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					   GLOBAL MARKETS AND THE
    LIVELIHOODS OF COASTAL
   COMMUNITIES IN KENYA AND
           TANZANIA

   IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE COASTAL
               MANAGEMENT

                          By
  Huruma Sigalla,Richard Sambaiga, Godwin A. Lema,
Emmanuel Shemaghembe, Vendelin Simon, Richard Abila,
         Jacob Ochiewo, Andrew Wamukota
Objectives
   To examine the demands that the global market exerts on
    the coastal resources, users and managers of the
    resources and their implications on sustainable coastal
    management.
   To document the ways in which the aspects of global
    markets have been impacting the coastal area, its people
    and their livelihood.
   To explore the manner in which different coastal resource
    users and managers have been grappling with the
    impacts of global markets.
   To assess the vulnerability context of the poor majority in
    the coastal communities in terms of their livelihood, as a
    result of the impact of global market.
          Methods of data collection
   Four major techniques of data collection were
    used
      In-
     In-depth interviews (53 in Tanzania and 30 in
      Kenya)
     Focus Group Discussions (16 in Tz and 10 in
      Kenya)
     Participants observation
     Social Survey involving 797 respondents in Tz
      and ……in Kenya
Study areas-Tanzania




     Sites in Kenya: Bamburi, Vanga, Shimoni, Malindi and Kipini
                                              Findings
                Fish catch in Zanzibar from 2001 to 2009



       30,000



       25,000



       20,000
Tons




       15,000



       10,000



        5,000



                0

                    2,001   2002    2003    2004    2005   2006   2007   2008   2009

                                                   Years




        Source: Zanzibar Fisheries Department
Marine Fisheries Production Trends in Tanzania from 1993 to 2009

                                  60000
 No. of fishers, vessels & tons




                                  50000

                                  40000
                                                                                                                            fish production
                                  30000                                                                                     vessels
                                                                                                                            No. of fishers
                                  20000

                                  10000

                                      0
                                       93
                                            94
                                                 95
                                                      96
                                                           97
                                                                98
                                                                     99
                                                                          00
                                                                               01
                                                                                    02
                                                                                         03
                                                                                              04
                                                                                                   05
                                                                                                        06
                                                                                                             07
                                                                                                                  08
                                                                                                                       09
                                     19
                                          19
                                               19
                                                    19
                                                         19
                                                              19
                                                                   19
                                                                        20
                                                                             20
                                                                                  20
                                                                                       20
                                                                                            20
                                                                                                 20
                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                           20
                                                                                                                20
                                                                                                                     20
                                                                               Years


                                   URT, 2007; 2009; 2010
   Reported fish catch in the EEZ, Tanzania
•Fish catch in the EEZ is reported
voluntarily                                                 Reported fish catch in EEZ, Tanzania
•2001 catch reported was from July -
December                                        60,000.00
•2002 catch was from January to August          50,000.00
•2003 & 2004 catch reported was from            40,000.00
January to December



                                         Tons
                                                30,000.00
•2005 catch covered January-September           20,000.00
and November to December
                                                10,000.00
•2006 catch reported was from January
to December                                          0.00
                                                            2001    2002   2003   2004    2005     2006   2007
•2007 catch reported covered January-
June, September and November to                                                   Years
December
Overall, fish catch data in the EEZ      Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries, Tanzania
are hardly realistic due to
inadequate monitoring, surveillance
and control
Fish export in Tanzania

                                                                Fish export

          200,000,000.0

          150,000,000.0

                                                                                                                                   Weight in kgs
  Value




          100,000,000.0
                                                                                                                                   Value in US $

           50,000,000.0

                    0.0
                          1995
                                 1996
                                        1997
                                               1998
                                                      1999
                                                             2000
                                                                    2001
                                                                           2002
                                                                                  2003
                                                                                         2004
                                                                                                2005
                                                                                                       2006
                                                                                                              2007
                                                                                                                     2008
                                                                                                                            2009
                                                                      Years

                    Source: URT, 2010
Species demanded mostly by global market

                                         Fish species demanded by global Market

                         300
                                262
                         250                  239
 Number of respondents




                         200
                                                              153
                         150

                         100
                                                                              60
                                                                                        51
                         50

                          0
                               Octupus        Tuna           Prawns        King fish   Shark
                                                            Species
Mostly used fishing gears
                                       Fishing gears by region

                80
                70
                60
   Percentage




                                                                          Zanzibar
                50
                40                                                        Tanga
                30
                                                                          Mtwara
                20
                10
                 0
                          ts




                                                                    ite
                                           k
                                   o




                                                 ar


                                                         p
                    s




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                  et




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                                        H


                                               S


                                                      sh
                         g




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                               K
                      in




                                                   Fi
                     R




                                                               D
                                           Fishing gear
The most common fishing vessels

                               Fishing vessels used by region

               120
               100
   Responses




               80                                                     Zanzibar
               60                                                     Tanga
               40                                                     Mtwara
               20
                0
                     Ngalawa    Mtumbwi    Dau      Mashua   Engine
                                                              boat
                                          Vessels
Trend of price of selected fish species

                             6,000

                             5,000
      Annual average price




                             4,000                                                                             2006
                                                                                                               2007
                             3,000
                                                                                                               2008
                             2,000                                                                             2009

                             1,000

                               -




                                                                                                ly
                                                                    h
                                                na




                                                                                    es
                                                         s




                                                                                    el
                                          h




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                                                                     is
                                                        ro
                                       fis




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                                              Tu




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                                     ng




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                                                                                                     O
                                                     E




                                                                          M
                                                                          Species




   The Office of the Government Statistician, Zanzibar
People‘s opinion about the trend of price for land
and fish


                                        Trends of price of fish                                                                   Trends of price of land

                      200                                                                                       300
Number of responses




                                                                                          Number of responses
                                                                                                                250
                      150
                                                                               Zanzibar                         200                                                 Zanzibar
                      100                                                      Tanga                            150                                                 Tanga
                                                                               Mtwara                           100                                                 Mtwara
                       50
                                                                                                                50

                       0                                                                                         0
                            Increased   Constant   Decreased      Don’t Know                                          Increased   Constant   Decreased Don’t Know

                                             Responses                                                                                 Responses
Global market and division of labour at local
level
                         Impact of Global Market on Division of Labour

        50%
        45%

        40%
        35%

        30%
                                                                                        Kenya
        25%
    %




                                                                                        Tanzania
        20%

        15%
        10%

        5%
        0%
              Youth Employment    Women         Shift from Agriculture   Child labour
                                 Employment     to Tourism activities
                                  Changes of Division of labour
                                                                        %




                                 0.00%
                                         5.00%
                                                 10.00%
                                                          15.00%
                                                                   20.00%
                                                                            25.00%
                                                                                     30.00%
                                                                                              35.00%
                                                                                                       40.00%
                                                                                                                45.00%
             Inflation of food
                   items



            Inflation of other
              items sold in
                  shops



              increased
          availability of food
            in the market




Reasons
          Commercialization
              of fish
                                                                                                                                           Reasons for Food insecurity in Tanzania




             Decline of man
             power in Agri.




             Changd of land
                 use




                                         Percentage responses
                               0
                                           10
                                                          20
                                                                     30
                                                                                 40
                                                                                               50
                                                                                                            60




          Decline of man
             power in
            agriculture


   Commercilization
       of fish


          Inflation of food
                items


          Inflation of other
            items sold in
                shops
                                                                                                                                                                                     Global market and food security




       Increased
   availability of food
                                                                                                                         Reasons for food insecurity in Kenya




     in the market


          Change of land
              use
Global market and trend of international
tourist arrivals

                                                      Number of tourists to Zanzibar
  Number of tourists




                       200,000
                       150,000
                       100,000                                                                             Series1
                        50,000
                            0
                             85

                                  87

                                       89

                                            91

                                                 93

                                                         95

                                                                97

                                                                      99

                                                                             01

                                                                                       03

                                                                                            05

                                                                                                 07

                                                                                                      09
                           19

                                  19

                                       19

                                            19

                                                 19

                                                       19

                                                              19

                                                                     19

                                                                            20

                                                                                  20

                                                                                            20

                                                                                                 20

                                                                                                      20
                                                                 Years
Perceived benefits of tourism
Involvement in tourist activities
Perception on depletion of fish
                                There is depletion of fish

               100

               80
  Percentage




               60                                              Yes
                                                               No
               40                                              Don’t know
               20

                0
                     Zanzibar          Tanga          Mtwara
                                       Region
Actors perceived to cause depletion of fish


                                                 Actors causing depletion of fish

               80
               70
               60
  Percentage




                                                                                                            Zanzibar
               50
               40                                                                                           Tanga
               30
                                                                                                            Mtwara
               20
               10
                0
                    Artisanal fishers     Fishers from Industrial fishers Industrial fishers   Don’t know
                                        neighboring areas from different within the country
                                                             country
                                                              Actors
 Global market and illegal fishing
                             Perception on illegal fishing by study sites (Rural vs Urban)

                   70%
                                                                                  62%
                   60%
                                 52%
                                                                       48%
                   50%
                                             38%
                   40%                                                                         Urban
               %




                   30%                                                                         Rural

                   20%

                   10%

                   0%
                                       Yes                                   No
                                                      Perceptions


Analysis by study sites show that perception on whether there is illegal fishing in communities varies not
only across rural and urban communities but also between Island and Mainland regions. It is also
important to note that in the eve of globalization, Illegal fishing in Tanzania is not limited to nationals but
involves foreigners.
  Changes of fisheries policies and regulations Kenya and Tanzania

Policy,Law,Guideline, Strategy          Area of jurisdiction                                             Changes/amendment so far


The National Fisheries policy of 1997   •General framework for protection and utilization of fisheries   Reviewed in 2010 and a draft
                                        resources on Mainland Tanzania                                   National Fisheries Policy 2010 is
                                                                                                         in place
Zanzibar Fisheries Policy 2002          •Generalframework for protection and utilization of
                                        environmental resources in Zanzibar

Kenya National Oceans and Fisheries     •Generalframework for protection and utilization of
Policy                                  environmental resources in Kenya

The Fisheries Act of 2003               •Constitutes the main piece of legislation guiding the           Its regulation have been reviewed
                                        fisheries industry on Mainland Tanzania                          in 2009
                                        •Focusing on internal and territorial water

The Dee Sea Fishing Authority Act of    •Constitutes the main piece of legislation guiding the           Amended in 2007 by The Deep
1998                                    fisheries industry on the EEZ of the United Republic of          Sea Fishing Authority
                                        Tanzania                                                         (Amendment) Act, 2007 and new
                                                                                                         regulations issued in 2009
Fisheries Master Plan of 2002           •Delineates a 10 year strategy to develop a suitable fisheries   To be reviewed in 2012
                                        sector with a view of benefiting the fishing community.
                                        •Development of aquaculture and the improved export and
                                        marketing of fisheries products in Mainland Tanzania
The National Integrated Coastal           outlines a framework for sustainable utilization and
                                        •It
Management Strategy of 2003             development of resources with a view of contributing to
                                        economic growth in Tanzania
The Environmental Management for        •General framework for protection and use of environmental
Sustainable Development Act of 1996     resources in Zanzibar
The Fisheries Act of 1998               •Regulations  regarding the protection, conservation, control
                                        of capture, collection, gathering, manufacture, storage and
Whose interests are favoured in fisheries management?



   More people on Zanzibar Island
    perceive that their interest are       Fisheries management favours the interests of
    considered in fisheries                               local people
    management (majority being in
    the urban community)
                                          100%

   More people on the mainland           80%
    Tanzania perceive that fisheries      60%
                                                                                       Don’t know
    management does not favour their      40%                                          No
    interests (again majority being in
    urban communities)                    20%                                          Yes

                                           0%
                                                 Zanzibar    Tanga    Mtwara
   For instance, there were no toilet
    facilities and cold room in all the                     Regions
    landing sites.

   Only few communities had
    dilapidated fish markets.
   Vulnerability context




The figure above shows the distribution of a poverty index in standardized form, poverty score shown in the graph
range from -3 to 4.Approximately the most household fall from between -2 and 2. Cumulative frequency of poverty
index by Zanzibar (South Unguja) and Tanzania (Tanga).
The figure indicates that the difference exists between the two groups except for the non-poor household. Where
difference between two group converge, above 60% of the households, no difference seen between Tanzania and
Zanzibar.
 However for all other level of relative poverty Tanga (Tanzania) appear poor than Zanzibar (south unguja). The average
South Unguja score is 0.294 and the average Tanga score is -0.19. Independent Samples Test shows that there is
significant different between two group (ZNZ and TNZ) at <0.001 level.
The figure indicates that no difference exists between the two groups.

Therefore the levels of poor household between urban and rural sites are all the same.

The average rural score is 0.0337 and the average urban score is -0.0086.

Independent Samples Test shows that there is no significant different between two group (urban and rural) at any level.
Value chain-emperical evidence
               People's perceptions about who benefis more from fishing activities

      35.00%

      30.00%

      25.00%

      20.00%
  %




      15.00%

      10.00%

      5.00%

      0.00%
                 Midlemen      Owners of      Fishers    Petty Traders   Government(     Fishing
                            fishing vessels                               Revenue,     companies
                                                                           levies)
                                                  beneficiaries
Value-chain of selected fish – from the
fisher-middlemen/agents-fish shops
                                      Price of selected fish

              18000
              16000
              14000
 TZS per kg




              12000                                                                      Fishers
              10000
               8000                                                                      Middle men
               6000                                                                      Fish shops
               4000
               2000
                  0




                                                                        er
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                               ns




                                            r



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                     us




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                                                                    S
                                                         C



                                          Species of fish



                owners of fishing vessel get between 20% and 50% of the Gross earning
                after selling the catch of the day. Then the remaining 50% is divided
                between the fishers after the reduction of running costs of a vessel such as
                fuel, and fishing gears but in some scenario less than 50%
How do local people strive to cope
within the vulnerabilty context

                                        Coping strategies

        70%

        60%

        50%

        40%
    %




        30%

        20%

        10%

        0%
                Diversification of    Job mobility                Migration   Selling assets
              livelihood activities
                                                     Strategies
                     Conclusion
   Global market exert demands on the coastal resources
    and management mainly through international trade of
    fish, tourism, gas and oil exploration as well as Marine
    conservation strategies
   Impact-depletion of fish, inflation of food items,
    competition to access land, increased number of fishers
   All these have caused over exploitation of coastal
    resources particularly fish
    As a result illegal fishing both by artisanal and foreign
    fishers has been on increase
                             Cont.
   Operation of Global market is increasing the vulnerability
    of local communities along the coastal of the Indian
    Ocean
   As a response local communities along the coast are
    struggling to diversify their livelihood activities

   We recommend that more efforts should be directed to
    design intervention programmes to support local
    community’s initiatives which are in line with poverty
    reduction strategies as well as to facilitate a sustainable
    use of coastal resources
   Local communities needs information on markets, price,
    improved fishing gears and vessels and participation in
    formulation of policies and regulations
              Recommendation


 Capacity building for fisheries stock
  assessment
 Reliability of data on catch, vessels, gears
  and number of fishers
 Diversification of livelihood activities to
  reduce dependency on fisheries (ocean)
 Proactive planning for pro-poor tourism
                     Output
   We have presented a paper at the International
    Conference on Sustainable Tourism in
    Developing Countries (ICST)10-11 August 2010,
    DSM
   One paper has been accepted for publication
    already
   We are working on reviewer’s comment on two
    papers we have submitted for publication
Expected output
 Published report
 Book
 Several articles in peer reviewed local and
  international journals
Asante sana

				
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