Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
RURAL CAPACITY BUILDING PROJECT
RCBP GENDER MAINSTREAMING GUIDELINE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS .........................................................................................II
LIST OF ACRONYMS .......................................................................................... IV
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ......................................................................................... V
I. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. 1
2. BACKGROUND .................................................................................................. 1
2.1 Overview of Gender Issues in Rural Ethiopia .................................................................... 1
2.2 HIV/AIDS and Gender ....................................................................................................... 2
2.3 Environment and Gender .................................................................................................... 3
2.4 Policy Framework ............................................................................................................... 3
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINE.................................................................. 4
4. SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINE ............................................................................. 4
5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................... 4
6. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF RCBP.................................................................... 7
7. GENDER MAINSTREAMING GUIDELINES .................................................. 7
7.1 Agriculture TVET Component ........................................................................................... 7
7.1.1 Guiding Principles for ATVET .................................................................................... 8
7.1.2 Gender Issues in ATVET ............................................................................................. 8
7.1.3 Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming......................................................................... 9
7.1.4 Indicators.................................................................................................................... 10
7.2 Agricultural Extension Component .................................................................................. 11
7.2.1 Guiding Principles for Agriculture Extension ........................................................... 11
7.2.2 Gender Issues in Agricultural Extension. .................................................................. 11
7.2.3 Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming....................................................................... 12
6.2.4 Indicators.................................................................................................................... 15
7.3 Research Component ........................................................................................................ 15
7.3.1 Guiding Principles for Agriculture Research ............................................................. 16
7.3.2 Gender Issues in Agricultural Research ..................................................................... 16
7.3.3 Guidelines for gender mainstreaming ........................................................................ 17
7.3.4 Indicators.................................................................................................................... 18
7.4 ICS Component ................................................................................................................. 18
7.4.1 Gender issues in ICS .................................................................................................. 18
7.4.2 Guideline for Gender Mainstreaming ........................................................................ 19
8. FINANCIAL RESOURCES............................................................................... 19
9. TOOLS FOR GENDER ANALYSIS ................................................................. 19
9.1 Gender Analysis Framework ............................................................................................ 19
9.2 Gender Sensitive Project Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation ...................................... 22
9.2.1 Situation Analysis and Gender Sensitive Data Collection ......................................... 22
9.2.2 Gender Sensitive Planning ......................................................................................... 23
9.2.3 Gender-Sensitive Monitoring and Evaluation ........................................................... 25
ANNEXES ............................................................................................................. 29
Box 1: Examples of Practical and Strategic gender needs……………………………………24
Box 2: Some examples of Gender Indicators…………………………………………………30
Box 3. Some Examples of Women Indicators……………………………………………...…30
LIST OF ACRONYMS
ADB African Development Bank
ATVET Agriculture Technical Vocational Education and Training
ARTP Agriculture Research and Training Project
ARF Agricultural Research Fund
ASDF Agricultural Service Development Fund
ASSP Agriculture Sector Support Project
BoARD Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development
CEDAW Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CSA Central Statistics Authority
DA Development Agent
DIG Development Innovation Grant
EOO Equal Opportunity Officer
EIAR Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
FASF Farmers Advisory Service Fund
FREG Farmers Research Extension Group
EWLA Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association
FTC Farmer Training Centre
FHH Female Household Head
GoE Government of Ethiopia
GES Gender Equality Specialist
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HTP Harmful Traditional Practice
ICS Information Communication System
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation
MDG Millennium Development Goal
MoARD Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
MoE Ministry of Education
MHH Male Household Head
NARS National Agricultural Research System
NARF National Agricultural Research Fund
NAP-GE National Action Plan of Gender Equality
NGO Non-Government Organization
NSP National Strategic Plan
PASDEP Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty
PMU Project Management Unit
PSCAP Public Sector Capacity Building Program
RCBP Rural Capacity Building Project
REFAC Research Extension Farmer Advisory Council
SMS Subject Matter Specialist (government expert)
STD Sexually Transmitted Document
TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training
WAD Women's Affairs Department
WAO Women's Affairs Office
The Rural Capacity Building Project would like to acknowledge Ms Shawn Hayes, CIDA
Gender Equality Advisor in Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development who prepared the
first draft of the gender mainstreaming guideline for the project.
The project also thanks W/ro Mulumebet Melaku, MoARD’s Women’s Affairs Department
Head, for her advice and coordination role during the guideline preparation.
We also would like to thank all professionals from Federal MoARD, Regional BoARD, RCBP
focal persons, Regional Extension Professionals, CIDA’s gender Adviser, Mrs Seblewengel
Deneke and other stakeholders for their valuable comments to enrich the document.
The Rural Capacity Building Project (RCBP) was launched to strengthen agricultural services
and systems for improved agricultural productivity, make them more responsive to clients’
needs, and enhance the capacity of producers to become aware of and to adopt economically
viable and environmentally sustainable technologies and practices. This would be achieved
through: modernized ATVET colleges which are more responsive to the changing needs of a
demand-driven and market-driven agricultural sector; building capacity in the agricultural
extension system while piloting new initiatives to introduce demand-driven and participatory
mechanisms; a strengthened agricultural research system with improved institutional and
human capacity to generate and disseminate client-demanded and market-oriented technologies;
development of agricultural market institutions; and the integration of gender equality,
HIV/AIDS and environment issues.1
The project consists of five main components: Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (ATVET); Agricultural Extension; Agricultural Research; Improving Information
and Communication System (ICS) with in Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
(MoARD); and Development of Agricultural Market Institutions.
Throughout the project implementation process and in all project components gender equality
has been considered as one of the essential cross-cutting themes. However, this guideline has
not looked at the Development of Agricultural Market Institutions, since this particular
component has not yet started. This guideline is hoped to assist in the systematic integration of
gender issues in the project and is therefore meant to be used by all stakeholders at all levels.
2.1 Overview of Gender Issues in Rural Ethiopia
Gender equality is a major issue that needs to be considered in any development process. This
means that any development initiative has to engage and ensure that both men and women
contribute and benefit equally from it. How ever, in our country’s case, even though women
have considerable contribution to the development endeavors their efforts are not fully
considered and they are found in disadvantaged positions. This situation thus, forces us to focus
on the needs of women’s and analyze their situation in order to get their concerns and issues
equally considered at every level of the development process.
In Ethiopia, women constitute over half of the total population. In addition to their number, as it
is indicated above the role of women is critical within the household and outside of the
household and in the development context. However, women suffer from socio-cultural
discrimination and have fewer opportunities compared to men for personal growth, education,
employment etc. There is no equity in the distribution of power and decision-making between
men and women at all levels of the government structure and local institutions.
World Bank. Project Appraisal Document for Rural Capacity Building Project (4201--ET) 2006 (page 6)
High illiteracy rates (50% for men and 75% for women)2 limit economic activities to primary
production activities. Low literacy hinders technology transfer and acceptance of new
technologies. The low level of literacy compounded by lack of awareness about family planning
is instrumental in having a large number of dependants, which directly affects the quantity and
quality of food which at certain times of the year translates to one meal per day.
In addition to the above mentioned constraints women, including girls has been subjected to
rape, abduction, early marriage and other forms of harmful practices. Women are more
vulnerable to STDs including HIV/AIDS infection, due to biological, socio-cultural, and
economic factors. All these factors aggravates their situation and makes them more vulnerable
than their male counterpart.
2.2 HIV/AIDS and Gender
HIV/AIDS has become the scourge of Sub-Saharan countries ever since the virus has been
identified as a top leading lethal disease of human population of the world. Ethiopia has the
third largest number of HIV/AIDS infected, next to India and South Africa. The majority of the
infected are in the age group of 15-34, with female forming a majority. Relatively the number
of rural population affected by HIV/AIDS is also high which in turn affects the agricultural
production. Hence, HIV/AIDS become a challenge to the pursuit of food security particularly at
household level as it reduces the productive forces.
However, HIV/AIDS not only is likely to have a crippling effect on food availability in
households, it also means that the primary child care-givers, and care-givers of other HIV ill
persons will be affected. Women in most Ethiopian societies bear the burden of care for
dependents and most likely to be infected. In addition, other social and economic factors are
contributes highly to the prevalence of HIV/AIDS while the biological factors are thought to
lead to higher viral transmission rates to young women.3
HIV/AIDS Impact in Agriculture
As a result of high prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS agricultural production is adversely affected
besides the fact that the economy is largely based on agriculture. Hence, HIV/AIDS become a
challenge to the pursuit of food security in the country as it reduces the productive population.
Declining in crop yields and in the types of crops grown;
Switching to less labour intensive crops with a focus on consumption and that leads to
further decline in household income from farming
Declining in the nutritional and health status of smallholders and their families
Increasing vulnerability of rural women to HIV/AIDS (which increases further if the
household head dies)
Interruption of the transfer of local knowledge and skills from one generation to the next
Nelson KE, WIlliams CM, Graham, NHM Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice, 2000, Aspen Publ.
2.3 Environment and Gender
Women are the most affected segment of the society due to environmental degradation because
of their gender roles in the society. Hence environmental issues have to be addressed in the
process of gender mainstreaming.
Women play significant roles in environmental management and household maintenance and
sustenance, being responsible for food production and processing, cooking, fetching water,
collecting fuel wood, etc,. Their indigenous knowledge contributes to the conservation of bio-
diversity particularly preserving medicinal plants and protecting the environment.
However, the poverty level of the country forced particularly the rural women to depend up on
natural resources for their subsistence and they negatively affect the environment. For example
fuel-wood shortage means that women have to travel farther away from their homes to collect
fuel wood, low water level means that women have to travel long distance to fetch water etc. So
looking at the close linkages between gender relations and the environment is essential.
2.4 Policy Framework
The Government of Ethiopia made efforts to reduce the gender disparity and bring about gender
equality between men and women. Ethiopian women, as women in many countries in the
world, are in disadvantaged positions and are vulnerable to various forms of discrimination and
violence. Recognizing the disadvantaged position of women in the country, the Government of
Ethiopia (GoE) has put in place policies and initiatives to promote women’s empowerment.
To this end, Ethiopia ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women (CEDAW) in 1981 and has pledged commitment to promote gender
mainstreaming in all policies and programs through the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform
for Action. The government also produced the National Policy on Women (1993) aimed at
institutionalizing the political, economic and social rights of women by creating an appropriate
structure in government offices and institutions.
It also provides for, under the Civil Service Proclamation of January 2002, equality of
employment, salary, promotion, performance evaluation, training, leave and disciplinary
measures. Under the employment section, it states that no discrimination shall be made on the
basis of ethnic origin, sex, religion, political affiliation or other grounds. In addition to this, the
proclamation clearly stipulates that in the employment process, preference will be given to the
female candidate if they have the qualifications required for the position.
A National Action Plan for Gender Equality (NAP-GE-2006) has been produced as an integral
part of PASDEP. The goal of the NAP-GE is to assist women to achieve gender equality
through active and empowered participation in all development programs.4 It also works
towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Hareq Consult PLC. National Action Plan for Gender Equality, GoE, 2005.
The MDGs is another instrument that Ethiopia ratified with the aim of reducing poverty,
promoting universal elementary education completion for all children, both boys and girls, and
elimination of the gender gaps at all levels of education, by the year 2015. MDG Goal number
three is specifically designated to “promote gender equality and empower women”. The 2004
MDG Report for Ethiopia states that gender disparity could be reduced if it focuses on women
in rural areas, particularly on issues of equal access to basic assets such as land and livestock.
In spite of the existence of some gender sensitive legislation, polices and directives,
implementation has been challenging due to variations in regional contexts, limited capacities,
lack of political will, paucity of sex-disaggregated data, high illiteracy rate, deep-rooted cultural
beliefs and practices and lack of resources.5
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINE
o Assist project implementers to identify gender gaps, particularly in ATVET,
extension and research,;
o Give directions to implementers in identifying mechanisms to address and equally
consider the concerns of women and men in a given component.
4. SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINE
The RCBP Gender Mainstreaming Guideline, in addition to assisting in identifying gender
equality mainstreaming issues, it will look at environment and HIV/AIDS as cross cutting
themes. The Guideline is intended for use by all stakeholders – decision-makers, implementers,
and field workers – involved in the RCBP. It is meant to assist implementers ensure that women
and men participate, contribute, benefit equitably and that both women’s and men’s efforts and
knowledge are recognized and technologically supported.
5. Conceptual Framework
Definition of Terms and Concepts
Sex: describes the biological differences between men and women.
Gender: describes the socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men – what
males and females do, what they are responsible for, and how they are expected to
behave. These roles, responsibilities and expectations vary according to cultural,
religious, historical and economic factors. Gender is a learned behavior, which changes
over time, and differs both within and between cultures.
Gender role: It refers to determined patterns of behavior in terms of rights, duties, obligations
and responsibilities assigned to females and males in a given society. It differs from one
society to another, from place to place and over time.
Gender Relations: This refers to the socially-constructed relation between women and men
who are shaped and sectioned by the norms and values held by members of a given
Productive role: It refers to tasks that are done by women and men for pay, it could be cash or
Reproductive role: are activities that are essential to maintain and guarantee the reproduction
of the labour force. The reproductive tasks are classified into three; social, biological and
daily reproductive activities.
Community role: The tasks that are undertaken for the social and political benefit of the
community, such as Idir, Mahber and other social gatherings.
Gender Mainstreaming : The term gender mainstreaming is defined as the process of
assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including
legislation, policies or programs/projects, in any area and at all levels. It is a strategy for
making the concern and experiences of women and men an integral part of the design,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs/projects in all
political, economic and social spheres.
It includes gender sensitive activities and affirmative action, whenever women and men
are in a particularly disadvantaged position. Gender specific interventions can target
women exclusively, men and women together or only men to enable them to participate
in and benefit equally from development efforts. These are temporary measures designed
to combat the direct and indirect consequences of past discrimination. The goal of
mainstreaming gender is thus the transformation of unequal social and institutional
structures into equal and just structures for both men and women. This transformative
process starts with gender analysis.
Gender analysis: It is the systematic examination of the roles, relations and process focusing
on the imbalance of power, wealth, workload opportunities and constraints as
experienced by women and men in a given community. Gender analysis also a process of
examining a policy, program, project, etc. and how well it is likely to meet its aims and
objectives for sustainable economic and social development. It looks also at how
programs and policies have different impact on women and men.
Gender Equality: The absence of discrimination on the grounds of a person’s sex, religion, ethnicity
etc in the allocation of resources, opportunities or benefits, and guarantees equal rights and access
Gender Equity: means fairness of treatment for women and men, according to their respective
Practical Gender Needs:- are usually articulated within the context of women’s concrete
living conditions, and tend to be related to their immediate problems.
Strategic Gender Needs:- are usually articulated to reflect women’s long term needs and
address existing gender relations.
Gender gap/disparity: It is a measure of gender inequality in any socio-economic indicator,
e.g. employment, education, health, ownership of property, income, gender gapes result
from inequality in decision-making, which leads to inequality to access to resources and
by the differential treatment given to women and girls as compared to that given to men
Gender Awareness: It means looking at women and men and understanding their common and
specified needs and understands that women have needs, desires aspirations and vision
distinct from men. This is a factor which has been invisible in most economic
development planning and which resulted in development programs failing to address
women’s specific needs to improve their lives
Gender Planning: is a process of planning that involves critical analysis of the gaps between
women’s and men’s access to economic, social, political and cultural resources. This
analysis enables the development of policy initiatives to correct the imbalances –
including cases where men are not benefiting equally from the development planning
approaches currently in use.6
Gender responsive: Interventions intended to transform existing distributions to create a more
balanced relationship between women and men.
Sex-disaggregated Data: is data that is broken down or separated by sex which reveals the
different status, conditions, roles and responsibilities of women and men. Such data could
be quantitative or qualitative. Without the availability of such data it would be difficult or
impossible to measure the gender impacts of development activities.
Gender sensitivity: This means to be aware of or responsive to issues of social relation
between women and men within a specific community or institution. It considers the
power relations between men and women, the division of labour, the needs and wants, the
constraints and opportunities.
Gender blind: Recognition of gender differential assumption include bias in favor of existing
Empowerment: Empowerment implies people - both women and men - taking control over their
lives: setting their own agendas, gaining skills (or having their own skills and knowledge
recognized), increasing self-confidence, solving problems, and developing self-reliance. It is
both a process and an outcome. It is an important element of development, being the
process by which people take control and action in order to overcome obstacles.
Empowerment especially means the collective action by the oppressed and deprived to
overcome the obstacles of structural inequality, which gave previously, put them in a
disadvantaged position. The women’s empowerment framework sees empowerment as
the goal and the essential process for women’s advancement. It is the process, by which
women mobilize to understand, identify and overcome gender discrimination, so as to
achieve equality of welfare, and equal access to resources. Empowerment may be defined
as people’s ability to advance them within the existing social system or equipping a
person with the necessary knowledge and skills to enable him/her full potential and
acquire the ability to make her/ his own decision.
Gender Mainstreaming in Development Planning: A Reference Manual for Governments and Other
Stakeholders: Viviene Taylor; Commonwealth Secretariat; June 1999; P 14.
Stakeholders: People and organizations that can influence a certain issue or who are affected in
any way by what is done and how it is done.
Access: To have the opportunity to use resources without having the authority to decide about
the produce/output and the exploitation methods.
Control: To have full authority to decide about the use and output of resources.
Monitoring: is a systematic and continuous process of supervision, follow up and review of
activities to ensure that they are in line with set goals and objectives
Evaluation: is periodic assessment of performance and effects of activities to find out whether
or not one has achieved ones objectives.
Indicators: are benchmarks along the implementation plan that inform you whether you are
making any progress in implementing your plan and whether you are still on course.
A gender-sensitive indicator: is an indicator that captures gender-related changes in society
over time. It can be quantitative, such as the number of women and men trained or
qualitative, e.g. changes in attitudes, such as changes in women’s and men’s views about
women’s capacity to do non-traditional things.
Environment: Refers to surrounding and the general conditions or circumstances that may
influence such surroundings, environment affects the development of human and animal
life. Thus, environment may include such natural resources as water, mineral, soil forests,
fish, wildlife, energy and other ecological surroundings.
6. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF RCBP
Information Communication System
7. GENDER MAINSTREAMING GUIDELINES
7.1 Agriculture TVET Component
It is a social and economic interest to eliminate gender inequalities in education and training
wherever they exist.7 If the gender gap is not addressed in education and training, development
initiatives are “doomed to failure”.
Increasing enrolment and completion rates of girls in Agriculture TVET colleges will contribute
to improvement of rural livelihoods, healthier and better-nourished families, and increased
value on education and training. Through education and training, girls and women can become
more empowered and self-confident as they acquire the range of skills, knowledge and attitudes
necessary to contribute to increased agricultural production.
The Agriculture TVET component comprises two sub components
Sub Component I. Development of a Strategic Plan for the ATVET Colleges
The Development of a National Strategic Plan includes conducting training need assessment,
organizing networking meeting with ATVET colleges to support them in developing their own
college’s strategic plan, curriculum and training materials, conduct follow up studies and
Sub Component II. Agriculture TVET Capacity Building Grants.
The Capacity Building Grant will support investments in the building of Agriculture TVET
colleges. This sub component has two types of grants, Institutional Strengthening Grant and
Development Innovation Grants (DIG).
7.1.1 Guiding Principles for ATVET
Among the basic principles that will guide the implementation of the Agriculture TVET
elements that relate to gender equality are:
Participatory, innovative, learning culture at TVET colleges that is responsive and
relevant to the needs of women and men farmers;
Gender mainstreaming and introduction of mechanisms to increase women instructors
and women trainees and initiatives in the production of curriculum and training
materials that address the empowerment of women farmers as well as gaps in gender
equality, particularly in access to and control over resources and assets;
Addressing HIV/AIDS in agricultural programming;
Establishment of performance-based monitoring and evaluation within TVET colleges
including setting of gender disaggregated performance targets and building institutional
capacity for monitoring and evaluation of own performance;
Budget allocation formulas should reward performance indicators such as the percent of
students meeting minimum scores on competency tests, the percent finding relevant
employment in six months, the percent of entry cohort completing training, the increase
in female graduates and instructors.
7.1.2 Gender Issues in ATVET
Low female enrolment and higher than average attrition at ATVET colleges which
attributed to weak academic background, adverse social conditions, physical violence,
etc. For instance the total enrolment of ATVET colleges in Ethiopia the last four years
was about 55,000 with only 12% female students
High dropout rate of female students: Every year more than 50% of female trainees drop
out compared to less than 20% of male trainees
Although there is a directive to increase female participation in ATVET colleges, there
is currently no specific program to encourage women as trainees or as instructors ( to
provide support and serve as role models)
Curriculum do not adequately address gender issues
Absence of favorable working condition for female students and instructors (conducive
7.1.3 Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming
The gender mainstreaming guidelines for ATVET component activities presented in
respective to the topics
A/ Studies to develop National Strategic Plan
The Extension Department of MoARD has prepared the draft National Strategic Plan document
and it is on the process of finalization. However to incorporate gender issues it is essential to
review the document already developed. Conducting gender analysis and identifying the gender
gap in all ATVET colleges is crucial. This will help them identify and consider gender issues
while developing their own college strategic plan.
Review the draft National Strategic Plan and make recommendation on how to consider
the needs of both men and women (addressing HIV/AIDS and gender mainstreaming.)
Raise gender and HIV/AIDS issues in workshop that will be organized to approve the
National Strategic Plan.
e.g. Ensure that NSP
o Sets targets for increasing female instructors up to 20% and female graduates up
o provide a plan for implementation of a gender-based performance system that
increases recruitment of female instructors;
o provides for academic support services and social support services (counseling,
assertiveness training, etc);
o establishes an enrolment quota system for female students,
o establishes a mechanism that builds capacity (continuous trainings and
awareness raising programs) of instructors (men and women) to address the
needs of female students
o Provides guidelines on the design and implementation of gender aware teaching
o Looks into curriculum and training materials for their consideration of gender
and HIV/AIDS issues.
o Looks into the development of module to ensure gender issues are analyzed in
agriculture and rural development.
o Integrate gender-aware extension methodologies into the curriculum.
o Looks into curriculum and training materials for their consideration of gender
and HIV/AIDS issues.
o Improve working condition especially for women instructors (housing, transport
B/ ATVET College Plan Development- it will have to consider the above and more issues
depending on the local situation and conditions.
C/ Institutional Strengthening Grant
This grant will support the four federally administered Agriculture TVET colleges (Alage,
Ardaita, Agarfa and Bekoji) in response to proposals prepared by the colleges. It will cover
programs to address gender equality issues, demonstration and laboratory equipments,
transportation facilities, etc. Baseline survey will be carried out to determine the capacity and
incremental investment needs in the four federally administered ATVET colleges.
Conduct Gender Analysis as part of baseline survey to identify gender gaps and issues
in the baseline survey and to determine investment needs related to
o Increasing the number of female instructors,
o Enrolment of female trainees,
o Increased retention of female students, and
o Integration of gender and HIV/AIDS issues within curriculum.
Develop a recruitment drive in the colleges; put in place an incentive program; and
address barriers to hiring and retaining women instructors.
Assist colleges, as required, to develop gender action plans and HIV/AIDS strategies
D/ Development Innovation Grant
Development Innovation Grants will build the capacity of selected Agriculture TVET colleges
in new training/programming areas based on the National Strategic Plan. Activities will be
conducted to assist colleges to move to a second stage of development by broadening the
student clientele in the private sector through specialized programs in commodities or
disciplines (e.g. processing, marketing) and extension approaches (e.g. participatory planning,
gender equality integration, links to applied research).
Ensure that criteria for DIG proposals include gender equality action plan
Capacity building on gender mainstreaming.
Enrolment rate increased in ATVET colleges.
Attrition rate of female students reduced from 50% to 5-10%.
Affirmative actions implemented
GPA for female students to join the colleges’ reduced
Special classes organized for female students to improve their academic
Different strategies designed to address female students’ social problem
including sexual harassment and other physical violence.
Increase the number of female instructors within ATVET colleges
Improved housing facilities, training opportunities, kindergarten, health service,
transportation, provided for female instructors.
Curriculum revised and gender issues incorporated and well addressed at college level.
7.2 Agricultural Extension Component
The goals of the Agricultural Extension component are to improve the effectiveness of the
agricultural extension program as it scales up, particularly with regard to its capacity to respond
to the expressed needs of men and women farmers; to enhance women’s participation and
gender equality mainstreaming in all aspects of the extension system; and to support the
emergence of non-public sector agricultural services as an additional feature of extension
services in Ethiopia.
There are four sub-components under Agricultural Extension component. They are capacity
building for Subject Matter Specialists (SMS) function at Woreda, Regional, and Federal levels
of the Agricultural Extension System; Capacity Building for Farmer Training Centers (FTCs);
Institutional Innovation and M&E in Agricultural Advisory Services and Research-Extension-
Farmer Linkages. These sub-components aimed at maintaining and improving the effectiveness
of the Woreda, Regional, and Federal Agricultural Extension Officers and Subject Matter
Specialists and Women’s Affairs Offices to provide technical support to DAs; building the
capacity for FTCs; strengthening Farmers Advisory Service Fund (FASF) that supports the
development of the demand side of the agricultural extension system and Advisory Service
Development Fund (ASDF) that supports the development of the supply side of the Agricultural
Extension System; and institutionalization and improve effectiveness of Research Extension
Farmer Advisory Counsels (REFACs) in setting and implementing an impact-oriented research
7.2.1 Guiding Principles for Agriculture Extension
Among the basic guiding principles those strengthen the agriculture extension system are:
A commitment towards a gender-responsive participatory, demand-driven, and
accountable extension system with a spirit of learning and innovation that satisfies men
and women subsistence as well as commercial farmers’ needs for information, advice,
linkages, training and other services and
A culture of fostering gender equality and empowerment of women at all levels
7.2.2 Gender Issues in Agricultural Extension
Though women have immense contribution in agriculture, their contribution is not
Women farmers have little or no access to productive resources, extension and credit
services, training, health, education, and sanitation facilities.
Because of cultural practices, married women farmers do not attend meeting thus
women are unable to voice their concerns and get appropriate extension services.
Most agriculture experts and DA’s are men and they fail to reach women farmers
There are few trained women experts, particularly at higher level, to serve women
Extension services provided to the farmers in most cases do not address gender, socio-
economic and cultural issues,
Inadequacy or absence of sex disaggregated data at all levels within the agricultural
Absence of curriculum that address gender issues at FTC level
7.2.3 Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming
A/ Capacity building for SMS function at different level in Agricultural Extension System
This sub-component aims to maintain and improve the effectiveness of the Woreda, Regional,
and Federal Agricultural Extension Officers, Subject Matter Specialists and Women’s Affairs
Offices to provide technical support to DAs.
Training and Technical Assistance
Conduct training needs assessment for SMS function at different levels ensuring that all
men and women (within the system) and their needs are included in the assessment.
Ensure that women experts within Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development and Women’s
Affairs Offices are given priority for training and upgrading
Device mechanism for upgrading potential women candidates in order to qualify for
o a degree program
o to upgrade Certificate holders to Diploma program (if female candidates are not
available for BSC level) and the same is true for MSC and PhD.
Reserved places for female scholarships by the end of 5 years should be a minimum of 30%. 8
(PhD: 7 women; MSc: 30 women; BSc: 60 women (the number can be translated to
Diploma level if female candidates are not available)
All thesis topics will be required to integrate socio-economic gender issues into fieldwork and
research, including issues around HIV/AIDS
Study in technical areas will include gender issues and the use of participatory approaches in a
gender-responsive demand-driven agriculture extension system.
Put in place a communications campaign and awareness raising training on the benefits
of women’s increased decision-making power at local level.
In the process of hiring of a technical assistant
o Ensure the TOR clearly outlines tasks, outputs and required qualifications/ experience
relating to gender analysis in agriculture and rural development
Development of training/implementation manuals
Monitor the development of manuals and provide advice on how to integrate gender and
Preparing gender analysis training, case studies and other training materials. Ensure all training
integrates gender equality and HIV/AIDS issues.
A recent university linkage project with Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine on
post harvest management has reserved 50% of PhD, MSc and BSc scholarships for women.
Exchange of experiences
Set targets for women trainees based on the % of women professionals in MoARD
Increase this % each year by 5%, until the minimum target of 30% is attained.
Select training opportunities and study tours that address gender and HIV/AIDS issues.
B/ Capacity Building for Farmer Training Centers (FTCs)
This sub-component aims at building the capacity for FTCs that focuses on training of DA’s
and kebele authorities in self-reliant management of FTCs. Among the selection criteria for
FTCs the commitment to gender mainstreaming is the major one. Training for DAs will include
participatory approaches, empowering women farmers, and promotion of best practices for
environmentally sustainable local development and the use of media/ICT extension methods.
Training will also be provided for kebele authorities in community-based participatory
planning, gender mainstreaming, management and monitoring.
Identify skill gaps of DAs (female, male DAs), men and women farmers in 100 woredas
and 2500 FTCs
Identify trainers, training modules, case studies, and activities that promote gender-
responsive participatory approaches to agriculture extension;
Devise ways to achieve a minimum of 30% women’s participation in trainings, study
When farmers are the groups identified for trainings and study tours the participation of
women farmers should be 50%. This should include female heads of households as well
as women in male headed households
Identify areas of capacity building for kebele authorities in self-reliant management of
Support BoARD and Woreda in identification of areas for capacity building for kebele
authorities and contracting trainers to ensure that the trainers have the capacity to
consider gender issues.
C/ Institutional Innovation and M&E in Agricultural Advisory Services
The sub-component Institutional Innovation and M&E in Agricultural Advisory Services will
support the design, launch and implementation of two innovation funds, FASF and ASDF.
The Farmers Advisory Service Fund and the Advisory Service Development Fund
The Farmers’ Advisory Service Fund (FASF), which will support the development of the
demand side of the agricultural extension system and supports a program of small practical and
focused agricultural service activities at the level of the FTC: and the Advisory Service
Development Fund (ASDF), will support the development of the supply side of Ethiopia’s
agricultural extension system by facilitating the professional development of DAs and
developing the capacity of other advisory service providers in academia, the private sector, and
NGOs in areas critical to the farming sector. Priority will be given to those developed with the
participation of women and/or to those initiatives designed to address gender equality issues.
Undertake training of trainers to enable regional/woreda experts to conduct gender
sensitization training and participatory assessments of the constraints for women’s
Ensure up to 50% women farmers participate in the farmer council and participatory
planning and priority setting.
Ensure that FASF and ASDF Guidelines integrate gender and HIV/AIDS issues.
Develop an action plan with Regional Focal Points and Gender focal points to monitor
the participation of women in farmer’s councils and to share lessons learned and best
Ensure M&E is gender responsive; collects sex-disaggregated data on qualitative and
quantitative gender indicators and analysis of gender mainstreaming is conducted as part
of M&E exercise.
Followup & recommend on training and technical asseistance provided to DAs and non-
public sector service providers to ensure that training topics include gender equality
mainstreaming, partcipatory planning, and need based researches
Follow up on regional and woreda level training programmes and develop proactive
measures such as:
o Ensuring that all women professionals are informed of training opportunities
well in advance through a communication plan.
o Design strategy to select women professionals for training as a first priority and
monitor the implementation of a strategy to reach targets for women’s
participation in training.
Ensure trainers have the capacity to address gender and HIV/AIDS issues.
D/ Research Extension-Farmer-Linkage
The Research-Extension-Farmer Linkages component will support the expansion and
refinement of current research-extension-farmer activities and promote their firm
institutionalization within the agricultural sector at Federal, Regional and Zonal Level. In
particular the component will support the institutionalization and improved effectiveness of
REFACs in setting and implementing an impact-oriented research agenda.
Participate in review of the current REFAC and Farmers-Research-Extension Group
Ensure that the FREGs involved in adaptive research activities meet the target of 30%
women farmer participation.
Support and expansion of on-farm gender-mainstreamed adaptive farmer-participatory
research by FREGs.
Support concerned stakeholders on proposal preparation to mainstream gender aspects.
All proposals will be required to involve women farmers to a minimum of 30% and
include a gender-mainstreaming plan to address gender equality issues.
Conduct gender-mainstreaming workshop to identify strategies for REFACs to address
gender issues and to ensure 30% participation by women.
Ensure that Women’s Affairs Experts and Women Experts from other fields are
involved in REFACs.
Provide gender related resources for reading and monitor gender mainstreaming
initiatives in RCBP research activities.
Assist in planning and follow up allocation of budget.
Number of female DA’s involved in delivering extension services increased.
Strategies designed to reach rural women both FHH and Female in MHH for capacity
building and other services.
Female in MHH have access to information and services provided by DAs.
The number of female farmers getting access to extension services increased.
The decision-making power of female farmers improved.
The number of female farmers organized in specific female groups increased
The representation of female farmers in mixed groups comprises a minimum of 50% of
The number of female trainees at FTC level increased
The FTC curriculum revised and incorporate gender as an issue in the trainings provided
Training events for DAs in 100 woredas and 2,500 FTCs in the areas of market
mechanisms, participatory approaches, empowering women farmers, promotion of best
practices for environmentally sustainable local development.
Training events for kebele authorities in 100 woredas in community-based participatory
planning, gender mainstreaming, management, administration, finance, reporting and
The number of female experts trained at all level increased (both for short and long term
Gender issues considered in every training events and development efforts in agriculture
7.3 Research Component
Infrastructure and capacity building at Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) and
the Regional Agricultural Research Institutes (RARIs) have been supported by the Agricultural
Research and Training Project (ARTP). Lessons learned under ARTP indicate that there is an
urgent need to make arrangements for closer coordination, greater client participation in setting
research priorities, implementation and funding, pluralism in service provision and much closer
farmer-extension-research linkages and collaboration in addressing gender equality issues.
Better coordination of research in the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) and
closer involvement of stakeholders in priority setting, resource allocation, and implementation
of research and technology dissemination, with special attention to women’s participation, is
Within EIAR, women account for about 5% of researchers/experts and less than 20% of all
staff. EIAR has established a Gender Unit, headed by a Gender Focal Expert with the mandate
to coordinate and monitor gender mainstreaming within the NARS. EIAR has identified the
need for a demand-driven and merit-based human resources development, with particular
emphasis on areas that have not received due attention in the past such as: biotechnology,
pastoral systems, post-harvest technologies, research-extension-farmer linkage, gender and
institutional change. Integration of gender aspects is one of the approaches that is being used to
contribute to the national sustainable agricultural development agenda. Gender mainstreaming
in this case refers to the integration of the gender perspective into every aspect of innovation, in
research design, implementation and monitoring & evaluation process. It includes identifying
and understanding different livelihood interactions in the farming system so that designing and
implementation of future research activities are motivated depending on the needs, interests,
and constraints of men and women farmers. It also includes the identification and assessment of
gaps, available opportunities and policies and programs on both men and women.
NARS Capacity Building will build capacity for generation, dissemination and adoption of new
economically viable and risk acceptable technologies. This will be done through short term and
post-graduate local and overseas training of research and support staff across the Ethiopian
NARS especially at RARI RCs in marginal areas and in specifically-identified areas of training
such as socio-economics and marketing, agricultural bio-technology, non-traditional
commercial crops, food safety, stress physiology, post-harvest technology, and soil and water
7.3.1 Guiding Principles for Agriculture Research
The guiding principles for design and implementation of RCBP agricultural research services
are: Responsiveness to the needs and circumstances of end-users (farmers/agri-business);
Taking account of gender equality and HIV/AIDS-related issues; Adherence to the principle of
subsidiary, with responsibility and control over resources to the appropriate levels (local,
regional & national); Participation of many service providers (research, extension, universities
& the private sector); Incorporation of sustainability criteria (fiscal, economic, social, gender
equality, HIV/AIDS and environment) in priority setting and M&E of public investments; Use
of improved management and information systems in planning and M&E; and, Introduction of
cost sharing arrangements.9
7.3.2 Gender Issues in Agricultural Research
Women account for about 5% of researchers/experts and less than 20% of all staff.
Poor participation of women farmers in problem identification, priority setting, planning
and research activities.
Research agendas rarely consider social issues particularly women’s triple role.
Women farmers lack getting benefits equal to men from the interventions.
Most of the technologies are not designed in the way to solve women’s problems in a
Limitation of capacity of research in conducting gender analysis and using participatory
World Bank. Project Appraisal Document for Rural Capacity Building Project (35457-ET) 2006
7.3.3 Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming
Formulating Plan for Enhanced NARS Governance & Management
Promote gender-responsive participatory research methodologies and analysis in
research priority areas.
Better coordination of research in the NARS and closer involvement of stakeholders in
priority setting, resource allocation, and implementation of research and technology
dissemination, with special attention to women’s participation,
Include HIV/AIDS and environment as cross-cutting issues in all research priority areas
and impact evaluations.
Implement technology dissemination through gender-responsive participatory
agriculture extension methodologies.
Ensure that impact evaluations include assessment of qualitative gender indicators that
measure empowerment of women.
NARF: Operation of Expanded National Agricultural Research
Include an assessment of gender issues in the Agricultural Research Fund (ARF) and
implement a gender mainstreaming approach into the National Agricultural Research
Selection criteria for NARF to include gender mainstreaming and addressing gender,
HIV/AIDS and environment issues in technical research.
Include EIAR Gender Unit in the NARF management to review proposals and make
recommendations on gender mainstreaming.
Ensure that HIV/AIDS and environment issues are addressed as cross-cutting themes in
research activities funded by Regional Agricultural Research Fund (RARF).
Building the capacity of concerned stakeholders for gaining better knowledge on gender
concepts, relevance and implementation mechanisms.
Data collection and analysis of gender disparities in the farming community.
Facilitating designing and implementation of research activities by using information
generated from gender analysis in different research undertakings.
Give preference to gender-integrated training and multi-disciplinary studies and
research that include cross-cutting themes of HIV/AIDS and environment.
Consider gender analysis and participatory approach in in-service training.
Design strategies to give chance for female staff in research.
Targeted Support to Research Centers
Set targets for women in research centers and develop a plan to recruit/upgrade them.
The national research center strategy will integrate gender, HIV/AIDS and environment
Assess the different needs of women located in hardship areas and address the different
gender issues in the action plan.
Adequate arrangements made for socio-economic and gender equality analysis of new
technology by EIAR, RARIs and their RCs
Gender equality issues taken into account in research in priority setting and
implementation, and especially in strengthening of Research Extension Farmer
The identified research agendas consider social issues and consider women workload
that caused due to women’s reproductive role.
The number of female farmers benefited from research results and consecutive
The number of women farmers participated in research activities such as problem
identification, priority setting, planning and implementation.
Availability of strategies to increase the number of female researchers and measures
taken to improve their involvement.
7.4 ICS Component
The objective of the Information and Communication Systems Component is to improve
connectivity among various stakeholders in the sector. While it may be difficult to connect
small producers directly to Internet systems, governmental organizations such as kebele,
woreda and regional administrative and agricultural offices that serve the farmers can use the
Internet systems to provide better services to the people they serve. They can provide locally
relevant information analysis and dissemination, together with public access to Internet
telecommunication services such as electronic mail.
RCBP would provide support to build the capacity of the farmer and public institutions to
collect and analyze data through support for information systems development and ICT
equipment. It would target such support to the 100 woredas selected to participate in the
Agricultural Extension Component.
The information system is expected to focus on collecting data on agricultural production,
marketing, and resources from the FTC level. The expected outcome of the component is a
functioning information system where information systematically flows between Farmers
Training Centers, Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (BoARD) and Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Development is used in monitoring and evaluation at all levels. The
implementation of the component will be the responsibility of the Policy and Planning
Department of MoARD in particular the Information Documentation and Coordination Team of
MoARD. This will be supported by the Communication and Training Specialist and the M&E
Specialist of the Project Management Unit (PMU).
7.4.1 Gender issues in ICS
Women are not benefited equal to men in accessing and utilizing ICT. Particularly poor
women have had nearly no opportunity to use ICTs as a tool for improving productivity
of subsistence agriculture and for non-farm activities that address survival needs.
Domestic responsibilities, cultural restrictions on mobility, etc.
Less economic power as well as lack of relevance of content to their lives further
marginalizes them from the information sector.
Knowledge gap about the connections between ICTs and the different elements of social
and economic policies.
Weak linkages with concerned stakeholders working in the area of gender.
7.4.2 Guideline for Gender Mainstreaming
Ensure that the rural women’s section at federal, region and woreda and women’s affairs
offices at all level have access to ICT while establishing the ICS at different level.
Assess the capacity gap of the experts at all levels & ensure, the use of ICT.
Design database to have sex disaggregated data at all level in the MoARD.
Capacity building on ICT for all stakeholders of the RCBP project. Ensure that women
given opportunities equal to men.
Strengthening the networking (Web pages, Forum creation, technical team, etc.)
8. FINANCIAL RESOURCES
The budget sources for implementation of gender mainstreaming activities will be from budget
assigned for each project component. This in effect will mean that gender and HIV/AIDS issues
that are discussed in the above components will be addressed through the budget assigned for
9. TOOLS FOR GENDER ANALYSIS
9.1 Gender Analysis Framework
A gender Analysis Framework is a step-by-step tool to raise questions, analyze information,
and develop strategies to increase women’s and men’s participation in and benefits from
projects and programs. There are different types of analytical frameworks such as Harvard
Analytical Framework, Caroline Moser’s Gender Analysis Framework, Sara Longwe’s
Empowerment Framework and FAO Gender Analytical framework. As an example Harvard
Analytical Framework is annexed with this document (Annex I)
The main variables in the Gender Analytical Framework are gender division of labour, access
to and control over resources and benefits, needs of men & women, constraints and
opportunities, empowerment, etc.
A typical Gender Analysis Framework has consecutive steps. First, information is collected for
the Activity profile and the Access and Control Profile. Then this information is used in the
analysis of factors and trends that influences the activities and access & control of the
resources. Further we need to look at the influencing factors on gender roles as economy,
education and migration, etc. From this analysis we would have an overview about the gender
roles and know the practical and strategic gender needs. This information would also be a
baseline data for a later monitoring and evaluation of gender issue.
A/ The Gender Division of Labor
The division of labor between men and women is based on the socio-economic and cultural
context. However, it can be analyzed by considering the triple role of women (productive,
reproductive and social role). It is useful to draw up an activity profile for men and women; in
certain cases, including girls and boys may be important. The main questions to be answered
through this analytical matrix are:
Who does what?
Who is in charge of which activity or what men and women do?
Where and when do men and women work?
Distance between the home and work place,
When these activities take place?
Who needs how much time for which activity and when do men and women work and
for how long?
B/ Access to and Control over Resources and Benefits
The access and control profile considers productive resources such as land, equipment, labor,
capital, market (as sellers and buyers) and socio-cultural (information, credit, education and
training). It is also used to identify the access and control of men and women over resources
and benefits, which include tangible and non-tangible benefits such as food to be used for
subsistence or sale, income, status, power and recognition. It differentiates between access to a
resource and control over decisions regarding its allocation and use and enables planners to
consider whether the proposed project could undermine access to productive resources, or if it
could change the balance of power between men and women regarding control over resources.
The main questions to be answered through this analytical matrix are:
What are the potentials, which might be used and enhanced through project activities?
What deficits might be alleviated/counter balanced through project activities?
What are the types of imbalances between men and women?
What are the specific interventions that the project could put in place to promote control
of inputs and processes so that women have the means to sustain new opportunities?
C/ Gender Needs
Practical and Strategic Needs10
Practical needs are linked to women’s condition. Programs that focus exclusively on practical
needs (i.e. clean water, food security, education, etc.) can further entrench the inequalities
between men and women and reinforce traditional gender roles. Meeting practical needs is
essential and a pre-requisite to the empowerment of women. Practical needs for both women
and men need to be identified, negotiated and addressed in such a way that also addresses
women’s strategic interests. Strategic needs for women arise from their subordinate
(disadvantaged) position in society. Strategic needs are long-term and related to improving
women’s position. Empowering women to have more opportunities, greater access to resources
Coady International Institute. A Handbook for Social/Gender Analysis. Ottawa: CIDA, 1989.
and more equal participation with men in decision-making is in the long-term strategic interest
Strategic needs are less obvious and less readily identified by women than practical needs. Like
any powerless group, women may be well aware of their subordination, but may not understand
its basis or the possibilities for change. Strategic needs readily emerge in women’s gatherings
and in the most informal of consciousness-raising processes. The strategic needs of women as a
Reduced vulnerability to violence and exploitation;
More economic security, independence, options and opportunities;
Shared responsibility for reproductive work with men and the community;
Organizing with other women for strength, solidarity and action;
Increased decision-making power;
Increased ability to improve the lives and futures of their children.
Examples of Practical and Strategic Gender Needs
Meeting practical needs
In many communities women are expected to fetch fuel wood for cooking. The need could be
met by organizing to bring the fuel wood closer or even introducing agro-forestry. So that
every family have access to fuel wood whenever they need it. In meeting this need one would
be enabling the women to carry out the tasks that they have been assigned by society in a
much better and easier way. This is called meeting the practical gender needs.
Meeting strategic needs
The need for fuel wood may be met by introducing new cooking technology, which will
reduce amount of time and also make men participate in getting the fuel e.g. cooking gas.
This results to a change in the division of labour. The women may use the newfound time to
empower themselves with business and community management skills and in that way they
would be addressing a strategic needs.
Participation of the people involved in development is often seen as a way to make projects
more successful, especially for solving problems of poor people. The analysis of participation
in the Agricultural Sector Support Project (ASSP) helps to identify:
Power structures in social communities and the community norms and beliefs that
influence women's participation in the project's activities.
Imbalance in the decision-making power of men and women.
The need to enhance women's involvement in project activities.
Underlying reasons for an unbalanced participation, if the assessment is linked with an
analysis of the influencing factors such as economic structures and social norms.
Policies and programs that could be aimed at ensuring women's participation and
positively affecting the project.
Laws or regulations that could affect women's participation in the project or their access
to its benefits.
The profile of participation assesses the involvement of men and women in village
councils, farmer's groups, cooperatives, savings and credit groups and other formal and
E/ Influencing factors
The analysis of influencing factors has to be part of the gender analysis because these factors
determine the position of women and men in the Agricultural Sector Support Project
environment. The analysis reveals the structure and traditions influencing the behavior of the
people and it help also to identify entry points and options for change.
9.2 Gender Sensitive Project Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
9.2.1 Situation Analysis and Gender Sensitive Data Collection
The main purpose of situation analysis is to identify problems, actors, interests, visions,
restrictions and potentials in the envisaged areas. It further helps to understand the situation of
all stakeholders in a given area and women's issues in particular. On the process of situation
analysis, it also needs systematic approach and to give consistent attention to gender equality
throughout the project cycle. In addition to other considerations collecting gender disaggregated
data helps to give attention for women and work towards gender equality.
The main elements of a situation analysis are to identify the constraints and opportunities within
the following areas for the empowerment of women:
A/Analysis of geographic conditions and demography
The situation of men, women and youth can be seen if their numbers, participation or whether
they have been advantaged or disadvantaged in different geographic areas is clearly compared.
This will help to bring out issues where certain classes of individuals are disadvantaged and to
find a solution through policy and program interventions.
B/Analysis of institution and other stakeholders
Analysis of institutions and other stakeholders working within a given area or with the target
population will help to identify the influences on the intended project or how stakeholders may
be influenced by the project. Therefore, it helps to design strategies to work in collaboration
with the stakeholders by avoiding affecting each other or to avoid duplication of efforts.
C/Analysis of the target groups at grassroots level
A gender- age- and class-specific analysis is required to detect different problems, potentials
and needs of males and females, different age groups, economic classes, ethnic and religious
affiliations. This analysis should be undertaken by communities and beneficiaries themselves
with facilitation of DAs or others. DAs and other facilitators will require training to use
participatory approaches in working with men and women farmers.
D/Analysis of influencing factors
The analysis of influencing factors has to be part of the situation analysis during project
preparation, planning, monitoring and evaluation. These factors determine the participation of
men and women in all aspects. In project planning the analysis of influencing factors provides
input for the formulation of outputs and activities. Besides, it helps to formulate an
understanding of the conditions which influence the project progress and its potential impacts,
but which cannot always be controlled by the project. Influencing factors include: socio-
economic patterns, the normative system; existing laws and regulations; the educational system;
economic conditions; the political situation. Influencing factors also need to be applied to the
analysis of the condition and position of women in order to be able to assist in identifying the
practical and strategic needs and opportunities for project interventions.
E/Gender Equality Analysis
As part of planning, gender analysis should be conducted, including collection of gender-
disaggregated data and qualitative baseline information. Gender analysis increases
understanding of the gender-based division of labour through identification of men’s and
women’s roles, indigenous knowledge, access to and control over resources and benefits,
practical and strategic gender needs, participation of men and women in community
institutions, economic and political aspects.
9.2.2 Gender Sensitive Planning
Gender sensitive planning ensures women’s and men's participation in the contribution to and
benefit from any activity right from the beginning. This could be through interventions that
reduce gender-related inequalities. It is the main method to integrate gender concerns at project
It is important to use participatory approaches to conduct a social gender analysis before project
activities begin. A participatory process can in itself increase the community’s awareness of the
patterns, value, inter-relatedness, imbalance and impact of their work and relations. A gender
analysis provides necessary information to improve project planning and design; baseline data
from which to measure changes in condition as well as position later on.
A/ Project Preparation/formulation
Project preparation is a process of elaborating the major project components and plans. It
involves detailed study and analysis of the social, technical, economic, financial and
institutional dimensions of the project. Attention should be given to the following aspects at this
stage to mainstream gender: Design appropriate schedule for “social and gender training
packages" that include:
Gender sensitization and awareness-raising for implementers including beneficiaries
at community level.
Strengthening community leadership and participation skills with special emphasis
Improved decision-making and empowerment skills training for women
Create a sufficient gender-specific database.
Properly analyze the data and identify core problems, their causes and effects. As
there are a number of conflicting interests, ensure that women's priorities are equally
Formulate appropriate objectives which address the intended problems in gender
Design appropriate technology and household labour saving devices wherever
applicable which can be efficiently used by the beneficiaries or include training
component in the project to introduce the use of the new technology.
Arrangements should be devised and appropriate institutional arrangement enforced
to increase the number of women in the decision-making positions in development
Develop gender specific, objectively verifiable indicators, means of verification and
assumptions where applicable, to monitor the achievement of the objectives, the
contributions and benefits of each sex group.
In order to consider women, disadvantaged and the poorest of the poor, planners
should use gender integrated participatory approaches.
B/ Project Implementation
Project implementation is the stage when project facilities are established and execution takes
place by drawing on the resources provided for in the financial agreement to achieve the desired
results. A well-designed gender mainstreamed program will greatly increase the probability of
However, questions must still be answered at the implementation phase to ensure design
compliance. These questions include satisfying gender personnel, program sustainability,
institutional framework, finances, monitoring and evaluation. For each, the following
conditions have to be satisfied.
Enhancement of the position and condition of women in implementation and in
decision-making processes of the project to promote their income, skill, experience,
decision-making and contribution to the national development.
Preparation and implementation of an appropriate action plan, which incorporates
women’s and men's concerns and facilitates their full participation in the project
implementation and gender sensitivity of project implementers.
C/ Check list for building gender equity into project design and implementation
Project design and implementation
Which population groups are served by the project (women only, men only, men and
women, other groups)?
Has there been consultation with people whose lives will be affected by the project, and
what attention has been given to women in the process?
Are women involved at all levels in the planning and implementation of the project?
Do the planning assumptions (at each level of the planning framework or logical
framework) adequately reflect the constraints on women’s participation in the
Do project performance indicators identify the need for data to be collected,
disaggregated by gender?
Do the goals, purposes, or objectives of the program explicitly refer to women or reflect
women’s needs and priorities?
Do the project inputs identify opportunities for female participation in program
management, in the delivery and community management of goods and services, in any
planned institutional changes, in training opportunities, and in the monitoring of
resources and benefits?
Will the project resources be relevant and accessible to poor women in terms of
personnel, location, and timing?
Does the project include measurable indicators for the attainment of its objectives, to
facilitate monitoring and post-evaluation?
Objectives and activities
What are the objectives of the project?
Have both men’s and women’s opinions been sought in the definition of he objectives?
Are women and men’s roles reflected in the project’s objectives?
How do the objectives address the needs and concerns of women and men?
What program, activities, and services does the project have to ensure that gender needs
and concerns will be addressed?
How will the inclusions of women help to achieve the objectives?
How will the activities and services include women’s participation?
In what ways will the activity and services benefit women?
How will women have access to the opportunities and services which the project
provides such as training?
Are project resources adequate to provide these services for women?
Is the project likely to have adverse effects on women?
What social, legal, and cultural obstacles could prevent women from participating in the
What planned activities have been developed to address these obstacles?
9.2.3 Gender-Sensitive Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation helps to evaluate how women, men, families and communities
benefit from the project or which unexpected effects/impacts came out of the project. This is an
important mechanism for a gender-sensitive project such as RCBP in order to provide evidence
of their achievements in gender equality.
Intra-household dynamics need to be emphasized in planning, implementation and M&E;
women farmers in male-headed households are not involved in mainstream development
activities mostly because the implementers are men and the assumption is that information,
inputs and training given to the male household head will filter down to all members of the HH.
For the most part, this does not happen so a specific strategy is needed to reach the women in
MHH and to measure progress.
The data needs to be able to identify the nature and extent of women's involvement in the
project and the benefits that accrue to them. Monitoring and evaluation measures the extent to
which the program has affected the quality of life of women and men. In light of this, gender
perspective evaluation aims to review the impacts of a project on women and men with respect
to the following aspects.
The effects of the activities of the project on women's and men's income, the access it
has created to material and financial resources and employment.
The contribution of the project towards improvement of the livelihood of women and
men in addressing the problems as identified at the project planning stage.
The change in the division of labour between women and men in the project.
The contributions of women and men to the project and their respective share of
Constraints, which directly or indirectly affect women and men's participation and the
distribution of benefits.
A/ Gender issues in monitoring and evaluation
Gender information can be very important to understand the success or failure of a project. This
shows that gender issues in monitoring and evaluation are important from a different point of
Some examples of women indicators
Their number as participants in physical activities
Their number as beneficiaries of offered activities and constructed infrastructures
Women’s involvement in project management in terms of their representation in
management communities etc.
For gender specific/sensitive project
It can measure its achievements. The information from gender analysis can be baseline for a
later monitoring and evaluation of a gender issue.
For gender neutral/blind project
It can be the beginning of a gender aware project planning/correction
For all project
It can be a guidance to understand failure and success and serve as a base for project correction
B/Gender indicators for monitoring and evaluation of the program/projects
When considering a gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation framework, men and women
are addressed as separate categories in formulating the goal, objectives and outputs and their
respective indicators. To this aim, it is useful to distinguish between “women” and “gender”
objectives and indicators.
Gender indicators are those indicators that measure real changes in gender relations
(power relations between men and women, or more generally, women’s positions within their
community). They reflect the (absence of) power balances in decision-making processes and
their outcome. As they deal with relations, they concern not only the role of women but also of
men. Moreover, gender indicators in planning, monitoring and follow up of development
programs allow women to consider their interest and thereby participate and benefit at all levels
Women objectives have women as target group focus at their practical needs without
addressing their strategic needs, while gender objectives aim to change gender relations (i.e
power relations between men and women)
By women indicators we mean indicators that measure women’s participation in projects. The
indicator explicitly measures women’s role in the project, but do not measure gender relations
(power relations between men and women, or more generally, women’s position within their
community) and shifts in them.
Some examples of Gender Indicators
Extend to which women’s day in community maters has increased with their participation
in communities and the extend to which their interests are reflected in token decisions at
Extend to which male domination in decision making has been reduced
Extend to which created facilities and services contribute to improve position (e,g,
Decreased work load, increased financial autonomy, etc. ) and contribute to women’s
Extend to which women have gained access and control over means and benefits of
C/ Checklist for Monitoring and Evaluation
Does the project have an information system to explicitly measure the project's effects
on women and men separately?
Are the data generated by the project collected at such intervals as to enable timely
Is the purpose of the monitoring and evaluation prepared in a gender sensitive manner?
Does it allow one to monitor and evaluate the impacts as well as the effects of the
program on men and women?
Does it provide equal chance to women and men to participate as informants/or
members of the team?
Does the monitoring and evaluation aim to use the results to take corrective measures
and further enhance the gender agenda within the organization?
Annex I. Harvard Gender Analysis Framework
2a. Activity Profile
Activity Profile Female household Male household
M F Boys Girls M F Boys girls
-food crop production
-Tree crop production
-participation in village groups
-Saving and Credit
Collective community work
2.b Access and Control Profile
Resources Access Control
Men women Men Women
Natural material resources
- Production inputs
ANNEX II. REFERENCES FOR FURTHER READING
African Development Bank. Ethiopia Multi-sector Country Gender Profile, March 2004.
AFROL Gender Profiles (www.afrol.com ) Ethiopia
A. Stephens, Gender Issues in Agriculture and Rural Development Policy in Asia and the Pacific by FAO, nd.
AfDB, Ethiopia Multi-sector Country Gender Profile, March 2004.
World Bank. Local Government Responses to HIV/AIDS: A Handbook. 2003.
CIDA, Accelerating Change: Resources for Gender Mainstreaming, 2000
Beth Woroniuk, Helen Thomas and Johanna Schalkwyk 1997 Gender: the concept, its meaning and uses - A Think
Piece, SIDA: 5-6.
Gender Mainstreaming in Development Planning: A Reference Manual for Governments and Other Stakeholders:
Viviene Taylor; Commonwealth Secretariat; June 1999; P 14.
Chris Reij and Ann Waters-Bayer, Participatory Technology Development – Farmer Innovation as Entry Point to
Participatory Research and Extension, IDRC.(www.idrc.ca )
EIAR. Focusing Agricultural Research to Address Development Needs: Direction for Agricultural Research in
Ethiopia, 2007. (www.eiar.gov.et )
CIDA. Accelerating Change: Resources for Gender Mainstreaming, Asia Branch, CIDA, 2000.
Catherine Hill, Gender-Disaggregated Data for Agriculture and Rural Development – Guide for Facilitators,
SEAGA, FAO (2003)
Cherinet, Haregewoin and Mulugeta, Emebet. Country Gender Profile Ethiopia, SIDA, 2002.
Coady International Institute. A Handbook for Social/Gender Analysis. Ottawa: CIDA, 1989.
Drimie, S & Getahun. RENEWAL Ethiopia Background Paper: HIV/AIDS, Food and Nutrition Security, 2005.
Evers, B. & Wondimu, A Workshop Report on Gender at the Heart of Economic Policy Process: A Focus on the
Budget, Addis Ababa, British Council. 2004.
Ejigu Jonfa, Endrias Geta & Desalegn Gachena. Assessment of Institutional Capacity in Farmer Participatory
Research, FARM Africa (2005)
FAO SEAGA, Livestock Guide – Planning with a Gender and HIV/AIDS Lens (2005) (provides detailed tools for
analysis and guiding questions that involves all stakeholders.
Garsonnin, Jean. Draft Report on Rural Capacity Building Project Design Mission, Cowater International, 2004.
Gender and Participation in Development Planning – Key Issues From Ten Case Studies, Women in Development
Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (1997).
Government of Ethiopia, Women’s Affairs Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
Agriculture Sector Support Project Gender Mainstreaming Guidelines, 2006.
Government of Ethiopia & Engineering Capacity Building Program. National Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (TVET) Strategy (Draft for Discussion), August 2006.
Government of Ethiopia, PASDEP Matrix, 2006.
Gurumurthy, A. Gender and ICTs: Overview Report. Bridge Development – Gender, 2004
Hareq Consult PLC, National Action Plan for Gender Equality, GoE, 2005.
Hill, Catherine. Addressing HIV AIDS and Gender Equality in Food Security and Rural Livelihoods
Programming, CIDA, Inter-Agency Coalition on AIDS and Development (ICAD), 2005.
IFPRI, Women: The Key to Food Security, Looking into the Household ( www.cgiar.org/ifpri/divs/dcnd/dp.htm
Jane Mulemwa (Dr), Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education of Girls in Africa: Guidelines for
Programming Planning Guide, 1999.
Kebede, E. Guideline for Gender Mainstreaming in the PSCAP, 2006; GoE. Gender Mainstreaming Guidelines for
ASSP, 2006; and UNESCO Gender Mainstreaming Implementation Framework, 2003
Klugman, Jeni. Youth Employment in Ethiopia: Stocktaking and Policy Questions,
MoFED and UN Country Team, Millennium Development Goals Report: Challeges and Prospects for Ethiopia,
Koitelel, Philip O. Mainstreaming Gender into HIV/AIDS Action: Priorities for Interventions Focusing on
Women and Girls, Agency for Strategic Management and Development (AZTRAMADE), 2004.
Ministry of Education, Women’s Affairs Department, Gender Mainstreaming Guidelines and Checklists for
Education Bureaus, Teacher Training Institutions and Schools, 2004.
MoFED and UN Country Team, Millennium Development Goals Report: Challenges and Prospects for Ethiopia,
Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Government of Ethiopia. National Action Plan for Gender Equality, 2005.
Participatory Research and Gender Analysis in Agricultural and Natural Resource Management Research: A
Selected Review of the Literature (www.prgaprogram.org )
Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management A
SOURCEBOOK VOLUME 1: Understanding Participatory Research and Development, International
Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, Canada, 2005. (311 pages
Ruth Alsop and Nina Heinsohn, Measuring Empowerment in Practice: Structuring Analysis
Supriya Akerkar, Bridge Development – Gender, Gender and Participation Overview Report, Institute of
Development Studies, 2001. (www.siyanda.org )
Vicki Wilde, FAO SEAGA Field Level Handbook (2001) contains participatory tools for agriculture extension and
guidelines on how to be a good facilitator.
World Bank, Project Appraisal Report for Rural Capacity Building Project (Report No: 35457-ET), 2006.
World Bank, Well-Being and Poverty in Ethiopia: The Role of Agriculture and Agency, 2005.
World Bank. Sourcebook on Participatory Approaches (www.worldbank.org)
World Bank, Framing Indicators, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper (2005)
World Bank, Gender Issues in Participation, World Bank Sourcebook on Participatory Approaches,
Resources from Websites
Training and Gender and Participation
Gender Dimension of Science and Technology
www.mssrf.org or www.kau.edu
Resources for TOR preparation
Resources for Agricultural Research