Elements of Civilization
• It produces more certain income than
• It requires permanent settlements.
• It leads to the ideas of inheritance, family,
• It enables continuity in history, becomes a
cornerstone of civilization.
• Agricultural intensification leads to excess
• Some people trade the excess for other
goods and services.
• Creates division among people – some get
a good deal others don’t.
Division of Labour
• Some people who don’t own land and are not
involved in food production and distribution find
other ways to receive income.
• Some products become valued more than others
based on demand and supply.
• Some occupations become considered more
important than others – creates division and
• As a result of the existence of private property,
trade and occupational specialization society
divides into upper middle and lower classes.
• The basic relation between the classes is the
production and distribution of goods and
services. The basic principle is – the upper
classes work less and receive more and the lower
classes work more and receive less.
• Sometimes this leads to conflicts between them.
• It’s purpose is to resolve conflicts between the
classes and create rules that benefit society as a
• Sometimes it sides with the upper classes and
• When the government is unable to maintain the
balance between classes it is overthrown and
replaced by a different one.
State Religion / Ideology
• It provides legitimacy for the Government.
• Creates a social class of it’s own.
• Sometimes involved in power sharing or
power struggles with the central
• Theocracy – combined secular and
religious powers in the hands of one ruler /
Writing and Science
• They are a product of the division of labour
• Adds to the permanency of Civilization –
enables the keeping of records.
• Science enables the continuous division of
labour in society.
• Scientific discoveries bring change to