Lodging Management

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					Lodging Management
       Year 1A
Electronic Flashcards
 A file that holds information
 needed for serving a client’s
basic business needs. The File
is started at the time of initial
  contact with a prospective
Account File
  A network for communication
   reservations in which each
     participating property is
    represented in a computer
system data base and is required
to provide availability data to the
 central reservations center on a
            timely basis
Central Reservation
When people in authority must
 accept responsibility for their
decisions and be able to justify
  their actions to those above
them in the chain of command.
Properties that are affiliated
        with others.
Chain Property
 A management strategy in
  which capacity can, to a
limited extent, be varied to
  suit the level of demand
Responsible for a hotel’s
 physical operation and
Chief engineer
Something that could cause
 harm over a long period
Chronic Hazard
A report, typically prepared by the
night auditor, that summarizes the
hotel’s financial activities during a
    24-hour period and provides
insight into revenues, receivables,
    operating statistics, and cash
  transactions related to the front
Daily Operations Report
The collection of all non-guest
  accounts, including house
    accounts and unsettled
   departed guest accounts
City Ledger
Constructed for each revenue
 center and used to track all
 transactions posted to other
Control Folio
An upgrading/upselling method
used when a guest has already
   made a reservation or has
 requested a low-priced room.
During the registration process,
  the agent can suggest extra
  amenities or a higher priced
Bottom-up method
A type of reservation guarantee
in which the corporation signs a
 contractual agreement with the
    hotel to accept financial
 responsibility for any no-show
      travelers it sponsors
Corporate guaranteed
A type of guarantee supported
   by credit card companies
Credit Card Guaranteed
 Compare a guest’s current
  folio balance with a credit
limit(also called house limit)
   that is predetermined by
     management officials.
Credit monitoring routine
Turning away a guest who has a
reservation because of a lack of
 The ratio of actual rooms
revenue to potential rooms
Yield Statistic
How often should equipment
 wires and connections be
  The structure of authority
   where each higher level
 carries more responsibility
and greater authority than the
      levels below them
Chain of command
Individuals or families moving
   to an area and required
   lodging until permanent
     housing can be found
stay/relocation guest
Delegate who stay in hotels
where a negotiated package
price covers rooms, meals,
       and function
 Convention and
association groups
  Business travelers whose
rooms are booked or blocked
by their company or a travel
agency; they usually stay for
      two to four days
Corporate Groups
An approach to setting prices
whereby the hotel determines
its actual cost, then adds on a
   reasonable percentage to
arrive at the final retail price.
Cost-plus pricing
Job task that is fundamental to
           a position
Essential functions
Sheryl has just sold a block of 12
  rooms that will be held each
  night for passengers who get
bumped from flights. What guest
 segment has Sheryl sold to?
Airline-related guests
  The number of room nights
  the specific property would
sell if demand were distributed
based on the number of rooms
 in each property in the local
Fair share
 A device linked to the hotel
    telephone system that
accurately accounts for guest
telephone calls by identifying
each phone number dialed fro
  guestroom telephones and
       tracking charges
Call Accounting System
 Businesses that produce
“products” or services that
 cannot be inventoried or
   stored for future use.
   Replaces traditional
  mechanical locks with
computer-based guestroom
     access devices
Electronic Locking
In a hotel, who would typically be
    in charge of computerized
       information systems?
Systems Manager
An amount of money given to
a cashier at the start of each
 work shift so that he or she
   can handle the carious
   transactions that occur
Cash Bank
Which type of analysis helps a
 property discover profitable
guest groups being overlooked
 by the property, competitive
  benefits or advantages, and
 weaknesses in the marketing
strategies or other properties?
Competition Analysis
   A credit card arrangement,
  normally established through
   correspondence between a
   guest or a company and the
hotel, in which the hotel agrees
to bill the guest or the company
    for the charges incurred
Direct Billing
Guest expected to check out
on a given day who have not
        yet done so
     A key that opens all
guestroom doors, even when
   they are double locked
Emergency Key
A billing arrangement under
  which meals are priced
  separately from rooms
European Plan
 A pre-departure activity that
 involved the production and
 early morning distribution of
guest folios for guest expected
  to check out that morning
Express Check-out
  The process of recording
transactions on a guest folio
An approach to settling prices
whereby companies determine
what customers want and are
willing to pay- and then figure
     out a way to deliver it.
Customer-based pricing
 A computer software package
   that supports a variety of
  applications related to front
office and back office activities
Property Management
   System (PMS)
The standard rate established by
a hotel for a particular category
            of rooms
Rack rate
The practice of influencing a
guests’ purchases decision by
highlighting available choices
   and using sales phrases.
Suggestive Selling
A computer network that allows
electronic cash registers at the
    hotel’s points of sale to
  communicate directly with a
 front office guest accounting
POS (point-of-sale) system
A type of reservation guarantee
 that required a payment in full
    before the day of arrival
Prepayment guaranteed
 A brief statement explaining
why the team exist and how it
  contributed to the overall
  goals of a department or
Mission statement
A code generated by an online
    credit card verification
  service, indicating that the
requested transaction has not
        been approved
Denial Code
   An episode in which the
 customer comes into contact
    with any aspect of the
   organization and gets an
impression of the quality of its
Moment of truth
    A level of service which
stresses the personal attention
        given to guests.
World-class service
   A measurement used to
forecast food and beverage
 revenue, to indicate clean
 linen requirements, and to
 analyze daily revenue rate
Multiple occupancy ratio
 The amount of cash and
  checks in the cashier’s
drawer, minus the about of
     initial cash bank
Net cash receipts
A daily comparison of guest
 accounts (and non-guest
accounts have activity) with
revenue center transaction
Night audit
A division of the flow of business
through a hotel that identifies the
 physical contracts and financial
 exchanges between guests and
         hotel employees
Guest Cycle
   A form used to chart
transactions on an account
 assigned to an individual
   person or guestroom
Guest Folio
  A collection of guest history
 records, constructed from the
  expired registration cards or
 created through sophisticated
 computer based systems, that
automatically direct information
  about departing guest into a
     guest history database
Guest History File
    A record of personal and
 finical information about hotel
   guest relevant to marketing
   and sales that can help the
hotel serve the guest on return
Guest history record
An acceptable amount of work
  that must be done within a
specific time frame according
to an established performance
Productivity standard
    What report would an
executive housekeeper use to
  determine the number of
check-out rooms that need to
        be cleaned?
Occupancy Report
 A service or item offered to
     guests or placed in
 guestrooms for convenience
and comfort at not extra cost.
    A type of reservation
 guarantee that required the
  guest to pay a specified
amount of money to the hotel
    in advance of arrival
   Advance deposit
guaranteed reservation
A hotel chain’s reservation
    system in which all
participating properties are
   contractually related
Affiliate Reservation
 A posting or closed-circuit
broadcast of daily events at a
Reader board
A code generated by an online
    credit card verification
  service, indicating that the
  requested transaction has
        been approved
Authorization code
 A billing arrangement under
 which room charges include
  the guestroom and three
meals; also called full pension
American Plan
To settle in full the balance of
 a folio account as the guest
          checks out
Zero Out
Independent hotels which
have banded together for
 some common purpose
Referral group
  Permits another party (the
franchisee) to sell products or
   services in the name of a
       specific company
  The functional area of the
hotel in which employees have
   extensive guest contact
Front of the house
A hotel pricing system used to
 track advanced bookings and
   then lower or raise prices
    accordingly to yield the
    maximum room revenue
Yield Management
The formula used in posting
 transactions to front office
Previous Balance + Debits –
 Credits = Net Outstanding
Accounting posting
Something that could cause
    immediate harm
Acute Hazard
An occupancy ratio derived by
dividing net rooms revenue by
          the number
Average Daily Rate
An occupancy ratio derived by
dividing net rooms revenue by
      the number of guest
Average rate per guest
 The practice of suggesting
  more expensive(and often
  better quality) items than
those the guest first mention
   The functional areas or the
hotel in which employees have
little or no guest contact, such
       as engineering and
Back of the House
A statement of all transaction
  affecting the balance of a
        single account
  Directs the production and
service of food and beverages
Food and Beverage
 What employers must do to
     make the workplace
  accessible to people with
 disabilities, unless doing so
imposes an undue hardship on
         the employer
The variety, or mixture, of
guests who stay at a hotel
Guest mix
  An easy and effective upgrading/up
  selling method used to sell middle-
    rate rooms to guest who might
 otherwise choose a lower rate. The
reservations provides the guest with a
choice of three or more rate-category
 alternatives and puts no pressure on
               the guest.
alternatives method
Which report list rooms that have
been sold at other than their rack
Room rate variance report
 The number of rooms occupied
 by more than one guest divided
by the number of rooms occupied
            by guest
Multiple occupancy
  OSHA’s regulation requiring
 employers to inform employees
about possible hazards related to
  chemical they use on the job
Hazard Communication
 (HazComm) Standard
  An upgrading/up selling
 method used to encourage
guest to reserve middle- or
     high-rate rooms.
Top-down method
 Short-term planning that
approximates the number of
rooms available for sale on
      any future date
 A form completed by front
office cashiers that list each
 receipt or disbursement of
  cash during a work shift
Front office cash sheet
The chief operating officer of
    a hotel or restaurant
General Manager
A reservation that assures the
guest that a room will be held
until checkout time of the day
 following the day of arrival
Guaranteed reservation
A detailed report that list every
   job task performed by all
   housekeeping employees
Job Safety Analysis
  A distribution channel for
  reservations that provides
worldwide distribution of hotel
 reservation information and
    allows selling of hotel
reservation around the world
Global Distribution
 Systems (GDS)
 A summary of all a group’s
activities, billing instructions,
 key attendees, recreational
  arrangements, arrival and
departure patterns, and other
    important information
Group Resume
A process in which a company
operates a property for a fee
Management contract
 A room status term indicating
that the guest is being allowed
  to check out later than the
  hotel’s standard check-out
Late check out
 The revenue that would be
realized if all the property’s
rooms were sold at full rack
Revenue Potential
 An employee who checks the
    accuracy of front office
accounting records ad complies
   a salary summary of hotel
  financial data as part of the
           night audit
Night Auditor
A central reservation system
 that connects independent
   (non-chain) properties
Non-affiliate reservation
 A billing arrangement under
 which the daily rate includes
charges for the guestroom and
two meals- typically breakfast
           and dinner
Modified American Plan
Critical moments when guest
 and staff interact, offering
  opportunities for staff to
make a favorable impression,
 correct mistakes, and win
      repeat customers
Moments of truth
   The date when a booked
  meeting rooms should be
taken off hold. A hold periods
should not extend beyond the
time when they space can be
sold if the commitment is not
           firmed up
Release Date
An accurate way to determine
   how a property is doing
 against the competition. It is
determined by dividing room
  revenue by the number of
   rooms available for sale
Revenue per available
 Charged purchases made by
guest that are posed to folios
after guests have settled their
Late Charges
A service that allows guest to
   order an enjoy food in the
      privacy of their own
guestrooms or suites; it can be
 viewed as a status symbol or
 just a matter of convenience
Room Service
 A central reservations system
    that contacts to handle
reservations for more than one
          product line
Intersell agency
    Lodging and food service
 businesses that provide short-
term or transitional lodging and /
             or food
Hospitality Industry
A folio used to chart transactions
 on an account assigned to more
  than one person or guestroom
Master Folio
A key that opens all guestroom
 doors which are not double-
Master Key
  A form this is supplied by
   chemical’s manufacturer
containing information about a
Material Safety Data Sheet
What department administers
insurance and other benefit
Human Resources
What does a guest mix refer
The variety of guests who
     stay at a hotel
A reservation agreement in
 which the hotel agrees to
 hold a room for the guest
 until a stated reservation
cancellation hour on the day
          of arrival
A folio used to chart transactions
 on an account assigned to: (1) a
  local business or agency with
charge privileges at the hotel, (2)
 a group sponsoring a meeting at
the hotel, (3) a former guest with
 an outstanding account balance
Non-guest folio
  A guest who made a room
reservation but did not register
           or cancel
An occupancy ratio that indicated
 the proportion of rooms sold to
rooms available for sale during a
      specific period of time
Occupancy percentage
   A measurement of the
success of the hotel in selling
Occupancy ratios
A report prepared each night
  by a front desk agent which
list rooms occupied that night
 and indicated guest who are
   expected to check out the
          following day
Occupancy Report
A broad set of rules that protects
    workers in all trades and
  professions from a variety of
   unsafe working conditions
Occupational Safety and
  Health Act (OSHA)
A group of ratios that assist in
  the analysis of hospitality
Operating ratios
 A schematic representation of the
  relationships between positions
  within an organization, showing
  where each position fits into the
overall organization and illustrating
the decisions of responsibility and
          lies of authority
Organizational Chart
 Projects future revenue by
    multiplying predicted
occupancies by current house
Revenue forecast report
An imbalance that occurs when
the total of cash and checks in
   a cash register drawer is
  greater than the initial bank
     plus net cash receipts
 A property selected to receive
   central system reservation
request after room availabilities
  in the system’s participating
 properties within a geographic
  region have been exhausted
Overflow facilities
  A guest who pays his or her
  room charges in cash during
registration; PIA guests are often
      denied in house credit
Paid-in-advance (PIA)
A required level of performance
 that establishes the quality of
    work that must be done
Performance standard
  Used to track guest folio
balances that are settled to a
    credit card company
Permanent Folio
A guest who pays his or her
room charges in cash during
PIA (paid-in-advance)
A collection of important guest
  information created by the
front desk agent following the
         guest arrival
Registration record
  A manual record created by
the reservations as a result of
 the initial inquiry procedures
Reservation record
    An operating division or
department which sells good for
 services to guests and thereby
generates revenue for the hotel.
   The front office, food and
beverage outlets, room service,
  and retail stores are typical
        revenue centers
Revenue center
   An operating division or
 department which does not
 generate direct revenue but
plays a supporting role to the
   hotel’s revenue centers
Support center
An acronym for Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities,
       and Threats
    An important step in the
 strategic planning process; its
helps companies assess how well
  that are serving their current
SWOT analysis
A revenue management statistic
  that measure the revenue-
generating capability of a hotel
Revenue per available room
The price a hotel charges for
 overnight accommodations
Room rate
The perception of a property
by its guest or potential guest
Market Position
A report listing rooms that have
  not been sold at rack rates
Room rate variance report
    A situation in which the
  housekeeping department's
description of a room’s status
information that guides front
 desk employees in assigning
        rooms to guest.
Room status discrepancy
    A report that allows hotel
    employees to identify the
occupancy, status, and condition
  f properties rooms, typically
  prepared as part of the night
Room status report
  Lists, by room type, the
 number of rooms available
each day (the net remaining
  rooms in each category)
Rooms availability report
The process of identifying or
  defining smaller market
 segments within the larger
Market segmentation
Compares actual revenue and
   expense figures with
    budgeted amounts
Rooms division budget
A lodging market segment that
    often travels with their
 families on sightseeing trips,
 or on trips to visit friends or
Leisure travelers
   A charge imposed by some
hotels on guest who do not check
out by the established check-out
Late check-out fee
 The number of purchase units
consumed between the time that
 a supply is placed and the time
    that the order is actually
Lead-time quantity
A management strategy in which
 the same amount of capacity is
offered, no matter how high the
       consumer demand
Level-capacity strategy
     A document detailing a
  transaction to be posted to a
  front office account; used to
communicate information from a
 point of sale to the front office
 A guest who arrives at a
hotel without a reservation
A list of significant points to
  make when you present
 A computerized system, usually
  located in the hotel lobby, that
allows the guest to review his for
 her folio and settle the account
to the credit card used at check-
Self check-out terminal
Used to track “bill to”
 accounts receivable
Semi-permanent folio
Meeting customer needs in the
way that they want and expect
       them to be met
 An imbalance that occurs when
 the total cash and checks in a
cash register drawer is less than
  the initial bank plus net cash
   A guest who leave with not
intention of paying for the room
  A printed voucher, usually
serially numbered for internal-
  control purposes, from the
revenue-producing department
  showing an amount that is
        charged to a folio
Source document
  Determined by dividing the
   number of property room
nights sold by the total market
       room nights sold
Market Share
   A folio in which a guest’s
charges are separated into two
         or more folios
Split folios
A fully automated audit routine
that accomplishes many of the
   same functions as a non-
   computerized night audit
System Update
    Manages a hotel’s
computerized information
system. May write simple
 computer programs and
 instruction manuals for
Systems manager
The market segments for
which a property is best
Target markets
    A type of reservation
 guarantee under which the
hotel generally bills the travel
  agency after a guaranteed
    reservation has been
   classified as a no-show
Travel agent guaranteed
  A sales technique whereby a
     guest is offered a more
 expensive room than what he
  or she reserved or originally
requested, and then persuaded
 to rent the room based on the
 rooms features, benefits, and
        his or her needs.
The presence in the workplace
of people who differ in gender,
  culture, race, ethnicity, and
        other attributes
The standard rate for a particular
   room is typically called…
The rack rate
In the night audit, the process
    of balancing front office
  accounts with transactions
  information by department
Trial Balance
   An independent, nonprofit
organization that test electrical
   equipment and devices to
  ensure that the equipment is
free of defects that could cause
          fire or shock
Underwriters Laborites
A forecast specially prepared for
food and beverages, banquet, and
    catering operations which
 generally includes the expected
         number of guest
House count
  The amount which guest can
charge to their accounts without
  partial settlement; this high
  balance amount is set by the
House Limit
   A report the housekeeping
   department prepares that
      indicated the current
  housekeeping status of each
room, based on a physical check.
Housekeeping status report
 Food and beverage service for
small groups meetings, corporate
     meetings, organizations
    entertaining guest during
conventions, and other occasions,
 which are typically held in hotel
Hospitality Suite
What key is capable of opening
all guestroom doors, even when
     they are double locked?
Emergency Key
A property that is not affiliated
with any other property, chain,
        or corporation
Independent hotel
   Legislation that provides consistent
   guidelines about who is responsible
when third parties suffer because of an
  intoxicated person actions. Although
   these acts very form state to state,
  bartenders, servers, and owners can
often be help jointly liable if minor or an
   intoxicated person who then causes
             injury to others
Dram Shop Acts
Assigned to an in-house guest
for the purpose of charting the
  guest’s finical transactions
         with the hotel
Individual Folio
The primary products of
Intangible Products
 Part of the marketing audit
   that includes a written,
unbiased, self appraisal used
 to assess the strength and
 weaknesses of a property.
Property Analysis
A journal in which important
   front office events and
 decisions are recorded for
reference during subsequent
Log Book
   A reservation system that
   offers seating at specific
 intervals; at least 30 minutes
   must be allowed between
  serving periods to clean up,
reset tables, and otherwise get
    ready for the next thing
Interval Reservation
   What report projects future
revenue by multiplying predicted
  occupancies by current house
Revenue forecast report
Generally, the first few letters
   of a guest’s last name.
Identification Code
  A document that lists the
number of guestrooms allotted
 to each group and indicated
 whether the allotment is firm
         or tentative.
Guestroom control book
  A collection of information
kept at the front desk for front
     desk agents to use in
 responding to guest request
Information Directory
     A systematic approach to
 maintenance in which situations
  are identified and corrected on
the regular basis control cost and
    keep large problems from
Preventive maintenance
  When booking events, the
letter of agreement which list
   every detail that the two
  parties have discussed and
          agreed upon
A process whereby managers
 divide a varied market into
  distinctive and relatively
 homogenous subgroups or
Market segmentation
A printed form from a
 registration record
Registration card
 A modest but sufficient level of
  service which appeals to the
largest segment of the traveling
Mid-range service

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