiversité, coopération, parti-
et la globalisation rendent compte de la            cipation et beaucoup d’autres, aussi impor-
transformation, à l’œuvre actuellement, du          tantes.
système international, qui se partage entre             Une nouvelle approche conceptuelle, en
souveraineté et interdépendance, expression         termes d’activités durables, redirigant – le
du droit et de la puissance.                        déplacement de l’intérêt pour les entreprises
    La mondialisation véhicule un univer-           responsables des stratégies – responsables
sel: la démocratie, les droits de l’homme,          socialement. La solution n’est pas novatrice,
l’économie de marché… mais ne supprime              mais juste remodelée dans l’esprit éthique et
pas les inégalités ni ne pacifie la scène            civique. La réussite des entreprises du tou-
mondiale. Elle tendrait même à complexifier          risme est basée sur la composante humaine
l’expression de la violence et le schéma            et sans condition, en particulier sur son
conflictuel, en multipliant les forces               implication dans la fourniture des activités
contradictoires. Les questions de la liberté        et des services d’intérêt, devenant respon-
et de la sécurité des personnes se posent en        sables, soucieux, solidaires avec l’environ-
tout cas avec acuité, et concernent aussi bien      nement, l’économie, les ressources, obtenant
les responsables politiques, économiques            ainsi une participation totale aux enjeux so-
et militaires que ceux de la société civile,        ciétaux (Fig. 1).
c’est à dire tous ces acteurs qui œuvrent à             Ce modèle de développement durable,
la résolution des conflits et à la construction      sert souvent de guide pour les entreprises
de la paix.                                         commerciales. Il inclut la culture comme
    Dans cette perspective, saisir la mondia-       un élément tout aussi important que les trois
lisation comme un fait total implique de            autres piliers du développement durable de
développer une approche multidisciplinaire          la traditionnelle (sociaux, économiques et
à partir d’une conception extensive des             environnementaux). En outre, la démocratie,
sciences sociales. Il va falloir aller puiser       la responsabilisation et la participation res-
dans ces différentes disciplines pour saisir        ponsable, civique composante transversale,
dans toute son ampleur le phénomène de              levier du développement durable..
mondialisation, même ses traits essentiels.             Cette notion de globalité renvoie tout
    - La dimension économique6 de la                d’abord à une perspective d’ensemble,
    mondialisation;                                 concevoir l’humanité dans son ensemble,
    - Les théories de la communication et           par-delà les différences, chercher le sem-
    l’anthropologie à sa dimension culturelle;      blable, le commun. Concevoir l’humanité
    - La théorie des relations internationales      comme un ensemble interdépendant, par-
    et la science politique à sa dimension          delà les frontières.

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                     Fig. 1. Modele de Deeveloppementdurable
                     (adaptation des auteurs d’après Association Adequations –
                     La fleur du Developpement Durable http://www.adequati-
                     ons.org/spip.php?article112)

Cette notion de globalité renvoie aussi au       fonctions des divers registres de l’activité
globe, ce phénomène objectif: politique,         humaine: l’économique (le capitalisme
scientifique, ordinaire, la terre, le milieu      mondialisé), le politique (les mobilisations
de vie de l’humanité, et vise ainsi à souli-     sociales et la problématique incarnation du
gner aussi l’interdépendance entre l’humain      pouvoir et sa légitimité démocratique) et le
et son milieu de vie, la nature. Ce sont les     culturel (la communication et la diversité
enjeux environnementaux qui ont stimulé la       dans le village global).
prise de conscience des responsabilités mu-          Tout le débat entourant la compréhension
tuelles de tous les peuples, et de la relation   de ce phénomène de mondialisation va donc
avec notre environnement.                        consister dans l’interprétation de la nature de
    Concevoir le monde comme un sys-             ces interdépendances et de ces interactions
tème d’interdépendance, d’interactions           entre les sociétés humaines insérées dans
entre les sociétés humaines qui se trouvent      un système global, de leurs implications,
insérées dans une humanité commune, mais         de leurs conséquences sur ces sociétés. On
aussi un écosystème partagé.                     peut ajouter que: la mondialisation carac-
    De comprendre ces interactions en            térise l’ordre mondial d’après-guerre qui

                                                                                               81
Mirela Mazilu
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise: phénomènes inter connectes


visait à assurer la sécurité, la justice et le          la Charte des Nations Unies (1944);
bien-être (prospérité) à partir d’institutions          - Création du GATT (1947) et échec de
politiques nationales et internationales char-          l’OIC (l’Organisation Internationale du
gées de réguler les sociétés et les rapports            Commerce) en 1948 et la Déclaration
entre sociétés, ce qui les pousse à intervenir          universelle des droits de l’Homme
dans le domaine économique. En tant que                 (1948). Ce cadre est fondé sur l’impératif
la globalisation: caractérise l’ordre global            de la coopération internationale (État
actuel qui ne vise qu’ à accroître la richesse          souverain) et de la solidarité nationale
de quelques uns à discréditer et dissoudre les          (État providence).
institutions politiques interventionnistes au           Le projet actuel de globalisation,
profit d’une forme de régulation (ou d’auto-         minimise la dimension universaliste de
régulation) par le marché, selon une logique        l’ordre mondial, et tend à apparaître comme
libérale de marché.                                 un projet américain, voire états-unien. Il y a
    Selon Brunelle8, l’après-guerre consti-         donc dérive de la mondialisation par rapport
tue le moment zéro de la mondialisation             aux objectifs de l’après-guerre.
contemporaine, dans le sens ou elle corres-             En fait, l’élément fondamental qui
pond à une période historique particulière          permet de comprendre le passage de la
où a été tenté un projet d’institutionnalisa-       mondialisation à la globalisation réside dans
tion (d’encadrement formel) des relations et        la transformation du rôle de l’État. En effet,
des échanges internationaux. Ce processus           l’encadrement institutionnel des échanges
d’institutionnalisation, qui consiste à créer       mondiaux qui caractérise la mondialisation
des règles et des institutions, des autorités       de l’après-guerre repose sur la place centrale
légitimes de régulation, supposait cepen-           de l’État et sa capacité de régulation à la fois
dant de définir des champs de compétence             de sa société et de son économie nationales,
distincts et clairement délimités. D’où une         mais aussi des relations internationales par
double distinction entre sphère privée et           le biais des institutions multilatérales mises
publique de la vie sociale (définie par les          en place. La remise en cause de l’autorité
droits), et domaine national et international       de régulation, au profit d’une vision du
(définie par la souveraineté étatique), qui          marché libre rend caduque la double
permettent de définir des espaces de souve-          distinction entre sphères privé / public, entre
raineté où certaines autorités sont chargées        les niveaux national / international. Cela
de faire respecter les règles dans une pers-        conduit à une crise du providentialisme et de
pective de bien commun.                             la souveraineté et l’émergence de nouveaux
                                                    acteurs puissants dans le monde globalisé, en
Le projet multidimensionnel de la                   marge des États, les sociétés transnationales.
mondialisation                                      Dans cette nouvelle reconfiguration du
                                                    monde, sur le plan économique, l’État n’a
C’est dans ce contexte qu’a été mis en place        plus pour fonction de garantir la croissance
le cadre institutionnel de régulation de la         d’une économie nationale, mais bien de
mondialisation au lendemain de la Seconde           jouer le jeu de la globalisation soit en
Guerre mondiale, essentiellement de 1944 à          favorisant la transnationalisation de ses
1948:                                               firmes, soit en attirant les firmes étrangères
   - Charte de Philadelphie (1944)                  (IDE-Investissements Directes Étrangères).
   qui relance l’OIT (L’Organisation                    Une autre intéressante vision sur le
   internationale du Travail);                      phénomène si controversé appartient à
   - Les Accords de Bretton Woods qui               J. Scolte. Pour Scholte (Globalization, a
   mettent en place le FMI et la BERD               critical introduction, Londres, Macmillan,
   (1944);                                          2000), la globalisation a donné lieu à toute
   - Création de l’ONU avec l’adoption de           sorte de positions interprétatives. Il distingue

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trois attitudes de la part des chercheurs:         recomposent par-delà les délimitations,
    - les globalistes,                             frontières      territoriales  traditionnelles
    - les ultra-sceptiques                         (modernes). C’est surtout cet aspect de la
     - et les modérés.                             mondialisation que va explorer Scholte, car
    Les premiers vont célébrer cette nouvelle      il lui permet ensuite d’aborder toutes les
phase de l’histoire humaine (entrepreneurs,        autres dimensions.
technologues, postmodernes); les seconds               Rétrospective analytique du phénomène:
vont percevoir la globalisation comme une              En ce qui concerne cette analyse,
pure idéologie, un mythe qui ne fait que           Scholte distingue trois phases dans la
dissimuler le pouvoir des États puissants,         globalisation sans toutefois identifier un
enfin les troisièmes vont plutôt adopter une        point d’origine précis. Selon lui, jusqu’ à
position prudente et tenter de comprendre          ce que les progrès technologiques puissent
le phénomène en identifiant ses multiples           enfin favoriser concrètement les échanges
dimensions et en acceptant sa grande               internationaux, à partir du milieu du 1
complexité. Pour Jan Scholte nous pouvons          9čme siècle, la globalisation se manifestait
distinguer 5 grandes conceptions de la             surtout au sein d’un imaginaire global.
globalisation:                                     Concevoir le monde dans sa globalité, tout
    - L’internationalisation: essor des            d’abord avec les religions mondiales, puis
relations transfrontalières entre les différents   la philosophie des Lumières. En fait durant
pays. Phénomène qui se caractérise par             cette première phase, la globalisation existait
l’augmentation des échanges internationaux,        surtout dans les mentalités de certains. Les
et par le fait même de l’interdépendance des       communications, les marchés, la production,
pays pris dans ce système international en         les monnaies, la finance, les organisations,
interaction;                                       l’écologie sociale étaient quasi inexistantes
    La libéralisation: un processus de             au niveau supra territorial.
réduction des entraves politiques, du moins            Cela va commencer à changer durant
gouvernementales ou étatiques, aux flux             la seconde phase, celle de la globalisation
de nature économique entre les différents          émergente (1850-1950).
pays. Processus qui abouti à une intégration           Communications: télégraphe (1850’s),
économique internationale. Création d’un           téléphone et radio (1890’s), transport aérien
marché mondial, ouvert;                            intercontinental (1919).
    L’universalisation: dimension plus                 Marchés: consolidation au niveau
culturelle qui vise une certaine synthèse          global des échanges de matières premières.
globale du monde, unité du genre humain            Développement de la production indus-
sous l’effet de ses multiples interactions.        trielles de biens de consommation: conserves
    L’occidentalisation ou la modernisa-           (Campbell, Heinz: 1880’s, coca-cola en
tion: donne un sens particulier à ce processus     1886), machines, publicité (1899), Cow boy
d’unification culturelle, qui apparaît ici          Marlboro (1954), Mc Donald (1955).
comme un processus d’homogénéisation                   Monnaie et finance: La livre sterling fut
à partir d’un référent clairement identifié         la première monnaie globale (1870-1914),
(américanisation). Imposition des structures       puis étalon-or au lendemain de la première
sociales de la modernité occidentale               guerre mondiale. Mais la finance demeurait
à l’ensemble du monde (capitalisme,                plus internationale que globale.
rationalisme, industrialisation, bureaucratie,         Organisations: que ce soit les compag-
démocratie). (Impérialisme, assimilation,          nies (Colt ouvre une usine en Grande
colonialisme).                                     Bretagne en 1852, l’allemand Siemens en
    Déterritorialisation ou supra territori-       Russie en 1855, le japonais Kikkoman une
alité: consiste en une reconfiguration de           manufacture de sauce soya aux USA en
la géographie, des espaces sociaux qui se          1896), des organisations internationales

                                                                                                83
Mirela Mazilu
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise: phénomènes inter connectes


(UIT, 1865, UP, 1874, SDN, 1920, Interpol,          problèmes globaux: couche d’ozone,
1923), des organisations de la société civile       réchauffement climatique, perte de la diver-
(religieuses, mouvements de travailleurs            sité biologique.
(première internationale en 1864, seconde               Conscience globale, accélération grâce
en 1889, troisième en 1919), syndicats.             aux enjeux environnementaux, voyages,
    Mentalités: S’approfondit la conscience         solidarité internationale, reconnaissance de
globale du fait du développement des                la diversité.
médias de masse et des grandes célébrations             Une approche anthropologique polé-
mondiales (expo universelle dès 1851, jeux          mique du concept revient à J.F.Bayart.
olympiques 1896), tourisme (1872 Cook),             L’approche de Bayart est intéressante si
tout-inclus 1949.                                   on la prend dans le prolongement des deux
    En fait ce qui manquait dans cette              analyses précédentes car elle établit un lien
seconde phase de la globalisation, c’était          avec chacune d’elles tout en apportant un
principalement la mise en place d’une               nouvel élément.
chaîne de production transfrontalière                   Pour Jean-François Bayart (Le gouvern-
et la conscience globale des problèmes              ement du monde. Une critique politique
environnementaux.                                   de la mondialisation, Paris, Fayard, 2004,
    Ainsi la troisième phase identifiée par          p.97), la mondialisation correspond avant
Scholte va comprendre ces deux derniers             tout à un changement d’échelle des sociétés,
éléments, tout en approfondissant l’intensité       à une compression de l’espace et du temps.
de ceux apparus au siècle précédent du fait         Élargissement progressif de l’horizon des
du développement technologique.                     interactions humaines, des imaginaires (du
    Depuis les années 60 s’est donc imposée         village, à la nation, puis au globe): une
une globalisation à large échelle caractérisée      interaction mutuelle généralisée à l’échelle
par:                                                transnationales. Cela correspond à la supra
    Développement des communications                territorialité dont parlait Scholte9.
électroniques: satellites (1962 par ATT),               La mondialisation est le fruit de plusieurs
fibre optique (câbles transocéaniques, 1988),        phénomènes qui se sont conjugués tout au
Internet (Arpanet 1969). Essor des capacités,       long du 19čme siècle (1776-1914). Bayart10 en
baisse des coûts. TV par satellites (1962)          identifie 6.
(premier direct par satellite fut concert de            La construction d’un système international
Beatles en 1967), radio, transport aérien...        structuré, penser les relations entre États.
    Mondialisation des marchés: la diversité        (La première institution internationale,
sur les tablettes.                                  l’Union télégraphique internationale, 1865;
    Production: commerce intra-firme                 l’Union postale universelle, 1874; le Bureau
mondial débute avec les productions                 international des poids et mesures, 1875;
de composants électroniques (semi-                  l’Organisation       météorologique,     1878;
conducteurs), puis le textile, automobile et        L’Union internationale pour la protection
électroménagers (biens industriels). Passage        de la propriété industrielle, 1883; la banque
actuel aux services.                                internationale, les internationales socialistes,
    Monnaie: Bretton woods dollars mon-             le comité olympique, 1896; les ONG, le
naie globale (alignée sur l’or). Fini en 1971.      scoutisme, les organisations ecclésiales
Aujourd’hui, système pluraliste de monnaies         internationales).
fluctuantes.                                             L’émergence du libéralisme économique
    Finance: essor de la finance et de la            du fait de la révolution industrielle qui, en
spéculation grâce aux NTIC.                         perfectionnant les moyens de communication
    Organisations: multiplication des ma-           et de production, permet l’expansion du
fias, des ONG.                                       commerce mondial.
    Écologie: prise de conscience de                    Apparition d’un nouveau cosmopoli-

84
                                              Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                           volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 77-86


tisme, conscience du monde, essor de la             Notes
science.                                                 1
                                                            Mazilu Mirela-Elena. Globalisation where?
    Migrations de grandes ampleur (no-              European Research Studies Journal, Vol. XIII,
tamment transatlantique: 44 millions                Issue 1, 2010, pp. 189-210.
d’Européens gagnent les Amériques, mais                  2
                                                            Mazilu Mirela-Elena, Roxana Marinescu.
aussi ailleurs: 3 à 6 millions d’Indiens quittent   The Competitiviness of the Romanian Tourism –
leur pays, 12 millions de Chinois). Brassage        a ghost or sustainable reality? Annals of Faculty
de population. Terres d’immigrations.               of Economics, Oradea, Vol. 4, Issue, 1, 2009, pp.
    Expériences politiques particulières            367-372.
mêlant liberté (révolutions, république,
                                                         3
                                                            Mazilu Mirela-Elena, The Dynamics and
démocratie, lutte contre l’esclavage) mais          Manifestations of Globalisation. European
                                                    Research Studies Journal, Vol. XI, Issue 3, 2008,
aussi asservissement (colonialisme, partage
                                                    pp. 83-91.
du monde, empires).                                      4
                                                           Sylvie Brunelle. Article de la rubrique «10
    Développement de la société civile              questions sur la mondialisation». Mensuel, No.
internationale, qui revendique le droit             180 (special), Mars 2007.
humanitaire (création de la croix rouge en               5
                                                            Mazilu Mirela-Elena. Globalisation where?
1863) et le droit d’ingérence.                      European Research Studies Journal. Vol. XIII,
                                                    Issue 1, 2010, pp. 189-210.
Conclusions
                                                         6
                                                            Mazilu Mirela-Elena, Mariana Ciobanu.
                                                    A New Challenge in the Current Economic
Dans la société moderne on constate, sans           Stabilization. ISI Scientific Proceedings of the
cesse les effets négatifs du développement          10 th WSEAS International Conference of Recent
de la société humaine. Par conséquent, on           Advances in Mathematics and Computers i
pose la question d’une nouvelle interpré-           Business and Economics MCBE ’09, Prague,
tation de la notion de développement, en            Czech Republic, 23-25 Mars, 2009, pp. 286-292.
                                                         7
                                                             Mazilu Mirela-Elena. Sustainability or
tenant compte des interdépendances entre            Sustainable development a Responsability of the
les questions environnementales, bien-être          Environmental Specialists. Proceedings of the
général et le processus de croissance. Ac-          Fifth “Administration and Public Management”
tuellement, une attention particulière est ac-      International Conference Public Institutions
cordée au développement durable. Peut-être,         Capacity to implement the administrative
un compromis, une connexion, un mélange             Reforme Process, ASE, Bucharest, 23-24 May
entre ces perspectives de la mondialisation,        2009, Alcris, pp. 74-85.
la globalisation doit impérativement se réa-
                                                         8
                                                           Sylvie Brunelle, Le Développement durable.
liser dans la perspective de la durabilité…         Puff, coll. «Que sais-je?», 2004, Paris, p. 23.
Depuis le début des années 1990, la «mon-
                                                         9
                                                           Scholte. Globalization, a critical introduc-
                                                    tion. Londres, Macmillan, 2000, pp. 123-124.
dialisation» désigne une nouvelle phase dans             10
                                                            Jean-François Bayart. Le gouvernement du
l’intégration planétaire des phénomènes             monde. Une critique politique de la mondialisa-
économiques, financiers, écologiques et              tion. Paris, Fayard, 2004, p. 78.
culturels. Un examen attentif montre que ce
phénomène n’est ni linéaire ni irréversible.
On verra…


                                                    Bibliographie
                                                    Jean-François Bayart. Le gouvernement
                                                    du monde. Une critique politique de la
                                                    mondialisation. Paris, Fayard, 2004.
                                                    Sylvie Brunelle. Article de la rubrique «10

                                                                                                    85
Mirela Mazilu
Mondialisation, globalisation et crise: phénomènes inter connectes


questions sur la mondialisation». Mensuel,          Meghan      Conolly,   Corporate      Social
No. 180 (special), Mars 2007.                       Responsibility      Newswire        Service.
                                                    “Ce este Responsabilitatea Socială a
Mazilu Mirela-Elena. The Globalisation,
                                                    Corporaţiilor?”. Comunicat CE – RSE
the Environment and economic security on
                                                    “Contribuţia întreprinderilor la dezvoltarea
the perspective of the European Integration.
                                                    durabilă”, 2002.
Journal of Environmental Protection and
Ecology, Book 1, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2008, No.           Les lignes directrices du CAD – Stratégies
1099/23.10.2006.                                    de développement durable – OCDE,
                                                    2001. Communication from the European
Mazilu Mirela-Elena. Globalisation where?
                                                    Commission of 2 July 2002 concerning
European Research Studies Journal, Vol.
                                                    corporate social responsibility: A business
XIII, Issue 1, 2010.
                                                    contribution to sustainable development,
Mazilu Mirela-Elena, The Dynamics and               2002.
Manifestations of Globalisation. European
                                                    Scholte.     Globalization,   a     critical
Research Studies Journal, Vol. XI, Issue 3,
                                                    introduction. Londres, Macmillan, 2000.
2008




86
Criz`, personalitate [i comunicare
Doina-Mihaela Popa
Universitatea “Petre Andrei”, Iaşi
România



   Abstract: If we start from the premises that any crisis, defined as a “manifestation
   of a balance breach’’ is, firstly, a crisis of communication, a critical existential stage
   followed ciclicly by the individual, group, organization or society (in the first case:
   birth, adolescence, mid-life crisis, retirement, death are just a few examples), then the
   antagony proposed in the title ceases to appear a simple game of words: the crisis,
   defined as a crisis of communication is opposed to the communication of the crisis
   itself and, many times, it finds its own solving in this.

   Key words: crisis of communication, existential stage, language, personality.




Introducere                                       se detaşează cu pregnanţă : 1. recunoaşterea
                                                  problemei sau acceptarea, 2. diversiunea sau
Dacă orice criză, definită ca “manifestare a       proiectul lateral şi 3. refuzul sau obstrucţia.
unei ruperi de echilibru” (Norbert Sillamy,
1996, p. 88) este, în primul rând, o criză
de comunicare, o etapă existenţială critică       Personalitate şi Limbaj
pe care individul, grupul, organizaţia sau        În cazul individului, trebuie să facem, mai
societatea o traversează ciclic (în cazul celui   întâi, deosebirea dintre conflictul intrapsihic,
dintâi: naşterea, înţărcarea, adolescenţa,        cel care desemnează o dimensiune constantă
criza de la mijlocul vieţii, pensionarea sunt     şi diacronică a dezvoltării şi criza, care este
doar câteva exemple), dihotomia propusă în        exactă şi localizată, constituind o schimbare
titlu înceteaza să mai pară un simplu joc de      decisivă, o ruptură, un moment acut de dez-
cuvinte: criza, într-o accepţiune generală de     echilibru, dar şi o oportunitate pentru schim-
criză a comunicării, se situează în opoziţie      bare; “noţiunea este legată de cea de conti-
cu însăşi comunicarea crizei, şi, de multe        nuitate sau de discontinuitate a dezvoltării şi
ori, îşi găseşte în aceasta propria rezolvare.    chiar de validitatea conţinutului stadiilor”.
     În faţa crizei, fie aceasta emoţională, po-   (Roland Doron, Francoise Parot, 1999, p.
litică, socială ori economică, atât individul,    201). Suferinţa, durerea, disconfortul fizic
cât şi organizaţia, întreprinderea, pot adopta,   sau psihic, de la plânsul bebeluşului până
aşa cum vom vedea, diferite strategii, mai        la depresia acută a adultului aflat în pragul
mult sau mai puţin riscante, dintre care trei     suicidului, au ca primă condiţie a atenuării

                                                                                               87
Doina-Mihaela Popa
Criză, personalitate şi comunicare


ori chiar vindecării comunicabilitatea: o cri-    rent naivă: “două camere ale unei locuinţe
ză comunicată, împărtăşită, este pe jumătate      separate printr-un perete gros” a dihotomii-
vindecată, acest principiu, fundamentat pe        lor natură vs cultură, feminin vs masculin,
funcţia catharctică a limbajului, stând, aşa      relevă persistenţa opoziţiei inconciliante
cum se ştie, la originea spovedaniei şi a ori-    dintre cele două arhetipuri: matern vs patern;
cărui tip de psihoterapie.                        analizându-le în Arhetipurile şi inconştientul
    Care sunt premisele raportului dintre         colectiv, C.G. Jung adaugă celui dintâi o
Personalitate şi Limbaj? În 1986, psihana-        nouă dihotomie: complexul matern al fiu-
lista franceză Françoise Dolto se adresa ast-     lui vs complexul matern al fiicei, descriind
fel unui public iniţiat, format din psihologi,    conotaţiile pozitive şi negative, benefice şi
medici şi asistenţi sociali: “Doresc să vă        malefice, intens polarizate.
semnalez dumneavoastră, care vă ocupaţi               Descriind minuţios efectul structu-
de educaţia sau asistenţa medicală şi soci-       rant/destructurant al limbajului asupra
ală a copiilor şi tinerilor aflaţi în dificultate   personalităţii ulterioare a fiinţei uma-
fizică, psihică, afectivă, familială sau socia-    ne (vitalizant/devitalizant în accepţiune
lă importanţa cuvintelor spuse sau nespuse        psihanalitică) F. Dolto denunţă impactul pri-
asupra evenimentelor care marchează viaţa         melor cuvinte auzite de copil la naşterea sa:
unui copil, adesea fără ştirea lui şi uneori      ele însoţesc, diminuând sau amplificând –
fără ştirea celor din jurul său(…) Fiinţa         ceea ce Otto Rank numeşte traumatismul ve-
umană este, înainte de toate, o fiinţă de lim-     nirii pe lume: “Atunci când, la naşterea unui
baj” (Dolto,F.,1987, p.7). Forţa civilizatorie    copil, epuizată de-a fi moşit alţi douăzeci în
a limbajului acţionează sincronic şi diacro-      ziua aceeaşi sătulă până peste cap de ţipete,
nic, individual şi transindividual; cuvântul      moaşa, ţinând în braţe copilul care poate că
reprezintă linia de demarcaţie definitivă          plânge un pic mai tare decât altul, îi spune
dintre natură şi cultură, mitul Genezei, ca       mamei : «Of, Doamne, copilul ăsta o să-ţi
orice mit ambivalent, putând fi citit şi ca un     dea de furcă, nu alta !…», aceste cuvinte
mit al investirii simbolice: “Şi omul a pus       o marchează pe mamă, dar îl marchează,
nume tuturor vitelor, păsărilor cerului şi        din păcate, şi pe copil. Cuvintele auzite (cu
tuturor fiarelor câmpului” (Geneza, 2, 20).        valoare predictivă) îi vor induce comporta-
Gestul primordial al numirii, prin excelenţă      mentul ulterior” (Dolto, F., 1987, p. 34).
patern, simulând divinitatea, este cel care,          Relaţia simbolică a Eul-ui cu Celălalt,
dând numele, instaurează ordinea simbolică:       ecuaţia Identitate/Alteritate, vor fiputernic
“O frescă de Giotto – scrie M. Bydlowski          destabilizate; moaşa (aici, profet al nefericirii
– face în mod genial sinteza reprezentărilor      sau inductor al efectului Rosenthal-Pygma-
naşterii şi numirii paterne. Fresca reprezintă    lion), reprezintă instanţa valorizantă, primul
două camere ale unei locuinţe, separate           genitor simbolic al copilului. Pe un dublu
printr-un perete gros. Într-una din ele, Elisa-   canal de comunicare: tactil/auditiv – ea face
beta tocmai a născut; epuizată, se odihneşte      parte, temporar în aparenţă, din triada mamă/
stând întinsă. Ea este înconjurată exclusiv       tată/copil, substituindu-se tatălui, opunându
de femei. Într-o altă cameră, la distanţă,        – se mamei şi transferând inconştient asupra
Zaharia cel mut apare prezentând copilul          noii fiinţe toată încărcătura ei de epuizare şi
Ioan Botezătorul. Pe o tăbliţă el înscrie         resentiment. Ea “cea de-a 13-a ursitoare” ale
«Ioan», numele dictat de îngerul lui Dumne-       căror predicţii se împlinesc întoteauna, cu
zeu. Absent la scena naşterii copilului, el îl    atât mai implacabil cu cât momentul emiterii
înscrie în linia spirituală căreia îi aparţine.   lor şi emiţătorul propriu-zis au o mai mare
Astfel se articulează versantul simbolic al       importanţă aniversar-afectivă pentru desti-
paternităţii. Tatăl trece mai departe nu-         natar.
mele pe care îl poartă” (Bydlowski, M.,               Agresivitatea verbală, ca şi cea fizică,
1998, p. 96). Reprezentarea picturală apa-        este transculturală: ea comportă mode-

88
                                              Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                           volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 87-93


le identice în culturi diferite, este “culture      am putea crede că mecanismele spiritului
free”, aşa cum demonstrează pe larg I. Eibl-        uman sunt în esenţă aceleaşi pretutindeni
-Eibesfeldt: “…ea merge dela degradare              în lume, conţinuturile asupra cărora ţintesc
până la dezumanizare, implicând în acelaşi          pot fi diferite. Astfel, metaforele prin care
timp ameninţarea excluderii. De asemenea,           concepem chiar structura gândirii noastre,
omul poate să creeze, prin cuvinte, situaţii        sau a relaţiilor cu lumea, sunt adesea
declanşatoare de agresivitate, ca de exem-          împrumutate de la nişte obiecte care domină
plu, atunci când spune: “De acum înainte            activităţile cotidiene, sau care fascinează
nu mai vorbesc cu tine!” Clişeele verbale           prin eficienţa, eleganţa şi misterul lor”
înlocuiesc acţiunea, constituind o formă            (Parot, F., Richelle, M., 1995, p. 215).
particulară de ritualizare (s.n.). Ritualiza-           În Antropologia structurală, Lévi-Strauss
rea conflictelor reprezintă unul din factorii        evidenţiază, în cadrul “complexului şamanic”
importanţi ai evoluţiei limbii”. (Eibl-Eibes-       bazat pe o complicitate participativă de tip
feldt, I., 1995, p. 128). Această ritualizare       psihoterapeutic, efectul benefic vs malefic
este realizată metaforic, simbolul devinind         al magiei asupra psihologiei primitivilor,
principalul suport al devierii, descărcării         demontând mecanismul psihofiziologic aflat
sau sublimării agresivităţii; astfel, la indienii   fie la originea vindecărilor miraculoase ori
Waika din jungla Orinoco-ului superior, sau         a unor eficiente incantaţii obstetrice, fie la
la eschimoşii de pe coasta de vest a Alaskăi,       originea unor cazuri de moarte prin vrajă
există cântece de duel al căror stil urmează        sau farmece. Permeabilitatea la astfel de
un tipar tradiţional, textele fiind compuse          fenomene ale unor conştiinţe aflate mai
de fiecare individ în parte în funcţie de oca-       aproape de natură decât de cultură permite
zia respectivă: orice motiv de dispută, orice       amplificarea subiectivă până la paroxism a
criză, cu excepţia crimelor, îşi găseşte rezol-     efectelor blstemului asupra celui condamnat;
varea în acest mod sui generis de comunica-         efectul punitiv al izolării victimei, al
re interpersonală.                                  aboliriicomunicării, estela fel de puternic
     Versantului agresivităţii i se opune,          ca şi o sentinţă irevocabilă, substituindu-
simetric, cel al afectivităţii, iar în duali-       se execuţiei fizice: “Comunitatea se
tatea freudiană Eros/Thanatos cel dintâi            îndepărtează de cel blestemat, comportându-
beneficiază dintotdeauna mai mult de aus-            se faţă de el ca şi cum ar fi nu numai deja
piciile metaforei: stau dovadă toate operele        mort, dar chiar şi o sursă de primejdie
de artă ale omenirii, ca tot atâtea mesaje de       pentru întregul anturaj. La fiecare ocazie şi
iubire. In Simboluri ale transformării, Jung        prin toate comportările sale, corpul social îi
scrie: “Asistăm astfel la primele instincte ar-     sugerează moartea nenorocitei victime, care
tistice în evoluţia speciilor, puse în serviciul    nu mai are pretenţia de a se sustrage de la
instinctului de procreare limitat la perioada       ceea ce consideră a fi destinul ei ineluctabil.
de rut.(…) nu poate exista nici un dubiu în         (…) Privat mai întâi în mod brutal de
ceea ce priveşte apartenenţa originară a            toate legăturile sale familiale şi sociale şi
muzicii la sfera perpetuării speciilor”.            exclus din toate funcţiile şi activităţile (…)
     Există, totuşi, autori (Fr. Parot, M.          individul vrăjit cedează în faţa intensei
Richelle) care denunţă drept iluzorie               terori pe care o resimte, a retragerii subite
ambiţia de a analiza conduita umană                 şi totale a multiplelor sisteme de referinţă
făcând abstracţie de apartenenţa sa la o            furnizate prin conivenţa grupului (…) care,
cultură specifică, arătând că antropologi ca         din om viu, subiect de drepturi şi îndatoriri,
Malinowski sau Mead au combătut acele               îl proclamă mort, obiect de temeri, de rituri
teorii ale personalităţii care au pretenţia         şi de interdicţii. Integritatea fizică nu rezistă
de a fi universale, punând în discuţie, de           în faţa dizolvării personalităţii sociale
exemplu, afirmaţiile freudiene referitoare la        (s.n.)” (Lévi-Strauss, C., 1978, p. 220).
universalitatea complexului oedipian. “Deşi             Acelaşi complicat sistem al manipulării

                                                                                                 89
Doina-Mihaela Popa
Criză, personalitate şi comunicare


psihice prin intermediul limbajului este          simţămintele agresive. Salutul prietenilor şi
abordat şi de Freud în Totem şi tabu;             cunoştinţelor se face nu numai în momentul
inventariind minuţios tehnicile şi metodele       primei întâlniri din cursul unei zile, ci,
influenţării prin magie şi vrăjitorie, părintele   adesea, după fiecare scurtă separare.
psihanalizei disecă sistemul de gândire           Formulele de despărţire fac şi ele parte din
animist al societăţii primitive, definindu-l       complexul comportamentului de salut. Când
drept primă teorie psihologică a omenirii,        ne luăm rămas bun de la cineva, întărim încă
care, nefiind încă o religie, conţine şi           o dată, legăturile viitoare prin intermediul
întruneşte condiţiile preliminare pe baza         ritualurilor prieteneşti” (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I.,
cărora se vor construi mai târziu religiile.      1998, p. 185).
    Bruno Bettelheim confirmă acelaşi                  Vorbind despre ritualuri de întâlnire,
mecanism, de data aceasta psihorecuperator,       Eric Berne, autorul analizei tranzacţionale,
declanşat prin forţa sugestivă a cuvântului;      le defineşte drept “serii stereotipice de
prin lectura sau ascultarea basmului,             tranzacţii complementare”, formale sau
evenimentele sufleteşti individuale devin          informale, golite de orice conţinut informativ
întâmplări şi personaje: “În medicina             şi bazate pe calcule intuitive, inconştiente,
tradiţională hindusă, bunăoară, celor             făcute de partenerii tranzacţiei. Ceea ce
dezorientaţi psihic li se impunea meditaţia       s-ar putea identifica drept o formă de limbaj
profundă asupra unui basm (s.n.).                 dublu – flirtul, de exemplu, în care o aparentă
Contemplând povestea, pacientul este              discuţie despre vreme camuflează un
obligat să devină conştient de natura             dialog erotic (şi în care nivelul comunicării
impasului în care existenţa sa intrase fără       conştiente, digitale nu este numai dublat de
voie şi totodată de posibilitateagăsirii unei     cel al comunicării inconştiente, analogice,
soluţii. Astfel, speranţa sau disperarea          ci şi de un al doilea nivel verbal “parazit”,
omenească zugrăvite de o poveste sau de           un fel de pseudo-comunicare, consimţit de
alta, cât şi soluţiile sugerate, permiteau        ambii parteneri ai tranzacţiei) este numită de
bolnavului să descopere modalitatea de a          Berne “tranzacţie – duplex” şi este explicată
ieşi din suferinţă (…) Calitatea terapeutică      prin nevoia de autoprotejare şi evaluare până
a basmului provine tocmai din faptul              la testarea fiecărei situaţii sociale.
că pacientul îşi găseştepropriile soluţii             Bunele urări nu pot anula efectul
meditând la ceea ce povestea îi spune despre      agresivităţii din imprecaţii şi blesteme, însă
el însuşi şi despre conflictele sale interioare    îl pot îmblânzi; să ne amintim discursul
într-un moment al vieţii lui” (Bettelheim, B.,    “zânei bune” din basmul lui Charles Perrault,
1976, p. 43).                                     Frumoasa din pădurea adormită: “ Liniştiţi-
    Rolul     limbajului     în    ritualizarea   vă, rege şi regină, fiica voastră nu va muri.
agresivităţii (agresivitatea fiind ipostaziată     E adevărat că eu nu am destulă putere ca
ca o componentă importantă a personalităţii       să desfac în întregime ceea ce zâna cea rea
umane) şi în exorcizarea suferinţei               a făcut: prinţesa se va înţepa la degetcu un
este completatde aspectul ritualizării            fus, nu pot să împiedic asta, dar, în loc să
transculturale a formelor de comunicare           moară, ea va cădea într-un somn adânc.
prin formule de politeţe şi urări. Salutul,       Acest somn va dura 100 de ani, după care
zâmbetul, darul, urarea aniversară au             un fiu de rege va veni să o trezească”; este
pretutindeni aceeaşi structură fundamentală       ceea ce va spune, ulterior, şi Jung : darul
şi acelaşi rol: dezamorsează ostilitatea,         este expresia materială a Sinelui; ne dăruim,
pacifică, sudează legăturile intra şi inter-       de fapt, pe noi înşine, sau altfel spus, darul
grupale, constituind ritualuri culturale de       suntem noi şi nu putem dărui ceea ce nu
apropiere, comunicare şi curtare. “Funcţia        suntem.
universală a salutului este aceea de a stabili        Aflate în relaţie antagonică, blestemul,
sau de a menţine o legătură şi de a atenua        imprecaţia, ocara, pe de o parte şi zâmbetul,

90
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 87-93


salutul, urarea, pe de altă parte, reprezintă          Recunoaşterea
tot atâtea proiecţii ale unor temperamente             Ca şi în situaţia crizelor individuale,
şi structuri comportamerntale diferite:           când acceptarea faptului că ai o problemă
zâna cea bună va neutraliza cuvintele             şi ai nevoie de un ajutor profesionist consti-
celei malefice tot prin cuvinte, ameliorând        tuie prima şi cea mai importantă soluţie de
simptomul; este rostul oricărei terapii           ieşire din impas, în contextul organizaţional,
prin cuvânt: printr-un voiaj discursiv            această primă strategie constă în a accepta
regresiv, atinge sursa suferinţei – această       criza şi asta cât mai repede posibil. În ca-
metaforă a corpului – şi, numind-o, o aduce       drul acestei strategii, dacă presa dezvăluie
la suprafaţă, vindecând-o. Constituind            criza înaintea întreprinderii, este din cauza
interfaţa dintre individual şi social, limbajul   faptului ca aceasta din urmă comunică prost
determină personalitatea şi este determinat       şi că, deja, criza nu mai poate fi stăpânită. În
de către aceasta: tulburările de limbaj           acest caz, întreprinderea trebuie să acţioneze
reflectă tulburări ale personalităţii. Astfel,     urgent şi să fie în măsură să determine rapid
pe de o parte, între autism şi schizofrenie,      gradul ei de competenţă în raport cu “mo-
ca poli extremi, putem localiza: afazia,          torul” crizei; cest “motor” poate fi intern,
alexia, parafazia şi toate celelalte, iar pe de   legat, de exemplu, de productivitatea între-
altă parte, atât personalitatea prejudiciată,     prinderii, sau extern, datorat unui context
cât şi cea accentuată se trădează în şi prin      aversiv, politic sau de altă natură, implicând
limbaj. Raportul de inter-determinare             abordări diferite ale comunicării de criză. În
dintre personalitate şi limbaj este tot atât de   general, strategia recunoaşterii se sprijină pe
simbiotic precum cel între formă şi conţinut:     o comunicare clară şi fermă. În funcţie de
limbajul ne dezvăluie personalitatea, contrar     context, întreprinderea beneficiază de mai
a ceea ce afirma, cu un atât de pitoresc           multe alternative:
paradox, Talleyrand: “Cuvintele i-au fost              1. Recunoaşterea completă a situaţiei de
date omului pentru a-şi ascunde gândurile”.       criză şi asumarea răspunderii. În acest caz,
                                                  asumarea recuperării prejudiciilor suportate
Strategii de rezolvare a crizelor                 deja aduce un avantaj atât din punct de
organizaţionale                                   vedere juridic, cât şi mediatic.
                                                       2. Exprimarea onestă a stării de confu-
Ţinând cont de această importanţă extremă         zie sau derivă, atunci când întreprinderea nu
a limbajului în amorsarea sau dezamorsa-          cunoaşte cauzele care stau la originea situa-
rea conflictelor interumane, şi pentru a în-       tiei.
văţa să gestioneze situaţiile neprevăzute,             3. Extinderea responsabilităţii către acto-
întreprinderile, ca şi politicienii, ar trebui    rii externi, cum sunt autorităţile de control.
să reflecteze în avans asupra evenimentelor             4. Separarea lucrurilor bune de cele rele,
posibile şi să simuleze, în consecinţă, ca în     renunţând la cei responsabili de instalarea
exerciţiile antitero sau împotriva dezastrelor    crizei, dacă trebuie.
şi catastrofelor naturale, scenarii complexe           5. Restrângerea crizei la obiect, un loc,
al căror obiectiv să îl constituie formularea     un interval de timp; scopul este acela de a
unor strategii precise de comunicare în caz       evita extindereafenomenului la alte produse,
de criză. După Didier Heiderich, consultant       mărci, filiale...
al site-lui www.communication-sensible.                Deşi puţin folosită, această strategie a
com şi redactor şef al news-letter-ului Ob-       recunoaşterii este, totuşi, una dintre cele care
servatoire international des crises, deşi fie-     funcţionează cel mai bine, după cum susţine
care întreprindere, fiecare situaţie implică o     Didier Heiderich. Dificultatea asumării ero-
viziune diferită, se pot, totuşi, discerne trei   rilor şi răspunderii devine mai suportabilă
mari strategii de comunicare a crizei, fiecare     prin abordarea ei transparentă, care implică
cu avantajele şi inconvenientele ei.              augmentarea credibilităţii faţă de diferite-

                                                                                                91
Doina-Mihaela Popa
Criză, personalitate şi comunicare


le publicuri. Această strategie permite, de         rea are la dispoziţie patru posibilităţi:
asemenea, evitarea unei inflaţii ulterioare de           1. Păstrează tăcerea încă de la debutul
informaţii contradictorii, care să le anuleze       crizei, strategie aleasă de către autorităţile
pe cele dintâi, situaţie în care întreprinderea     sovietice în timpul accidentului de la centrala
ar avea enorm de pierdut pe planul imaginii.        nucleară Cernobîl.
    Proiectul lateral sau Diversiunea                   2. Întrerupe comunicarea la un moment
    Expusă pe larg de către Thierry Libaert         dat, sperând ca, astfel, să nu mai alimenteze
în cartea sa Communication de crise (Paris,         criza.
Dunod, 2001), această strategie încearcă să             3. Avansează principiul verigii absente,
modifice unghiul prin care privim fenomenul          ca în cazul Revoluţiei din 1989, când nimeni
de criză. Fondată pe realitatea netrucată şi pe     nu a mai ştiut cine a dat ordinul iniţial de a se
fapte concrete, ea poate reuşi să deplaseze         trage în demonstraţii neînarmaţi.
“câmpul de luptă”, după cum precizează                  4. Minimizează efectele crizei, cu
Didier Heiderich. Pentru a derula un proiect        condiţia să fie singura care dispune de datele
lateral, diferite tactici sunt posibile:            reale. A fost formula aleasă de către guver-
    1. A contra-ataca şi a-i demasca pe             nul francez în timpul caniculei din vara lui
profitorii crizei, care, cel mai adesea, sunt        2003; statisticele furnizate de către Pompele
întruchipaţi de concurenţă sau de opoziţie,         funebre au demontat, din păcate, acest sce-
în cazul politicienilor : această strategie         nariu.
est folosită în special de către marile                 Consecinţele unei astfel de strategii se
întreprinderi sau companii, care găsesc în          pot dovedi extrem de periculoase, atât din
concurenţa internaţională un perfect alibi.         punct de vedere juridic, cât şi mediatic,
    2. A redirecţiona responsabilitatea             dacă faptele reale ies, mai devreme sau mai
către exterior, dând vina întotdeauna pe            târziu, la iveală, propunând o nouă “lectură”
ceilalţi,administraţie, mediu politic etc etc ...   a evenimemntelor. Concret, acest scenariu
    3. A reduce la maximum comunicarea,             se va traduce, în majoritatea cazurilor, prin
sau, dimpotrivă, a comunica mai vehement            pierderea credibilităţii şi compromiterea
şi mai dur.                                         brandului.
    4. A sublinia faptul că ceea ce e mai rău
a trecut, că situaţia ar fi putut fi cu mult mai      Concluzii
gravă dacă administraţia întreprinderii nu ar
fi acţionat în cutare sau cutare mod.                Personală sau colectivă, psihologică,
    Proiectul lateral, sau diversiunea, care        politică sau economică, dar purtând acelaşi
constă în a “deporta” criza în afara câm-           nume: depresie, dépression, depression,
pului propriu-zis al întreprinderii, trebuie        suprapunând conceptul de oportunitate peste
să se sprijine neapărat pe elemente tangi-          cel de pericol sau de suferinţă, criza conţine
bile, în caz contrar, utilizarea acestei stra-      întotdeauna în sine nucleul schimbării, al
tegii de comunicare a crizei fiind mult mai          evoluţiei. Ca urgenţă existenţială, uneori
primejdioasă decât criza însăşi.                    devastatoare, plasată la intervale de timp
    Refuzul sau Obstrucţia                          suportabile istoric ori individual, criza nu
    Strategia refuzului constă, pur şi sim-         trebuie mai ales ocultată, faţă de sine şi faţă
plu, în a afirma că nu există nici o criză.          de ceilalţi; pentru a fi depăşită, ea trebuie, în
Este echivalentului mecanismului psihic             primul rând, recunoscută şi comunicată.
de apărare numit, în psihanaliză, negare,
şi fiind un substitut al refulării; negarea
constituie prima reacţie la îndemâna apara-
tului psihic, prin care acesta se protejează
de şocurile şi traumele exterioare. Pentru a
pune în practică acest scenariu, întreprinde-

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                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
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Bibliografie                                      Iacob, Luminiţa et al., Comunicarea în câm-
                                                 pul social, Iaşi, Editura Universităţii Al.I.
Abric, Jean-Claude, Psihologia comunicării,      Cuza, 1997.
Iaşi, Polirom, 2002.
                                                 Libaert, Thierry, Communication de crise,
Allport, Gordon W., Structura şi dezvoltarea     Paris, Ed. Dunod, 2001.
personalităţii, Bucureşti, EDP, 1991.
                                                 Lévi-Strauss, Claude, Antropologia structu-
Bell, Arthur H., Gestionarea conflictelor în      rală, Bucureşti, Editura Politică, 1978.
organizaţii, Iaşi, Polirom, 2007.
                                                 Moscovici, Serge, Psihologia socială sau
Berne, Eric, Analyse transactionnelle et         maşina de fabricat zei, Iaşi, Editura Univer-
psychothérapie, Paris, Payot, 2001.              sităţii Al.I. Cuza, 1994.
Berne, Eric, Que dire après avoir dit bon-       Mucchielli, Alex, Les situations de commu-
jour?, Paris, Tchou, 2003.                       nication, Paris, Eyrolles, 1991.
Bettelheim, Bruno, Psychanalyse des contes       Mucchielli, Alex, Psychologie de la commu-
de fees, Paris, Ed. Laffont,1976.                nication, Paris, P.U.F., 1995.
Bydlowski, Monique, Psihanaliza materni-         Mucchielli, Alex, Comunicarea în instituţii
tăţii, Bucureşti, Editura Trei, 1998.            şi organizaţii, Iaşi, Polirom, 2008.
Coman, Cristina, Relaţii publice. Principii şi   Parot, F., Richelle, M, Introducere în psiho-
strategii, Polirom, Iaşi, 2001.                  logie, Bucureşti, Humanitas, 1995.
De Vito, Joseph, Les fondements de la com-       Popa, Doina-Mihaela, Relaţia de comuni-
munication humaine, Montreal, G. Mo-             care interpersonală, Iaşi, Editura Junimea,
ris,1993.                                        2005.
Dolto, Françoise, Tout est langage, Paris,       Popa, Doina-Mihaela, Elemente de psiholo-
Carrere, 1987.                                   gia comunicării, Iaşi, Editura Stef / Institutul
Drozda-Senkowska, E., Psihologiesocială          European, 2006.
experimentală, Iaşi, Polirom, 2000.              Sillamy, Norbert, Dicţionar de psihologie,
Doron, Roland, Parot, Françoise, Dicţionar       Bucureşti, EUE, 1996.
de psihologie, Bucureşti, Humanitas, 1999.       Watzlawick, Paul et al, Une logique de la
Duck, Steve, Relaţiile interpersonale – A        communication, Paris, Seuil, 1979.
gîndi, a simţi, a interacţiona, Iaşi, Polirom,   Watzlawick, Paul, Le langage du change-
2000.                                            ment, Paris, Seuil, 1980.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenäeus, Agresivitatea         Watzlawick, Paul, Faites vous-même votre
umană, Bucureşti, Editura Trei, 1995.            malheur, Paris, Seuil, 1984.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenäeus, Iubire şi ură, Bu-    Watzlawick, Paul, Comment réussir à
cureşti, Editura Trei, 1998.                     échouer, Paris, Seuil 1988.
Goffman, Erving, Les rites d’interaction,        http://www.communication-sensible.com
Paris, Minuit, 1974.




                                                                                               93
94
Global attitudes on death penalty
Alina Duduciuc
“Dimitrie Cantemir” University, Bucharest
Romania

Ilarion Ţiu
“Dimitrie Cantemir” University, Bucharest
Romania



   Abstract: This article analyzes some of the reasons why the Romanian students agree
   with the death penalty. Based on the data collected through social survey (N=177), our
   research tests two main variables that are supposed to form the public opinion about
   death penalty: religious attitudes and conformity to majority tendencies. Statistical
   analyses suggested that students are holding more materialistic values than religious
   and their opinions regarding death penalty are consonant with those expressed by
   majority.

   Keywords: death penalty, religious attitudes, public opinion.




During time, the acknowledgment of public        states totalized a rate of 90% of the total
opinion concerning the public punishment         of capital sanctions applied at a worldwide
has started the interest the collectivity        level: The United States of America, China,
as well as the one of researchers. The           Iran, Irak, Saudi Arabia2. In the present, in
contemporaneousness of this theme is             the United States of America, 30 of 51 states
relevant also by the fact that at a worldwide    still maintain the constitutional provisions
level the policies of national states are        concerning death penalty3. One premises
divergent, despite the recommendations of        with comes out for a sociological analyze
international organisms, which suggest a         would be that the attitude of the public
humanist legislation. In the year 2001, in       towards death penalty is more powerful in
the whole world, the number of states which      countries in which this one is still applicable
have abolished the death punishment was          and moderate in countries that do not adhere
111, compared to the 84 countries that still     to capital punishment: 62% compared to
maintained the capital sentence as a juridical   42%4.
sanction for certain criminal acts1. During           In the United States of America,
the same year, the executions from the five       sociological inquiries which measure the


                                                                                             95
Alina Duduciuc ● Ilarion Ţiu
Public oppinion and global reception of death penalty


public’s attitude towards the application           of such an opinion are different: White
of death penalty have a long tradition.             Americans which the capital punishment
Studies have started in 1909 with the survey        for social order, while black Americans
performed by F.C. Sharp and M.C. Otto5, and         perceive it as an effect of agressivity. In
in the 1960 has already reached 806. In 1936,       1958, in European countries, the population
a Gallup Survey7, projected on a sample             from Belgium (59%) and Norway (52%)
of 30.000 persons, measured a percent of            declared themselves unfavorable for capital
sustenance of capital punishment among              punishment, while in Great Britain (79%)
Americans, this one being of 62%. Twenty            and the Federal Republic of Germany
years later, in 1953, studies reported that over    (78%) the agreement for death penalty was
half of the population of the United States         very powerful13. The same large consensus
had consonant opinions concerning capital           has been expressed in 1964, 67% from
punishment (68%). In 1966, the public               British people and 55% from west-Germans
support for capital punishment registers            expressed themselves favorable for death
a descending curve: 42% of Americans                penalty. Socio-demographical indicators
pronounced themselves in favor of death             from the survey performed by DIVO-
penalty. Ten years later, in 1976, empirical        Frankfurt am Main in 1964 has produced
data of NORC General Social Surveys                 same answer variations in the following
come back to the ones from 1953: 65% of             manner: There is a greater tendency of
Americans declare themselves favorable for          farmers (68%), of workers in factories
the application of capital punishment8.             (66%), of retreated persons (58%) to have
    Being analyzed from a longitudinal              some favorable attitudes towards death
point of view, percents indicated during the        penalty compared to young people (53%,
50s can be granted to a generation that has         25-34 years old) and business people (48%).
accumulated the experience of the Second            Religion and genre have not yet been the
World War. Starting from this premise, the          predictors for the attitude concerning death
rate of public support for capital punishment       penalty, 52% of women and 57% of men,
would have to decrease together with baby-          57% of Protestants and 54% of Catholics
boom generation: With all these, criminality        agree with the reintroduction of the capital
rate, the mediatization of different forms          punishment14.
of deviance and capital executions, have                In Romania, during the first survey of
generated a need of social safety 9 and have        public opinion performed by IRSOP after
maintained their opinions concerning capital        the events in ’89 during the period of the
punishment in 1976. Not by mistake, in              15th-19th of January 1990 on a sample of
1989, the percent of those who pronounced           4.507 persons, almost 58% of the persons
themselves in favor of the capital punishment       who were interrogated have appreciated that
has risen to 79%10, because of the fact that        death penalty should not be reintroduced
during a ten years period, from 1976-1987,          in the Criminal Procedure15. 20 years after
a third of capital punishments granted on           the falling down of the communist regime,
the territory of the United States of America       according to CCSB survey, performed
have been intensely mediatized11.                   during the period of 24-27 March 2010 at
    Closer to our days, a study performed           a national level (N=1.060), half of the ones
in 2003 indicates a rate of 50% for the             investigated (50%) whish the organization of
sustenance of the capital punishment, the           a referendum concerning the reintroduction
white population having attitudes more              of death penalty, 44% would be against such
favorable to the punishment than with               an initiative, while only 6% from the ones
the death of some color Americans (66%              interrogated have not expressed an opinion
compared to 33% from color Americans)12.            in this sense16. 90 % of the ones who sustain
In exchange, the reasons for the adoption           the organization of a referendum on this

96
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                         volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 95-106


theme agree with the introduction of death        well as in Wallachia (six times) during 1730-
penalty and only 8% pronounce themselves          1769. At the beginning of the XIXth century,
as being against.                                 the political situation was tensioned in
    In its survey CCSB explains that “the         Balkan areas, fact that facilitated the growth
profile of the ones who wish such a vote           of criminal phenomena and determined
is in close correlation with the belonging        the authorities to take in discussion the
to a majoritarian group (Orthodox,                reintroduction of death penalty. On the 1st
Romanians) as well as with the ownership          of September 1818, in Wallachia Caragea
of some material resources or status (age,        Law entered into force, which stipulated
education, income, residential environment,       the capital punishment in the following
occupation”)17. From here appear also the         four cases: “precognition murder”, money
explications advanced by the large public         falsification, murder produced in a moment
and researchers after the publication of          of anger with the help a weapon or some
the results of CSSB survey: intolerance,          sharpen instrument, and theft. In Moldavia,
ambivalent attitudes during transition            death penalty has been mentioned in
period, orientations towards the satisfaction     Calimachi Code entered into force on the
of basic needs, socio-economical conditions       1st of October 1817. This is granted for
during the period of primary socialization,       murder facts, patricide, theft, poisoning and
religious attitudes, increase of criminality,     intentional fire.
intense mediatization of delicts.                     The abolishment of death penalty has
                                                  been reduced in political debate with the
From the history of legislation                   occasion of the 1848 Revolution. The
concerning death penalty in Romania               Proclamation from Islaz in Wallachia (9th of
                                                  June 1848) stipulated in article 19 that the
On the actual territory of Romania, debates       “people decree the complete abolishment
concerning the application of death penalty       of death penalty, in the work as well in the
for different offences date back in the           sentence”. The programmatic point has been
Middle Ages. The oldest references to             put to law by the revolutionary government
capital sentence are attested in the XVIIth       on the 14th of June – by the Decree no. 7
century. In Moldavia, during the time of the      which eliminated death penalty. Moldavian
ruler Vasile Lupu (Romanian learning book         people have been less vocal in this concern.
[Carte Românească de Învăţătură], 1646)           The only one who mentioned the principle
and the Wallachia during the reign of Matei       of abolishment of the capital punishment
Basarab (Correction of the Law [Îndreptarea       has been Mihail Kogalniceanu in his draft
Legii], 1652). The two documents mention          Constitution project. After the ending of the
the application of death penalty for actions      Revolution, the rulers have still maintained
which are extremely grave, like country           the death penalty, this one being stipulated
treason, patricide or women kidnapping.           in the Criminal Procedure belonging to
Gratiation could be granted only at the           Basarab Ştirbei in Wallachia but as well in
intervention of the metropolitan bishop. But,     the similar document belonging to Grigore
the convicted person will lose his land in        Nica in Moldavia.
favor of the Metropolitan Church, or became           After the Unification from 1859,
asserted by this one, together with his family.   governors have brought in debate the
    The first debates concerning the               problem of forbidding the death penalty Art.
abolishment of death penalty took place           17 of the Constitution Project established
during fanariote reigns, at the middle of the     by the Central Commission from Focşani
XVIIIth century. The most decided in this         which referred explicate this principle.
concern has been Constantin Mavrocordat,          Misunderstandings between Moldavian
who had reigns in Moldavia (four times) as        politicians and the ones from the mountain

                                                                                                97
Alina Duduciuc ● Ilarion Ţiu
Public oppinion and global reception of death penalty


have lead to the failure of the constitutional      stipulated death penalty for such “offences”.
project. The first official mentioning of             Stipulations concerning capital punishment
the abolishment of the capital punishment           have been ulterior abrogates by Decree no.
in Modern Romania can be found in the               202 of the 14th of March 195319.
Criminal Procedure of Alexandru Ioan                    Death penalty has been introduced for the
Cuza in 186418. This important legislative          first time after the communist regime in the
reform has been also confirmed by the first           Criminal Procedure on the 30th of September
Romanian Constitution in 1866, art. 18              1957 by Decree no. 469, which modifies art.
of the documented stipulated that “death            236 of the legislative documentation.
penalty will not be reintroduced again,                 During communist years, the Criminal
except the cases stipulated in Military             Procedure underlined only as a principle
Criminal Procedure during war periods”. The         the capital punishment, the cases for
constitution in 1923 has kept the principle of      which this one applies as a punishment
forbidding the capital punishment in art. 16.       being established by applicable legislation.
    Close to the time when the Second World         From 1977 to 1988, 96 persons have been
War was about to start, general tensions at the     executed, among which 93 for severe
European Level also reflected in Romania             murders. During the same period one has
by the tightening of the regime of personal         registered 34 commutations of death penalty
freedoms and of legislation. In February            to 25 years of imprisonment. No woman has
1938, king Carol II has instaurated a personal      been executed, during communist years, as
regime, also changing the fundamental law.          well as previously.20.
For the first time in the constitutional history         The last death conviction ad judgments
of Romania, the capital punishment was              have been issued on the 25th of December
introduced, for certain offenses of political       1989, for Ceauşescu couple. Elena Ceauşescu
order: “Death penalty applies during war            is the unique woman who has been executed
periods according to the code of military           in the Modern History of Romania.
justice. The Council of Ministers will decide           On the 7th of January 1990, the Council
the application of the stipulations of the          of National Salvation has issued the Law-
preceding article during peace periods, for         Decree no. 6 for the abolishment of death
attentats against the Senate, Members of            penalty, for the modification and abrogation
the Royal Family, Chief of States and State         of some provisions of the Criminal
personalities connected to the exercise of          Procedure and of some other normative
functions that are granted to them, as well as      acts21. The death penalty has been explicitly
for the cases of theft with political murder        banned by the Constitution from 1991, in
and assassinate” (art. 15).                         art. 22 paragraph 3. The Constitution from
    The      communist       regime,      fully     2003 maintains this provision at the same
implemented after the abdication of king            position.
Mihai I on the 30th of December 1947 has
not made any reference to death penalty             Sociologic Investigation: Students’
in its Constitution from 1948, 1952 and             opinions concerning the introduction
1965. The section referring to the rights
of Romanian people does not mention it
                                                    of death penalty
as being forbidden or accepted. The first            Hypothesis of the study
juridical reference to death penalty appears
in Decree no. 199 of the 12th of August             As we have mentioned at the beginning of
1950, which made some modifications                  this article, we will advance some hypothesis
to Law no. 16 of the 15th of January 1949           and methodological suggestions about the
concerning “murders which endanger state            measurement of attitudes concerning capital
security”. The Decree from 1950 explicitly          punishments based on data provided by

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                                                Societal and Political Psychology International Review
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CCSB and as a consequence of statistical              Method
transformation of obtained data (factorial
analyze, frequency of answers and their               Participants and design of the research.
expression in percents, chi-square test) from         For the testing of hypothesis we have chosen
the sociologic investigation designed by us           the method based on a questionnaire. To
ad libitum during the May-June 2010.                  the study participated 177 students (Table
     Our study aimed, mainly, the                     1) among which 66 (37%) of masculine
measurement of students’ attitudes towards            gender and 111 (62%) of feminine gender,
the reintroduction of capital punishment              within the Faculty of Political Sciences
starting from the following hypothesis:               (“Dimitrie Cantemir” Christian University
     1. Probably the generations born after           from Bucharest). The questionnaire has
1989, which have experimented a level of              been collectively applied by the technique
material wellbeing during the period of               of an exam during seminary classes during
primary socialization, will have moderate             the period of May-June 2010. The age
attitudes towards the introduction of death           average of the respondents was 20 years.
penalty.                                              The investigated lot had not representativity
     2. Probably students’ religious attitudes        reported to the total number of students
do not represent a significant factor in the           from Romania, but allowed the testing of
expression of vote to an eventual referendum          hypothesis and the obtainance of some
concerning the reintroduction of death                results which we consider as being significant
penalty.                                              for the advance of some methodological
                                                      suggestions. Data have been transformed by
                                                      the means of SPSS software variant 12.0.
 Subjects’ gender                                                         N               %
 Masculine                                                                66               37
 Feminine                                                                111               62
 Total                                                                   177              100
Table 1. Distribution of the investigated lot according to subjects’ gender.

Investigation instrument                              penalty (question 7); granting of some
                                                      sentences according to criminal facts
Questionnaire. For this research we have
                                                      (question 8); religious attitudes (question
produced a questionnaire with a number of
                                                      9); and socio-demographical indicators
nine questions which aimed the collection
                                                      (age, gender, occupation, religion, faculty,
of some data concerning the subjects’
                                                      residence environment).
interest concerning the rights and liberties
granted by the Constitution (question
1); information sources concerning the                Results
provisions of the constitution (question              Religious attitudes. During the first stage,
2); knowledge of rights granted by the                one has checked the reliability of the
constitution (question 3); if they had                measurement scale of religious attitudes,
relatives that have been victims of capital           the Cronbach Alpha coefficient that has
punishment during the communist period                been obtained for the five items of the scale
(question 4); Romanians’ actual perception            being of 0.56 thus obtaining a decreased
concerning capital punishment (question               value, and we proceeded to a factorial
5); importance of rights stipulated by                analyze for the group of items in sub-
the constitution (question 6); opinion                scales. We expect that one of the items will
concerning the introduction of death                  have a greater reliability, so that ulterior

                                                                                                   99
Alina Duduciuc ● Ilarion Ţiu
Public oppinion and global reception of death penalty


we can retain it in the interpretation of            increase of Cronbach Alpha coefficient to
results. In Table 3 we present the factorial         a value of 0.59. Due to the fact that this a
analyze for the five items, the method of             very little change for the initial obtained
the main component. As one can observe,              value, we will keep all the five items of the
if we eliminated an item, we obtain an               scale for the interpretation of results.

     Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient                                              N
 According to standard items of the scale                                   Items
                  0.565                                                        5
Table 2. Value of Cronbach Alpha coefficient for religious attitude scale.

                                                                                Cronbach Alpha
                                                             Variance of
            Items of the scale                 Average                           coefficient if we
                                                              the scale
                                                                               eliminate one item
 Believe in God                                 13.15           6.369                 .460
 Go to work on Sundays and on Holi-
                                                11.87           6.448                 .430
 days
 Love for people is a principle for me
                                                12.85           7.415                 .543
 in my life
 I consider that I have religiously get
                                                13.32           6.460                 .479
 married and Christian my children
 It is important that I have faith, not to
                                                13.15           7.315                 .591
 go to church
Table 3. Value of Cronbach Alpha coefficient if we renounce to one item in the scale

Religious attitudes and agreement/                   penalty and approximately half of these
disagreement concerning death penalty                ones (47%) will be against, while almost
    From the total of the investigated               16% from the subjects do not have an
lot, 37% would pronounce themselves                  opinion concerning this subject (Table
favorable for the reintroduction of death            4).

      If a referendum concerning the introduction of death penalty,
                                                                                       N      %
            will take place on Sunday will you personally vote?
Against the reintroduction of death penalty                                            84     47
For the reintroduction of death penalty                                                65     37
I don’t know/do not answer                                                             28     16
Total                                                                                 177    100
Table 4. Frequency of answers to the question concerning the agreement/disagreement concerning the
         organization of the referendum for the reintroduction of death penalty (N=177).


Following    the    results  obtained                measurement of religious attitudes,
after the application of the scale of                we can say that the total effect of

100
                                              Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 95-106


this variable in the explication of the             reintroduction of capital punishment
agreement or disagreement concerning                (N=65), approximately had agree
the reintroduction of death penalty is              (N=31; 48%) that religious legalization
relatively small. Even if the expression            of marriage is very important (table
of answers in frequency indicate, in some           5). As well, from the subjects who
way, powerful religious attitudes – for             express their agreement with the capital
example, 68% from the students declare              punishment, a fourth of them (38%)
themselves as being faithful and 71%                believe in a great measure in God (Table
consider that the religious marriage and            6).
christening is important for them – even                From the group of dimensions which
though, for the whole of the investigated           describe the religious attitude “peoples’
lot, the attitude towards religion is not           love” has not registered a significant
a significant factor from statistic point            variance from a statistical point of view,
of view, and will not determine the                 fact indicated by the value of Chi-square
vote to the referendum concerning the               test, bigger than the error level which is
reintroduction of death penalty. Chi-               accepted (χ2=4,70; df=4; p=0,782>0,05).
square test for the association of these            Answer frequencies, presented in Table
variables has indicated a decreased                 7 sustain the following affirmations:
variance which is not significant from a             Only 20% (N=35) from the questioned
statistical point of view (Table 8).                students consider that, in a great measure,
    It will be interesting to add                   the peoples’ love is a principle which is
that from the total of the ones who                 followed in life, while 38% (N=68) have
declare themselves favorable for the                moral attitudes in this sense.

                                         I consider that I have to religiously get married
                                                   and Christian my children.
If next week a referendum for               In
                                I don’t             In           Little/
the reintroduction of death               a very         In some
                               know/do            a big          not at  Total
penalty will take place, will               big          measure
                              not answer         measure          all
you personally vote?                     measure
Against the reintroduction of    3.6%    50.0% 17.9% 25.0% 3.6% 100.0%
death penalty                             6          42        18         11        7         84

For the reintroduction of death        7.1%        50.0%     21.4%      13.1%     8.3%     100.0%
penalty                                   0          31        17          8        9         65
                                        .0%       47.7%      26.2%      12.3% 13.8% 100.0%
I don’t know/do not answer
                                          1         14          5          7    1      28
                                          7         87         40         26    17    177
Total
                                       4.0%       49.2%      22.6%      14.7% 9.6% 100.0%
Table 5. Vote for referendum according to the variable “attitude towards the religious legalization of
         marriage and christening” (N=177).


                                                                                                   101
Alina Duduciuc ● Ilarion Ţiu
Public oppinion and global reception of death penalty



                                                              Believe in God
If next week a referendum I don’t         In                                       Little/
                                                 In
for the reintroduction of know/        a very         In some                      not at
                                               a big                                          Total
death penalty will take place, do not   a big         measure                       all
                                              measure
will you personally vote?      answer measure                                         .
Against the reintroduction of     3      34     21       17                          9         84
death penalty                          3.6%       40.5%       25.0%        20.2%   10.7% 100.0%

For the reintroduction of death          1          25         20           12        7        65
penalty                                1.5%       38.5%       30.8%        18.5%   10.8% 100.0%
                                          0         15          5            5       3     28
I don’t know/do not answer
                                        .0%       53.6%       17.9%        17.9%   10.7% 100.0%
Total                                    4          74         46           34       19       177
Table 6. Vote for referendum according to the variable “faith in God” (N=177).


                                            Peoples’ love is a principle
                                                for me in my life
If next week a referendum for I don’t     In
                                                    In                Little/
the reintroduction of death know/       a very              In some
                                                  a big               not at                 Total
penalty will take place, will do not      big              measure
                                                measure                 all
you personally vote?            answer measure
Against the reintroduction of      4      19       28          29        4                      84
death penalty                    4.8%  22.6% 33.3% 34.5%              4.8%                   100.0%
For the reintroduction of death    1      13       21          25        5                      65
penalty                          1.5%  20.0% 32.3% 38.5%              7.7%                   100.0%
                                   1       3         9         14        1                      28
I don’t know/do not answer
                                 3.6%  10.7% 32.1% 50.0%              3.6%                   100.0%
                                   6      35       58          68       10                     177
Total
                                 3.4%  19.8% 32.8% 38.4% 5.6%                                100.0%
Table 7. Vote for referendum according to the variable “peoples’ love” (N=177).

                                                    Value             df      Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square                                 4.770(a)           8              .782
Likelihood Ratio                                    5.022             8              .755
Linear-by-Linear Association                         .002             1              .961
N of Valid Cases                                     177

Table 8. Value of Chi-Square test for the variable “peoples’ love”.

Death penalty and the gravity of the                 capital punishment significantly correlates
criminal act. In our research, we have               with the gravity of the criminal act that is
tried to find out in which measure the                performed. The control question in which
vote for a referendum concerning the                 one has solicited to the subjects to grant the

102
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
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sanctions “death penalty” and respectively         the capital punishment is more powerful
“imprisonment”, for some criminal acts             (Table 10).
(corruption, theft from national belongings,           As well, from the total of the ones
first degree murders, country treasoning,           who declare themselves favorable for the
pedophilia, dilations to Security during the       reintroduction of death penalty, 37% are
communist regime, breaking of ownership            against the application of capital punishment
right) has produced some variations. From          for persons who commit corruption acts, like
the total of the ones who declare themselves       the prejudice to the national treasure and
against the reintroduction of death penalty        36% are for the granting of death penalty in
(47%), 24% would agree with the granting           this case. In average, the attitudes concerning
of the capital punishment for people who           the death penalty variate according to the
commit murders (Table 9). At the same time,        gravity of the act. The ones who pronounce
chi-square coefficient that has been obtained       themselves for the granting of capital
has a significant value from a statistical point    punishment do not express a powerful
of view (χ2=49,74; df=4; p=0,0001<0,05),           agreement concerning the application of
which means that the hypothesis concerning         this one for certain criminal acts like rape,
the association degree with the attitude           theft, pedophilia (Table 9). The most little
towards the death penalty and the gravity          variation has been registered for the breaking
of the criminal act, advanced in worldwide         of ownership right, just 1% from 7% from
sociological studies, so that the criminal act     the total of subjects agree with the granting
is more grave, the subjects’ agreement for         of the death penalty for this case.

                                        If next week a referendum concerning
                                         the reintroduction of death penalty,
                                                will you personally vote?
                                               Against the        For the
                             I don’t know/
                                            reintroduction of reintroduction           Total
                             do not answer
                                              death penalty of death penalty
                                    21              25               52                  98
Death penalty
                                 21.4%            25.5%            53.1%              100.0%
                                     6              57               11                  74
Imprisonment penalty
                                  8.1%            77.0%            14.9%              100.0%
                                     0               0                1                   1
No answer
                                   .0%             .0%            100.0%              100.0%
                                    27              82               64                 173
Total
                                 15.6%           47.4%            37.0%               100.0%
Table 9. Vote for referendum according to the criminal act “murder” (N=173).


                                                      Value        df     Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square                                  46.743(a)       4              .000
Likelihood Ratio                                     49.275         4              .000
Linear-by-Linear Association                          3.974         1              .046
N of Valid Cases                                       173
Table 10. Value of Chi-Square test for the variable “murder” (N=173).

                                                                                               103
Alina Duduciuc ● Ilarion Ţiu
Public oppinion and global reception of death penalty


                                               If next week a referendum concerning
                                                the reintroduction of death penalty,
                                                      will you personally vote?
                                      I don’t    Against the       For the
                                     know/do reintroduction reintroduction of                   Total
                                    not answer of death penalty death penalty
                                         3                4                   6                13
Death penalty
                                       23.1%            30.8%               46.2%           100.0%
                                         24               77                  54              155
Imprisonment penalty
                                       15.5%            49.7%               34.8%           100.0%
                                          0               2                    2                 4
No answer
                                        .0%             50.0%               50.0%           100.0%
                                        27                83                  62              172
Total
                                      15.7%             48.3%               36.0%           100.0%
Table 11. Vote for referendum according to the criminal act “breaking of ownership right” (N=172).


Opinion of the majority and vote to the              value obtained to chi-square test preformed
referendum. Another ascertainment of our             for the probation of the statistical relation
investigation has been the following: As             between the variable “attitude concerning
more as students believe the whole of the            the reintroduction of the referendum” and
population has consonant opinions with               “students beliefs concerning the opinion of
theirs, they are more likely to express them.        the majority” (χ2=41,91; df=6; p=0,0001<
The preceding affirmation is based on the             0,05).


                                         Do you think Romanians would agree with
                                             the reintroduction of death penalty
                                                     in the Constitution?
If next week a referendum for the I don’t
                                                                 Uncompleted
reintroduction of death penalty will know/do        No      Yes                  Total
                                                                    answers
take place, will you personally vote? not answer
                                                11         10        7             0             28
I don’t know/do not answer
                                              39.3%      35.7%    25.0%          .0%        100.0%
Against the reintroduction of death             10         58       16             0           84
penalty                                       11.9%      69.0%    19.0%          .0%        100.0%
For the reintroduction of death                  9         18       37             1           65
penalty                                       13.8%      27.7%    56.9%         1.5%        100.0%
                                                30         86       60             1          177
Total
                                              16.9%      48.6%    33.9%         .6%         100.0%
Table 12. Vote for referendum according to the belief in the opinion of the majority (N=177).

104
                                              Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                          volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 95-106


                                                     Value          df     Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square                                 41.913(a)        6             .000
Likelihood Ratio                                    39.810          6             .000
Linear-by-Linear Association                        17.453          1             .000
N of Valid Cases                                      177
Table 13. Value of Chi-Square test for the variable “opinion of the majority” (N=177).

Conclusions                                         attitude towards death penalty must be
                                                    measured in correlation with the gravity of
We have anticipated at the beginning of             the criminal act that is performed.
this research that religious attitudes do                There is nothing surprising in the
not represent a significant variable for             action for the analyze which is specific to
the expression of vote to an eventual               sociology, the degree of conformation to
referendum concerning the reintroduction            the opinion of the majority, in the present
of death penalty. In the formulation of this        research, according to obtained results, has
assertion, we based ourselves, on one hand,         represented a significant variable from a
on the results of worldwide investigation           statistical point of view. In some other words,
concerning the valorical orientation of             it is possible that to a referendum concerning
individuals, and on the other hand on the data      the reintroduction of death penalty, students
of empirical researches which have proven           will vote in consonance with their beliefs
that there is a correspondence between              concerning the opinion of the majority.
religious values of Romanian people and                  Without having the pretention to end
the option of these ones concerning death           variables which enter in correlation with
penalty. This hypothesis has been confirmed          social facts that are presented anteriorly in
by the means of the performed study. The            the data of the sociological investigation, a
results that have been obtained for the             future stage of our study will aim the design
investigated lot, as well as the average age        of another sample, diversificated under the
of participants to the research (20 years old)      aspect of subjects’ gender and residence
prove the “generation effect”. Compared             environment, fact which allows the probation
to their parents, students involved in the          of some hypothesis for the total number of
research have experimented during the               students from Romania.
stage of primary socialization a level of
wellbeing, determined by the economical
increase registered after 198922. We could
advance, with a prediction character, the fact
that in the students’ valorical system, the
materialistically orientations have priority
compared to the religious ones.                     Endnotes
    Correlative to these conclusions, the               1
                                                          Dick J. Hessing, Jan W. de Keijser, Henk
obtaining of a significant level for variables       Elffers, “Explaining Capital Punishment Support
“criminal acts” and “faith in the opinion of        in an Abolitionist Country: The Case of the
the majority” for the whole investigated lot        Netherlands”, Law and Human Behavior 6
does not allow us to affirm that these ones          (2003): 605.
                                                        2
                                                          Franklin E. Zimring, David T. Johnson,
represent predictors for the attitude towards
                                                    “Public Opinion and the Governance of
the reintroduction of death penalty. These          Punishment in Democratic Political Systems”,
results are consonant with the data obtained        Annals of the American Academy of Political and
at a worldwide level, in the sense that the         Social Science 605 (2006): 271.

                                                                                                105
Alina Duduciuc ● Ilarion Ţiu
Public oppinion and global reception of death penalty

    3
       “The death penalty in the OSCE area.            Review 55 (1990): 633.
Background Paper 2009”, OSCE/ODIHR                         12
                                                              David N. Baker, Eric G. Lambert, Morris
(Warsaw,       2009):      http://www.eurunion.org/    Jenkins, “Racial Differences in Death Penalty
OSCE-DPpub2009.pdf.                                    Support and Opposition: A Preliminary Study of
    4
        “Human Development Report Office”               White and Black College Students”, Journal of
(1999):       http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/   Black Studies 35 (2005): 18.
hdr1999/chapters/ (July 12, 2010).                         13
                                                                Hazel Erskine, “The Polls: Capital
    5
       Septimiu Chelcea, “Opinia publică despre        Punishment”, The Public Opinion Quarterly 34
criminalitate, justiţie şi poliţie”, In Septimiu       (1970): 298.
Chelcea and Gabriel Jderu (coord.), Refracţia              14
                                                              Erskine, “The Polls”: 301.
sociologică şi reflexia jurnalistică. Despre son-           15
                                                                Septimiu Chelcea, Sociologia opiniei
dajele de opinie şi prezentare lor în mass-media       publice (Bucureşti: SNSPA, 2000): 233.
(Bucureşti: Editura Economică, 2005): 41.                  16 Cum votează românii la referendum?
    6
        Geoffrey Haddock, Mark P. Zanna,               Sondaj de opinie naţional, (CCSB, 2010):
“Assessing the Impact of Affective and Cognitive       http://www.ccsb.ro/projects/sondaj_de_opinie_
Information in Predicting Attitudes toward             national.pdf.
Capital Punishment”, Law and Human Behavior                17
                                                               Cum votează românii la referendum?:
22 (1998): 326.                                        http://www.ccsb.ro/projects/sondaj_de_opinie_
    7
        Barbara Norrander, “The Multi-Layered          national.pdf.
Impact of Public Opinion on Capital Punishment             18
                                                              Iulian Poenaru, Pedeapsa cu moartea. Pro
Implementation in the American States”, Political      sau contra? (Bucureşti: Editura Lumina-Lex,
Research Quarterly 53 (2000): 779.                     1994): 56-63.
    8
       Joseph H. Rankin, “Changing Attitudes               19
                                                              Poenaru, Pedeapsa: 63-64.
toward Capital Punishment”, Social Forces 58               20
                                                              Poenaru, Pedeapsa: 64.
(1979): 195.                                               21
                                                              “Decret-lege nr. 6 din 7 ianuarie 1990”:
    9
        Rudolf Rezsohazy, Socilogia valorilor,         http://www.cdep.ro/pls/legis/legis_pck.htp_act_
trans. Ioana Opaiţ (Iaşi: Institutul European,         text?idt=11033 (12 iulie 2010).
2008): 141.                                                22
                                                              Bogdan Voicu and Mălina Voicu, “Intro-
    10
       Chelcea, “Opinia publică”: 43.                  ducere. România şi studiul comparativ al valori-
    11
         William C. Bailey, “Murder, Capital           lor”, In Bogdan Voicu and Mălina Voicu (coord.),
Punishment, and Television: Execution Publicity        Valori ale românilor 1993-2003. O perspectivă
and Homicide Rate”, American Sociological              sociologică (Iaşi: Institutul European, 2007): 21.




106
The Polish crisis and the Soviet
reaction in the early of 1980s
Petre Opriş



   Abstract: In the early 1970s, the Central and East European communist countries
   developed a relatively economic growing period, but the attained rate of developing
   was not of long standing. Gradually, these states began to confront a series of problems
   concerning the extremely slow development of the living standard of population
   and this perspective became more and more visible by the end of the 1970s. For
   understanding the events from that period, we chose to present some aspects of the
   Polish Crisis in the 1970s. The Polish economy was modernized based on the credits
   obtained from the Western countries and the industrial and agricultural production
   recorded a particular progress to the full benefit of the foreign funds brought in the
   country by the communist government and also of the “Ostpolitik” effects. But the
   undertaken reforms were not sufficient for a substantial improvement of the Polish
   plants and private farms efficiency.




After the de-Stalinization initiated by Nikita   other communist countries. By middle of the
Khrushchev in 1956 and assumed by the most       ’60s these states started to have problems
leaders of the state members of the Warsaw       concerning the modernization of the
Treaty Organization (WTO), the Central           industrial capacities, extremely necessary
and East European communist countries            for the competitive growing of the products
developed a relatively economical growing        produced for the international markets. In
period. But the attained rate of developing      these countries also aroused some incidents
was not of long standing. Gradually, these       with certain members of the civil society, who
states began to confront a series of problems    were demanding a revision of the common
concerning the extremely slow development        governing system and the observance of
of the standard of living of the population      some democratic liberalities (the right to
and this perspective became more and more        partnership besides the structures controlled
visible by the end of the ’60s.                  by the communist parties, the right to free
    The tensions generated by the slow           expression, elimination of censorship etc.).
development of the standard of living of the         During the ’60s the resistance against
population became intensively perceptible in     the regime led by Władysław Gomułka, first
Poland and Czechoslovakia foremost, these        secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party
states having a standard of living higher than   (PUWP), was maintained first of all by the


                                                                                              107
Petre Opriş
The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s


prelates of the Catholic Church who daily             Jaruzelski, Chief of the General Staff, on the
practiced their influence on Polish people,            motion of Władysław Gomułka and with
mainly among the students and headpieces              Moscow approval (T. Parish, 2002, 152.
that care for democratic liberalities (T.             D.W. Urbin, 2002, 282).
Parish, 2002, 121-122. D.W. Urbin, 2002,                  The impact of the economical crisis was
242-243).                                             gathering way more and more pronounced.
    The posture in Poland aggravated                  The main causes of the economical crisis that
visibly right after the victory earned by             Poland was passing through by the end of
Israel against the Arab states during the             1970 were: the over measured development
“Six Days War” (June 1967). The sympathy              of the heavy industry, especially of the
demonstrated by many mosaic Polish                    machine industry that caused major
citizens in these moments firmly contrasted            difficulties in finding an outlet for the Polish
with the attitude of the Warsaw authorities           industrial products and also major damages
who unconditionally accepted to follow the            because the on stock manufacturing of some
political direction indicated by Moscow to            product categories; the performance of the
condemn the “aggression committed by the              export trades mainly with USSR, GDR
Jewish army against the Arab states” and to           and Czechoslovakia (these activities were
interrupt the diplomatic relations with Israel.       not providing enough financial resources
    The discontinuity of the diplomatic               in order to support the Polish external
relations between Poland and Israel was               balance of payments); the massive export
shortly followed by the initiation of an              of the Polish food products doubled by a
expansive anti-Semite campaign, many of               decreasing agricultural production based on
the mosaic Polish citizens being forced to            extremely small acquisition prices that were
leave the country (J. Rothschild, 1997, 278).         discouraging the efforts of the population
Along with them many notables of the Polish           working in the agricultural area to grow the
cultural society who one way or another was           production (P. Calvocoressi, 2003, 89).
criticizing Władysław Gomułka’s political                 In order to decrease the tensions inside
regime also suffered.                                 the economic system, the communist
    The epilogue of the anti-Semite                   authorities from Warsaw made a big political
campaign initiated in the summer of 1967              mistake, announcing on 12 December 1970,
completed in March 1968 when a students’              in a totally uninspired way and without a
rebellion took place. Dominated by the                prior consulting of the population, a price
“Prague Spring”, a group of Polish students           increase for the food products. Such a
wanted to act a patriotic play – Ancestors            measure, imposed only a few days before
Eve by Adam Mickiewicz – in which the                 Christmas, generated a wave of violent
domination exercised in 19th Century by               protests of the workers from Szczecin and
the tsarist Russia against Poland, was hardly         the main cities situated on the Baltic Sea
criticized (J. Rothschild, 1997, 278). The            Coast two days later. For a period of five
repression ordered by the Warsaw authorities          days there have been large demonstrations
ended with multiple arrests and various-term          in Gdańsk, Gdynia and Szczecin, and also
convictions among the young demonstrators.            strikes all over the country. The workers
At the same time, the political apparatus and         from the Polish harbours were aware of the
the main public institutions suffered a new           fact that the standards of living from the other
purification and the people considered as              countries around the Baltic Sea (Sweden,
“revolutionary” and “politically doubtful”            Denmark, Finland, and GDR) were much
were removed from the governing system.               higher unlike that one from Poland.
Therewith Marshal Marian Spychalski,                      In return, the demonstrators were
Minister of Defence, was relieved of his              attacked in the streets by the security
position and replaced with General Wojciech           forces on 15 December 1970, the popular

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                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
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movements being violently repressed as            273-274).
in 1956. The violent collisions between               Those events were followed by some
the security forces and revolting workers         years of economic straightening and
ended with at least 45 dead and about 1.200       limited reforms. The Polish economy was
wounded peoples among the demonstrators.          modernized based on the credits obtained
The Polish Army massively interfered in the       from the Western countries and the industrial
repression, using about 350 tanks and 600         and agricultural production recorded a
armoured vehicles in Gdańsk and Gdynia but        particular progress to the full benefit of
the soldiers’ spirits was seriously affected      the foreign funds brought in the country
(M. Kramer, 1999, 14. A. Pop, 2002, 159-          by the communist government and also of
160. C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin, 2003, 273).         the “Ostpolitik” effects – the new policy
    On December 7, 1970, just a few days          promoted by the West-German Chancellor
before the protest demonstrations in the          Willy Brandt for a substantially improvement
Polish harbours, Józef Cyrankiewicz,              of the relationships between West and East.
President of the Polish Cabinet Council, and      Moreover, the Decree that generate in
Willy Brandt, Chancellor of Federal German        December 1970 the Polish workers’ violent
Republic, signed the Polish-West German           rebellions was revoked at the middle of
Pact entitled “Concerning the normalization       February 1971, resuming the level of prices
of the reciprocal relations”. With this           from the beginning of December 1970. The
occasion, the West-German Chancellor              new amendments of the prices for the food
admitted in the name of his country the           products were applied on March 1, 1971.
Polish western frontier along the Oder-               But the undertaken reforms were not
Neisse rivers, as it was established at the       sufficient for a substantial improvement of
Potsdam Conference (1945).                        the Polish plants and private farms efficiency.
    In our opinion Władysław Gomułka tried        In Poland, three quarters of the land was in
to make use of the external success of the        private property, but the growers’ farms were
Polish diplomacy and of the Polish people’s       small and had an extremely slow efficiency.
patriotic feelings in order to make the 35%       Although a quarter of the Polish population
increasing of the food products prices much       was working in the agricultural field this was
easy to impose. But the Polish communist          producing only a fifth of the national income
leader took too less into consideration the       (P. Calvocoressi, 2003, 89).
fact that the respective increments were              Edward Gierek tried to maintain the
emotionally affecting the population in           direct contact with the people by eluding
a strong way because the coming of the            the party that he cleaned during 1971-1974.
Christmas Celebration.                            At the same time, the Polish communist
    As a result of the workers’ intense protest   leader encouraged the imports of the assets,
demonstrations, the tension generated by          unbalancing thus and so the Poland balance
the Polish Army’s roughly interventions           of payments, in 1972 he raised the salaries
against the demonstrators and also of the self    and social securities asking more work and
physical and psychic exhaustion, Władysław        more punctuality at the place of employment
Gomułka suffered a gentle stroke and was          instead. In these conditions the economical
interned in a clinic pertaining to the party      inter-trade between Poland and the Western
(December 18, 1970). Therefore he couldn’t        countries represented in 1974 half of the
preside the PUWP Political Bureau meeting         total amount of the Polish export trade of
that took place one day later and where was       that year (P. Calvocoressi, 2000, 289).
decided his substitution with Edward Gierek           The populist policy promoted by Edward
from the leadership of the party, after a tense   Gierek and by the Prime-Minister Piotr
debate (T. Parish, 2002, 117. D.W. Urbin,         Jaroszewicz soon turned out to have evil
2002, 239. C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin, 2003,         effects. On the one hand the oil crisis from

                                                                                               109
Petre Opriş
The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s


the beginning of 1974 allowed the Warsaw              performed topside changes inside the party
Government to immensely borrow from                   in June 1976. The entire capital of popularity
the West in order to import big quantities            of which the party was still enjoying of at the
of food products and hard-goods to satisfy            beginning of that month was ran low at the
the increasing needs of the population – by           moment when the security forces violently
receiving the so called “oil-dollars” that            interfered against the demonstrators and
western banks excessively detained as a               PUWP hadn’t leeway new credible political
result of the pronounced increasing of the            leaders to propose for controlling the people,
oil prices. Joseph Rothschild presumed that           extremely unsatisfied. The corruption and
the immensely Western and Soviet loans                power abuses fully affected the Polish
granted to Poland in the ’70s subsidized “an          society’s spirit and all these did nothing but
orgy of consumerism, corruption and hyper-            accentuate the crease that was separating the
optimistic, monumental, uncoordinated                 majority of the population with the party
and therefore abnormal investments” (J.               leadership, the latter was fully disposing of
Rothschild, 1997, 283).                               the privileges that had granted it through the
    On the other hand, the workers and                last two decades.
clerks’ salaries increased not taking into                The hard repression of the security
consideration the low level of the work               forces against those who had the courage
productivity so under these circumstances             to participate in the anti-governmental
the inflationary phenomenon that generated             demonstrations initiated a large action
penury of indispensable goods gained                  of helping the persons persecuted by the
momentum and the Polish people was forced             communist regime in the summer of 1976.
to wait more and more in lines in front of            This action was concretized by the young
the shops.                                            intellectual societies from Warsaw, Gdańsk
    Therefore the calm from the first years            and Lublin by setting up the “Workers
of 8th decade of the last century became              Defence Committee” (Komitet Obrony
after 1975 a real hurricane. The dashing to           Robotnikon – KOR) in July 1976 (H.
the ground of the new economical dream                Wujek, 2003, 864). The main purpose of
was enough to resurrect the Polish protest            this committee was to offer legal assistance
demonstrations first in the centre of Poland           to the workers persecuted on the ground
and then in the Baltic cities. The Warsaw             that they had participated in the strikes and
authorities unexpectedly announced a 40%              manifestations from June 1976, to help
increasing of the prices for food products            their families and also to inform the public
(June 24, 1976), “signalizing a weird mix             opinion about the excesses committed
of euphoria and despondency” (J.F. Soulet,            by Warsaw authorities although they had
1998, 284. H. Wujek, 2003, 863). Proletarian          signed the Helsinki Final Act on August 1,
strikes and working demonstrations were               1975, that contained a serial of provisions
immediately initiated in Płock, Radom                 concerning the deferring to the human
and “Ursus” factory, close to Warsaw (J.F.            basic rights. Therewith KOR enunciated
Soulet, 1998, 254). The demonstrators were            a democratization program of the Polish
arrested, beaten, fired and convicted, but the         society ignored by the PUWP leadership.
regime leaded by Edward Gierek capitulated                Also the Catholic Church spoke up in
right on the next day (June 25, 1976), and the        support for the people persecuted by the
PUWP leader was forced by conjuncture to              communist regime. In order to unstring
announce the recalculation/decreasing of the          the situation, Edward Gierek met Cardinal
announced prices increments (M. Kramer,               Stefan Wyszynski in 1977 and asked him
1999, 14).                                            for the Catholic Church representatives’
    Unlike what happened during the crisis            support trying to calm down the population.
between 1956 and 1970, there were not                 Moreover the communist leader approved

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Pope John Paul II’ return in the country in     of course, but have been obtained very
1979, on a nine days pilgrimage, although he    good results in socialist development and
created special problems to the communist       in the economy, in general. But over the
regime during the meetings with the KOR         last year the situation has not improved; on
founders and he initiated an aid fund for       the contrary, it has worsened. One could
the Krakow archdiocese families of the          not say that we witnessing some protest
arrested demonstrators (September 30,           against socialist construction and against
1976) (C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin, 2003, 508.      the forms of socialist construction in
S. Tănase, 1999, 50-56). The militancy more     Poland. I would say that the Polish United
and more promoted and productive by Pope        Workers’ Party has distorted certain socialist
John Paul II for the democratization of the     principles, including of the principles of
Polish society by the end of ’70 and during     Party organization and in this lies a certain
next decade represents in our opinion one       estrangement from the working class, a
of the most important factor that led to the    fact one can see in the past composition of
Warsaw communist regime’s destruction at        Party bodies, of the Party itself, which has
the beginning of 1989.                          neglected to take the necessary measures
    During the extraordinary meeting of         for the strengthening of the organizational
the Executive Political Committee of            force in the ranks of the working class. This
the Central Committee of the Romanian           made possible the penetration of the Party
Communist Party (CC of RCP) occurred            by petty bourgeois, intellectual elements,
in the morning of December 13, 1981, few        and people with a petty bourgeois mentality,
hours after the instauration of the martial     alien, in fact, to the working class, which
law in Poland, Nicolae Ceauşescu wished to      caused the lack of unity, of conception, of
explicate to the members of the committee       clear orientation in the Party.
his opinion about the evolution of the Polish       At the same time, one cannot ignore the
crisis. Because this reunion was hurriedly      existence of some forces that have never
called, the Romanian leader had not at hand     chimed with socialism, and here comes first
a written material especially conceived to      the Catholic Church, which lies, in fact,
sustain his points of view.                     at the origins and is the initiator of that
    In order to meet the unusual situation,     movement which became “Solidarity”. The
Nicolae Ceauşescu appealed at three main        action started with religious services. The
extracts from the shorthand reports of          “Solidarity” Congress opened, in fact, with
discussions he had with Serghei Kraiger,        a service in the Cathedral.
Lionel Jospin and Bettino Craxi in 1981. The        Anti-socialist forces have long existed
opinions expressed by the Romanian leader       in Poland, which have organized them, and
at the respective meetings were extremely       against which the Polish Party and State
critical at the address of Pope John Paul II    have not taken any measures, but tolerated
and the prelates of Catholic Church, who        them instead.
were considered the main guilty persons for         Important concessions have been made
the start and evolution of Poland crisis. The   to the Catholic Church, which play a clear
respective texts were red to the participants   reactionary role. By the election of a Pope,
at the session of the Executive Political       in the person of a Pole, the very activity of
Committee by Ştefan Bîrlea, chief of cabinet    these elements from the ranks of the Catholic
at the Presidency of Romania and, in the        Church has been stimulated.
same time, the Chancellery Section’s chief          The Polish leadership encouraged to a
of CC of RCP: “Economic problems have           certain degree this state of affairs and even
been really pretence because the situation      considered that half of the Vatican was theirs
in Poland was quite good economically.          when the Pope was elected in the person of
Several mistakes have been made in Poland,      a Polish citizen.

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Petre Opriş
The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s


    In our opinion, this constellation of                 Therefore, starting from the ideological
factors triggered the events that have taken          basis of this movement - and Wałęsa has
place. “Solidarity” is in fact the outcome            never made it a secret that he is financed by
of the activity of all those factors and, first        the Catholic Church and that he has got the
of all, of the Catholic Church that had a             blessing of the Pope - we should have seen its
decisive role and under whose patronage               nature. It is difficult to speak of a movement
“Solidarity” was born. This proves that it            that aims at improving and perfecting
is not a working-class organization, but a            socialist development. One cannot build
class, Catholic organization, combined with           up socialism with the Cross! And even the
many anti-Socialist elements, which, due to           first bourgeois-democratic revolutionists
the mistakes made by the Party, were able to          said this. We must always have in view
influence a certain part of the working class          palpable situations and, therefore, I said that
in Poland.                                            one should take into account the realities in
    If we analyze what has been said at the           Poland, the strong influence of the Catholic
“Solidarity” Congress, we see that political          Church, as well as the fact the “Solidarity”
problems come first, including of those                knew how to take advantage of the Poles’
related to the national feeling, which has            national feeling; Communist Party did not
always been very strong in the Poles.                 take advantage, but ignored this feeling (our
    All through the post-war period, the              underlining)” (CHNA, 101/1981, 2; 5-7).
Polish Party and State have neglected the                 The international economical crises
national feeling of the Poles. The Polish Party       and the errors committed by the Polish
and State, instead of being the representative        communist leaders regarding the industrial
of the national feeling – understood                  and agricultural politics caused great
correctly, not in a narrow nationalist sense,         economical problems during the period
but as a socialist and democratic feeling of          1977-1980 and determined, among others,
the people – have been neglectful of that             a dramatic increasing of the Polish public
feeling and this carelessness was exploited           indebtedness. This reached the level of 17
by the Catholic Church, by the reactionary            billion dollars at the end of 1979, and 27
forces in Poland. The Church assumed the              billion dollars in December 1980 (CHNA,
right to be the representative of the national        74/1980, 58).
feeling of the Poles. Hence, it is necessary              A new series of outbreaks of the Polish
for the Party, for the Polish state to pay due        society occurred in the year 1980. The first
attention to the feelings, to the problems of         action of protest took place in February 1980,
national, cultural and historical interest            at Gdańsk, when the workers interrupted
and to ensure that they – the Party and the           work and demanded the improving of living
Government – become the representatives               standard.
of these concerns, of these feelings and that             On a background of an acute economical
they take this weapon from the hands of the           crisis, the government from Warsaw
Catholics and of the “Solidarity” [...]               appealed again at increasing price for the
    I was and I am an old trade-union                 food products. Thus, on July 1, 1980 a
member. I have been a trade-union member              substantial increasing of prices for the meat
for 50 years. The intervention of the Church          products occurred. At that moment, it was
in the trade-union movement has always had            not suspected that this price modification
a clearly reactionary nature. It is difficult          could provoke great social disorders.
to accept the idea that, under the present                The workers reaction was unexpectedly
circumstances, the Catholic Church may                rapid and strong. They formed at their labour
become a progressive force in the trade-              places “stationary committees” and started
union movement, since it has never been               negotiations for the increasing of salary.
that, and more so now.                                Because the word “strike” was not officially

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recognized by the authorities, the workers        D.W. Urbin, 2002, 552. P. Milza, S. Berstein,
appealed at the word “stationary” to define        1998, 60).
in the discussions with the leaders of the            The strike extending to the towns
industrial units administrations the attitude     Gdynia and Szczecin, and Gdańsk isolating
of protest they adopted; the collectives of       by the authorities led to a radicalization of
workers interrupted voluntarily the work,         the protest action and on August 15, 1980
but remained at their work places, “being         appeared for the first time the idea of forming
stationary” (H. Wujek, 2003, 865).                an independent trade union (T. Parish, 2002,
    A series of short strikes started at          266). In our opinion, the respective proposal
Warsaw, Lublin and other cities blocking the      formed an essential moment within the
activity of some industrial units. The KOR        action of radicalization of popular protest
and other groups of opposition took over the      against the leadership of the Polish United
news about the strikes and published them         Workers’ Party.
in various illegal newspapers and on loose            In short time other industrial units
leaves. Also, the radio broadcast The Free        in the area began the strike and Lech
Europe was clandestinely contacted so that        Wałęsa became the leader of strikers from
the last news about the evolution of workers      Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot. Under the
protests was transmitted in the entire country.   coordination of an “expert commission”
    The government members and those              led by Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Bronislaw
of the communist party leadership assisted        Geremek, a “Strike Committee inter-Units”
passively to the unfurl events – part of          (Miedzyzakladowy Komitet Strajkowy –
the Polish political leaders being at that        MKS) was formed at Gdańsk and a program
moments in holiday in the Soviet Union –          of 21 claims was formulated (T. Parish,
fact that determined the administrations of       2002, 191). A similar committee was formed
the industrial units affected by strikes to       at Szczecin, too, and 156 industrial units
accept the satisfaction of salary claims for      adhered at it.
the discontent workers.                               Urgently returned in the country,
    But the tensions continued to occur in        Edward Gierek confronted with a crisis of
the entire country, and at the half of August     proportions not only in his relations with
1980 the wave of discontentment started           the revolted workers, but also within his
protest movements in the city-harbours from       own party. Its leadership divided in two
the Baltic Sea, too, nobody knowing exactly       groups – one of them moderated, led by
in what way the events would develop.             Stanisław Kania, and one radical, led by
Among these movements was counted the             Stefan Olszowsky – and inevitably all sorts
strike of workers from the Naval Shipyards        of scenarios appeared, with a single purpose:
“V.I. Lenin” in Gdańsk, which started in the      people calming and annihilating the leading
morning of August 14, 1980 in a quite banal       nucleus of the strikers.
mode: the employees defended the worker               On August 16, 1980, at the initiative of
Anna Walentynowicz, who was fired because          some members of the Political Bureau of
she developed not authorized trade union          CC of PUWP a special intervention unit was
activities (J.L. Dufour, 2002, 159). One of       formed, which was subordinated to General
the members of the strike committee was           Bogusław Stachura, deputy of the Minister
the electrician Lech Wałęsa, known at the         of Internal Affaires. The militaries belonging
shipyard in Gdańsk for his protesting activity    to that unit followed to be launched from
unfurled even from the winter of 1970, and        helicopters at the shipyard in Gdańsk to
the first claims formulated by the shipyard        arrest some of the strikers – Operation
workers in Gdańsk were quite modest: re-          “Lato-80”. But the respective idea was
employment of Anna Walentynowicz and              rapidly abandoned because the exponential
increasing salary (T. Parish, 2002, 298-299.      increasing of the protest movements in the

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The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s


country, and also because the opposition of           the Independent Autonomous Trade Unions”
some party leaders (M. Kramer, 1999, 36).             was formed, known especially by the name
    Faced with a situation he could not               of “Solidarity” (“Solidarnošć”). The purpose
control any longer, Edward Gierek sent                for which that trade union was founded was
firstly Tadeusz Pyka to discuss with the               extremely briefly described by Jacek Kuron:
strikers. The failure this one suffered               “Instead of setting fire to the Committees
determined the PUWP leader to realize a               (the headquarters of the PUWP – the note of
change at the government leadership level,            P. Opriş), form your own Committees (the
the Premier Piotr Jaroszewicz being obliged           Independent Trade Union Committees – the
to resign. The assignment of a new Prime-             note of P. Opriş)!” (H. Wujek, 2003, 864-
Minister, in the person of Józef Pinkowski,           865).
and creating on August 24, 1980 a cell of                 The Polish crisis and the decision to send
crisis led by him did not in the least calm           the Deputy Prime-Minister Mieczysław
the situation. In the same day, Mieczysław            Jagielski to Gdańsk, Gdynia and Szczecin
Jagielski, the deputy of the Prime-Minister,          to negotiate with the strikers determined
went in the northern part of the country              the members of the Political Bureau of
to discuss with the strikers from Gdańsk,             Central Committee of the Communist
Gdynia and Szczecin. At the same time, the            Party of the Soviet Union (CC of CPSU)
members of the Polish Service for Security            to form on August 25, 1980 a commission
and Information (SB) and the members of the           to permanently follow the events that took
Police tried by specific means to intervene            place in Poland From that commission were
in the crisis, generating new tensions and of         took part followings: Andrei Gromyko,
course, discontentment both at Warsaw and             minister for Foreign Affairs; Yuri Andropov,
at Moscow (C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin, 2003,             chief of KGB; Marshal Dimitri Ustinov,
514). All at once Lech Wałęsa became the              minister of Defence; Konstantin Cernenko,
symbol of resistance against the communist            chief of General Secretariat of CC of CPSU;
regime. A wave of strikes covered the whole           Konstantin Rusakov, chief of the Central
country and the workers from Nowa Huta,               Committee’s Department for Relations with
Wrocław and Bydgoszcz created at their turn           the Foreign Communist Parties. On the top
committees after the M.K.S. model.                    of that commission was named the main
    After a series of very intense discussions,       ideologist of the CPSU, Mikhail Andreevici
with many moments of tension and pressure             Suslov (M. Kramer, 1995, 116. V. Mastny,
from both sides, the denouement took place.           1998, 8-9).
On August 30, 1980, Mieczysław Jagielski                  Three days later, the members of the
signed an agreement together with the                 Political Bureau of CC of CPSU met in a
representatives of workers from Szczecin,             session for listen the “Suslov Commission”
and on the second day he signed another               conclusions and to discuss the solutions that
document with the representatives of strikers         had to be taken. In that occasion, Marshal
from Gdańsk (“The Gdańsk Agreements”).                Dmitri Ustinov was authorised to take alarm
Thus, the workers from the two city-harbours          on three tank divisions (one division from
succeeded to obtain from the government to            Baltic Military District and two divisions
recognize a fundamental right for the future          from Byelorussia Military District) and one
of the Polish popular movement against the            motorised infantry division from Trans-
communism: the right to form independent              Carpathian Military District. These units
trade unions.                                         had to complete their effective and means of
    After the Agreements in Gdańsk                    fight according to the war states until August
were signed, about 10 billions workers                29, 1980 (18.00 hours) and they formed a
entered in the new trade unions and the               force group prepared to intervene at any time
“Committee for National Coordination of               in Poland. Consequently, Marshal Dmitri

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Ustinov ordered the immediate mobilization       taken with the approval of CPSU leadership,
of 25000 soldiers in reserve and preparing of    who was directly interested in sustaining the
6000 vehicles of various types. The Soviet       party which promoted its interests in Poland.
minister of Defence was also empowered           The unexpected replacement of the PUWP
to take measures for supporting the initial      leader created anxiety among the leaders of
group of Soviet forces with 5-7 divisions (by    the Polish army. They remembered very well
mobilizing another 75000 soldiers in reserve     the situation in which Czechoslovakia found
and by preparing other 9000 vehicles); these     it in 1968 and the way “The Prague Spring”
new divisions follow to intervene in Poland      was annihilated. On September 6, 1980, the
to support the initial forces if that was        Supreme Commander of the Polish Military
imposed (M. Kramer, 1999, 33).                   Navy, Admiral L. Janczyszyn, declared to
     More members of the Political Bureau        two Soviet admirals: “If Poland is invaded
of PUWP tried to justified in a front of          by foreign troops, it will be a blood bath.
Moscow’s officials theirs compromising            You must understand you face the Poles,
attitude which it had adopted during the         not the Czechs!” (C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin,
crisis (August 27, 1980). These justifications    2003, 515-516).
succeeded to convince the Soviet leaders              The Moscow concern increased in
that ceding towards the strikers claims          the months that followed, because the
was at that time a good solution and there       “Solidarity”     exponentially     developed,
were not applied other military measures         development realized on the background of
besides those established on the meeting of      the pronounced worsening of the economical
the Political Bureau of CC of CPSU from          situation in Poland. More than this, Stanisław
August 28, 1980.                                 Kania, the leader who was sustained by the
     Concluding of Gdańsk Agreements three       Soviets for occupying the supreme function
days later was seen with concern at Kremlin.     in the Polish communist party, deliberately
In the opinion of Moscow authorities, the        avoided a direct confrontation between the
danger represented by the apparition of          security forces and workers and limited
independent trade unions in Poland was not       him to accuse the “Solidarnošć” leaders for
only “a Polish problem, but a matter that        the disorders in economy provoked by the
affected the interests of the entire socialist   workers protest movements.
community” (C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin,                  With the occasion of the reunion of
2003, 514). By the official recognizing           ministers for Foreign Affairs from the
of the existence of an anticommunist             countries members of the Warsaw Treaty
opposition inside a socialist country being      Organization (WTO), which took place
into the Soviet sphere of influence, the myth     in the Poland capital (19-20 October
of infallibility of the communist regime, of     1980), Stanisław Kania presented a short
the political, economical and social system      characterization of the political and
imposed by Josef Stalin after the Second         economical situation in his country. Thus, the
World War in the countries from Central and      communist leader admitted the fact that “at
Eastern Europe was collapsing, and the way       the present, Poland traverses a deep political
to democracy was opened for the respective       crisis” and affirmed: “The maximum wave
countries.                                       of crisis was outrun, but we do not master
     On September 5, 1980, the Polish            yet entirely the political processes. The 6th
authorities announced that Edward Gierek         Plenary of CC of PUWP characterized the
suffered a heart attack and, consequently,       conflict, the causes and established the
Stanisław Kania, who previously detained         ways to get out from the crisis” (Ş. Andrei,
the function of party secretary, responsible     2001, 50). Then, Stanisław Kania mentioned
with national security was appointed the         the political objectives he proposed for
PUWP leader. Such a decision was evidently       the next period and reminded about “the

                                                                                              115
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The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s


strengthening of PUWP links with the                  of Polish crisis (October 29, 1980). With
people, against the demagogic and anarchist           that occasion, the majority of the reunion
forces”, continuation of fight against “the            participants agreed the idea that in Poland
socialism adversaries […] to eliminate                took place a contra-revolution, and Leonid
their influence on the working class”,                 Brezhnev affirmed: “Perhaps it will indeed
reorganizing of the Polish communist party.           be necessary to introduce martial law” (M.
Then the communist leader briefly presented            Kramer, 1999, 46. C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin,
the extremely difficult economical situation           2003, 516). In our opinion, the conclusion
Poland traversed.                                     offered by the leader of the Soviet Union
    In his speech, Stanisław Kania                    Communist Party formed in an indirect
mentioned also the fact that in the 1970s,            mode an official admittance of the somehow
errors were committed by the leaders of the           unexpected success the “Solidarnošć”
country in the domain of economy planning             members registered against the communist
and management: the agriculture and food              authorities in Poland in the fall of 1980.
industry neglecting, lack of preoccupation to             The idea of instituting the martial law
resolve the house crisis, obtaining of “very          in Poland was received with restraint by the
large credits from Western, which was used            communist authorities in Warsaw. Due to the
in economically unjustified investments”.              fact this idea was not initially imposed with
Also, Stanisław Kania mentioned that “the             firmness to the PUWP leadership, Stanisław
situation was worsened by the means of                Kania postponed the applying of Moscow’s
propaganda, too, which did not show the               proposal, and this fact generated permanent
difficulties the country faced”, and also the          reproaches from the Soviets part. The
fact that “lacks existed in the ideological,          meeting between Stanisław Kania and Lech
political education and work with                     Wałęsa led only to increase the pressures
intellectuals”.                                       exercised by the Kremlin for martial law
    At the final of his speech, the Polish             enforcement. The Soviet leaders considered,
communist leader affirmed in a clear and               with good reason, that, by the direct
categorical manner that he opposed to the             participation of the PUWP general secretary
idea which circulated in various political            at the discussions with Lech Wałęsa, were
environments regarding the necessity of               strengthened the political positions gained
a military intervention in Poland of the              by the members of “Solidarnošć” after the
WTO members’ states. “We are conscious                Gdańsk Agreements.
– declared Stanisław Kania – that the                     After November 10, 1980, the critics
problems we have must be solved only by               of Moscow leaders to the address of the
ourselves. There is the PUWP obligation               leader of the Polish communist party
towards the Polish working class and also             sensibly hardened. At the same time, at the
towards the brotherly socialist countries (our        WTO level, preparations were started to
underlining)” (Ş. Andrei, 2001, 50-51).               develop some common military exercises
    The speech presented by Stanisław                 in Poland, starting on December 8, 1980.
Kania on October 20, 1980 did not yet                 The undeclared purpose of the respective
succeed to remove the worry of Moscow                 exercises was to bring troops from states
political and military leaders. During the            who were WTO members to support the
October 1980, the development of the                  Polish authorities, for an easier enforcement
“Solidarnošć” already generated, within the           of the martial law. This law followed to be
Polish civil society, an almost uncontrollable        enforced immediately after the entering in
anticommunist movement. Therefore, the                Poland of the respective units, “called to
members of the Political Bureau of CC of              help at the socialism defence”. In the case
CPSU, led by Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, met              the situation in Poland would worsened,
to discuss especially about the evolution             the four Soviet divisions, an East-Germany

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                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
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division and two Czechoslovakian divisions       the WTO group of military forces planned
initially engaged in unfurl of the military      to execute the Poland occupation before the
exercises (and Poland’s “pacifying”),            martial law was enforced, could enter on
followed to be rapidly reinforced. The           the Polish territory under the cover offered
Supreme Commander of the WTO Unified              by the unfurl of the common application
Armed Forces was prepared to send in             “SOIUZ-80”.
Poland, as force of reinforcement, 11 Soviet         On the other hand, if the situation in
divisions (S. Tănase, 1999, 68. C. Andrew,       August 1968, in Czechoslovakia was
V. Mitrokhin, 2003, 517).                        compared with the one in December 1980,
    The United States Administration had         in Poland, the Western diplomats would
permanently precise information about the        observe some resemblance regarding the
Moscow military intentions towards Poland        methods and means Kremlin utilized to
during the year 1980 as well as during 1981.     annihilate the anticommunist movement
Colonel Ryszard Kukliński, deputy of chief       in Poland, which were identical with those
of the Operation Department from the Polish      used in Czechoslovakia. In our opinion,
General Staff, sent in advance to the CIA,       the main similarities were the following:
data about the content of some top secret        the precipitated and repeated convoking of
military plans prepared for the purpose that     the party leadership by the Soviet leaders;
the military intervention in Poland of some      exercising of indirect military pressures
WTO members’ states successfully unfurl.         (military advertisements launched by
The information had offered by Colonel           various official and unofficial channels)
Kukliński permitted the American secret          with the purpose to psychologically force
services to form a relative exact image          the political leaders of the country which
about the military forces and means which        created problems, to adopt radical measures
followed to be engaged by the WTO in             to re-establish the communist order; the
Poland before and after the enforcement          unfurl of a reunion of leaders of the states
of martial law. Based on the obtained data,      which were WTO members, short time
the American military annalists appreciated      before the probable date when the military
that, the number of Soviet, East-Germany         intervention would start.
and Czechoslovakian military units who               But a simple resemblance was not
followed to invade Poland, was not sufficient     sufficient for the Occident representatives
to assure the success of that operation (V.      to adopt a hard political attitude towards
Mastny, 1998, 12).                               Moscow and Warsaw. They need clear
    On December 3, 1980, Marshal Viktor          proofs, and these were furnished at one
G. Kulikov, the Supreme Commander of the         time by Colonel Ryszard Kukliński, too
WTO Unified Armed Forces, demanded the            (V. Mastny, 1998, 13). In our opinion, the
agreement of General Wojciech Jaruzelski         rapid and very strong reaction which the
to start the common exercise “SOIUZ-80”          representatives of the Western chancelleries
(V. Mastny, 1998, 13. S. Tănase, 1999,           adopted, in the first time those from the
67). Due to the fact the military maneuvers      USA State Department and from the Foreign
followed to take place on the Poland territory   Office, in the moment when the starting
during the period indicated by Colonel           of military maneuvers “SOIUZ-80” was
Ryszard Kukliński (December 8, 1980),            announced, demonstrates the fact that the
it is possible that the American military        political leaders from Western Europe and
annalists corroborated the data that they had    North America were well informed about
at disposal and considered the application       the Soviet plan for Poland invasion. They
“SOIUZ-80” was the necessary cover for the       based not only on the analysis of some
Poland invasion, announced by the agent of       events occurred 12 years ago, not only on
the CIA. In such a scenario was obvious that,    their intuition, but on conclusive proofs, too.

                                                                                              117
Petre Opriş
The Polish crisis and the Soviet reaction in the early of 1980s


More than that, the tensioned situation in            Bucureşti: Editura Corint.
Poland was analyzed within the ministerial
                                                      Rothschild, J. (1997). Întoarcerea la diversi-
reunions of the Council and Committee for
                                                      tate. Istoria politică a Europei Centrale şi de
Defence Planning of NATO (9-12 December
                                                      Est după Al Doilea Război Mondial, Oradea:
1980) and we may presume the fact that the
                                                      Editura Antet.
representatives of the American information
services did not participate at the respective        Soulet, J. F. (1998). Istoria comparată a sta-
sessions as simple spectators.                        telor comuniste din 1945 până în zilele noa-
                                                      stre, Iaşi: Editura Polirom.
                                                      Tănase, S. (1999). Miracolul revoluţiei.
                                                      O istorie a căderii regimurilor comuniste,
                                                      Bucureşti: Editura Humanitas.
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118
Social Psychology approaches




                          119
120
Science and Ideology:
the Role of the Political Context
Adrian Neculau
“Al. I. Cuza” University, Iaşi
Romania



Two Types of Knowledge, Two Types                   it appears to result from education, while
of Thinking                                         common sense knowledge is dependent
                                                    on, and arises from the shared heritage,
The title of this paper refers to the distinction   practice and communitarian experience.
between two types of knowledge and                  Nevertheless, these two kinds of knowledge
discourse; the scientific discourse on the one       are by no means antinomic; they complement
hand and the ideological discourse on the           and sometimes overlap with each other. The
other. These two types of knowledge and             two kinds of knowledge are sometimes
discourse are by-products of two kinds of           practiced successively by one and the same
thinking that fundamentally differ from one         individual who may act as a scientist in the
another but which, nevertheless, necessarily        laboratory, while in private life he or she
co-exist. The scientific knowledge                   is an analyst of the ways in which people
(individual, rational, logical, dealing with        relate, behave and communicate in certain
generalities and universalities) tends to           groups. The lay individual acts as a true
differentiate itself from social, contextual        savant when he experiments with different
and socio-affective influences, pursuing one         interactional strategies, when he negotiates
objective: the establishment of universal           ways and methods of action and evaluates
truth. Although seemingly in opposition             different practical solutions. The difference
with such an approach, the commonsense              between the lay individual and the scholar is
knowledge (naive, cultural, dialogical,             that the former does not act in a systematic
communitarian,         transmitted       through    way. The lay individual, taking advantage
activities, language, customs and folklore)         of knowledge accumulated in and through
has the same objective: the increase of             collective memory validated by experience
knowledge, cognitive progress, and the              and consensus, seeks to find a convenient
search for the truth. Although different, these     solution of problems. The commonsense
two kinds of knowledge do not exclude, but          thinking has its own rationality; it seeks
complement one another. Both are based              one and the same truth for everybody; it is
on similar cognitive processes, are often           reasonable and sensitive to expectations of
preoccupied with a set of common problems,          others. Knowledge about common action
and they pursue the same objectives                 obeys the rules of scholarly knowledge, and
(Marková, 2004). Scientific knowledge is             its laws of functioning. The commonsense
conceived as specialized and individual, and        individual is an amateur-scholar; he is,

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Science and Ideology: the Role of the Political Context


Moscovici believes, a lay devotee of science,        1999). Cognitions have a powerful social
a novice preoccupied with metaphysical               component because they are attached to
speculations (“Where do we come from?”               familiar objects, to a context and to a mode
“Who am I?” “Where do we head?”); he or              of production. These “objects” can be other
she is a “realist” whose thinking depends            people, groups, even the socially positioned
on the context, common norms, and                    individual (Haas, Jodelet, 1999). Human
“accepted ideas”. Moscovici’s concept of             cognitions, therefore, possess a specific
the commonsense individual has a polemic             characteristic: they are not independent
character: to the traditional argument that          of the conditions within which they have
“people do not think”, he opposes the idea           formed. They are born from and develop
according to which common people always              within a characteristic social environment,
think practically and realistically; they            in a cultural and social context in which
communicate and form relationships among             individuals are socially inserted. Any change
themselves.                                          and any modification of the individual
    The two types of knowledge arise from            structure incorporate also the status-quo
two types of thinking: scientific and social.         of the social field which generates the
Scientists resort systematically to a rigorous       entire configuration of events. The human
organization of discourse, to arguments              cognitive universe translates the result of
and logic; in other words, they resort to            the treatment to which social individuals
scientific thinking. Scientific thinking               have been subjected; their integration into
is characterized by four interconnected              events presents characteristics which remain
features: the logic of reasoning which is            in the individual memory and have the
canonical; it submits everything to the              exact significance which they bore when
test of facts, to the existence of powerful          they were first incorporated. Therefore, the
institutional regulations and to the need            development of the individual cognitive
for reproducibility (Rouquette, 2009). The           structures cannot bypass those frequently
incoherent or abusive ratiocinations which           employed social practices, types of social
arise from contradiction with scientific              interaction, category belonging and the
thinking are theoretically discarded or at           norms and values highlighted in the process
least put into parentheses. The institutions         of learning. The premise of our analysis is
(universities, academies, editorial boards of        that cognitive development, when unfolding
publications, scientific advisory bodies of           in certain social conditions (opposition,
research laboratories) define and control the         pressure, confrontation, and conflict), is
canonical character of productions, while            marked by the characteristics of the social
the individual subject loses autonomy when           field. The scientist’s dependence on the
confronted with a detailed explanation of            social context, both ideologically and
standardized procedures. The democratic              politically marked, produces a distortion
principles and the State which provide for           in the scientific discourse through the
the equality of citizens and opportunities for       dominance of the contextual social thinking.
self-expression, present the guarantee of an             Social thinking, a product of everyday
objective treatment of information and lack          life, is unpretentious and popular; it uses
of discrimination.                                   sometime a populist language and employs a
    In their day-to-day actions, people neither      discourse that is different from the one used
use a scientific language, nor do they resort         by scientific thinking. However, scientists,
to logical procedures in order to demonstrate        especially social scientists, may glide
their theories. Their cognitive processes are        towards compromises, letting themselves to
deeply influenced by social knowledge, their          be influenced by the “ideologically correct”
interactions with other subjects and stimuli         discourse, whether in conversations and in
coming from the social field (Beauvois,               certain evocation of facts in exchanging

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                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
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ideas during informal meetings, or even in        about closed and controlled societies but
their scientific work. The cognitive activity      we can also refer to the democratic societies
of an individual is motivated and conditioned     in which the “correct discourse” becomes a
by his or her particular social setting. This     situational criterion) all become part of the
could be the citizenship circumscribed to         social-cognitive patterns which people use.
a certain type of society yielding a certain          Serge Moscovici (1976), from the
discourse, or a professional learning of          perspective of an interactional model, has
certain social practices and articulating their   come up with the term socio-cognitive
cognitive activity. This type of thinking has     conflict, viewed as a key notion of the socio-
its own logic but it is socially positioned,      cognitive development and later on, in 1995,
circumscribed by the socio-cultural context,      he discovered in Vygotsky his forerunner.
to the group, space, to the here and now and      He claims that Vygotsky was inspirational in
to the community within which it is utilized.     formulating the social representation theory
If the bearer of scientific thinking wants to      and that by means of his extraordinary
be listened to, he or she must adapt discourse    intuition, he built up a fresco of his times
to the local norms, to the ideology and values    and offered the possibility of understanding
that dominate the social field.                    the nature of social consciousness (as it was
    We can illustrate this claim by recounting    seen in the epoch). Social consciousness
a story specific to our field. The Russian          (or social knowledge) presents itself as
psychologist Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934),         an autonomous social creation, as an
who lived and worked during the Stalinist         “objective”, having a public character. It
era, that is, in a socially unfavourable          is not to be inferred from the individual
context, elaborated and developed a theory        mental facts, but it is constructed through a
which is still valid today. He was forced         combination of “forces” such as the society,
to declare that he was living in “a new           culture, language and imagination. Social
society and new culture” and therefore it is      consciousness transforms itself into social
only natural for his model to have certain        products such as ideology, folklore, beliefs
“cultural and historical” connotations            and language. The unique contribution of
belonging to that era. Despite this, he           this important precursor, Moscovici believes,
remains famous for several key concepts           derives from Vygotsky’s idea to make use of
which opened the way to research in the           personal experience as a scientist who lives
field of social thinking: social contact,          and works in a specific socio-ideological
social cooperation, social interaction, and       context. Vygotsky was forced to interact
social consciousness. He discovered and           with his social environment and with his
put into practice two paradigms which act         epoch. The “exterior”, the given social
as two complementary “social functions”:          context, permeates the individual, providing
the social-historical context and language,       him with fundamental cognitive patterns
viewed as a means of communication                and practices. Appropriating the social, the
specific to a given context (Tardif, 2002).        individual “learns” a certain social logic,
According to the Russian psychologist,            acquires a certain social sense as well as
individuals interact and develop socially         a sense for a specific articulation of ideas.
and cognitively depending on the roles            Although he came up with a theory which
they are socially assigned, and also on the       was consonant with his epoch, Vygotsky was
practices of the social context. His theory       considered an opposing the Marxist theory
proved viable and can nowadays be applied         and therefore he was marginalized, isolated
to the analysis of the society he was born        and ostracized.
into: the peculiarities of the social context,        The product we today call social
the political and ideological concepts, the       thinking was first proposed by Vygotsky
social practices employed (we are talking         under a different name: public social

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Science and Ideology: the Role of the Political Context


consciousness (i.e. collective, institutional).      The Interference of Ideology
What does Vygotsky’s originality consist
of? By criticising the reflexological theory          We have reached a decisive point in our
of Pavlov and Behterev, arguing that                 presentation. The information, with which
reflexes cannot explain consciousness                 the social subject is provided, is not objective,
satisfactorily, Vygotsky advances the idea           neutral, logical, technical, “rational” or
according to which this superior mental              “scientific” but it is tainted with rumours,
product, that is consciousness, has a social         beliefs, ideologies, magical practices, and
genesis. The individual element, that is,            is furnished by the social context (Guimelli,
consciousness specificity, is derived from            1999). It is therefore context-shaped and
the social basis of consciousness, as the            adapted to the peculiarities of the context.
individual lives a particular collective life        Social thinking, as a way of judging and
and engages in relations of solidarity and           evaluating events depending on the social
social relationships. Vygotsky considers             context, shared experience and acquired
that society, the educational system and             social practices, makes its way into the
all institutions in general, influence social         scientific discourse. As it is insufficient and
consciousness, social contacts, social               irrational, aberrant and marked by evaluation
cooperation and social interaction. The              errors, social thinking often distorts the
whole social context becomes a laboratory            objectivity of the researcher. How does this
inside which sui-generis social learning takes       happen? Catherine Garnier (2002) offers
place and plays the role of a determining            a powerful interpretation of the way in
conjunction for the future evolution of the          which social thinking comes to inhabit the
individual as a social subject. Knowledge,           individual: the social space, in which the
normative initiation, personality formation,         individual performs, is culturally invested
and even individual mental functions                 and permeated by social thinking. Thinking
emerge and develop in a certain social and           is “secreted” by the brain according to how
cultural environment and they are stimulated         the computer treats the information. The
by the social context to which the social            selection of stimuli, objectives and events
subjects belong. The internal construction           with which the individual comes into
follows the external one and therefore is            contact, ties him socially, and his thinking is
stimulated from the outside. Thus, we deal           affected by these influences. Once localized,
with “an internal reconstruction of the              thinking becomes controllable, managed as
external activity”, Vygotsky wrote. From             if it were a mechanism, albeit a social one.
what we have said so far it seems that the           The social context filters information and
crucial role in the cognitive and social             events and delivers them according to those
development of the individual is determined          ideas, social representations or practices
by the social and cultural characteristics of        which it favours.
the socio-political, ideological and cultural             The functioning of social thinking is
                                                     guided, undoubtedly, by those values and
environment. Against this, individuals
                                                     ideologies which dominate the social field.
measure their efforts to adapt themselves to
                                                     Values are seen as intrinsic and absolute
the environment that provides them with all          truths. They are embedded and axiologically
the important information and enables them           established ideas which are collectively
to internalize it. However, not only does the        shared and they form the foundation of a
environment provide them with knowledge              common moral edifice. Transposed into
but it also offers ways to interpret it, in other    action, values demand the respect for norms,
words, it provides them with patterns of             defending them and passing them on. In
thought.                                             order to be accepted and incorporated, they
                                                     attach themselves to the discourse of power


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which then imposes and propagates them.         dominant group.
Ideology is seen as a form of attachment to
the collective values, a form of partisanship   Context control and the “Psychosocial
and militantism in the service of power         Net”
(Feertchak, Gamby-Mas, 2009).
    There are many classic contributions        The social context is responsible not only
to the way in which ideology acts upon          for the elaboration of the dominant social
both collective and individual thinking. In     thinking which determines the social,
German Ideology, Marx says clearly that         cultural and economic orientation of a
the production of ideas, representations,       society but also for choosing the practices,
thinking and consciousness are all coming       including those which are active in the field
from the material behaviour, from the           of knowledge and scientific production. We
environment, that is, from the context.         shall insist on the importance of the psycho-
People and relationships established among      social context because it plays a determining
them seem to be inside a camera obscura         role in shaping the human thinking which
where the processes of their historical lives   decodes and evaluates information. We will
impress themselves like objects on the          mention some older theories, according to
retina. Lenin, in his turn, saw in ideology     which cognitive development is modelled
the perfect tool to fight his enemies.           on the social relationships (Vygotsky,
Ideology, he wrote in What Is to Be Done,       Piaget) and we will also invoke Doise
is a system of ideas and theories which the     and Mugny’s theory (1997) according to
protagonists of the class struggle employ in    which intelligence develops through the
their battles. Ideology is thus a useful tool   interaction and cooperation of the involved
which is not necessarily dependent on the       social actors, found in a specific social
truth it proposes. To this, we can also add     context. These researches prove that the
Althusser’s contribution. In Pour Marx, he      cognitive development of the individual is
maintains that human societies “secrete”        dependent on the relationships among the
ideology as an indispensable element for        involved social actors and their reference
their breathing, for their historical life.     to the common values, social thinking or
    The conditions inside the context           a dominant ideology. The social context
influence the discourse and imply actual         therefore plays an important role in the
relations, interactions and influences. The      decoding and processing of information and
discourse, including the scientific one, is      in the shaping of social thinking.
fuelled by the ideology belonging to the            In dictionaries we find that “context”
dominant group. Ideologically guided, the       (lat. contextus) means assembly, fabric,
discourse “anchors” the individuals in a field   interweaving of combined elements,
and controls them. Individual biographies       providing meaning and value; it also means
are sometimes histories of the ways in          an assembly of circumstances in which a
which the social actor became a “prisoner”      fact is inserted; and ambiance, environment,
of his environment, both culturally and         situation, vicinity. It also means a science
ideologically.                                  of establishing bodies, a chemistry of
    What else is to be added? Ideology was      transformation, of profound explicit, implicit
and still is used by totalitarian regimes as    or even secret changes of these bodies (their
a tool, having been assigned a utilitarian      synthesis, their energy, their power). It also
purpose. It is used to fight against opposing    refers to an interweaving of norms, laws,
viewpoints and to “counsel” the actors          traditions and social movements, putting
in the social field, in order to make them       pressure on social structures, as well as
understand what is the “scientific truth,”       on social actors, demanding efforts of
evidently the one favoured and spread by the    adjustments to the proposed and authorized

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Science and Ideology: the Role of the Political Context


values, attitudes, relations and role-plays.         a particular “social logic” which guides
A social context presents itself as a system         the cognitive activity of individuals and
of ideas and beliefs, norms and traditions           familiarizes them with certain “normality”.
which form the cultural and social entourage         It helps them rationalize the information
in which the individual evolves and which is         from the environment, subordinate it to the
transmitted through education and language.          concept and make them reject the “anomaly”,
It also provides reference frameworks, brand         the exception, and everything that comes in
images, behavioural models and everyday              contradiction with the “scientific norms”
practices, ensuring the socialization and            of functioning or with common practices.
social integration of the individual (Neculau,       It is extremely important to remark that
2010).                                               controlled context fuels the process of
     People and human groups form and                building social representations and it is this
differentiate themselves according to the            social-cognitive heritage with which social
cultural environment they frequent and to            actors operate.
behavioural practices within which they                  The researchers of the phenomenon of
develop. Surrounded by specific stimuli,              social representations invoke the “effect of
the individuals discover keys with the help          the context” on the actors in institutions and
of which they may proceed to decipher all            communities (Abric, Guimelli, 1998) and
cultural and ideological messages. Some              describe a reality expressed through norms
biographical details are also important: for         and cultural practices as a direct consequence
instance, if someone during adolescence,             of the gradual evolution of democratic
youth and even later, frequents a particular         societies. For those who formed themselves
group, network, and/or cultural and                  in countries where the social control was
ideological environment of a certain                 absolute (like those in Eastern Europe),
orientation, they will remain marked by it           context meant even more: a coercing reality,
for the rest of their life. Thus, it appears that    a social marking, a body of conduct norms
through its characteristics, context induces         which did not give the social actor a chance
value tables, determines the axiological             to reject or choose among many variables.
system, and offers behavioural norms and             We refer to the socio-global and ideological
styles.                                              context and to the immediate, situational
     Not only does context influence social           context. This, together, built a certain social-
thinking which it decisively marks but it also       historical reality which covered each and
affects social practices and the production of       every individual as in a net, forcing them
ideas. It has a “mobilizing” role, it polarizes      to process certain information and to form
and provides instructions. For instance, it          certain images, beliefs, representations and
can determine conformity and stereotypical           acquire certain cognitive solutions.
thinking or cognitive structures (basic                  The ones who fuelled their representations
cognitive schemes) which can be controlled           from a certain context, “built” them
from outside and manipulated. Moral,                 according to certain coordinates, so that
economic, cultural and ideological history           they “acquired” certain significations and
impregnates the social thinking practiced            interpretations of the social phenomena
in a certain context; it particularizes it,          and patterns of knowledge organization.
and anchors it. The contextual influence              Therefore, context can determine a certain
facilitates a certain type of communication,         outlook of life and of the way in which
determines a certain type of discourse,              the society functions. It can demand the
delimits the margin of reflection and offers          acquisition of certain norms of conduct by
benchmarks for decisions.                            controlling and affecting the situation and
     A controlled context or a context               so determine the use of particular evaluation
manufactured after a certain recipe produces         frames which mobilize and/or polarize the

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social actors. Finally, this controlled context   productions of something that already exists,
forms a certain socio-cognitive scheme            and of elaborated contents; in our case, they
which directs the thinking in a particular        create and maintain identity, the collective
way and determines habits and adherence           equability, the socio-discursive cohesion,
to standardized normalities. Closer to the        the “unity”, the “front” and the “line”.
reality we have in mind, Ivana Markova                Several times (2001, 2006, 2008) we
(1999), born in the Czech Republic, and           advanced a model of approach and analysis
so in Eastern Europe, says it clearly: the        of the various ways in which a context can
context is responsible for the controlled         be controlled, starting from the examination
formation of social representations. They         of the social field in the closed (totalitarian)
are built (elaborated, maintained) and they       societies of Eastern Europe, with a special
evolve within a socio-cultural and historical     reference to Romania. We first noticed that
context, during a very long period of time.       a context can be built according to certain
They are passed on from one generation            ideological     orientations,    benchmarks,
to another, in various ways, be it informal       instructions and “guidelines”. A social
(as in the case of socialization, every day       actor educated in a controlled context
practices, collective memory, individual          will react according to the images and
behaviours and the interactions among them,       representations formed within that context.
or symbolic communication) or institutional       By feeding him with a particular kind of
(language, education, legal systems).             information, by placing him in contexts
    From what we have said so far it              which are modelled by the guardians of
follows that individuals build up their social    consciousness, by bombarding him during
representations by reshaping the reality with     his life with certain types of images,
which they come into contact and which            interpretations and categories of thinking,
affects them. They integrate this “objective      that person will acquire these models and
reality” into their cognitive organization and    reject everything that contradicts that
value systems and they shape their history and    pattern of thought which for him represents
the reference system by relating themselves       normality. The individual does not know that
to the given context. The expression of ideas,    he does not know anything else. In order to
the production and organization of discourse      stimulate the elaboration and fixation of
and the discovery of theories, are all situated   collective representations, the approach of
in time and space. They are fuelled by the        those leaders who desire certain collective
ideological field and by the position the          reactions is to group the individuals in
individual or the group in the social system.     artificially created and well-controlled
In a way, the individuals, by means of their      structures, to involve them in collective
biography, are the “prisoners” of context;        activities, having common aims, imposed
they are counselled to appropriate a certain      from the outside. Thus, they are directed to
discourse which they then spread out. The         establish the expected social representations,
significations transmitted through discourse       to acquire certain cognitive schemes which
bring individuals closer together, providing      are then practiced and strengthened in
them with recognition signs. They establish       perfectly controlled conditions! Because
relationships, they remember things, build        he did not have the opportunity to be
images, speak and make people speak,              exposed to alternatives, he will consider his
summon up in a few words or sentence              context to be the only objective, real and
a cliché, or a label (Moscovici, Vignaux,         comprehensible. The social and ideological
1994). The force-ideas are for the most part      context, the particularities of the situation,
induced by mentalities and beliefs, that is by    the immediate finality, will provide him
those representations and practices that are      with a certain frame of interpretation of the
encouraged by the context. Often they are         events in a certain history and a specific

                                                                                               127
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Science and Ideology: the Role of the Political Context


culture and with a discourse that has certain            By analysing the case of totalitarian
characteristics and signs. “Armed” with              Romania, we have identified several ways of
such knowledge, his cognitive productions            using the context as a means of controlled
will look for coherence and harmony with             cognitive formation. We have focused upon
the germinal context.                                several areas of social life, deeply marked by
    What is to be understood by a “controlled        ideological pressure and the establishment
context”? It refers to the accreditation             of some new social practices, areas which
of an “ideal” social model, the only one             shaped the formation of a certain individual
authorized, and the institutionalization of          profile. This type of individual remained
a system of unifying norms and practices             stuck in those cognitive schemes and social
which come to confirm it. The controlled              practices learned within a system of social
context functions as a coercing system in            control. These individuals formed adequate
which the social values are assembled in a           representations which they activated any
unifying vision, in a cultural and social field       time when they were confronted with similar
which is based on value hierarchies and on           situations. These were: the ideological
appropriate moral references.                        control of education and social formation;
    For the East Europeans it meant a                the annexation and loyalty to all public
combination – subordinated to a single               intellectuals, including the academia; the
objective that of Control – of cultural              formation of a new, pro-established elite;
ideological prescriptions, expressed through         the isolation and elimination of those
norms and cultural practices, a socio-               who refused to join the new regime, the
political “directive”, an order which could          establishment of a generalized atmosphere
not be ignored. Both the global, ideological         of fear and the institutionalization of
context and the immediate, situational one           violence (arrests, deportations, work
formed together a network of provisions,             camps); the control and standardization of
stipulations, recommendations, indicators,           everyday life by establishing certain norms
prescriptions, signs, imprints and symbols.          of authorized practices, all aiming at a
They engulfed each and every individual,             generalized conformity and last but not least
covering him in a “psychosocial net”                 a pedagogy of the formation of “the new
which coerced him to think, feel and act             man”, an educational ideal present in all
in conformity with the authorized image-             utopian systems (Neculau, 2008).
symbols, norms, solutions and rituals. This              We have called the psychosocial net,
controlled context established a certain             the tool used for total control, which is a
“social logic” which influenced the cognitive         combination of psychological pressure and
activity of the individual, familiarizing            controlled formation. Its aim was to identify,
him with a certain type of “normality” and           classify, subdue and hypnotize the individual.
helping him rationalize the information              Since everything was stipulated, controlled,
inside the environment by subordinating              censored, (the word, the gesture, the attitude,
it to the basic concept and making him               the public behaviour, the production of ideas),
reject the “abnormality”, the exception, the         this atmosphere of distrust and continuous
aberration, that came in contradiction with          pressure encouraged duplicitous behaviours
the “scientific” norms of social functioning          and obedience. The individual did not have
provided by the controlled context. In any           other solutions except for taking refuge in
totalitarian regime, the context exercises           a superficial conformism, faking adherence
a social pressure toward conformity,                 and embracing duality. Often, however,
cognitively manipulating the formation of            this adaptation meant an alteration of his
social representations or, in the favourite          personal life and of his cognitive production.
words of Communist Romania, “the view on             Consequently, the individual, slowly but
the world and life”.                                 surely, came to identify with the encouraged

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model while the social penetrated into the        Moscovici, S. 1961. La psychanalise, son
core of his personality smothering his own        image et son publique, Paris: PUF.
set of ideas, attitudes and practices until the
                                                  Moscovici, S. 1976. Social Influence and
convenient social roles would set in.
                                                  Social Change, London: Academic Press.
                                                  Moscovici, S.; Hewstone, M. 1984. De la
                                                  science au sens comun. In S. Moscovici.
                                                  Psychologie sociale, Paris: PUF.
                                                  Moscovici, S., G. Vignaux. 1994. Le con-
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130
Psychological characteristics
of the image of politician in the
consciousness of the Ukrainian electorate
G.Yu. Cherednik
Dnipropetrovsk National “O. Gonchar” University, Dnipropetrovsk
Ukraine



   Abstract: Psychological characteristics of politician’s image perception in mass
   consciousness of electorate are analyzed. The results of an empirical study of modern
   Ukrainian politician’s image are shown in comparison with an ideal image shown in
   literature that allows to emphasize the problems of political leadership in Ukraine.

   Key words: image, politician, leader, mass consciousness, perception, electorate.




Introduction                                    mass mood becomes important to leader, to
                                                realize the real needs of people and express
Political processes in the Ukrainian society    their interests. In this case, politician can
are directly reflected in the political mass     become a symbol of movement, the party
consciousness, because the policy refers        and society. However from our point of
to the sphere of life which every person        view the image of politician which consists
is drawn in. Long time ago the scientific        of certain psychological characteristics in
literature raised the issue, that in order      the mass consciousness is able to determine
to be involved in the political life on the     attitude to politician, his moral judgments.
highest degree, to become a political leader,        In condition of political situation that we
person must possess certain psychological       have seen in Ukraine in recent years gene-
characteristics. Some scientists believe        rated and declared image of the politician
that a political leader, as a rule, removed     becomes a way of psychological influence
from those he is navigating, therefore, his     on the mass consciousness of the elector-
personal qualities for the electorate may       ate, kind of political technologies. In this
not have a special significance, but actually    connection repeated attempts to compile a
leadership gets moral assessment which the      list of personal qualities, inherent to politi-
politician should take into consideration.      cal leader should be hoted, with the possible
The success or failure of the politician        aim of testing them. However we agree with
is perceived very emotionally by mass           I. Golovneva (2002), who claims that quality
consciousness, therefore ability to catch

                                                                                            131
G. Yu. Cherednik
Psychological characteristics of the image of politician in the consciousness of the Ukrainian electorate


selected by western researchers can be not            the preferences and ideals of public life, as
blindly carry on Ukrainian personality.               well as improve understanding of motives of
     Regarding this our aim is not to deter-          people’s social activity.
mine the list of necessary psychological                   Representing the image of politician in
qualities for politician, but recreating the          mass consciousness involves the selection
image of politician, that exists in mass con-         of individual elements in the integrity study
sciousness of the Ukrainian electorate. Such          – personal and socio-psychological charac-
approach would determine whether a repre-             teristics, which represent meaningful mo-
sentation of the image of politician in mass          ments of the test image. Turning to the issue
consciousness meet the public expectations            of socio-psychological characteristics as a
about him.                                            politician, which are reflected in mass con-
     Questions about image of political lead-         sciousness of the electorate it should be not-
ers, as well as some aspects of perception            ed that among the main qualities that should
of politicians by electorate have been in-            be inherent to the politician researchers have
vestigated theoretically and empirically by           traditionally included activity and sustained
Russian and Ukrainian authors: O. Shesto-             effort, ability to build your own image, po-
pal, A. Andreyev, M. Sivertseva, G. Dili-             litical thought, people’s confidence and abil-
genskii, A. Shmelev, L. Goldberg, D. Vy-              ity to use the power of authority, the abil-
drin, V. Bebik, V. Litvin, H. Pocheptsov,             ity to understand other people and to take
M. Slyusarevskiy and P. Frolov and others.            responsibilities, the ability to enhance own
Among these researches the main place                 credibility and political culture. There are
was hold by psychosemantic studies of the             important qualities for a politician named
mass consciousness, which gives possibil-             such as empathy, the master of persuasion,
ity “to materialize” the representation of the        accessibility, communication skills and abil-
population about political leaders by using           ity to maintain an open feedback, credibility,
special techniques that reconstruct deep se-          compliance with official status, and unac-
mantic category of ordinary consciousness.            ceptable are the bureaucracy, conflictability,
However these researches give presentation,           aggressiveness, misanthropy, inability to
mostly about combination of personal quali-           resist the negative attitudes and stereotypes.
ties that define the presence of abilities for              In the matter of the psychological char-
political activities. We are also interested in       acteristics of the politician the theory of
the representation of the psychological char-         leadership can serve as theoretical basis,
acteristics of the image politician’s in mass         because the psychological characteristics of
consciousness.                                        the concept of the “politician” in our opin-
     Images of political perceptions that arise       ion include first of all aspect of leadership.
in mass consciousness are the ideas which             From this perspective the theory of person-
are formed by political consciousness and             ality is interesting (“charismatic theory”),
attitudes towards political activity and po-          which implies that the leader can only be a
litical leaders. Traditionally, political psy-        man who possesses a certain set of person-
chology is distinguished between the way              ality traits or a set of certain psychological
of information, the way of values and the             characteristics. According to this theory the
way of expected future. We are interested             structure of personality is represented as a
primarily in the image of information as the          configuration of features which are a kind
knowledge of the electorate (not necessarily          of brief description, or at the same time the
true) about political figures. It is interest-         definition of a particular type of behavior.
ing in comparison to the image of meaning             That is why various authors have attempted
as the system of requirements that apply to           to provide these essential leadership traits or
politician. Such approach would clarify the           characteristics. It should be noted that there
image of the expected future, which reflects           is presence of certain personal qualities of

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leadership in the theory of personality traits    litical figure, as well as mass opinions and
(L. Bernard, V. Binh, O. Ted S. Kilbourn,         feelings about him/her and the political for-
K. Byrd and others), and in the situational       ces he/she represents. So depending on those
theory of leadership (R. Stogdill, S. Shartle,    characteristics, by which is the image of a
X. Gerth and C. Mills), and compromise            politician endowed attitude toward the party
synthetic theory (F. Fiedler, J. Homans, J.       in whole is constructed.
Hemfield, etc.).
    In the context of the problem it is worth     Method
to mention those characteristics which mass
political consciousness of the electorate ob-     Analysis of the representation of the image
tains. Foremost among these features is a         of politics in mass consciousness is tradition-
personal interest of the subject of percep-       ally held by psychosemantic methods, which
tion, therefore the personification of the im-     study the semantic preferences of the people
age takes place, person goes in the forefront,    participating in political process. It allows
not idea. Therefore, political forces of soci-    to reconstruct the system of individual val-
ety in political mass consciousness are iden-     ues and personal meanings, and to identify
tified with specific political figures.              individual differences in the processes of
    Another distinguishing characteristic of      categorization. To identify the knowledge
political mass consciousness is antagonisa-       of the electorate regarding the image of the
tion tendency to polarize all representations,    politician, the most acceptable technique is
to divide them into “black” and “white”,          the psychosemantic Scale of Technology,
“bad” and “good”, “totalitarian” and “demo-       which includes numeric scale for estimating
cratic”. Therefore the image of politician,       the poles which are marked by verbal pat-
which is formed in mass consciousness, al-        terns of personal and socio-psychological
ways has affective, evaluative color and as       characteristics. Usage of semantic differen-
a consequence, the polarization in society        tial allows to measure personal attitudes and
attributes politicians either positive or nega-   relationships to politicians.
tive aspects.                                          To identify current knowledge of the
    In addition, mass political consciousness     electorate relative to traits, inherent in the
refers with to those images, which have rel-      image of politian, we carried out research
evant political content and has certain social    in which 120 persons of different age
consequences, therefore, emotional involve-       and formation participated, we they do
ment in political events appears, additional      not participate in political parties, that
conditions for the evaluation of both political   should provide impartiality of estimation.
forces and individual politicians are created.    Respondents were offered to estimate a
Typically, such estimations are extremely         collective image of the politician by means
polarized from the adoption and support to        of scales of semantic differential.
the antagonism and may significantly influ-              On the basis of empirical research
ence the political choice of the electorate.      lies positions of experimental cognitive
    Personification and antagonization of          psychology about representation of socio-
images in mass political consciousness are        political experience in human consciousness
associated with emotional-effective compo-        according to which in mass consciousness
nent, and therefore can not be rationally re-     cognitive constructs (reference pattern)
flected. This dramatic emotional experience        exist, they carry out function of criteria for
of real political problems of society cause       perception politicians by the population. For
widespread concern. The rational compo-           definition of the list of character traits which
nent is secondary in relation to emotional        should be presented in psychosemantic
and effective components and may include          differential we have revealed characteristics
estimates and expectations concerning a po-       which are presented in the scientific literature

                                                                                               133
G. Yu. Cherednik
Psychological characteristics of the image of politician in the consciousness of the Ukrainian electorate


(81 positions). But as they are local properties         4) Self-control, consciousness;
of character, they can be subordinated to                5) Emotional stability.
more global properties. The classification                However we have considered necessity
of global character traits are most widely to add this list with such global factor as
recognised in modern international editions, “individual communicative style of dialogue,
so-called Big five of properties (U. Norman, charisma”, as value of these characteristics
L. Goldberg, R. Kosta, P. Mak-Krej, D. for the politician is underlined by almost all
Digman, F. Ostendorf, B. De Raad, A.G. researchers. It should be noted that selected
Shmelev, M.V. Bodunov), therefore we global factors might correlated with factors
have allocated the following factors of the that are considered most important in the
analysis:                                            theory of personality traits of a leader. In
     1) Altruism, friendliness;                      such a way, global and local properties of
     2) Good manners;                                character are correlated in the following way
     3) Activity, extroversion;                      (see Table 1).
           Factor                           Features of character of political leader
  Altruism,                  ability to inspire trust, minimal use of force actions, mildness,
  friendliness:              humanness, focus on other, tolerance, peaceableness, care about
                             ordinary people, empathy, trust in others, openness, responsive-
                             ness to other, heightened optimism, ability to think positively
                             and treat to others the same
  Good manners:              system of moral values, objective character, rationalism, loyalty
                             to the criticism, generosity, high level of intelligence and knowl-
                             edge, adaptability, good manners, common sense, competence,
                             reliability, logicality
  Activity,                  conservatism, stubbornness, motive of competition, dynamic,
  extroversion:              independence, strength, perseverance, social activity, increased
                             demands to others, desire for unrestricted freedom, enthusiasm,
                             impetuosity, purposefulness, exceptional organizational skills,
                             energy, initiative, ambitiousness
  Self-control,              submission, adequacy, pliability, lack of sense of guilt for the
  consciousness:             committed errors, farsight, caution, autonomy in decision-mak-
                             ing, strong will, concentration, alertness, sense of duty, practical
                             mind, concrete character, excellent self-control, risk, self- disci-
                             pline, honesty, ability to overcome obstacles, justice, decency,
                             willingness to take responsibility
  Emotional stability:       reticence, high degree of confidence, psychological maturity,
                             steadiness, sensitivity, emotionality
  Individual,                ability to hold the audience’s attention, ability to simulate non-
  communicative style        standard ideas in new situations, focus on success, ability to con-
  of communication,          vince others, ability to predict, ability to bend others to his voli-
  charisma:                  tion, ability to attract the special sympathy of his/her supporters
                             and citizens, sociability, orator ability, attractiveness
Table 1. Compliance with global and local properties of character of political leadership.
On the basis of the given list-classification          Discussion of Results
the questionnaire was made. Respondents’              Calculation of a measure of a dispersion
personal constructs concerning an image               of the data was made by means of
of the modern political leader was studied.

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calculation fluctation that has given the             significant. Results of empirical allocation of
chance to interpret variability of a data set.       the most significant properties of character
The importance of property of character              are presented in table 2 (see Table 2), at
was defined by quantity of polar extreme              the same time it is necessary to notice that
elections (-3, -2, 2, 3). The result which           expressiveness of the given qualities has
average value in sample was more than                statistically significant differences.
1,25 or less than -0,25 was considered as
                Factor                   Average      Minimum Maximum Measure of
                                         value of       value      value     dispersion
                                       the sample                          (fluctuation)
                                     Altruism, friendliness
 Mildness (A3)                         -.27          -3.0       1.00       1.34
                                         Good manners
 High level of intelligence, erudi- 1.40             -3.0       3.00       1.57
 tion (I6)
 Adaptability (I7)                     1.30          -2.0       3.00       1.49
                                     Activity, extroversion
 Motive of competition (E3)            1.67          -2.0       3.00       1.37
 Perseverance (E7)                     1.70          -2.0       3.00       1.26
 Social activity (E8)                  1.70          -2.0       3.00       1.34
 Increased exactness to others         1.77          -2.0       3.00       1.36
 (E9)
 Desire for unrestricted freedom       1.77          -2.0       3.00       1.48
 (E10)
 Enthusiasm (E11)                      1.50          -1.0       3.00       1.22
 Impetuosity (E12)                     1.40          -2.0       3.00       1.33
 Purposefulness (E13)                  2.20          -1.0       3.00       1.00
 Energy (E15)                          1.77          -1.0       3.00       0.94
 Ambitiousness (E17)                   2.27          -1.0       3.00       .98
                                Self-control, awareness actions
 Lack of a sense of guilt for the      1.50          -2.0       3.00       1.76
 committed errors (S4)
 Strong will (S8)                      1.47          -2.0       3.00       1.83
 Sense of duty (S11)                   -.27          -3.0       3.00       1.95
 Risk (S15)                            1.93          -1.0       3.00       1.01
 Ability to overcome obstacles         1.57          -3.0       3.00       1.36
 (S18)
 Decency (S20)                         -.40          -3.0       3.00       2.04
 Honesty (S22)                         -.43          -3.0       3.00       1.79
                                      Emotional stability
 High degree of confidence (M2) 1.50                  -2.0       3.00       1.74
               Individual, communicative style of communication, charisma:
 Ability to convince others (K4)       1.47          -3.0       3.00       1.43
 Ability to bend others to his         1.60          -3.0       3.00       1.75
 volition (K6)
 Communicativeness (K8)                1.80          -2.0       3.00       1.03
Table 2. The most significant results of the survey (the parameters of the psychosemantic differential).

                                                                                                   135
G. Yu. Cherednik
Psychological characteristics of the image of politician in the consciousness of the Ukrainian electorate


Analyzing distribution of values under each           opinion estimation” (2007): “clean hands”,
global factor, made it possible to note the fol-      high moral qualities, the attentive relation to
lowing. Under the factor “Altruism, friendli-         people, organizational abilities, patriotism,
ness” almost all qualities of political leaders       the accurate political orientation, wealthy
are on average estimation range, therefore it         life experience. However the importance of
is possible to admit that these qualities are         the qualities inherent to politicians, under
present at mass consciousness of politicians,         the factor “Self-control, consciousness”, re-
but are not expressed brightly. Among them            ceived by us in research, testifies what quali-
the negative perception of mildness allows            ties as are significant “Lack of a sense of
to draw a conclusion on absence of the given          guilt for the committed errors”, “Volition”,
quality among political leaders.                      “Risk”, “Ability to overcome obstacles” and
     Under the factor “Intelligence” respon-          at the same time absence of Sense of duty,
dents allocate such qualities as “High level of       decency and honesty is marked. It is espe-
intelligence, erudition” and “Adaptability”,          cially important that according to S. Ned-
however low average value of these quali-             baevskogo, problems of morality, internal
ties in sample testifies that in an image of the       ethics of the person are the main things for
politician is not given to them of great value.       the Ukrainian culture and mentality (S. Ned-
From our point of view, such representation           baevsky, 1997). Such image of the politician,
can be inherent among the majority of citi-           on the one hand, can be seen as a political
zens in connection with negative image of             crisis consequence in the Ukrainian society
the intellectual which has developed in mass          which takes place last years. However, on
consciousness during end ХХ century. Con-             the other hand, we are inclined to consider
sequently intelligence is not identified by the        that those psychological characteristics with
majority with activity, resoluteness and abil-        which politicians allocates electorate, cause
ity to achieve the object – qualities which are       mistrust of a society to them. We assume,
allocated as necessary for the politician.            what exactly mistrust to politicians which
     The most significant traits under the fac-        finds reflexion in a semantic image of the
tor “Activity, extroversion” were allocated           politician, causes political dissociation of
as “Motive of competition”, “Persever-                the Ukrainian society and in particular low
ance”, “Public activity”, “Increased exact-           level of its social capital. Moreover, this
ingness to others”, “Desire for unrestricted          phenomenon is interagreed: deficiency of
freedom”, “Purposefulness”, “Energy” and              the social capital in the Ukrainian society in
“Ambitiousness”; lesser degree significant             which researchers (F. Fukujama, J. Privalov,
are “Enthusiasm” and “Impulsiveness”. We              J. Saenko, A. Kolody) specify, is apprecia-
can admit that the importance of these traits         bly caused by a lack of trust of electorate to
are caused by mass consciousness which are            political institutes and their representatives.
identified with ability of the politician to           So, in sociological monitoring “The Ukrai-
reach an object in view that corresponds to           nian society” (1992-2008) fluctuation of
electorate expectations. But it is necessary          trust level was fixed to political institutes (to
to underline that the importance of activity          the President, the Supreme body, the gov-
and activity of the person are admitted nec-          ernment. Gradual increase of level of trust
essary to the politician, first of all, in mass        to 2004-2005 was replaced by the increasing
consciousness of the western society (E.              mistrust while the mean score of trust of citi-
Egorova-Gantman, 1994).                               zens to certain social groups, such as a fam-
     At the same time the profile of the Ukrai-        ily, colleagues, compatriots, etc. remained
nian political leader can be seen in the list         stable throughout all these years.
of the characteristics recognized as impor-               Concerning the factor “Emotional stabil-
tant by respondents during the investication          ity” as significant trait is allocated “High de-
“A modern political situation in a public             gree of confidence” also other emotional dis-

136
                                             Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                        volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 131-137


plays are not identified. The given fact, from     connection with shortage of accurate politi-
our point of view, has the double nature: it      cal programs and parties which consistent-
can be caused as low emotional intelligence       ly carry out them, the electorate should be
of the respondent, and that the image of the      guided by concrete politicians.
politician in mass consciousness is created
indirectly, in many respects at the expense of
mass-media influence, and public statements
assume certain restraint.
    Under the factor “Individual, communi-
cative style of communication, charisma”          References
significant traits are communicativeness,
Ability to bend others to his volition, abil-     Андреев, А.Л. (2002) Политическая пси-
ity to convince people. And as a whole cate-      хология. Москва: Изд-во “Весь мир”.
goric structure in mass consciousness of the      [Andreev, A.L. (2002) Political psychology.
Ukrainian electorate it is possible to present    Moscow: Whole world Press.]
an image of the politician the following way:     Головаха, Є., Паніна, Н. (2008) Україн-
ambitious, purposeful, vigorous, inclined to      ське суспільство 1992-2008: Соціоло-
risk, socia ble, but with deficiency of decen-     гічний моніторинг. Київ. [Golovacha, E.,
cy and honesty.                                   Panina, N. (2008) Ukrainian Society 1992-
                                                  2008: Sociological Monitoring. Kyiv.]
Conclusions
                                                  Гуцал, А.Ф., Недбаєвський, С.Л. (1999)
As a result of the carried out research we can    Політичний       лідер    в    історичному
draw following conclusions: the image of the      інтер’єрі. Киїів. [Guzal, A.F., Nedbaevs-
information of the politician which exists in     kiy, S.L. (1999) Political leader in the his-
mass consciousness of electorate not always       toric interior. Kyiv.]
coincides with expectations concerning it,
designed in an ideal image and distinctions       Егорова-Гантман Е.В. (2004) Имидж ли-
in those qualities to which the priority in the   дера. Психологическое пособие для поли-
Ukrainian culture and mentality is given are      тиков. Москва: Знание. [Egorova-Gant-
especially significant. As in mass political       man, E.V. (2004) Image of a leader. Benefits
consciousness of each population and each         for politicians. Moscow: Science.]
social group there is the stereotypified im-       Матвєєв, С.О. (2003) Політична психоло-
age of the politician allocated with the sum      гія. Київ: ЦУЛ. [Matveev, S.O. (2003) Po-
the “necessary” traits, coinsidence of a real     litical psychology. Kyiv: ZUL.]
image of the politician with the list of these
qualities promotes its success and popular-       Ольшанский, Д. В. (2001) Основы по-
ity. In our opinion the revealed discrepancy      литической психологи. Екатеринбург:
can cause that real politicians are a success     Деловая книга. [Olshansky, D.B. (2001)
ful only among a certain part of electorate,      Fundamentals of Political Psychology.
the one where these expectations mostly co-       Ekaterinburg: Business books.]
incide. Besides, it is necessary to consider      Петрунько, О.В. (1999) Категоризація
that for the Ukrainian political process cre-     політичних лідерів та еталонні типи по-
ation of numerous movements by concrete           літиків у свідомості електорату. Київ.
persons who wish to head them while politi-       [Petrun’ko, O.V. (1999) Categorization of
cal forces put forward the leader extremely       political leaders and reference types of poli-
seldom is characteristic. At the same time in     ticians in the minds of electorate. Kyiv.]




                                                                                               137
138
Scientific Agenda




                    139
140
Dixième Conférence Internationale
sur les Représentations Sociales
Tunis-Gammarth, 5-8 juillet 2010
Compte-rendu
Idan Balan
Université Paris Descartes, Laboratoire de psychologie des menaces sociales et en-
vironnementales
France

Andrea Ernst
Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille II – CNRS UMR 6012, Laboratoire de
Psychologie Appliquée EA 4298 URCA
France

Grégory Lo Monaco
Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I - Laboratoire de Psychologie sociale EA 849
France

Anthony Piermattéo
Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I - Laboratoire de Psychologie sociale EA 849
France

Jean-Louis Tavani
Université Paris Descartes - Laboratoire de psychologie des menaces sociales et en-
vironnementales
France



Depuis sa première édition de Ravello       théoriques et les applications de la Théorie
(1992), la Conférence Internationale sur    des Représentations Sociales. Cette année,
les Représentations Sociales (CIRS) s’est   à l’invitation du comité d’organisation
donné pour objectif de créer l’occasion     représenté par Jean-Claude Abric (Université
d’échanges fructueux entre les chercheurs   de Provence), président, et Dorra Ben Alaya
de tous les continents sur les avancées     (Université de Tunis El Manar), organisatrice,


                                                                                      141
Idan Balan ● Andrea Ernst ● Grégory ● Lo Monaco Anthony ● Piermattéo ● Jean-Louis Tavani
Dixième Conférence Internationale sur les Représentations Sociales. Tunis-Gammarth, 5-8 juillet 2010


le dixième rendez-vous bisannuel de la économiques, environnementaux, techno-
grande famille des représentations sociales logiques,         sociaux,     culturels,    etc.».
a eu lieu à Gammarth (Tunisie). A la suite L’atmosphère conviviale qui a régné durant
de l’Asie, ce premier pas au sud de la les cinq jours et l’organisation irréprochable
Méditerranée s’inscrit dans la dynamique mise au point avec grâce et professionalisme
d’expansion de la théorie des représentations par Dorra Ben Alaya ont parfaitement
sociales, dynamique déjà initiée depuis soutenu la qualité des échanges entre les
plusieurs années et qui, dernièrement, participants.
semble s’accentuer. Notons d’emblée que             La longue liste des symposia et les trois
cette édition s’est déroulée en présence de langues officielles de la conférence (français,
Serge Moscovici, fondateur de la théorie des espagnol et anglais) reflètent le dynamisme
représentations sociales, hôte d’honneur de international et le constant renouvellement
la conférence et porteur d’inspiration pour des perspectives que propose la théorie des
plusieurs générations de chercheurs.            représentations sociales. Ainsi, la conférence
    Les organisateurs de cette dixième a accueilli 267 intervenants, sans compter les
édition ont inscrit la conférence sous le thème participants non communicants, des origines
«représentations, transmission des savoirs les plus diverses, comme en témoigne le
et transformations sociales». Ce thème «se Tableau 1, ci-dessous, regroupant le nombre
veut l’écho des préoccupations et des enjeux de communicants par pays et par continent.
mondiaux actuels, enjeux identitaires,
  Afrique (10)          Algérie (2)            Europe (158)      Autriche (3)
                        Côte d’Ivoire (2)                        Danemark (1)
                        Kenya (1)                                Espagne (6)
                        Mauritanie (1)                           Portugal (11)
                        Tunisie (4)                              Finlande (2)
                                                                 France (86)
  Amérique (80)         Argentine (9)                            Grande-Bretagne (10)
                        Brésil (30)                              Grèce (2)
                        Canada (2)                               Italie (21)
                        Etats-Unis (7)                           Malte (1)
                        Mexique (25)                             République Tchèque (1)
                        Porto Rico (1)                           Roumanie (6)
                        Venezuela (6)                            Suède (5)
                                                                 Suisse (5)
  Asie (19)             Chine (2)
                        Corée du Sud (1)
                        Indonésie (6)
                        Israël (1)
                        Japon (1)
                        Taiwan (8)
Tableau 1. Répartition des communicants à la dixième CIRS en fonction de leur pays et continent
           d’origine.
Ainsi, pas moins de vingt symposia,                 ces contributions a été regroupé selon douze
dix tables rondes, dix groupes de                   thématiques théoriques, méthodologiques
discussion thématiques, trente sessions             et appliquées. Ainsi, outre la présence de
de communications libres, une session               thématiques générales telles que les questions
de communications affichées et cinq                  théoriques et méthodologiques ou encore les
conférences plénières eurent lieu dans un           liens avec les relations intergroupes et les
intervalle de quatre jours. L’ensemble de           enjeux identitaires ou le genre, on a noté


142
                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                       volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 141-144


la mise en lien des représentations sociales     récentes au sujet de la notion d’implication
avec des thématiques d’actualité (e.g., les      personnelle, variable explicative majeure de
problèmes sociétaux, l’environnement,            la pensée sociale, et illustré par des travaux
la mondialisation, la santé, le domaine          empiriques et expérimentaux la distinction
éducatif ou économique). Dans la logique         entre l’implication «culturelle», induite par
du thème de cette dixième conférence,            la sociabilité même, héritée, caractéristique
certaines questions ont été assez largement      d’un groupe social, engagée sur le long terme
développées. Ce fut notamment le cas des         et se trouvant sous l’emprise collective, et
transformations et mutations sociales ou         l’implication «factuelle», activée par une
encore du domaine éducatif.                      situation, ancrée dans l’instant présent, et
    Au-delà de sa thématique, cette dixième      se trouvant sous l’emprise individuelle.
conférence a été placée sous le signe de         On a également pu voir des avancées
l’ouverture. Cette perspective a été d’emblée    méthodologiques, notamment celles de
confirmée par Toshio Sugiman (Université          Gregory Lo Monaco, Christian Guimelli et
de Kyoto) dont la conférence inaugurale a        Jean-Claude Abric (Université de Provence)
traité de l’émergence des représentations        sur l’analyse des correspondances appliquée
sociales. C’est au travers d’exemples tirés      au questionnaire de caractérisation ou
de l’histoire de populations spécifiques du       encore celle de Lionel Dany (Université de
Japon et selon une perspective originale         Provence) sur la distance à l’objet.
que l’auteur a abordé cette problématique.           L’ensemble de la conférence a également
L‘intervention de Toshio Sugiman a permis        été ponctué de plusieurs conférences
de découvrir un point de vue alternatif          plénières. Saadi Lahlou (London School
proposant une théorisation différente des        of     Economics) a ainsi présenté une
approches classiques des représentations         communication intitulée «Représentations
sociales. D’autres communications ont été        sociales et objets réels : mécanismes
inscrites dans cette perspective d’ouverture     d’évolution», Pedro Humberto Campos
théorique.                                       (Université de Rio de Janeiro et Université
    Plusieurs symposia, mais aussi des           Catholique de Goiás) a, pour sa part, traité
communications libres, ont permis de faire       des effets de contexte et de l’adéquation
le point sur les recherches les plus récentes    normative dans le cas de la représentation
concernant les représentations sociales          sociale de l’indien au Brésil. Faisant écho
et de débattre des futures orientations          aux nombreuses contributions axées sur
que connaîtra cette théorie ainsi que ces        des problématiques liées à l’application,
articulations. Dans ce cadre, rappelons          la conférence plénière de Jean-Claude
notamment le symposium organisé par Silvia       Abric (Université de Provence) abordait la
Gutiérrez (Université de Guadalajara) «Some      question de l’application de la théorie du
theoretical discussions on the study of social   noyau central des représentations sociales.
representations» et celui organisé par Ivana     Notons également le bel hommage rendu
Markovà (London School of Economics)             au regretté Gerard Duveen prononcé par
«Epistemological issues in individual            Annamaria De Rosa (Université de Rome,
and social representations», ou encore le        La Sapienza).
symposium «Implication et représentations            Les applications de la théorie des
sociales : bilan et perspectives nouvelles»      représentations sociales ont eu une place
organisé par Christian Guimelli (Université      de choix dans l’ensemble de la conférence.
de Provence) et Michel-louis Rouquette           On a noté les études empiriques portant
(Université Paris Descartes). Ce dernier         notamment sur le marketing, la protection
symposium a porté sur les avancées               routière, la santé, l’environnement et la



                                                                                              143
Idan Balan ● Andrea Ernst ● Grégory ● Lo Monaco Anthony ● Piermattéo ● Jean-Louis Tavani
Dixième Conférence Internationale sur les Représentations Sociales. Tunis-Gammarth, 5-8 juillet 2010


didactique, comme celles des symposia de            qui l’on doit des avancées majeures
Paula Castro (ISCTE de Lisbonne), Denize            de la formalisation de la théorie des
Cristina De Oliveira (Université de Rio de          représentations sociales : les professeurs
Janeiro), Sandra Jovchelovitch (London              Jean Claude Abric (Université de Provence)
School of Economics), Nikos Kalampalikis            et Michel-Louis Rouquette (Université de
(Université de Lyon 2), Alain Legardez              Montpellier, et Université Paris Descartes
(Université de Provence, UMR ADEF),                 depuis 2002).
Patrick Rateau (Université de Nîmes). Ces               Enfin, cette dixième édition s’est
communications ont souligné l’importance            terminée par la mémorable conférence
de l’étude des représentations sociales pour        de Serge Moscovici (Paris, Maison des
comprendre les phénomènes sociaux et                Sciences de l’Homme), intitulée «Une
sociétaux.                                          nouvelle représentation du social». Cette
    En      définitive,   l’ensemble      des        intervention a été l’occasion pour l’ensemble
contributions témoigne du fait que même             des participants d’entendre l’initiateur
après cinquante ans d’étude, le champ de            de la théorie des représentations sociales
recherches fondamentales et appliquées              rappeler l’origine de son intuition, revenir
reste actif, l’émulation est certaine, et de        sur les auteurs qui l’ont influencé, et exposer
nombreux progrès sont à venir, notamment            ses préconisations concernant les futures
sur le plan méthodologique.                         recherches sur les représentations sociales.
          Cette dixième édition de la                   Rendez-vous est maintenant pris
Conférence a aussi été l’occasion de rendre         pour la onzième édition de la Conférence
un hommage chaleureux et émouvant à                 Internationale sur les Représentations
deux illustres chercheurs et néo-retraités, à       Sociales, à Evora au Portugal en 2012.




144
Latin America and politic psychology
of the XXI century
Lavinia Betea
“Aurel Vlaicu” University, Arad
Romania



Recently, in Ixtlahuaca, a little town situated   The University of Ixtlahuaca has 1.200
at one hundred kilometers of Mexico               students studying this course, many of
City 70 guests – teachers and researchers         them opting to specialize in forensics. From
from Latin America’s countries and                the start, the program of the Congress was
some Europeans gathered for the Fourth            made to satisfy the aims and expectations
International Congress of Psychology. Forty       of at least for two topical plans – scientific
six universities, specialized associations and    research and university education in
institutions were represented, all contributing   intercultural and interdisciplinary context.
to the success of this manifestation managed      That’s why in those three days while the
by Jose Rogelio Diaz Salgado, Margarito           Congress took place, each guest was the
Ortega Ballestros and Marco Eduardo               protagonist of several activities. First of
Murueta Reyes. The theme of the congress          all, each guest sustained a presentation on
– “Psychology in 21st century: Social             a decided theme in a masterly manner. The
Compromise and Modernity” – proved to             presentation was attended by a large number
be generous for a variety of concerns and         of students. Guests also took part at a round
interests of the participants. Thought both as    table, debating with other colleagues – in
a symposium for the attending specialists and     front of many people- subjects who captured
large scale teaching, the scientific meeting       the interest of everyone; any guest was also
gained the connotations of an important           an active part of a thematic session with
social fact in the student populated area.        other young local professors and students
    Some few contextual details customize         who were at the beginning of the research
the relationship between the organizers of        work. Also, each guest presented a mini-
the scientific manifestation, the research         lecture of four hours in front of a group of
and the psychology study. In the University       students. On the whole, both guests and
of Ixtlahuaca there are about ten thousand        organizers took advantage of the congress
students. By the number of students the           in the classic manner of the objectives
university is inferior in comparison with         of a scientific international meeting.
the National Autonomous University of             Furthermore, the managing body of the
Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autonoma             University of Ixtlahuaca offered to students
de Mexico-UNAM) where 300.000 students            studying psychology a great module of study
are learning. At Ixtlahuaca the “queen”           that complete the educational program of
specialization among others is psychology.        2010-2011.

                                                                                           145
Lavinia Betea
Latin America and politic psychology of the XXI century


    Strictly referring to the plan of scientific    Congress of Psychology from Ixtlahuaca,
meeting, I can notice from the beginning           Mexico was, over many aspects, a great
the extraordinary breadth of the Latin             professional experience and also an
America’s researchers in psychological             affective one. As a European guest, I felt
approach of the individual and current             it was overwhelming because I realized
social phenomenon, and also the interest           the intense forces and issues for the Latin
for the well-known themes who generated            America’s countries on psychological
the new discipline of political psychology.        research in the world of today. It, also, was
Eloquent in this case are the themes of the        a good way to reevaluate my own researches
round tables as “Power, aggressiveness and         over the effects of communist ideology
the theory of peace”, “Emerging issues for         and institutions in the societal project of
the family surroundings in 21 century in           forming the “new person”. Because of the
Latin countries”, “Social psychology and           historical and political background of the
ambient informal education: the massive            countries from Latin America the study
induction of ecological behaviors”,                of psychosocial transformations due to
“Social ethics and compromise in forming           mentalities and beliefs is required with
psychologists from Mexico and Latin                obstinacy. Otherwise, the dominant themes
America”, “Psychological epistemology, the         of Latin-American psychology are: the
health psychology and social psychology”.          power, identity and aggressiveness.
On the same side , I noticed the conferences            I end up with the idea the political
presented by Edgar Anibal Galindo Cota             psychology is opening here great ways of
(“Psychology and diplomacy”), Edgar                explorations.
Barrero Cuellar (“Dispute, political violence
and psychological war in Columbia”),
Barbara Zas Ros (“Practices of the social          Note on the brink of participation of the
transformation in community context ”), Jose       forth International Congress of Psychology
Antonio Lara Peinado (“Power psychology            managed by the University of Ixtlahuaca
in Mexico” ), Jose Luiz Valdez Medina (“The        (Mexico): ,,The psychology of the 21
theory of peace and stability” ), Patricia Paula   Century: Social Compromise and Modernity
Arriaga Fereira (“The influence of video            ( 22-24 September 2010).
games on aggressiveness”), Santa Parrelo (“
Who writes our history? Compromise and
narrative paths”).                                        Translation: Paula Tomi.
    My presence at the Forth International




146
Debate on Political Psychology




                            147
148
Serge Moscovici: La recherche
c’est un travail d’artiste
Interview par Lavinia Betea
“Aurel Vlaicu” University, Arad
Romania



L.B.: Les sujets politiques font de plus           theories spécifiques mais elle existe ...
en plus l’objet d’étude de la psychologie              Mais je suis d’accord. Ce n’était pas
sociale. On peut croire dans un brillant           une critique. Il s’agit d’une réorientation
avenir pour la psychologie politique. Quel         et il faut bien avoir en tête cette différence
est votre avis?                                    d’orientation. On fait pas l’une et l’autre en
     S.M.: Je pense, comme je vous l’ai déjà       même temps.
dit, qu’il faut d’abord se définir. C’est-à-dire,
ce que les gens faisaient dans les années dix          J’ai remarqué pendant la dernière
ou dans les années vingt du XX-ième siècle,        conférence sur les représentations sociales
quand ils ont crée la psychologie des foules,      (RS)1 que beaucoups des les psycholo-
la psychologie des sexes. Or, il s’agit, comme     gues qui travaillent avec et sur les théo-
je le crois, de psychologiser la psycholo-         ries des RS sont préoccupés par les sujets
gie sociale. C’est-à-dire que la psychologie       politiques. Même si penser et analyser un
sociale ne s’est jamais occupé auparavant          phénomène psychologique en mouvement
du politique, donc il faut rendre politique        est extremement difficile...
une science qui ne l’est pas. À ce moment              Oui, oui, d’accord. Mais le politique est
ce sont deux choses différentes puisque à          une forme de vie et une forme d’action. La
ce moment là vous ne vous occupez pas de           politique ce n’est pas la connaissance, c’est
théories politiques. Vous ne donnez pas une        l’action.
théorie psychologique ou de psychologie so-
ciale au phénomène, au domaine politique.              Et l’action est aussi la projection de
                                                   nos opinions, de nos attitudes, de notre
    Je pense que par rapport avec la psy-          comportement...
cholgie de l’individu et la psychologie                Oui, oui, d’accord, mais il faut encore
sociale, on peut parler d’une psycholo-            que je prenne une attitude et une opinion
gie politique dans la même mesure dans             et que je les mette en action. C’est-à-dire,
laquelle, à un moment-là, on a pu parler           changer les autres, changer leur façon de
d’une psychologie de la famille. Parce que         penser, leur façon d’être ensemble ce qui
dans la psycholgie de la famille nous utili-       est important pour la politique. Il faut faire
sons les théories de la pshychologie indivi-       des groupes, il faut créer des mouvements,
duelle et même de la psychologie sociale.          des minorités, des majorités, il faut créer
Ni la psychologie de la famillie n’a pas des       des mouvements. Par exemple, moi j’ai

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commencé des recherches sur la minorité              pour savoir combien de gens tolèrent la
comme résultat de ce que j’ai fait quand on          crise, par exemple, ce sont des démographes
a commencé le travail dans le mouvement              qui le font automatiquement. Donc il y a la
«vert». Je me suis alors mis a réfléchir et je        crise sous une certaine lumière. Par exemple
me suis dit: mais la psychologie sociale ne          Keynes dit que la bourse, la finance c’est
parle pas du tout de ça. Donc c’est ça. Je n’ai      un point de la psycholgie des foules. Il n’y
pas essayé de convertir les gens à l’écologie        a pas de théorie de ça. Il dit que les gens
mais je me suis demandé quel type de                 qui disent qu’ils peuvent vous organiser
mouvement doit être l’écologie et comment            l’argent et qu’ils sont des spécialistes de
la psychologie sociale peut apprendre à un           la bourse, ça n’existe pas. On a motré ça
mouvement d’agir.                                    expérimentalement aux États-Unis. Donc, il
                                                     y a des phénomènes de ce genre qui jouent
    Finalement vous avez crée une théorie            à la fois de l’aléatoire et de la croyance. Ici,
utile pour les gens politiques et pour celui         la psychologie sociale marche, mais elle ne
qui analyse la politique: la théorie des             marche pas partout. Et, par exemple, en ce
minorités actives.                                   qui concerne la crise, pour moi, la chose la
    Oui, peut le faire. Mais je disais que,          plus importante serait d’étudier tout ce qui
en tant que chercheurs, les psychologues             tient de la RS, de la croyance concernant
sociales doivent se poser cette question.            l’argent. Sur laquelle on a peu de choses.
C’est pas la même chose, vous voyez?
                                                         Je pensais, en vous écoutant, que
    Je comprends. J’ai assité récemment à            les médias ont produit une RS sur les
une conférence de psychologie sociale sur            banquiers comme groupe minoritaire qui
la crise actuelle. Elle a suscité beaucoup           a produit la crise: voilà une autre minorité
d’opinions de la part des participants,              active qui a changé l’équilibre du monde.
même parce que c’est un phénomène                        D’accord. Mais on ne répond pas à la
en mouvement. Dans quelle mesure les                 question. Que faut-il faire avec l’argent?
psychologues ont un mot à dire dans des              On dit effectivement qu’ils sont coupables.
situations comme ça?                                 Mais avec ça on ne résoud pas la crise. De
    Nous sommes des chercheurs et donc               toute façon, il y a un problème que nous
on n’a qu’à travailler sur le sujet et il faut       avons depuis toujours: l’argent est mauvais.
encore que ce soit «sexy». Il faut qu’il             Même au Moyen Âge on pensait ça.
soit intéressant. Sinon il n’y a pas de              «L’argent travaille quand on dort». Le Goff
recherche. Si non e verro, non trovato. Ça           a fait une étude sur l’argent au Moyen Âge.
c’est un problème. C’est-à-dire, par quel            De nos jours aussi, Mitterand dit: «L’argent
côté intéressant je peux aborder la crise?           travaille quand on dort». Donc il y a toute
Et que la psychologie puisse y apporter              une série de représentations qui relèvent
quelque chose. Alors la psychologie ne               de l’imaginaire de l’argent. Maintenant, là
peut pas travailler sur tous les phénomènes.         aussi on peut identifier la position du bouc
La psychologie n’est pas une science                 émissaire. Donc, celui qui a de l’argent,
économique. Donc elle ne peut pas donner             est posément le bouc émissaire. L’homme
une réponse à l’économie. Mais, en revanche          politique, même s’il est dans une tribu
elle peut étudier certains phénomènes, par           africaine, il peut aussi occuper une position
exemple, l’argent, la passivité et l’activité        de bouc émissaire.
des gens. Leurs confiance dans l’avenir
ou dans le passé. Il y a toute une série de             Ont-ils les politiciens un meilleur
choses que les psychologues peuvent faire            «visage» que les banquiers?
en matière de crise, mais pas tout. C’est               Pas toujours. De tout façon ils sont
même pas intéressant de le faire parce que,          menacés de ça. C’est-à-dire que si la crise

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                                            Societal and Political Psychology International Review
                                                       volume 1 ● number 2 ● 2010 ● pp. 149-152


ne marche bien, ce sont eux les boucs            ça que j’ai fait le mieux dans la vie. Je suis
émissaires de la crise. Le rôle de l’homme       content aussi parce que au moment ou j’ai
politique c’est d’ailleurs le rôle du bouc       commencé mon travail il n’y avait même pas
émissaire.                                       de psychologie sociale. Il n’y avait même
                                                 pas de professeurs à la Sorbonne. Ils sont
    Le monde a cru dans le progrès               venus d’autres pays. C’est la vida... C’est la
universel conformément auquel tout sera          vida... On est comme des acteurs.
de plus en plus bien. Cette crise a détruit
cette croyance? Quelle serait l’hypothèse            Mais si vous recommenciez ces
pour faire des recherches sur la pensée          recherches initiales - sur la psychanalise,
collective des gens?                             son image et son public – vous travailleriez
    Vous savez, il y a trois niveaux. C’est      de la même manière?
vrai qu’il y a une croyance générale que             Vous savez, moi je pense que la recherche,
l’histoire est du progrès. Mais nous savons      ça ne change pas tellement. C’est un travail
que le mouvement historique ne fait pas du       d’artiste. En fait, c’est quoi? On prend des
progrès. Il avance, il se transforme. C’est      choses, on prend des idées, on prend des faits
l’invers de la croyance conformément à           et puis on essaie d’inventer quelque chose
laquelle l’on croyait que le passé est bon et    par rapport aux phénomènes qui existent,
le futur moins bon. Il y a des gens qui disent   qui manquent. Peut-être je ferrais plus ça
qu’il y a un développement durable et cela,      parce que c’était à cette époque là, c’ était
à l’infini. Mais il y a des voix contre cette     l’après-guerre et le monde était très politisé.
assimilation entre l’histoire et le progrès.
Mais ça c’ est une croyance. On n’y peut              Et maintenant?!
rien faire. Les gens peuvent pas vivre sans.         C’est pas tellement politisé. Alors
Mais, attention, je n’ai pas dit que le futur    l’Europe se sentait menacée par la
ne puisse pas être meilleur que le présent.      Révolution et l’URSS était persuadée
Je n’ai pas dit ça. Mais la croyance que le      qu’elle avait l’histoire avec elle. Et la
futur est nécessairement, mathématiquement       psychanalise, l’histoire de la psychanalise
meilleur, ça c’est une croyance.                 a eu d’autres raisons. Mais il y a eu un fait
                                                 très important qui était la bataille, à Paris –
   Vous êtes un cas unique…                      parce que Paris était un centre intellectuel
   Il n’y a pas de cas unique!                   mais aussi un centre politique très important
                                                 –, il y a eu donc cette lutte entre la science
    Autrement dit, un cas différent dans         capitaliste et la science bourgeoise. Qui était
le monde des chercheurs. Vous avez fondé         en fait la bataille entre la psychanalise et le
et diffusé une théorie. Et maintenant,           marxisme. Et c’était important parce que
après cinquante ans de ce moment-là,             tout le monde y était: les philosophes, les
vous êtes dans la situation d’assister à un      gens qui faisaient des sciences sociales et je
developpement de cette théorie partout           ne sais pas pourquoi, en fait, je le sais, je me
dans le monde et dans les domaines d’une         suis interessé à ce problème là. Et c’est parce
grande diversite. Avec quel sentiment?           que je m’interessais à l’histoire des sciences.
    Je suis content. Ça m’a fait des amis. Une   Et ce n’est pas un truc fabriqué par la tête,
théorie, ça fait des amis. Pas seulement ceux    c’est parce que, en effet, je me suis toujours
que vous voyez ici mais aussi ceux qui savent    interessé aux phénomènes sociaux.
pas cette théorie. J’ ai quand même un méta
– univers que j’ai pas pensé que ça m’arrive.       Etre psychologue a beaucoup changé
J’ai fait ça sans me demander: est ce que cela   par rapport à ce qui se passait à votre
va être bon, mauvais, ça réussira? Ça on peut    début?
pas le prédire. J’ai travaillé parce que c’est      Oui, ça a beaucoup change, biensûr. Ce

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Serge Moscovici: La recherche c’est un travail d’artiste


qui a changé, tout d’abord, vous savez, c’est        etc. Weber appelait tout cela: la cage d’acier.
peut-être ce monde universitaire. Il n’existait      Je pense que nous sommes un peu dans la
pas. Et, deuxièmement, on est maintenant             cage d’acier, même à l’Université. C’est pas
dans une période très XIX-ème siècle: la             justement des valeurs, c’est justement des
science positive. Il n’y a plus d’Einstein qui       faits.
avait cette vision un peu différente. Il y a les
gens qui ont crée l’Internet, par exemple.               Voilà, vous venez de faire une
Maintenant la science est la vérité. C’est une       évaluation sur un demi siècle. Mais quelle
science très différente de l’épistemologie           prediction avez-vous pour l’avenir?
et on tente d’accorder à cette science une               L’avenir est imprévisible. Les sciences
importance en tant que telle dans la vie             sociales ne peuvent pas prévoir. L’économie
courante, mais pas tellement la technique.           ne peut pas prévoir. Fastinger disait: on ne
                                                     predit que le passé. Mais, si vous voulez,
     Et pas tellement les médias...                  la seule chose que l’on puisse faire, je ne
    Mais ils n’y a pas de moyen de diffusion         peux pas dire que ce soit mauvais, beaucoup
de la science. Je vous assure. Si vous               de gens le font: comme ils ne peuvent pas
regardez votre télévision il y a très peu de         prévoir, ils font de la prophécie. Parce que
science. L’Internet non plus. Vous savez cette       les gens en ont besoin et pas seulement les
idee, il faut être moderne. J’utilise l’Internet     gens, nous, on a besoin de ça. Mais il ne faut
mais moi, par exemple, je ne prendrai pas de         pas dire: ça c’est une prédiction. Vous voyez,
téléphone mobile parce que je ne parle que           là, on est dans la psychologie politique.
trois ou quatre fois par jour.
                                                        J’aime ce que vous avez deja écrit
    Et la condition du chercheur a                   dans vos mémoires sur la Roumanie: il
beaucoup changé, elle aussi?                         y a des questions ou l’arbre de la science
    Oui. Toutes les universités, en Europe,          porte des fruits secs.
font de la recherche aujourd’hui dans une
crise économique énorme. Je n’ai pas dit que
ce soit mal. J’ai dit que c’est un changement.
Puis, il y a un deuxième phénomène que je
crois juste et qui a été prédit par Weber, c’est
la bureaucratisation. Donc, dans le passé, il        Notes
ne s’agissait pas de ce que Weber annonçait:              1
                                                            Interview réalisé a Gammarth (Tounisie), 8
hiérarchie, rationalisation, pas de valeurs          juillet 2010.




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