INVENTORY MANAGEMENT - DOC by A5HD259

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									Mohammad Ali Jinnah University




INVENTORY MANAGEMENT




          GROUP MEMBERS

ABDUL NAVEED          MB083009

EHSAN AFZAL           MB083086

FAWAD IFTHIKAR        MB083010




SUBMITTED TO:

                 FAIZ-UL-RHEMAN


                                  DATE: 04/07/2011
                              ACKNOWLEGMENT


 Deepest thanks and gratitude to Almighty ALLAH, the most merciful, the most beneficent and
source of all knowledge and wisdom that enable and strengthen us to complete this projectreport.

We extend our deepest gratitude and profound regards to Mr. FAIZ-UL-RHEMAN who remain
                a source of inspiration for us through her guidance and teaching.

Esteemed appreciation and recognition to our friends, colleagues and family for their support and
                            encouragement throughout this endeavor




                                       Dedication
We dedicated this report to our beloved parents who always pray for our success. And also to our
project instructor MR.FAIZ-UL-RHEMAN who gave us opportunity to do this project and also
                                  help us in doing that project.
      1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………
1.1 Objective of the Study
1.2 Meaning of inventory
1.3 Nature of inventory
1.4 Functions of Inventory
1.5 Inventory management
1.6 Concept of inventory management
1.7 Inventory Management Process


8. Literature review………………………………………………….................

2. Inventory Counting Systems…………………………………………….
2.1 Types of inventory system
2.2 Inventory Cost

3. Objective of inventory management……………………………………


4. Importance of inventory management……………..................................
4.1    Advantages and disadvantages of inventory management

5. Essentials of inventory control system……………..................................


6. Role of Manager in inventory management……………………………


7. Data analysis………………………………………………………………..
7.1 Classification System
7.2 Method


9. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………...
                                 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

                                     1. INTRODUCTION



1.1 Objective of the Study


       Inventories constitute the principal item in the working capital of the majority of trading
and industrial companies. In inventory, we include raw materials, finished goods, work in
progress, supplies and other accessories. To maintain the continuity in the operations of business
enterprise, a minimum stock of inventory required.



       However, the physical control of inventory is the operating responsibility of stores
superintendent and financial personnel have nothing to do about it but the financial control of
these inventories in all lines of activity in which they comprise a substantial part of the current
assets is a frequent problem in the management of working capital. Management of inventory is
designed to regulate the volume of investment in goods on hand, the types of goods carried in
stock to meet the needs of production and sales while at the same time, the investment in them is
to kept at a reasonable level.



1.2 Meaning of inventory


       Inventory is the physical stoke of goods maintained in an organization for its smooth
sunning. In accounting language it may mean stock of finished goods only. In a manufacturing
concern, it may include raw materials, work-in-progress and stores etc. In the form of materials
or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.
In brief, Inventory is unconsumed or unsold goods purchased or manufactured.
1.3 Nature of inventories


Inventories are stock of the product a company is manufacturing for sale and components that
make up the product. The various forms in which inventory exist in a manufacturing company
are raw materials, work in progress and finished goods.


      Raw materials Raw materials are those inputs that are converted into finished product
       though the manufacturing process. Raw materials inventories are those units which have
       been purchased and stored for future productions.


      Work in progress These inventories are semi manufactured products. They represent
       products that need more work before they become finished products for sales.


      Finished goods Finished goods inventories are those completely manufactured products
       which are ready for sale. Stock of raw materials and work in progress facilitate
       production. While stock of finished goods is required for smooth marketing operation.
       Thus, inventories serve as a link between the production and consumption of goods.


The level of three kinds of inventories for a firm depends on the nature of its business. A
manufacturing firm will have substantially high levels of all three kinds of inventories, while a
retail or wholesale firm will have a very high and no raw material and work in progress
inventories. Within manufacturing firms, there will be differences. Large heavy engineering
companies produce long production cycle products, therefore they carry large inventories. On the
other hand, inventories of a consumer product company will not be large, because of short
production cycle and fast turn over. Firms also maintain a fourth kind of inventory, supplies or
stores and spares.
1.4 Functions of Inventory

   1. To meet anticipated customer demand. These inventories are referred to as anticipation
       stocks because they are held to satisfy planned or expected demand.
   2. To smooth production requirements. Firms that experience seasonal patterns in
       demand often build up inventories during off-season to meet overly high requirements
       during certain seasonal periods. Companies that process fresh fruits and vegetable deal
       with seasonal inventories
   3. To decouple operations. The buffers permit other operations to continue temporarily
       while the problem is resolved. Firms have used buffers of raw materials to insulate
       production from disruptions in deliveries from suppliers, and finished goods inventory to
       buffer sales operations from manufacturing disruptions.
   4. To protect against stock-outs. Delayed deliveries and unexpected increases in demand
       increase the risk of shortages. The risk of shortages can be reduced by holding safety
       stocks, which are stocks in excess of anticipated demand.
   5. To take advantage of order cycles. Inventory storage enables a firm to buy and produce
       in economic lot sizes without having to try to match purchases or production with
       demand requirements in short run.
   6. To hedge against price increase. The ability to store extra goods also allows a firm to
       take advantage of price discounts for large orders.
   7. To permit operations. Production operations take a certain amount of time means that
       there will generally be some work-in-process inventory.



1.5 Inventory management
       Inventory management refers to the process of managing the stocks of finished products,
semi-finished products and raw materials by a firm. Inventory management, if done properly, can
bring down costs and increase the revenue of a firm. In simple words inventory management can
be described as an activity of planning a inventory control policy, implement that policy and
controlling it that help the organization in a achieving its goals in a sufficient manner.
       Inventory management, or inventory control, is an attempt to balance inventory needs and
requirements with the need to minimize costs resulting from obtaining and holding inventory.
There are several schools of thought that view inventory and its function differently. These will
be addressed later, but first we present a foundation to facilitate the reader's understanding of
inventory and its function



1.6 Concept of inventory management


       The term inventory management is used in two ways- unit control and value control.
Production and purchase officials use this word in term unit control whereas in accounting this
word is used in term of value control. As investment in inventory represents in many cases, one
of the largest asset items of business enterprises particularly those engaged in manufacturing,
wholesale trade and retail trade. Sometimes the cost of material used in production surpasses the
wages and production overheads. Hence, the proper management and control of capital invested
in the inventory should be the prime responsibility of accounting department because resources
invested in inventory are not earning a return for the company. Rather, on the other hand, they
are costing the firm money both in terms of capital costs being incurred and loss of opportunity
income that is being foregone.



The reasons for keeping stock
    All these stock reasons can apply to any owner or product stage.
    Buffer stock is held in individual workstations against the possibility that the upstream
       workstation may be a little delayed in providing the next item for processing. Whilst
       some processes carry very large buffer stocks, Toyota moved to one (or a few items) and
       has now moved to eliminate this stock type.
    Safety stock is held against process or machine failure in the hope/belief that the failure
       can be repaired before the stock runs out. This type of stock can be eliminated by
       programmers like Total Productive Maintenance
    Overproduction is held because the forecast and the actual sales did not match. Making to
       order and JIT eliminates this stock type.
 Lot delay stock is held because a part of the process is designed to work on a batch basis
   whilst only processing items individually. Therefore each item of the lot must wait for the
   whole lot to be processed before moving to the next workstation. This can be eliminated
   by single piece working or a lot size of one.



 Demand fluctuation stock is held where production capacity is unable to flex with
   demand. Therefore a stock is built in times of lower utilization to be supplied to
   customers when demand exceeds production capacity. This can be eliminated by
   increasing the flexibility and capacity of a production line or reduced by moving to item
   level load balancing.



 Line balance stock is held because different sub-processes in a line work at different
   rates. Therefore stock will accumulate after a fast sub-process or before a large lot size
   sub-process. Line balancing will eliminate this stock type.


 Changeover stock is held after a sub-process that has a long setup or change-over time.
   This stock is then used while that change-over is happening. This stock can be eliminated
   by tools like SMED.



 Where these stocks contain the same or similar items it is often the work practice to hold
   all these stocks mixed together before or after the sub-process to which they relate. This
   'reduces' costs. Because they are mixed-up together there is no visual reminder to
   operators of the adjacent sub-processes or line management of the stock which is due to a
   particular cause and should be a particular individual's responsibility with inevitable
   consequences. Some plants have centralized stock holding across sub-processes which
   makes the situation even more acute.
1.7 Inventory Management Process:

This process allows users to manage all the Materials/items purchased, manufactured, sold, or
kept in stock. For each Material item, users enter the data relevant for a particular area in the
system. This data is used automatically by the system for purchasing, sales, production,
inventory management, accounting and etc...

It provides optimum support for business. Helps create orders, delivery notes, and outgoing
invoices, automatically calculating prices, sales units, and gross profit. Enables complete control
over stock quantities at all times and lets users analyze the financial aspects of stockholding at
the same time. Allows users to control production on the basis of the items that are used for
production and on the basis of the finished product and any by-products created.




Requirements for Effective Inventory Management

To be effective, management must have the following:

 A system to keep track of the inventory on the hand on order.
 A reliable forecast of demand that includes an indication of possible forecast error.
 Knowledge of lead times and lead time variability.
 Reasonable estimates of inventory holding costs, ordering costs, and shortage costs.
 A classification system for inventory items.
                                     2. Literature review



(1) A decision-making engine for optimal inventory management of the manufacturing
assembly companies
                                       Dmitry Brusilovsky
                                Kvant Soft Inc., Thornhill, Canada




       In this presentation (article), the problem of optimal inventory management for the small
or medium-size manufacturing assembly companies is described. The system for optimal
inventory management of the manufacturing assembly companies and the mathematical model,
which the inventory management decision-making engine is based on, are presented.
Development of demand planning decision making engine for the demand-driven manufacturing
assembly companies based on a high precision demand forecasting is described. A complex
unstructured problem of demand forecasting is defined. A separate problem of how to forecast
demand for the new articles that do not have the demand history is discussed.


Quantitative approaches to demand forecasting, concentrating mainly on new approaches that
were developed in the last decade, are reviewed. Typical forecasting demand situations, based on
availability and accuracy of the demand data/information, are singled out. These situations
correspond to different demand measurement scales: dichotomy (binary demand forecasting
implemented using binary dependent variable regression models), ordinal, count (based on
Poisson regression), and interval.
(2) The ups and downs of inventory management. Materials Management in Health Care,
13(2), 22-26.
                                       Neil, R. (2004, February).


This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using stockless and just-in-time (JIT)
purchasing programs in hospitals. The author states that the terms JIT and stockless have
slightly different meanings to hospitals and vendors, but they can be used in conjunction. JIT is
defined as a program that establishes regular, frequent deliveries from a hospital’s distributor,
and which reduces a hospital’s inventory from a 30-day or 60-day to a 10-day supply. A hospital
with a stockless program can carry an even lower amount of inventory and receives items in low
units of measure from a distributor.




Since less inventory is kept, a hospital can reduce space and warehouse space used to store
products. This also reduces the chance of losing money on obsolete, stolen, spoiled, or damaged
products. However, according to Bob Majors, materials management director for Bloomington
(Ind.) Hospital, the JIT model that originated from the manufacturing industry does not fit well
into health care supply chain logistics because hospital volume is not predictable and thus the
demand of inventory is uncertain. He claims that the JIT or stockless programs peaked in
popularity in the mid-1990s and have now become less popular than when they were first
introduced.


       The article ends by stating that the new distribution trend may go back to the traditional
approach of operating a big warehouse and taking more control over products. An example of
this move is HCA, Nashville, which is the industry’s largest hospital system. It has higher
holding costs due to carrying more inventories, but it has a lower distributor fees than it would
have with a stockless or JIT program.
(3) Efficient approach to health care industry material resource management: An
empirical research. Hospital Material Management Quarterly, 13(3), 10-25.

                              Kim, G. C., & Rifai, A. K. (1992).

       This article presents a research study examining the feasibility of implementing a just-in-
time (JIT) system in health care industry. The study compared health care institutions that have
adopted a JIT system and those that have not. The results show that the introduction of JIT
philosophy in the health care industry’s material management system improved the system and
reduced implementation problems. Moreover, the introduction of JIT philosophy had a positive
impact on the institutions' inventory management, service quality, and competitiveness.




       The article starts by discussing the impact of JIT philosophy. The authors define JIT as a
continuous flow of products adapted to demand changes that produces only necessary quantities
of products at predetermined points in time. To achieve this flow-like system, JIT needs to be
supported by JIT purchasing, total quality control, multiple-process layout designing, job
standardizing, and production smoothing. In the manufacturing industry, the major benefit of
JIT purchasing is that the levels of parts inventories in the assembly plant and the carrying costs
for those parts are significantly reduced. The success of JIT systems in the manufacturing
industry has driven many service sector industries to adopt JIT as their material management
system.




(3) Adapting just-in-time inventory control to the hospital setting. Hospital Materials
   Management, 11(10), 8-12.

                                      Chapman, S. (1986)

       This article discusses the applicability of just-in-time (JIT) inventory control to hospitals.
The author believes that the difficulty in implementing a JIT inventory control is the uncertainty
in supply or demand, which is directly related to lead time. The two major uncertainties are the
actual lead time demand and the actual replenishment lead time. First, the uncertainty of the
actual lead time demand may create stockouts and poor customer service, which can be
prevented with safety stock (buffer inventory). Second, the uncertainty of the actual
replenishment lead time may create a need for additional safety stock. These problems can be
solved by using a JIT approach because lead time will be reduced as the average inventory level
is lower with a JIT system. Thus, the “danger zone” when a stockout could occur is much
smaller. As a result, the safety stock needed to maintain the same level of customer service is
reduced.

       Due to the reduction in cycle stock with a JIT system, the lot size is reduced, which in
turn lowers the inventory holding cost. However, this benefit of a JIT system may increase the
risk of stock out unless the uncertainties mentioned above are reduced. For a properly working
JIT system, cost reduction and uncertainty reduction have to be accomplished together.




(4) Risk Aversion in Inventory Management

                Prof. David Simchi-Levi &Massachusetts Institute of Technology

       Traditional inventory models focus on risk-neutral decision makers, i.e., characterizing
replenishment strategies that maximize expected total profit, or equivalently, minimize expected
total cost over a planning horizon. In this paper, we propose a framework for incorporating risk
aversion in multi-period inventory models as well as multi-period models that coordinate
inventory and pricing strategies. In each case, we characterize the optimal policy for various
measures of risk that have been commonly used in the finance literature. In particular, we show
that the structure of the optimal policy for a decision maker with exponential utility functions is
almost identical to the structure of the optimal risk-neutral inventory (and pricing) policies.
These structural results are extended to models in which the decision maker has access to a
(partially) complete financial market and can hedge its operational risk through trading financial
securities. Computational results demonstrate the importance of this approach not only to risk-
averse decision makers, but also to risk-neutral decision makers with limited information on the
demand distribution.
(5) Just-In-Time Inventory Management Strategy & Lean Manufacturing

        Written by David Broyles, Jennifer Beims, James Franko, & Michelle Bergman
                                      Kansas State University
                                             April, 2005

       Just-in-time is a movement and idea that has gained wide acceptance in the business
community over the past decade. As companies became more and more competitive and the
pressures from Japans continuous improvement culture, other firms were forced to find
innovative ways to cut costs and compete. The idea behind JIT, or lean manufacturing, is to have
the supplies a firm needs at the exact moment that they are needed. In order to accomplish this
goal a firm must constantly be seeking ways to reduce waste and enhance value. A recent survey
of senior manufacturing executives showed that 71% used some form of JIT in their processes
(Pragman). This simple statistic illustrates that JIT is here to stay and also that firms must
constantly be searching for ways to cut costs and achieve an advantage. JIT is one way to
achieve that end result.
In order to understand how JIT works a common vocabulary needs to be established from which
to further discuss the topic and gain insight into why so many firms have adopted it. As
previously stated, one of the key components of JIT is to reduce waste and add value. There are
several activities that a company must monitor as targets for reducing waste. Among these are,
excessive waste times, inflated inventories, unneeded people or material movement, unnecessary
processing steps, numerous variabilities throughout a firm's activities and any other non-value
adding activity. A key example of this is a new plant that Caterpillar is bringing on-line in the
near future. By reducing the number of times a bucket had to be repositioned while it was being
welded, Caterpillar was able to reduce the amount of time the bucket spent in the welding line,
reduce labor costs by limiting idle time at the welding station and increase the efficiency of the
entire manufacturing process
(7) Applying just-in-time systems in health care. IIE Solutions, 29(8), 32-37.

                                         Whitson, D. (1997)

        Since the government switched from cost-plus reimbursement to flat fees regardless of
complications or a provider’s actual expense for medical services in 1983, hospitals continue to
search for innovative ways to reduce costs while maintain quality. This article discusses how
hospitals can reduce the acquisition price of supplies when using a just-in-time (JIT) system. It
covers the benefits of JIT, the opportunities for JIT application in health-care, and the accounting
implications of using a JIT system. The benefits of JIT briefly described in this article are cost
savings as a result of inventory reduction and associated holding costs, space for other revenue
generating activities, and the transfer of labor costs to the distributor.

        The article heavily focuses on the possibilities of using JIT in the healthcare industry.
The areas where JIT can be applied in health care include central supply, materials management
and pharmacy, nursing, swing beds, relationships between nursing units and supplying
departments, and physician practices. First, under JIT the central supply function is minimized
because the need to store goods between supplier delivery and internal delivery to units or
department is decreased by adopting a JIT method where an individual unit directly receives
items from the supplier.



(8) INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL BUSINESS: A DECISION MATRIX
APPROACH

           S. Altan Erdem, University of Minnesota, Duluth Tom K. Massey, Jr., University of
                                             North Texas

        This article provides a decision tool to assist small business managers in their search for
an appropriate inventory management system. In the article, a functional taxonomy that would
match various small business sectors with certain operational consideration points is proposed.
This taxonomy is basically a two-dimensional decision matrix that can equip these managers
with various perspectives which are broad enough to reveal potential gains of different systems.
       The management processes associated with maintaining optimal inventory levels presents
numerous and continual challenges to the goods-oriented small business. In each of these firms
the design and implementation of a particular inventory planning system should originate with
the underlying strategic planning policies within the business. These decisions are conditioned
by numerous financial and structural concerns. It is important to note that research has shown
that inventory planning discrepancies have created difficulties for small business, each of these
areas must be carefully considered.
                            3. Inventory Counting Systems



3.1 Types of inventory management

1) Periodic System

This is a physical count of items in inventory is made at periodic intervals (e.g. weekly, monthly)
in order to decide how much to order of each item. Major users: Supermarkets, discounts stores,
and department stores.

Advantage

Orders for many items occur at the same time, which can result in economies in processing and
shipping orders

Disadvantages

 a)     Lack of control between reviews.
 b)     The need to protect against shortages between review periods by carrying extra stock.
 c)     The need to make a decision on order quantities at each review



2) Perpetual Inventory System (also known as a continual system)

This keeps track of removals from inventory on a continuous basis, so the system can provide
information on the current level of inventory for each item.

Advantages

      1. The control provided by the continuous monitoring of inventory withdrawals.
      2. The fixed-order quantity; management can identify an economic order size.
Disadvantage

      1. The added cost of record keeping.
Two-bin-system method

Is two containers of inventory; reorder when the first is empty. The advantage of this system is
that there is no need to record each withdrawal from inventory; the disadvantage is that the
reorder card may not be turned in for a variety of reasons.




Tracking System

Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code printed on a label that has information about the item
to which it is attached. Bar coding represents an important development for other sectors of
business besides retailing. In manufacturing, bar codes attached to parts, subassemblies, and
finished goods greatly facilitate counting and monitoring activities.




Demand Forecast and Lead time Information

Managers need to know the extent to which demand and lead time might vary; the greater the
potential variability, the greater the need for additional stock to reduce the risk of a shortage
between deliveries.



            Lead time is time interval between ordering and receiving the order.




3.2 Inventory Cost (Three Basic Costs)

   1. Holding or Carrying Cost is the costs to carry an item in inventory for a length of time
       usually a year. Cost includes interest, insurance, taxes, depreciation, obsolescence,
       deterioration, spoilage, pilferage, breakage, etc.
2. Ordering Cost is cost of ordering and receiving inventory. These include determining
   how much is needed, preparing invoices, inspecting goods upon arrival for quality and
   quantity, and moving the goods to temporary storage.



3. Storage Cost is cost resulting when demand exceeds the supply of inventory on hand.
   These costs can include the opportunity cost of not making a sale, loss of customer
   goodwill, late charges, and similar costs
                       4. Objectives of inventory management

          The basic managerial objectives of inventory control are two-fold; first, the avoidance
     over-investment or under-investment in inventories; and second, to provide the right quantity
     of standard raw material to the production department at the right time. In brief, the
     objectives of inventory control may be summarized as follows:


A.        Operating Objectives:


     1.   Ensuring Availability of Materials: There should be a continuous availability of all
          types of raw materials in the factory so that the production may not be help up wants of
          any material. A minimum quantity of each material should be held in store to permit
          production to move on schedule.


     2. Avoidance of Abnormal Wastage: There should be minimum possible wastage of
          materials while these are being stored in the go downs or used in the factory by the
          workers. Wastage should be allowed up to a certain level known as normal wastage. To
          avoid any abnormal wastage, strict control over the inventory should be exercised.
          Leakage, theft, embezzlements of raw material and spoilage of material due to rust, bust
          should be avoided.


     3. Promotion of Manufacturing Efficiency: If the right type of raw material is available to
          the manufacturing departments at the right time, their manufacturing efficiency is also
          increased. Their motivation level rises and morale is improved.


     4. Avoidance of Out of Stock Danger: Information about          availability of materials should
          be made continuously available to the management so that they can do planning for
          procurement of raw material. It maintains the inventories at the optimum level keeping in
          view the operational requirements. It also avoids the out of stock danger.
   5. Better Service to Customers: Sufficient stock of finished goods must be maintained to
       match reasonable demand of the customers for prompt execution of their orders.


   6. Designing poorer organization for inventory management: Clear cut accountability
       should be fixed at various levels of organization.




B. Financial Objectives:


   1. Economy in purchasing: A proper inventory control brings certain advantages and
       economies in purchasing also. Every attempt has to make to effect economy in
       purchasing through quantity and taking advantage to favorable markets.


   2. Reasonable Price: While purchasing materials, it is to be seen that right quality of
       material is purchased at reasonably low price. Quality is not to be sacrificed at the cost of
       lower price. The material purchased should be of the quality alone which is needed.


   3. Optimum Investing and Efficient Use of capital: The basic aim of inventory control
       from the financial point of view is the optimum level of investment in inventories. There
       should be no excessive investment in stock, etc


   C. Others objective
       Inventory management help to reduce martial handling costs-accumulating parts between
operations It also helps to utile people and equipment reasonably .secondly it facilitate product
displays and services to customer


 To minimize in total cost associated with stocks.
 These costs can be categorized into three groups
 To ensure smooth flow of stock
 Minimizing risk and uncertainty
 To provide required quality of material
              5. Importance of Inventory Management Systems

?Inventory management is an important part of a business because inventories are usually the
largest expense incurred from business operations. Most companies will use an inventory
management system that will track and maintain the inventory required to meet customer
demand. Most systems used by companies are linked to the management or accounting
information system, increasing the effectiveness of their operations.




Provides the following information

 Price preferences of customers
 Right quarters to buy
 Amount of given item sold
 Seasonal time a given item sells
 Time to engage in promotional activities




5.1 Advantages and disadvantages of inventory management


                    Advantages                                      Disadvantages


      Business                                        Carrying costs
      Guarantees prompt service delivery              Associated risks
      Reinforces profitability – no stock out
       cost
      Enhances customer satisfaction
                     6. Essentials of inventory control system

For an efficient and successful inventory control there are certain important conditions that are a
follows:


(1) Classification and Identification of inventories: The usual inventory of manufacturing
    firm includes raw-material, stores, work-in-progress and component etc. To facilitate prompt
    recording the dealing, each item of the inventory must be assigned a particular code number
    and it must be classified in suitable group or sub-divisions. ABC analysis of material is very
    helpful in this context.
(2) Standardization and simplification of inventories: In order to facilitate inventory control,
    the inventory line should be simplified. It refers to the elimination of excess types and sizes
    of items. Simplification leads to reduction in classification of inventories and its carrying
    costs. Standardization, on the other hand, refers to the fixation of standards of raw material
    to be purchased and specification of the components and tools to be used.


(3) Setting the Maximum and Minimum limits for each part of inventory: The third step in
    this process is to set the maximum and minimum limits of each item of the inventory. It
    avoids the chances of over-investment as well as running a short of any item during the cost
    of producing. Reordering point should also be fixed beforehand.



(4) Economic Order Quantity: It is also a basic inventory problem to determine the quantity as
    how much to order at a time. In determining the EOQ, the problem is one to set a balance
    between two opposite costs, namely, ordering costs and carrying costs. This quantity should
    be fixed beforehand.
(5) Adequate storage Facilities: To make the system of inventory control successful and
   efficient one, it is also essential to provide the adequate storage facilities. Sufficient storage
   area and proper handling facilities should be organized.


(6) Adequate Reports and Records: Inventory control requires the maintenance of adequate
   inventory record and reports. Various inventory records must contain information to meet
   the needs of purchasing, production, sales and financial staff. The typical information
   required about any class of inventory may be relating to quantity on hand, location,
   quantities in transit, unit cost, code for each item of inventory, reorder point, safety level etc.
   Statements forms and inventory records should be so designed that the clerical cost of
   maintaining these records must be kept a minimum.


(7) Intelligent and Experienced Personnel: An important requirement of successful inventory
   control system is the appointment of qualified and experienced staff in purchase and stores
   department. Mere establishment of procedures and the maintenance of records would not
   give the desired results as there is no substitute for sincere and devoted as well as
   experienced hands. Hence, the whole inventory control structure should be manned with
   trained, qualified, experienced and devoted employees.


(8) Coordination: There must be proper coordination of all departments involved in the process
   of inventory control, such as purchase, finance, receiving, approving, storage and accounting
   departments. These all departments have different outlook and objects in inventory
   management but financial manager has to coordinate them all.


(9) Budgeting: An efficient budgeting system is also required. Preparation of budgets
   concerning materials, supplies and equipment to ensure economy in purchasing and use of
   material is also necessary.


(10)   Internal Check: Operating of a system of internal check is also vital in inventory
   management so that all transactions involving material supplies and equipment purchase are
   properly approved and automatically checked.
              7. Financial manager’s role in inventory management

Inventory represents a large investment by manufacturing concern: therefore, great emphasis
must be placed on its efficient management. Though, the operative responsibility for Inventory
management lies with the inventory manager, the financial manager must also be concerned with
all types of inventories- raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods. He must monitor
Inventory levels and see that only an optimum amount is invested in Inventory. He should be
familiar with the Inventory control techniques and ensure that Inventory is managed well.
He should try to resolve the conflicting view points of all the departments in order to have
efficient inventory management. He has to act as a careful inspector levels. He should introduce
the policies which reduce the lead time, regulate usage and thus, minimize safety stock. All these
techniques of Inventory management lead to the goal of wealth maximization.




Keep operations running?


 A manufacturer must have certain purchased items (raw materials, components, or
    subassemblies) in order to manufacture its product. Running out of only one item can
    prevent a manufacturer from completing the production of its finished goods.


 Inventory between successive dependent operations also serves to decouple the dependency
    of the operations. A machine or work center is often dependent upon the previous operation
    to provide it with parts to work on. If work ceases at a work center, then all subsequent
    centers will shut down for lack of work. If a supply of work-in-process inventory is kept
    between each work center, then each machine can maintain its operations for a limited time,
    hopefully until operations resume the original center.
Lead time


 Lead time is the time that elapses between the placing of an order (either a purchase order or
   a production order issued to the shop or the factory floor) and actually receiving the goods
   ordered.
 If a supplier (an external firm or an internal department or plant) cannot supply the required
   goods on demand, then the client firm must keep an inventory of the needed goods. The
   longer the lead time, the larger the quantity of goods the firm must carry in inventory.
 A just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing firm, such as Nissan in Smyrna, Tennessee, can maintain
   extremely low levels of inventory. Nissan takes delivery on truck seats as many as 18 times
   per day. However, steel mills may have a lead time of up to three months. That means that a
   firm that uses steel produced at the mill must place orders at least three months in advance of
   their need. In order to keep their operations running in the meantime, an on-hand inventory
   of three months’ steel requirement would be necessary.


   Hedge


 Inventory can also be used as a hedge against price increases and inflation. Salesmen
   routinely call purchasing agents shortly before a price increase goes into effect. This gives
   the buyer a chance to purchase material, in excess of current need, at a price that is lower
   than it would be if the buyer waited until after the price increase occurs.


   Quantity discount


    Often firms are given a price discount when purchasing large quantities of a good. This
      also frequently results in inventory in excess of what is currently needed to meet demand.
      However, if the discount is sufficient to offset the extra holding cost incurred as a result
      of the excess inventory, the decision to buy the large quantity is justified.
Smoothing requirements


   Sometimes inventory is used to smooth demand requirements in a market where demand
     is somewhat erratic. Consider the demand forecast and production schedule outlined in
     Table 1.
   Notice how the use of inventory has allowed the firm to maintain a steady rate of output
     (thus avoiding the cost of hiring and training new personnel), while building up inventory
     in anticipation of an increase in demand. In fact, this is often called anticipation
     inventory. In essence, the use of inventory has allowed the firm to move demand
     requirements to earlier periods, thus smoothing the demand.




Controlling inventory


   Firms that carry hundreds or even thousands of different part numbers can be faced with
     the impossible task of monitoring the inventory levels of each part number. In order to
     facilitate this, many firm's use an ABC approach. ABC analysis is based on Pareto
     Analysis, also known as the "80/20" rule. The 80/20 comes from Pareto's finding that 20
     percent of the populace possessed 80 percent of the wealth. From an inventory
     perspective it can restated thusly: approximately 20 percent of all inventory items
     represent 80 percent of inventory costs. Therefore, a firm can control 80 percent of its
     inventory costs by monitoring and controlling 20 percent of its inventory. But, it has to be
     the correct 20 percent.


   The top 20 percent of the firm's most costly items are termed "An" items (this should
     approximately represent 80 percent of total inventory costs). Items that are extremely
     inexpensive or have low demand are termed "C" items, with "B" items falling in between
     A and C items. The percentages may vary with each firm, but B items usually represent
     about 30 percent of the total inventory items and 15 percent of the costs. C items
     generally constitute 50 percent of all inventory items but only around 5 percent of the
     costs.
 By classifying each inventory item as an A, B or C the firm can determine the resources
   (time, effort and money) to dedicate to each item. Usually this means that the firm
   monitors A items very closely but can check on B and C items on a periodic basis (for
   example, monthly for B items and quarterly for C items).


 Another control method related to the ABC concept is cycle counting. Cycle counting is
   used instead of the traditional "once-a-year" inventory count where firms shut down for a
   short period of time and physically count all inventory assets in an attempt to reconcile
   any possible discrepancies in their inventory records. When cycle counting is used the
   firm is continually taking a physical count but not of total inventory.


 A firm may physically count a certain section of the plant or warehouse, moving on to
   other sections upon completion, until the entire facility is counted. Then the process starts
   all over again.


 The firm may also choose to count all the A items, then the B items, and finally the C
   items. Certainly, the counting frequency will vary with the classification of each item. In
   other words, an item may be counted monthly, B items quarterly and C items yearly. In
   addition the required accuracy of inventory records may vary according to classification,
   with items requiring the most accurate record keeping.
                               8. Data analysis and methods


8.1 Classification System

An important aspect of inventory management is that items held in inventory are not of equal
importance in terms of dollars invested, profit potential, sales or usage volume, or stock-out
penalties. Example: A producer of electrical equipment might have electric generators, coils of
wire, and miscellaneous nuts and bolts among the items carried in inventory. It would be
unrealistic to devote equal attention to each of these items.

Analysis the inventory handling using the following techniques


    ABC analysis (control mechanism).
    EOQ
    Control levels.


Control Mechanism:


Usually the firm has to maintain several types of inventories. It is not desirable to keep
same degree of control on all items the firm should play maximum attention to these whose is
the highest value. The firm should receive the most effort in controlling. The firm should
beselective in it approach to control inventory handling in various types of inventories
This analytical approach is called the ABC analysis, and tends to measure the significance of
each item ate inventories in terms of its value




   1. A-B-C Approach

A-B-C Approach classifies inventory items according to some measure of importance, usually
annual dollar usage, and then allocates control efforts accordingly.
                        Three Classes of Items Used:

                              A (very important)

                              B (moderately important)

                              C (least important)
The key questions concerning cycle counting for management are:

   1. How much accuracy is needed?
   2. When should cycle counting be performed?
   3. Who should do it?


Rules of implementing ABC techniques:

    Classify the item of inventories.
    Determine the price per unit of each item.
    Find the total cost of each item
    Rank the items in accordance with total costs, allotting first rank to the item with highest
      total cost and so on (i.e. arrange in descending order).
    Find out the total number of items and calculate the percentage of each item.
    Calculate the percentage of Total cost of each item to total cost of all items.


ADVANDAGES:


    Preference for keeping inventory can be placed properly after Preference for keeping
      inventory can be placed properly after ABC analysis


    Store personnel are placed better with this analysis Store personnel are placed better with
      this analysisi.ei.their time can be utilized better


    Storing, handling and delivery of materials to production department become better.
   2. ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY MODELS
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is the order size that minimizes total cost. EOQ models
identify the optimal order quantity in terms of minimizing the sum of certain annual costs that
vary with order size.

Three (3) Order Size

   1. The economic order quantity model.
   2. The economic order quantity model with non instantaneous delivery.
   3. The quantity discount model.


Inventory carrying cost:
 It is the cost of holding the materials in the store and includes:


        Cost of storage space which could have been utilized for some other purpose.
        Cost of bins and racks that have to be provided for the storage of materials.
        Cost of maintaining the materials to avoid deterioration.
        Amount of interest payable on the money locked up in the materials.
        Cost of spoilage in stores and handling.
        Transportation costs in relation to stock.
        Cost of obsolescence on account of some of the materials becomingobsolete after
           some time of storage either due to change in the process or product.
        Insurance cost.
        Clerical cost etc.


   Ordering cost:


   It is the cost of placing orders for the purchase of materials and includes:
   1) Cost of staff posted in the purchasing department, inspection section and payment
   department.
   2) Cost of stationery, postage and telephone charges
   3. Stock levels


Reorder level:


Re-order level is the level of inventory at which the firm should place an order to replenish
the inventory. In case, the order is placed at this level, the new goods will arrive before the
runs out of goods to sell. In order to determine reorder level, information is required about
two things.
(a) The lead time and
(b) The usage rate. The term lead time refers to the time normally taken in receiving the
delivery of inventory after the order has been placed in case there is no uncertainty about the
usage rate and the lead time, the order level cans be determined by simply applying the
formula.


Re-order level = Average usage X lead time + safety stock. Safety stock level:


The actual usage as well as the lead time may be different from the normal usage or the
normal lead time. In order to guard against such a contingency the firm maintains a safety
stock the minimum buffer stock as a cushion against possible increase in usage or delay in
delivery time. The level of safety stock can be calculated by applying the following formula.


Safety stock = Average usage X period of safety stock. Maximum inventory:


It is the quantity of materials beyond which a firm should not exceed its stocks. If the
quantity exceeds maximum level limit then it will be over-stocking. A firm should avoid
over-stocking because it will result in high material costs. Over-stocking will mean blocking
of more working capital, more space for storing the materials, more wastage of materials,
and more chances of losses from obsolescence. This can be calculated by using the
following formula.


Maximum inventory = Economic Order Quantity + safety stock
                                       9. Conclusion



       To sum up, we can say Inventory management is an essential part of any organization.
Every essential is a part of any organization. Every organization has manly two objective one
disorganizations have manly two objectives one is Profit maximization &another is wealth Profit
maximization &another is wealth maximization. Inventory management helps the maximization.
Inventory management helps the organization to achieve its objectives. Inventory management
can use techniques like TQM, JIT& ABC etc. to have an effective control on its& ABC etc. to
have an effective control on its inventory.
               10. Practical examples of Pakistani companies

Inventory management survey

   We targeted and conduct survey from two different type of organization which uses
inventory management system efficiently. The names of those organizations are as followed.

    Matro cash & carry

    Unimark pharmaceutical




   1. Matro cash and carry

METRO Cash & Carry announced its operations in Pakistan in January 2006 & since then it has
established itself as a potential market leader in self service wholesale. Under the supervision
of Giovanni Soranzo, Managing Director, METRO Cash & Carry Pakistan has opened its
first wholesale centre in Lahore in October 2007. METRO Cash & Carry Pakistan is now
successfully operating 5 wholesale centers, 2 in Lahore, 1 in Karachi, 1 in Faisalabad & 1 in
Islamabad. The company’s country head office is based in Lahore at Thokar Niaz Baig near
motorway. The current Head count of employees is approx 1176 including Head Office & 5
wholesale centres.METRO Cash & Carry plans to invest in Pakistan on a sustained and reliable
basis in the years to come.

        SKU Inventories (Scanned or Key Entered)

Metro Inventory Service can scan your readable bar-code, or key enter the information to
provide you with a file detailing all of the information you need in reconciling your
inventory.The file will be in ASCII format defined to your specifications.
         Financial Retail Inventories

Metro Inventory Service can inventory your entire retail store providing you with both a retail by
location physical inventory and a retail by department inventory. We complete a set up prior to
your first inventory in which we break down your retail store into small easily identifiable
locations. Departments are isolated within all locations. Upon completion of the inventory,
Metro Inventory Service can provide management with a complete detailed printout of the
physical inventory




         Financial Cost Inventories

Metro Inventory Service can provide management with a complete financial cost inventory
where product is cost-coded or has a readable bar code.




     Fixed Asset Inventories

Metro Inventory Service can provide management with a detailed fixed asset inventory showing
a complete description of the asset and its current location. We can help you set up your system
to establish control over your fixed assets. Included in this service (where requested), we can
identify your assets with labels.
   2. Unimark pharmaceutical inventory system

   It started in 1983 and it vision is “To be a global Life sciences company through innovation,
cost leadership, optimizing economic value creation for share holders”

    Point of Sales

POS an inventory system in which the item is deducted from inventory as it is sold or dispensed

    Reorder Points

Minimum and maximum stock levels which determine when a reorder is placed and for how
much

    Computers and Inventory

          Automatically adjust inventory

          Continuous picture of the inventory

          Generate orders

               Automatic

               Manual

          Only as accurate as the information entered




    Receiving the Order

          Checking in the Order Compare the invoice with products

          Right drug, strength, size, quantity, in date?

          Pharmacist will check in controlled drugs

          Report any discrepancies

								
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