Educational Objectives Mager's Theory of Behavioral Objectives A behavioral objective should have three components: • Behavior. The behavior should be specific and observable. • Condition. The conditions under which the behavior is to be completed should be stated, including what tools or assistance is to be provided. • Standard. The level of performance that is desirable should be stated, including an acceptable range of answers that are allowable as correct. • Given a stethoscope and normal clinical environment, the medical student will be able to diagnose a heart arrhythmia in 90% of effected patients. • This example describes the observable behavior (identifying the arrhythmia), the conditions (given a stethoscope and a normal clinical environment), and the standard (90% accuracy). • Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive.. A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education. 1. Affective • Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings. • There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: • 1. Receiving The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur. • 11.Responding The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way. • 111. Valuing • The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information. • 1V.Organizing • The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned. • V. Characterizing • The student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behavior so that it becomes a characteristic. • Psychomotor • Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills. • Patterns of action or behavior • Performing pattern of action • Experimenting patterns of action • Practice the action • Imitates the action • Reacting • Communication • Cognitive • Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and "thinking through" a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives. • Knowledge • Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers • Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts • Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology • Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and generalizations, theories and structures • Questions like: What is...? • Comprehension • Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas • Translation • Interpretation • Extrapolation • Questions like: How would you compare and contrast...? • Application • Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way • Questions like: Can you organize to --- show...? • Analysis • Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations • Analysis of elements • Analysis of relationships • Analysis of organizational principles • Questions like: How would you classify...? • Synthesis • Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions • Production of a unique communication • Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations • Derivation of a set of abstract relations • Questions like: Can you predict an outcome? • Evaluation • Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria • Judgments in terms of internal evidence • Judgments in terms of external criteria • Questions like: Do you agree with.....? Learning Objectives: Stems and Samples • Generally, learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes: What do you want your students to learn as a result of the lesson? Follow the three-step process below for creating learning objectives. • 1. Create a stem. Stem Examples: • After completing the lesson, the student will be able to . . . After this unit, the student will have . . . By completing the activities, the student will . . . At the conclusion of the course/unit/study the student will . . . • 2. After you create the stem, add a verb: • analyze, recognize, compare, provide, list, etc. • 3. One you have a stem and a verb, determine the actual product, process, or outcome: • After completing these lesson, the student will be able to recognize foreshadowing in various works of literature. • Below you will find numerous examples of learning objectives used by teachers. Modify them as necessary. Social Studies Examples • After completing the lesson, the student will be able to: • Place events in chronological order and describe how . . . • Create a timeline of events . . . • Record his or her knowledge using pictures . . . • Connect his or her own experiences with . .
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