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Elements of Civilization Agriculture • It produces more certain income than hunting/gathering. • It requires permanent settlements. • It leads to the ideas of inheritance, family, private property. • It enables continuity in history, becomes a cornerstone of civilization. Trade • Agricultural intensification leads to excess produce. • Some people trade the excess for other goods and services. • Creates division among people – some get a good deal others don’t. Division of Labour • Some people who don’t own land and are not involved in food production and distribution find other ways to receive income. • Some products become valued more than others based on demand and supply. • Some occupations become considered more important than others – creates division and diversifies society. Class Structure • As a result of the existence of private property, trade and occupational specialization society divides into upper middle and lower classes. • The basic relation between the classes is the production and distribution of goods and services. The basic principle is – the upper classes work less and receive more and the lower classes work more and receive less. • Sometimes this leads to conflicts between them. Centralized Government • It’s purpose is to resolve conflicts between the classes and create rules that benefit society as a whole. • Sometimes it sides with the upper classes and becomes corrupt. • When the government is unable to maintain the balance between classes it is overthrown and replaced by a different one. State Religion / Ideology • It provides legitimacy for the Government. • Creates a social class of it’s own. • Sometimes involved in power sharing or power struggles with the central government. • Theocracy – combined secular and religious powers in the hands of one ruler / one government. Writing and Science • They are a product of the division of labour • Adds to the permanency of Civilization – enables the keeping of records. • Science enables the continuous division of labour in society. • Scientific discoveries bring change to society.
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