Docstoc

Living without kin the rise in non family London School of

Document Sample
Living without kin the rise in non family London School of Powered By Docstoc
					         ESRC Grant number RES-625-28-0001


 Draft presentation. Not for citation without
             author's permission
Living without kin: the rise in non-family living
        among young adults in the UK
Juliet Stone, Ann Berrington, Emma Calvert and Sue Heath
ESRC Centre for Population Change
University of Southampton

         European living arrangements workshop, London School of Economics
                                                      18th December, 2009

                                                                             1
Background to the project (1)

• ESRC Centre for Population Change
• 4 strands:
  1. Household dynamics and living
    arrangements across the life course
  2. Dynamics of fertility
  3. The demographic and socio-economic
    implications of national and transnational
    migration
  4. Modelling population change

                                                 2
Strand 1: Household dynamics and
living arrangements across life course
• The living arrangements of young adults
  • Leaving and returning home
  • Non-family living
• Research Methods – mixed methods (?)
  • Quantitative analysis of secondary data
     • Cross-sectional data from LFS, EHCS
     • Longitudinal data from BHPS
  • Qualitative interviews of young adults
     • 40 qualitative interviews young people aged 25-34
     • Those who have left home and are living outside of a family
       in the Southampton area



                                                                     3
Format of this presentation

• Theoretical background
  – How to research non-family living?


• Quantitative strategy
  – Results


• Qualitative strategy

                                         4
Theoretical background

• Transition to adulthood
  – extended and individualised
  – Britain
     • Early home leaving compared to many other
       European countries
     • Social polarisation of transition experiences
     • Emerging adulthood – a new phase of the life
       course for more advantaged? (Arnett, 2000;
       Bynner, 2005)



                                                       5
Typology of living arrangements


                      Living in a new family
                      (with partner and/or
                      children)


        Living with
        parent (s)

                      Living alone




                      Living with others
                      - kin
                      - non-kin




                                               6
Some Issues in defining and
researching non-family living
•   Physical identification of those living alone versus
    those sharing
•   Bedsit………………..shared private………joint mortgage


•   Relationships beyond the household e.g. as offspring,
    partner or parent

•   Transitional nature – routes into and out of status.

•   We can no longer assume that people occupy a single
    status anyway e.g. spending some time at girlfriend’s
    house…

                                                            7
Quantitative Research questions

•   How has the overall prevalence of non-family
    living changed over the past decade among
    young adults?

•   To what extent are trends in the prevalence of
    non-family living being driven by changes in
    the composition of the population resulting
    from migration?

•   Is non-family living associated with previous
    experience of higher education?

                                                     8
Data

• UK Labour Force Survey (ONS)
    – 1998 and 2008 (Quarterly household datasets)

• Provides detailed information on household composition
  and family units within the household

• “A household comprises of a single person, or a group
  of people living at the same address who have the
  address as their only or main home. They also share one
  main meal a day or share the living accommodation (or
  both).” Source: LFS User Guide, Volume 8. (Office for National Statistics, 2008)

                                                                                 9
Overall trend in non-family living

        Percentage of men and women living outside a family by
                    age group: UK 1998 and 2008

 35
 30
 25
 20                                                                 1998
                                                                    2008
 15
 10
  5
  0
      20-21   22-24 25-29   30-34    20-21   22-24    25-29 30-34
                 MEN                                 WOMEN




                                                                           10
Types of non-family living

                                 Distribution of types of non-family living among young men living
                                         outside a family in 1998 versus 2008, by age group

                            80            25-29 years                                 30-34 years
                            70
    Percentage (weighted)




                            60
                            50
                            40
                            30
                            20
                            10
                             0
                                 Living     Sharing     Sharing             Living    Sharing     Sharing
                                 alone        with      with non-           alone       with      with non-
                                           relative(s) relative(s)                   relative(s) relative(s)

                                                           Living arrangements               1998     2008


                                                                                                               11
Impact of migration

        Percentage of men living outside a family by age group
                and country of birth: UK 1998 and 2008

   50
   45
   40
   35
   30                                                            1998
   25                                                            2008
   20
   15
   10
    5
    0
        25-29      30-34                  25-29      30-34
          BORN IN UK                     BORN OUTSIDE UK



                                                                        12
Educational attainment

                                Percentage of young men (25-34 years) living outside
                                      a family in 2008, by highest qualification
                                                    (UK-born only)

                           35
   Percentage (weighted)




                           30
                           25
                           20
                           15
                           10
                            5
                            0
                                  Degree        A Levels         Other           None
                                                /GCSEs

                                             Highest educational qualification

                                                                                        13
Types of living arrangements:
men aged 25-34 years
                            Distribution of types of non-family living among young men
                              (25-34 years) living outside a family in 2008, by highest
                                              qualification (UK-born only)


                         100%
 Percentage (weighted)




                         80%

                         60%

                         40%

                         20%

                          0%
                                   Degree       A Levels /GCSEs            Other              None


                                 Living alone   Sharing with relative(s)   Sharing with non-relative(s)


                                                                                                          14
Some findings from quantitative work
 There has been an increase in prevalence of non-family living
  for UK men (but not for women) over past decade
 Sharing with non-relatives has become a bigger component of
  this trend
 This is partly being driven by immigration e.g. of young A8
  migrants
 Among UK-born men aged 25-34, those who have experienced
  higher education are more likely to be living outside of a family
  and are more likely to be sharing with unrelated individuals
  compared with those with lower educational qualifications.
 However, shared living is not confined to those who have
  experienced higher education
 Even with a large survey such as LFS – numbers become too
  small to answer certain questions…….
 ………………………………………………………….Qualitative work
                                                                  15
Mixed Methods Research (MMR)


• Mixed methods research grown in popularity (dedicated Journal of
  Mixed Methods Research).
• Many typologies, many inconsistencies.
• Tashakori and Teddlie (2003)
   – Multiple method designs:
       • Multimethod - QUAN/QUAN or QUAL/QUAL
       • Mixed methods research - QUAL/QUAN or QUAN/QUAL


   – “A major advantage of mixed methods research is that it enables the
     researcher to simultaneously answer confirmatory and exploratory
     questions, and therefore verify and generate theory in the same study.”
     (p.15).


                                                                           16
MMR Known Issues


   • “Paradigm wars”.


   • Criticisms as to integration (e.g. Bryman, 2007).


   •   “Research findings can converge, which can be seen as an indicator
       of their validity; secondly, they can generate new comprehension of
       the phenomenon by forming complementary parts of a jigsaw puzzle,
       or thirdly, they can produce unexplainable divergence leading to a
       falsification of previous theoretical assumptions”
       Erzberger and Prein (1997).




                                                                        17
Qualitative Approach


• The qualitative approach is able to explore issues where
  secondary data analysis is limited.

• Living arrangements research project - “semi” sequential.

• First phase of quantitative research generates questions and
  provides context for qualitative approach.

• Not uni-directional.




                                                                 18
Context


• Coles (1995): identified three interlinked transitions:

   – Housing transitions
   – Employment transitions
   – Domestic transitions

• This project builds on previous research on young people,
  e.g., ESRC Youth Citizenship and Social Change (Ford et al.,
  2002), ESRC Young Adults & Shared Housing Living project
  (Heath & Cleaver, 2003).

• Changed economic environment.

                                                             19
Aims and Objectives


• The qualitative phase aims to explore:
   – the implications of these shifts for young people’s intimate
     relationships with friends, partners, parents and other family
     members.
   – the degree to which new patterns of intergenerational transfers
     of resources might also attend these demographic shifts.
   – the interactions between the housing and household pathways.
   – imagined futures in relation to household/family formation.
   – the strategies adopted in relation to their housing needs and
     desires.

                                                                       20
Key Research Questions


• Key research questions include:

   – young people’s perceptions and first hand experiences of the
     changing nature of household formation and housing market
     entry.

   – the perceived opportunities and constraints linked to these
     changes.

   – their dependence on, and availability of, resources provided by
     peers and family members




                                                                       21
The Sample


• Sample parameters:
   – 40 young adults, 25 - 34 yrs old living in/around the city of
     Southampton.
   – currently living outside of the parental home and do not currently have a
     resident partner (but may have a non-resident partner).



• Purposive sampling:
   –   current living arrangements - living alone/shared accommodation.
   –   housing tenure - private rented housing/social housing/owner occupied.
   –   level of qualification - graduate/non-graduate.
   –   sexual orientation – heterosexual/gay/lesbian/bisexual.
   –   geographical location – urban/rural/semi-rural.


                                                                            22
Next Steps

• Sample recruitment:

   – In development – possible mechanisms include local estate
     agents/employers/housing developments/internet.

• Research method & analysis:

   – Semi-structured interviews.
   – Recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo 8.

• Time-line:

   – November 2009 – November 2010.



                                                                 23
Acknowledgements

This research is funded by ESRC Grant number RES-625-28-
0001. The Centre for Population Change is a joint initiative
between the University of Southampton and a consortium of
Scottish Universities in partnership with ONS and GROS. The
findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper
are entirely those of the authors and should not be attributed in
any manner to ONS or GROS.

 The Labour Force Survey is conducted by the Office for National
 Statistics and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research
 Agency. Access to the data is provided by the UK Data Archive.




                                                                     24
                                    2008 LFS Winter quarter
Sampling frame                      Target population: All persons resident in private households or NHS accommodation in the UK.
                                          Includes students living in halls of residence as members of non-term-time private household
                                          (usually parental household).
                                    Private households in Great Britain: Postcode Address File (small users subfile).
                                    NB. Due to sparse population north of the Caledonian Canal, a random sample was drawn from the
                                          published telephone directory.
                                    Residents in NHS accommodation: All district health authorities and NHS trusts were asked to
                                          supply a complete list of their accommodation.
                                    Northern Ireland: Valuation List (used for ratings purposes).




Sampling strategy /Stratification   For GB south of the Caledonian Canal: Single stage sample of addresses with random start and
                                           constant interval. Addresses are sorted by postcode, so effectively, the sample is stratified
                                           geographically.
                                    North of Caledonian Canal: Single stage sample with random start and constant interval.
                                           Participants approached initially by telephone.
                                    Northern Ireland: Valuation list is organised into three geographical strata.
                                    1. Belfast District Council area,
                                    2. Eastern sub-region (most of Antrim, Down and part of Armagh),
                                    3. Western sub-region (remainder of Northern Ireland).
                                    Within each stratum rateable units are selected at random without substitution, to obtain the 650
                                    'new' addresses entering the panel each quarter.




Weights                             Yes – household weight PHHWT07


                                                                                                                                       25

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:7/11/2012
language:
pages:25