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Elements of Civilization - PowerPoint

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					Elements of Civilization
               Agriculture
• It produces more certain income than
  hunting/gathering.
• It requires permanent settlements.
• It leads to the ideas of inheritance, family,
  private property.
• It enables continuity in history, becomes a
  cornerstone of civilization.
                   Trade
• Agricultural intensification leads to excess
  produce.
• Some people trade the excess for other
  goods and services.
• Creates division among people – some get
  a good deal others don’t.
          Division of Labour
• Some people who don’t own land and are not
  involved in food production and distribution find
  other ways to receive income.
• Some products become valued more than others
  based on demand and supply.
• Some occupations become considered more
  important than others – creates division and
  diversifies society.
              Class Structure
• As a result of the existence of private property,
  trade and occupational specialization society
  divides into upper middle and lower classes.
• The basic relation between the classes is the
  production and distribution of goods and
  services. The basic principle is – the upper
  classes work less and receive more and the lower
  classes work more and receive less.
• Sometimes this leads to conflicts between them.
       Centralized Government
• It’s purpose is to resolve conflicts between the
  classes and create rules that benefit society as a
  whole.
• Sometimes it sides with the upper classes and
  becomes corrupt.
• When the government is unable to maintain the
  balance between classes it is overthrown and
  replaced by a different one.
     State Religion / Ideology
• It provides legitimacy for the Government.
• Creates a social class of it’s own.
• Sometimes involved in power sharing or
  power struggles with the central
  government.
• Theocracy – combined secular and
  religious powers in the hands of one ruler /
  one government.
        Writing and Science
• They are a product of the division of labour
• Adds to the permanency of Civilization –
  enables the keeping of records.
• Science enables the continuous division of
  labour in society.
• Scientific discoveries bring change to
  society.

				
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