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Educational Objectives - PowerPoint

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					Educational
Objectives
    Mager's Theory of
   Behavioral Objectives
A behavioral objective should have three components:
• Behavior. The behavior should be specific and
  observable.
• Condition. The conditions under which the behavior is to
  be completed should be stated, including what tools or
  assistance is to be provided.
• Standard. The level of performance that is desirable
  should be stated, including an acceptable range of
  answers that are allowable as correct.
• Given a stethoscope and normal clinical
 environment, the medical student will be
 able to diagnose a heart arrhythmia in
 90% of effected patients.
• This example describes the observable
  behavior (identifying the arrhythmia),
  the conditions (given a stethoscope and a
  normal clinical environment), and the
  standard (90% accuracy).
• Bloom's Taxonomy divides
  educational objectives into three
  "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor,
  and Cognitive.. A goal of Bloom's
  Taxonomy is to motivate educators
  to focus on all three domains,
  creating a more holistic form of
  education.
1. Affective
• Skills in the affective domain describe
  the way people react emotionally and
  their ability to feel another living
  thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives
  typically target the awareness and
  growth in attitudes, emotion, and
  feelings.
• There are five levels in the affective domain
  moving through the lowest order processes to
  the highest:
• 1. Receiving
    The lowest level; the student passively pays
  attention. Without this level no learning can
  occur.
• 11.Responding
     The student actively participates in the
  learning process, not only attends to a
  stimulus; the student also reacts in some way.
• 111. Valuing
• The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon,
  or piece of information.
• 1V.Organizing
• The student can put together different values,
  information, and ideas and accommodate them within
  his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating
  on what has been learned.
• V. Characterizing
• The student holds a particular value or belief that now
  exerts influence on his/her behavior so that it becomes
  a characteristic.
• Psychomotor
• Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to
  physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or
  a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on
  change and/or development in behavior and/or skills.
• Patterns of action or behavior
• Performing pattern of action
• Experimenting patterns of action
• Practice the action
• Imitates the action
• Reacting
• Communication
• Cognitive
• Skills in the cognitive domain revolve
  around knowledge, comprehension, and
  "thinking through" a particular topic.
  Traditional education tends to emphasize
  the skills in this domain, particularly the
  lower-order objectives.
• Knowledge
• Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by
  recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers
• Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts
• Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics -
  conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and
  categories, criteria, methodology
• Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field -
  principles and generalizations, theories and structures
• Questions like: What is...?
• Comprehension
• Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas
  by organizing, comparing, translating,
  interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating
  main ideas
• Translation
• Interpretation
• Extrapolation
• Questions like: How would you compare and
  contrast...?
• Application
• Using new knowledge. Solve problems to
  new situations by applying acquired
  knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in
  a different way
• Questions like: Can you organize to ---
  show...?
• Analysis
• Examine and break information into parts by
  identifying motives or causes. Make inferences
  and find evidence to support generalizations
• Analysis of elements
• Analysis of relationships
• Analysis of organizational principles
• Questions like: How would you classify...?
• Synthesis
• Compile information together in a different way
  by combining elements in a new pattern or
  proposing alternative solutions
• Production of a unique communication
• Production of a plan, or proposed set of
  operations
• Derivation of a set of abstract relations
• Questions like: Can you predict an outcome?
• Evaluation
• Present and defend opinions by making
  judgments about information, validity of
  ideas or quality of work based on a set
  of criteria
• Judgments in terms of internal evidence
• Judgments in terms of external criteria
• Questions like: Do you agree with.....?
  Learning Objectives:
   Stems and Samples
• Generally, learning objectives are
  written in terms of learning
  outcomes: What do you want your
  students to learn as a result of the
  lesson? Follow the three-step
  process below for creating learning
  objectives.
• 1. Create a stem. Stem Examples:
• After completing the lesson, the student
  will be able to . . .
  After this unit, the student will have . .
  .
  By completing the activities, the student
  will . . .
  At the conclusion of the
  course/unit/study the student will . . .
• 2. After you create the stem, add
  a verb:
• analyze, recognize, compare,
  provide, list, etc.
• 3. One you have a stem and a verb, determine
  the actual product, process, or outcome:
• After completing these lesson, the student will
  be able to recognize foreshadowing in various
  works of literature.
• Below you will find numerous examples of
  learning objectives used by teachers. Modify
  them as necessary.
Social Studies Examples
• After completing the lesson, the student will
  be able to:
• Place events in chronological order and describe
  how . . .
• Create a timeline of events . . .
• Record his or her knowledge using pictures . . .
• Connect his or her own experiences with . .

				
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