Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 8 1. According to conflict theorists, societal conflict promotes crime by: 2. Which of the following is NOT a basic concern of critical criminologists? 3. The social ferment of the ____ gave birth to critical criminology. 4. The publication of Taylor, Walton, and Young’s __________ in 1973 gave a powerful boost to the conflict view and created a tradition for critical criminologists to question the role criminology plays in supporting the status quo and aiding the oppression of the poor and powerless. 5. According to critical theorists, crime is a: 6. Profits produced by the laboring classes are accrued by business owners who use these profits for reinvestment or to enrich themselves. This key crime-producing effort of modern corporate capitalism is termed: 7. Globalization is of particular concern for critical theorists. What concept inherent in globalization do critical theorists find problematic? 8. Critical theorists question the altruism of multi-national corporations and, therefore, take a very skeptical view of: 9. Supranational criminology is a specialization of critical theory that focuses on which type of crimes? 10. ____ describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government. 11. When a government or political authority makes use of death squads to kill political opponents, dissenters, or other undesirables, what type of crime has been committed? 12. Some government experts use the "ticking Bomb scenario," to justify which type of state crime? 13. According to this type of critical theory, the poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich, but the poor are certainly arrested and punished more often. 14. Instrumental theorists consider it essential to __________ law and justice - that is, to unmask its true purpose. 15. What is the key difference between instrumental theorists and structural theorists? 16. What type of research methodology is a critical criminologist most likely to employ? 17. Mainstream criminologists level a number of criticisms against critical criminology. Which is not one of those criticisms? 18. While mainstream criminologists criticize critical criminologists, what do critical criminologists accuse mainstream criminologists of doing? 19. __________ reflects a critical perspective that explains both the exploitation of women and women's criminality in terms of gender inequality and patriarchy. 20. According to Messerschmidt's views in Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Crime what factor explains why females in society commit fewer crimes than males? 21. John Hagan’s critical feminist model uses gender differences to explain the onset of criminality. According to Hagan's power-control theory, what two factors account for female crime and delinquency? 22. Girls growing up in ______ are socialized to fear legal sanctions more than males; consequently, boys in these families exhibit more delinquent behavior than their sisters. 23. According to power-control theory, which type of family produces daughters whose law-violating behavior mirrors that of their brothers? 24. John Lea and Jock Young, leaders of the leftist realism movement, contend that: 25. Lea and Young's left realism view of crime causation borrows from mainstream sociological theory and closely resembles the __________ approach. 26. Peacemaking criminologists view the efforts of the state to punish and control crime as: 27. Which of the following is true regarding restorative justice programs? 28. Some Native American communities use a peacemaking ceremony called __________ whereby groups of tribal elders, victims and community members meet with offenders in order to determine the best resolution for those accused of breaking the law. 29. A number of restorative justice experts, including Gordon Bazemore, have suggested that restorative justice should be organized around the principle of: 30. Which of the following is recognized as a challenge to restorative justice? Chapter 9 1. The integrative methodology in the early research of __________ formed the basis of today's developmental approach. 2. Public policy programs based on developmental theory: 3. Developmental theories attempt to provide a natural history of criminal careers by encompassing: 4. Latent trait theorists believe human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that results in: 5. How do life course theorists view criminality? 6. According to life course theories, criminal opportunity, effective guardianship, and apprehension risk are __________ factors that can explain the onset, continuance, and desistance from crime. 7. Because they combine personal, social, socialization, cognitive, and situational factors, life course theories are described as: 8. Which is an inaccurate statement about problem behaviors and problem behavior syndrome? 9. Using data from a longitudinal study of Pittsburgh youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior? 10. Bacon and Paternoster identified this pathway to crime characterized by staying out of trouble during adolescence, until late in one's teenage years, then becoming violent chronic offenders. 11. Aside from identifying several specific pathways to crime, what else did Lober discover about criminal pathways? 12. Why is early onset an important factor in crime? 13. One of the key principles of life course theory is that: 14. Life course theorists examine offending patterns and trends. Terrie Moffit describes adolescent-limited offenders as: 15. Life course theories integrate personal, social, socialization, situational and cognitive factors to explain human behavior. Personality and intelligence are __________ factors that can explain the onset and continuation of criminality. 16. Sampson and Laub’s research indicates that building __________ and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long-term deviance. 17. Which of the following is NOT one of the significant life-changing events that reduces criminality, according to Laub and Sampson? 18. Laub and Sampson identify life events that enable adult offenders to desist from crime. Accordingly, they identify transitions as short-term events embedded in: 19. Which of the following statements is inaccurate in terms of the empirical research supporting Laub and Sampson's age-graded theory? 20. According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear? 21. According to Wilson and Herrnstein's crime and human nature view, a criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses criminal over conventional behavior. What factor influences that choice? 22. Which of the following statements regarding gender differences and the general theory of crime is accurate? 23. In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi consider the criminal offender and the criminal act as _______concepts. 24. Because it assumes that human character is selfish, self-serving and hedonistic, the general theory of crime is criticized for: 25. According to the general theory of crime, being adventuresome, physical, and self- centered are all signs that a person possess: 26. Gottfredson and Hirschi trace the root cause of poor self-control to: 27. Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that the principles of self-control theory: 28. Critics of the GTC argue that white-collar criminals and organized crime bosses: 29. Although criminal offenders are people predisposed to crime, they are not robots who commit crime without restraint. According to the general theory of crime, change in the frequency of criminal activity is a function of: 30. Which empirical evidence supports the general theory of crime? Chapter 10 1. Personal traits can account for violent behavior. Psychologist Dorothy Ottnow Lewis found that murderous youths often suffer signs of: 2. Ineffective families have been linked to persistent violent offending. Which is not a factor characteristic of an ineffective family? 3. Sigmund Freud believed that human aggression and violence are produced by instinctual drives. ____ is the death instinct that is sometimes expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide and alcoholism. 4. Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior? 5. The Uniform Crime Report indicates that __________ of all murders and about two-fifths of all robberies involve firearms. 6. In their study of homicide, Kubrin and Weitzer found that when police and other agencies of formal social control are seen as ___________ some people are willing to take the law into their own hands and commit what the researchers called a “cultural retaliatory homicide.” 7. The common law definition of rape derives from the Latin word rapere meaning ______ and is defined as “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.” 8. Diana Russel’s concept of the virility mystique reflects which causal factor of why men commit rape? 9. According to Groth, every rape encounter contains at least one of three elements - anger, power, or: 10. Unlike any other crime, in a rape case it is essential to prove that the attack was forced and that no question of ____ exists. 11. In the 1991 case of Michigan v. Lucas, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the validity of ______ - laws that protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case. 12. First-degree murder occurs when a person kills another after _______ and deliberation. 13. When Diane Whipple died after being attacked by two large dogs in the hallway of her apartment building, one of the dogs’ owners was convicted of manslaughter based on 14. Research indicates a variety of facts about murder. Which of the following murder facts is inaccurate? 15. One type of interpersonal violence is child abuse. Which age group suffers the highest rate of child abuse victimization? 16. Women are often victimized by their intimate partners, whether in married or dating relationships. How many high school girls are estimated to experience sexual or physical 17. A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbers. What do these studies indicate? 18. Wright and Decker found that most armed robberies are motivated by a pressing need for: 19. In 2007, the FBI recorded 7,700 hate crime incidents that involved 9,500 victims. Most of these hate crime incidents were motivated by: 20. Frederick Lawrence argues that criminals motivated by bias deserve to be punished more severely than those who commit identical crimes for other motives. Why is this so? 21. Workplace violence is the third leading cause of occupational injury or death. Who is the typical offender in incidents of workplace violence? 22. ____ are typically located in rural areas and attack military, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government. 23. This term began to be used during the Iraq war and described the forces opposed to American involvement. Members are typically organized into covert groups who engage in organized campaigns of extreme violence. 24. Which type of terrorism uses violence to frighten those in power and their supporters in order to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views? 25. _____ and the use of government troops to destroy political opposition parties are often associated with Latin American political terrorism. 26. Hamas and Hezbollah are examples of ____ terrorist groups – terrorists that promote the interests of a minority, ethnic, or religious group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule and wishes to carve out its own independent homeland. 27. One view of terrorist motivation is that terrorists are emotionally disturbed individuals who act out their psychosis within the confines of violent groups. What did mental health expert Randy Borum conclude about this view? 28. According to the alienation view of terrorist motivation, terrorists are relatively “ordinary” people who believe that a suicide mission will: 29. According to Graham Allison in his book Nuclear Terrorism, what percentage of the 50,000 daily cargo containers to the United States are screened? 30. In response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Congress passed the USA Patriot Act, creating a ________ who was charged with coordinating data from the nation’s primary intelligence-gathering agencies.
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