Tips Tactics and Truths

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					“Let your light so shine that the world will know you
are an osteopathic physician pure and simple, and
that no prouder title can follow a human name.”
Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, Founder of Osteopathic Medicine

     Tips, Tactics
     and Truths:
     A Guide to Making the Most of Your
     Osteopathic Medical Education

                                                                                                                                TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Osteopathic Pledge of Commitment                       iii   International Osteopathic Medicine                   10
                                                                Osteopathic International Alliance                10
                                                                DOCArE International                              10
                                                             Student Organizations                                11
A Few Important Thoughts on                            1
                                                               Student Osteopathic Medical Association (SOMA)     11
Osteopathic Medicine
                                                               Council of Osteopathic Student Government          11
A Brief History of Osteopathic Medicine                1       Presidents (COSGP)
  A Timeline of Osteopathic Medicine in History        2
                                                             Getting Started: Your Life in Osteopathic            13
The American Osteopathic Association:                  5     Medical School
Your Connection to Your Osteopathic Family                     Osteopathic Medical Education: Where the Average   13
  What is the AOA?                                     5       is Above Average
  AOA Student Benefits                                 5       Prevention is the Key to Health – Even for You     13
  Do I Need to Sign up for the AOA?                    6
  Make Sure You Keep Your Contact                      6     YOur YEArS IN OSTEOPATHIC
  Information updated                                        MEDICAL SCHOOL
  What Else Can I do?                                  6     OMS I: Prepare Yourself for Science Courses          14
  The AOA: Become Involved Now                         6      Some Goals for Your First Year                      14
  Connect with the AOA                                 7      Strategies for Studying and Time Management         14
  The AOA and the American Medical Association (AMA)   7      Introduction to Osteopathic Manipulative            14
  The AOA’s role in Approval and Accreditation         7      Medicine (OMM)
  AOA Board Certification and Approval                 8      Your First-Year Classes                             15
  of Certification Standard                                   Ask Faculty for Help                                16
                                                              Tutoring and Other Help                             16
How to Make a Difference in Your State and in          9
Washington, DC                                               OMS II                                               17
  DO Day on Capitol Hill – Students and DOs            9      Your Second-Year Classes                            17
  Advocate for the Profession                                 The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing     17
  Make It Your GOAL to Help the Profession             9      Examination - uSA (COMLEX-uSA)
                                                              COMLEX-uSA Level 1                                  17
                                                              Level 1 Scores                                      18

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                                                                                                                                           TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
OMS III                                                 19   Your Life After Residency                                       28
 Clinical rotations                                     19     Let’s Get Board Certified                                     28
 The Start of Your Transition to Internship/residency   19     Continuing Medical Education (CME)                            28
 Let’s Connect: Your Introduction to the Match          19     Osteopathic Continuous Certification (OCC):                   28
 Introduction to the Electronic residency Application   20     Your Commitment to Life-Long Learning and Assessment
 Service (ErAS)
 The AOA Match                                          21   Other Osteopathic Resources and Opportunities                   30
 Important Match Dates for 2010-2011                    21     Associations and Websites                                     30
 NrMP Match                                             21     Council of Student Affairs (CSA) – Be involved as a student   30
 Military Match                                         22     Council of Interns and residents (CIr) –                      30
                                                               Stay involved as your training continues
OMS IV – You’re Almost a DO!                            23
                                                               Mentors                                                       30
 COMLEX-uSA Level 2-CE                                  23
                                                               State and Specialty Colleges                                  30
 COMLEX-uSA Level 2-PE                                  23
                                                               Financial Planning                                            31
 COMLEX-uSA Part 2-CE/PE Scoring                        23
                                                                 The Free Application for Federal Student Aid:
 COMLEX-uSA Level 3                                     24
                                                                 Your First Step                                             31
 Your Completion of the Match Process                   24
                                                               Types of Loans                                                31
 Important Match Dates for 2010-2011                    24
                                                                  Stafford Loans                                             31
 Types of AOA-Approved Internship/residency Programs    24
                                                                  Alternative Loans                                          31
 Selecting an AOA Internship/residency Program          25
                                                                  Time to repay                                              31
 or ACGME Program
                                                               Grants Available                                              32
  How to Size up a Program                              25
  Interviewing for Internship/residency                 25   A Few Final Words on Your Future                                32
  Ensure the Best Possible Match                        26
  removal from One of the Match Programs                26
  A Few reminders on the Match                          26   ATTACHMENTS
  From Internship to residency                          27   Attachment One: Prominent DOs                                   33
  Submitting Annual residency reports                   27
                                                             Attachment Two: AOA Contact List                                37
The AOA and the Accreditation Council for               27
Graduate Medical Education’s (ACGME)                         Attachment Three: Commonly Used Acronyms                        38
Role in Approving and Accrediting                            in Osteopathic Medicine
Residency Programs
                                                             Attachment Four: OMT Terminology:                               41
  Approval of ACGME Training as an                      27
                                                             Common OMT Techniques Defined
  AOA-OGME-1 Year
                                                             Attachment Five: Osteopathic Style Guide                        42

                                                             Attachment Six: State and Specialty Societies                   43

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                                                                   O S T E O PAT H I C P L E D G E O F C O M M I T M E N T
I pledge to:

• Provide compassionate, quality care
  to my patients;

• Partner with them to promote health;

• Display integrity and professionalism
  throughout my career;

• Advance the philosophy, practice
  and science of osteopathic medicine;

• Continue life-long learning;

• Support my profession with loyalty in
  action, word and deed; and

• Live each day as an example of what an
  osteopathic physician should be.

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                                                                                                                                                       A F E W I M P O r TA N T T H O u G H T S
Introduction                                                          osteopathic physicians: Paul S. Saenz, DO, San Antonio Spurs;
                                                                      and Benjamin J. Paolucci, DO, Detroit Pistons. While these two
                                                                      osteopathic physicians maintain prominent roles in professional
A Few Important Thoughts on                                           sports to illustrate the “DO difference,” there are many others that
Osteopathic Medicine                                                  do so in different ways. Cmdr. richard Jadick, DO, MC, uSN,
As an incoming student of osteopathic medicine, you probably          was declared an American hero on the cover of Newsweek in
know that both DOs and MDs are fully-licensed physicians who          2006. The Newsweek article detailed how he provided emergency
perform surgery and prescribe medication. This leads many             medical care on the front lines of the Second Battle of Fallujah. His
students to wonder about the difference between osteopathic           valiant efforts helped save the lives of dozens of American troops.
and allopathic medicine. There is an important difference.            Dr. Jadick’s commitment to serving his country and to osteopathic
                                                                      principles and practices was appreciated across the country. See
In short, a DO is highly trained on the structural system of the      Attachment One for a list of influential DOs who make their
body. The added training educates osteopathic physicians on a         professional family proud.
non-invasive hands-on treatment called osteopathic manipulative
treatment (OMT). In addition, the osteopathic medical student         A Brief History of Osteopathic Medicine
devotes himself or herself to a very extensive education that
                                                                      You may already know about the history of osteopathic
emphasizes the osteopathic principles of preventive medicine.
                                                                      medicine, but it never hurts to know more about the history of
Together, the osteopathic principles and practices encourage
                                                                      the field you’re entering. Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, developed
osteopathic physicians to regard the human body as an integrated
                                                                      osteopathic medicine in 1874. Dr. Still was dissatisfied with
whole, rather than just a sum of its parts.
                                                                      the effectiveness of nineteenth-century medicine. He believed
                                                                      that many of the medical treatments of his day were useless or
Patients recognize that DOs offer a patient-centered, hands-on,
                                                                      even harmful. Dr. Still was one of the first physicians to study
“whole person” approach to medicine. The osteopathic principles
                                                                      the effects of good health on disease, eventually pioneering the
and practices can be seen each time an osteopathic physician
                                                                      concept of “wellness” more than 130 years ago.
conducts a health assessment. DOs treat the overall health of
each individual patient – often asking questions about home and
                                                                      In response to his studies, Dr. Still developed a philosophy of
work environments, stress levels and other factors, during an
                                                                      medicine based on ideas that dated back to Hippocrates, the
                                                                      father of medicine. The philosophy focuses on the unity of all body
                                                                      parts. He identified the musculoskeletal system as a key element
The DO credentials signify an understanding of the body and
                                                                      in the achievement of good health. Dr. Still recognized the body’s
the foresight to ask patients the right questions to find the right
                                                                      ability to heal itself and stressed preventive medicine, such as a
solutions and to provide the highest quality of patient-centered
                                                                      healthy lifestyle of eating well and staying fit. He believed that the
care. The distinctive medical care that DOs provide has long been
                                                                      osteopathic physician acts as a teacher to help patients take more
known and celebrated as the “DO difference.”
                                                                      responsibility for their own well-beings and to change unhealthy
Many influential business and political leaders have turned to
osteopathic medicine over the years, including John D. rockefeller
                                                                      Here’s a timeline beginning with osteopathic medicine’s founder.
and Henry Kissinger, as well as Presidents Franklin D. roosevelt,
                                                                      For more detailed information, visit the History of Osteopathic
Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and George H. Bush.
                                                                      Medicine Virtual Museum or read one of the many books that
DOs’ hands-on approach to medical care is often preferred for
                                                                      follow the proud history of our profession.
professional athletic teams and Olympians. For instance, the
head physicians for both teams of the 2005 NBA Finals were

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Timeline                                                                   Today, osteopathic medical schools in the united States still
                                                                           follow Flexner’s recommended format. In fact, almost 100 years
                                                                           later, osteopathic medical schools train each physician to be a
A Timeline of Osteopathic Medicine’s                                       “social instrument . . . whose function is fast becoming social and
History                                                                    preventive, rather than individual and curative.”
1828: Andrew Taylor Still is born in Virginia and eventually studies
medicine under his father. After serving as a physician in the Civil       1917: Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, passes away.
War amid horrific health conditions and losing three of his children
to spinal meningitis, Dr. Still recognizes the limitations of allopathic   1918: The Great Swine influenza pandemic. As antibiotics
medicine. Osteopathic medicine is born from Dr. Still’s goal of            are not yet used in medical practices, people are frequently
trying to prevent disease rather than treat it afterward. He pursues       infected with bacterial pneumonia after contracting the flu. The
a medical system independent of drugs, except for antiseptics              conventional treatment is a mercury compound, calomel, which
and antidotes for poison, because he believes that diseases are            acts as a cathartic. To ease a patient’s suffering, doctors give
the result of anatomical abnormalities followed by physiological           Dover’s powder, a substance primarily made from opium, for
discord.                                                                   aches, and strychnine for heart trouble.

1874: Dr. Still identifies the principles and practices of                 However, osteopathic physicians perform OMT to increase the
osteopathic medicine, which support the belief that the                    hyper sympathetic tone, improve breathing and facilitate immunity
human body, much like a machine, ought to function well if it              functions. DOs also apply preventive measures like isolation,
is mechanically sound. You can learn more about Dr. Still’s life           hygiene and fluid intake.
and work by visiting the A.T. Still university’s online Still National
Osteopathic Museum.                                                        The differences in patient outcomes are remarkable. Patients
                                                                           treated by DOs report a mortality rate less than 1% while others
1892: The first osteopathic medical school opens in Kirksville,            treated by allopathic physicians suffer from a mortality rate of
Missouri. Originally named the American School of Osteopathy,              5-15%.
A.T. Still university Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine has
only 18 students in its first graduating class in March 1894.              1918: Harrison H. Fryette, DO, a graduate of the Chicago
                                                                           College of Osteopathic Medicine, publishes Physiologic
1896: Vermont is the first state to license DOs.                           Motion, which describes Principles I and II of thoracic and
                                                                           lumbar spinal motion.
1897: The American Association for the Advancement of
Osteopathy, now the American Osteopathic Association, is                   1941: Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, The Military
founded by students of the American School of Osteopathy.                  Appropriations Act officially recognizes DOs in the nation’s
                                                                           military services. However, DOs are still excluded from the armed
1910: The Flexner Report is published. Professor Abraham                   forces’ medical corps.
Flexner writes the report that radically changes the way medical
schools operate in the united States. After visiting all 155               1950s: The osteopathic medical profession requests a hearing
American medical schools and reviewing their different entrance            before the Armed Services Subcommittee of the U.S. Senate in
requirements, sizes, training facilities, financial conditions             the mid-1950s. The request is granted and the hearing results in
and relationships with hospitals, Flexner’s report makes                   legislation granting DOs eligibility for military commissions.
recommendations to standardize the system.

He recommends modeling medical education after Johns
Hopkins university. Many schools do not meet his recommended
standards and nearly half of the 155 schools close or merge
with other institutions. By enforcing the Flexner standards, the
AOA revolutionizes the colleges of osteopathic medicine, which
ensures the survival of osteopathic medicine.

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1952: John Cline, MD, is appointed to a national committee to           1966: DOs are accepted as physicians and surgeons in all
investigate the American Medical Association’s (AMA) position           branches of the military. Additionally, DOs are commissioned
on DOs as “cultists.” The AMA considers it unethical for an MD          into the U.S. Military and Medicare programs accept the AOA
to associate with a DO. The consequence of association with an          as an accrediting agency for osteopathic health care facilities.
osteopathic physician is expulsion from the AMA.
                                                                        1969: The AMA changes its bylaws to allow DOs to train in
1953: Dr. Cline meets with DOs and the AOA. He reports                  allopathic residencies.
his conclusions to the AMA that DOs are not “cultists.” He
recommends osteopathic medical school site visits to prove              1970: The AOA approves a policy allowing osteopathic medical
that the institutions meet the same criteria as allopathic medical      school graduates to train within the AMA graduate medical
schools.                                                                education system.

1955: The AOA grants site visits to osteopathic medical                 1973: All 50 states and the District of Columbia grant DOs full
colleges. The report from the campus visits establishes that            practice rights.
osteopathic medical students spend more time in school than their
allopathic counterparts. In addition, the report communicates to        1994: The AOA inaugurates its first African-American President,
the AMA that osteopathic medical students are better educated in        William G. Anderson, DO.
the basic sciences, especially anatomy.
                                                                        1998: The AOA launches the Campaign for Osteopathic Unity.
Finally, the report asks again that the “cultist” label be removed      The campaign has three goals: accentuating the distinctiveness of
from osteopathic medicine. unfortunately, the AMA refuses.              DOs and osteopathic medicine, making “DO” a household word,
                                                                        and unifying the osteopathic medical profession.
1957: It is discovered that California State officials have secretly
eliminated statements of DO separateness and independent                2000: The AOA unveils a public education component of the
thought. The officials propose that the AOA do the same.                Campaign for Osteopathic Unity in October. The new element
                                                                        includes national advertising. The ads are created to impact
1961: The California Medical Association and the California             the primary health care decision-makers in the home—women
Osteopathic Association merge. The merger replaces the                  between the ages of 35 and 54. The series promotes relevant
College of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons (COPS) with an           medical specialties for this market such as family practice,
allopathic medical college, the California College of Medicine in       obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine and pediatrics. The
Los Angeles. The new school gives MD degrees to its DO faculty.         ads run periodically in Redbook, Reader’s Digest Family Edition,
                                                                        Oprah, American Baby, Self and Parents magazines through May
DOs are offered an MD degree after attending 12 Saturday classes        2002.
and paying a $65 fee. A year later, Proposition 22 abolishes the
California osteopathic licensing board. Approximately 85% of            2002: The Campaign for Osteopathic Unity continues to spread
practicing California DOs exchange their DO credentials for MD          the word about DOs and osteopathic medicine with a new
credentials. However, the credentials are not recognized outside        advertising campaign, “I Can DO Anything …Thanks To My
the state. A new state osteopathic organization is promptly             DO.” The two-color ads run periodically in People and US Weekly
organized by the AOA to facilitate retention of the osteopathic         through March 2003.
identity among California DOs.
                                                                        2004: As the first phase of the Campaign for Osteopathic Unity
Surprisingly, the challenges in California become the catalyst for      ends, the AOA creates Unity II. The second campaign found on
obtaining full licensure in all 50 states. The argument for licensure   unity within the profession to instill a greater sense of professional
is based on the COPS’ conversion to an allopathic medical school        loyalty among all DOs and osteopathic medical students.
with few curriculum changes and no additional training for DOs.

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2005: Research from Unity II results in the AOA re-branding
initiative. The AOA unveils its new brand, including a new logo
and tagline, in October. The new brand renews the AOA’s position
as a DO’s professional family.

The AOA visits the White House for the fourth time in five years in
support of the patient bill of rights.

2006: The AOA launches the AOA President’s Blog on its website,
allowing members of the osteopathic family to connect directly
with the 2006-07 President, John A. Strosnider, DO.

2008: The AOA creates group pages on social media sites,
MySpace and Facebook.

2009: The DO magazine becomes a strictly online publication.

2010: The AOA inaugurates its first female president, Karen J.
Nichols, DO.

For current statistics on the osteopathic medical profession,
including statistics on the number of living DOs, number of
students enrolled in colleges of osteopathic medicine, and
their breakdown by gender, ethnic group and college, visit the
Osteopathic Medical Profession Report on

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American Osteopathic Association:                                       perspectives on AOA strategic policy and other medical issues.
Treating Our Family and Yours                                           Members of this division are always accessible to you. Contact
                                                                        the Division of Student, Intern, resident and Member Affairs with
What is the AOA?                                                        questions or to request assistance, at or
The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the professional
                                                                        (800) 621-1773, ext. 8126.
family for osteopathic physicians and osteopathic medical
students. There are over to 18,000 osteopathic medical students
                                                                        Within the Department of Education, the Division of Postdoctoral
and more than 70,000 DOs. More than 20% of the DO population
                                                                        Training facilitates the Match, internship and residency
is under the age of 35.
                                                                        opportunities, the Electronic residency Application Service
                                                                        (ErAS), and individual training approval. For questions about
The AOA is more than just a membership organization. The AOA
                                                                        these issues contact the division staff at (800) 621-1773, ext.
supports quality education throughout the entire osteopathic
medical education continuum. Through its Commission on
Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA), the AOA is the
                                                                        While these two divisions directly relate to your osteopathic
federally-recognized accrediting authority for colleges of
                                                                        medical education, the entire AOA is your osteopathic professional
osteopathic medicine. It supports osteopathic postdoctoral
                                                                        family. Please contact staff in any department at any point in your
training institutions, osteopathic internships and residencies, and
                                                                        osteopathic career for assistance.
osteopathic continuing medical education providers throughout
the country. The AOA is also the recognized authority for
                                                                        The AOA maintains two official office locations: Chicago and
osteopathic certifying boards and has deeming authority from the
                                                                        Washington, DC. The Washington, DC, office houses the
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to accredit hospitals
                                                                        Department of Government relations. This department handles
and health care facilities.
                                                                        federal legislative and regulatory issues. The remaining 12
                                                                        departments are housed within the Chicago office. refer to
More than 60% of the AOA’s annual budget supports these
                                                                        Attachment Two for a complete contact information list.
regulatory activities, which ultimately affect your ability to attend
medical school and practice as an osteopathic physician.
                                                                        The AOA’s mission is to advance the distinctive philosophy and
The organizational structure of the association facilitates your
                                                                        practice of osteopathic medicine. The AOA’s vision is to be the
education and future practice as well. Currently, the AOA has 13
                                                                        professional home for all osteopathic physicians.

•   Department of Accreditation                                         The AOA’s Student Benefits
•   Department of Internal and External Affairs                         As your professional family, the AOA offers every osteopathic
•   Department of Communications                                        medical student complimentary membership to facilitate
•   Department of Education                                             participation within the organization and provide you with the
•   Executive Department                                                resources you’ll need throughout your career.
•   Department of Finance
•   Department of Government relations                                  Your AOA membership card will arrive in the mail at the beginning
•   Department of Human resources                                       of your first year of osteopathic medical school. Your AOA
•   Department of Information Technology                                membership card will provide your assigned AOA number. This
•   Department of Membership                                            number will remain the same throughout your life. It is with
•   Department of Publications                                          this identification number that the AOA will maintain important
•   Department of Quality, research and Public Health                   credentialing information for you to begin your practice.
•   Department of State, Affiliate, Socioeconomic and Internal

The Division of Student, Intern, resident and Member Affairs is
within the Department of Membership. This division is in constant
communication with osteopathic medical students to gather

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                                                                                                                                                 T H E A O A : Y O u r C O N N E C T I O N T O Y O u r O S T E O P A T H I C F A M I LY
Your AOA number is your vehicle for accessing the members-         The AOA also works closely with affiliated organizations. These
only portal of Visit the Student section of       organizations offer great benefits to ease your transition from, specifically designed to meet the needs of        osteopathic medical student to osteopathic physician, such as
osteopathic medical students. This section contains all of the     online forums, osteopathic medical meetings and conventions.
information students need as they try to navigate through          Your involvement in affiliate organizations can assist you in
osteopathic medical school.                                        securing the optimal internship, residency or future practice.

If you haven’t yet received your AOA membership card, you can      Do I Need to Sign Up for the AOA?
register here on or contact the AOA Member         No. Your membership automatically began when you became an
Service Center at or (800) 621-1773,           osteopathic medical student. If you have yet to receive information
option 1.                                                          from the AOA, contact the AOA Member Service Center to ensure
                                                                   the AOA has your correct contact information.
Some of’s features for students include:

• The AOA President’s Blog, which offers the entire                Make Sure You Keep Your Contact
  osteopathic family an opportunity to speak directly with 2010-   Information Updated
  2011 AOA President, Karen J. Nichols, DO.                        We know your schedule is busy but it’s important to keep
• The iLearn AOA Mentor Program, which matches                     your contact information up to date in AOA records. Keeping
  osteopathic medical students with practicing osteopathic         your contact information accurate allows the AOA to remain in
  physicians in specific specialties and/or locations so that      contact with you throughout osteopathic medical school to offer
  they may communicate via e-mail, in person, on rotation, or      educational, leadership and other opportunities along the way. In
  however is most beneficial.                                      addition, as your career progresses, you will need the information
                                                                   the AOA accumulates for professional credentialing. So keep in
• The Mentor Recognition Program to nominate a
  deserving mentor.

• Links to social networking sites, Facebook, LinkedIn and         What Else Can I Do?
  others.                                                          Joining osteopathic medical student organizations like the Student
• The Opportunities page, a searchable database of all             Osteopathic Medical Association (SOMA) and state or specialty
  osteopathic internships and residencies.                         organizations can help you network nationally with other students
                                                                   and may help shape your interests in leadership, specialties,
• Information on postdoctoral internship and residency policy
                                                                   advocacy or community service. The importance of creating
  and procedures.
                                                                   relationships within the osteopathic medical profession cannot be
• Frequently Asked Questions for students, including details       overstressed. Being an active participant in your profession will
  about the Performance Evaluation (PE) clinical assessment        enhance your career and make you feel closer to the osteopathic
  component of the exam.                                           family.

• DO Jobs Online, the profession’s job board that includes
                                                                   You may also apply to serve as a student representative on
  residencies and unfilled post-match internships.
                                                                   one of the AOA’s many bureaus, councils and committees. The
• Advocacy news and resources.                                     application process begins in January of each year for students
• Tips to update your contact information and other items          to serve from July to June. Each student representative serves
  through the online AOA Member Service Center.                    alongside the leaders and experts of the osteopathic medical
                                                                   profession and there are positions available in every aspect of
Other student benefits include DO Day on Capitol Hill; free
                                                                   the profession: education, research, international affairs, federal
registration to OMED, The AOA’s annual Osteopathic Medical
                                                                   policy, and communications.
Conference & Exposition; free online subscriptions to The DO and
the JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association;
discounts on GEICO auto insurance, Epocrates software, and
T-Mobile phone plans, and financial products and services.

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                                                                                                                                                    T H E A O A : Y O u r C O N N E C T I O N T O Y O u r O S T E O P A T H I C F A M I LY
The AOA: Become Involved Now
As a future DO, you can be a part of change! Issues like health       ultimately, the AOA is the only organization that advocates for and
care reform and professional liability insurance (PLI) premiums are   protects the welfare of the osteopathic medical profession and
problems that practicing physicians face everyday.                    its DOs.

Championing these and other issues is important for the entire        The AOA’s Role in Approval and Accreditation
profession. Moreover, your advocacy will further enrich your          There are many institutions and programs for which the AOA
passion for osteopathic medicine as you witness the effects of        provides regulatory oversight. “Accreditation” and “approval” are
your efforts on your community.                                       two forms of recognition the AOA uses to certify the quality of
                                                                      osteopathic institutions and programs. Institutions and programs
Keeping yourself abreast of medical news within and beyond            that the AOA accredits and those that it approves follow:
osteopathic medicine is also extremely important. Issues and
concerns about practice management change as often as new             Accreditation of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
developments in medical technology.                                   The u.S. Department of Education (uSDE) recognizes the AOA’s
                                                                      COCA as the only accrediting agency for colleges of osteopathic
Connect with the AOA                                                  medicine (COMs). AOA accreditation means that a COM correctly
Through the AOA groups on social media sites, you can network         and appropriately defined its mission; secured the resources to
with your osteopathic family, receive multi-media updates, and        accomplish that mission; shows evidence that it is accomplishing
join in the conversation.                                             its mission; and demonstrates the determination to continue that
                                                                      mission. Other requirements for accreditation through COCA
• Subscribe to the AOA’s YouTube Channel
                                                                      • Each COM must incorporate the science of medicine;
• Join the AOA group page or “like” the DO page on Facebook
                                                                        osteopathic principles and practices; the art of caring; and the
• Network with other osteopathic professionals on LinkedIn              power of touch within a curriculum that teaches the importance
• Follow The DO magazine on Twitter                                     of the interrelationship of structure and function for diagnostic
                                                                        and therapeutic purposes.
• Follow the AOA’s Department of Government relations’
  activities on Twitter                                               • Each COM must educate osteopathic medical students to
                                                                        address the body as a whole in both disease and health; and
The AOA and the American Medical Association                            each institution should teach homeostasis and self-regulation
(AMA)                                                                   as the cornerstones of preventive health care.
The AOA is the organization distinctly created for the osteopathic    Osteopathic Postdoctoral Training Program Approval
medical profession and the American Medical Association (AMA)         Your internship and residency are fundamental parts of becoming
is its counterpart within the allopathic profession. However, the     a DO. While educating you in the skills you will need in practice,
AOA has authority to accredit hospitals and other health care         these programs reinforce the hands-on approach that is central to
facilities; approve internship and residency programs; and accredit   the ideals of osteopathic medicine.
continuing medical education (CME) sponsors.
                                                                      • The AOA’s Program and Trainee review Council (PTrC)
                                                                        reviews, evaluates and approves osteopathic graduate medical
The AOA is the accrediting authority for colleges of osteopathic
                                                                        education programs.
medicine through its Commission on Osteopathic College
Accreditation (COCA). Conversely, the free-standing Liaison           • The AOA assists directors of medical education (DMEs),
Committee on Medical Education (LCME) is the accrediting                residency program directors, faculty and other professionals
authority for allopathic medical schools in the united States and       in providing interns and residents with the highest quality
Canada.                                                                 graduate medical education (GME).

Both the AOA and the AMA share many of the same goals and
agenda items. Both are committed to physicians’ professional
lives; improving the nation’s health care; advocating for both
physicians and patients; and PLI reform.

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                                                                                                                                                       T H E A O A : Y O u r C O N N E C T I O N T O Y O u r O S T E O P A T H I C F A M I LY
OPTI Accreditation                                                     Through the AOA, specialty certifying boards offer certification
In 1995, the AOA adopted a new system of osteopathic                   in both primary specialties, such as family practice, internal
graduate medical education (OGME). The system is based on              medicine, neuromusculoskeletal medicine and general surgery;
osteopathic postdoctoral training institutions (OPTIs). Every OPTI     and in subspecialties, like cardiology, gastroenterology, sports
is a community-based training consortium that includes at least        medicine and sleep medicine.
one AOA-accredited college of osteopathic medicine and one
AOA-accredited hospital, but most OPTIs partner with additional        There are many reasons to pursue AOA board certification:
institutions including ambulatory care facilities, rehabilitation
                                                                       • Approximately 85% of practicing physicians in the united
centers and surgery centers. The AOA requires that all OGME
                                                                         States are board certified. Certification demonstrates a high
training programs belong to at least one OPTI. Then, the OPTIs
                                                                         standard of physician excellence.
must be accredited by the AOA. OPTIs allow a number of facilities
to combine resources so that they can provide osteopathic interns      • Patients seek out physicians who have taken the extra step
and residents with an optimal education experience and quality           to receive board certification. Your professional credentials
rotations within their OPTI.                                             demonstrate your commitment to quality of service and to life
                                                                         long learning.
Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program                            • Many health care facilities, insurance companies and managed
This program accredits hospitals and other health care facilities.       care organizations require physicians to be board certified.
The AOA’s accrediting authority is recognized by the federal
                                                                       • If you wish to serve as a program director for an osteopathic
government; state governments; Medicare and Medicaid carriers;
                                                                         residency program or a director of medical education, you must
and insurance companies including managed care organizations.
                                                                         be AOA board certified.

CME Sponsor Accreditation                                              Beginning on Jan. 1, 2013, the process for recertification will
The AOA also accredits osteopathic continuing medical education        change from being a single event to a continuous, life long
(CME) sponsors. These individuals are authorized to provide AOA        process, known as Osteopathic Continuous Certification (OCC).
Category 1-A credit to DOs. Category 1-A CME credits are earned        OCC will serve as a way in which you, as a board-certified DO,
by attending formal osteopathic education programs designed to         maintain currency and demonstrate competency in your specialty
enhance clinical competence and improve patient care.                  area. To maintain your certification as a DO, you will be required to
                                                                       participate in the five components of the OCC process.
The AOA established its CME requirements to ensure that its            • Component 1- unrestricted Licensure
members keep current in their chosen medical specialty and
                                                                       • Component 2- Life Long Learning/Continuing Medical
continue to include osteopathic principles and practices to benefit
the health and well-being of their patients. In addition, many
states require physicians to earn CME to maintain their license.       • Component 3- Cognitive Assessment
All AOA certifying boards require DOs to earn CME to maintain
                                                                       • Component 4- Practice Performance Assessment and
certification. After completion of residency, AOA members are
required to earn a minimum of 120 credits of CME, 30 credits
which must be in Category 1-A over a set three-year cycle.             • Component 5- Continuous AOA Membership
residents who complete training mid-cycle will have a pro-rated
requirement depending on when the cycle ends.
                                                                       For answers to frequently asked questions about OCC and
                                                                       more details on each component, visit the OCC section of
AOA Board Certification and Approval
of Certification Standards
The AOA oversees the work of the 18 specialty certifying boards,
reviewing each board’s requirements for certification to ensure that
each board creates a valid and defensible certification process.

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                                                                                                                                                      HOW TO MAKE A DIFFErENCE
How to Make a Difference in Your State                               Prior to DO Day, participants receive literature on the key issues
and in Washington, DC                                                to be discussed with these politicians. The AOA also hosts events
                                                                     to prepare students for the meetings, such as an Advocacy 101
The AOA’s Department of Government relations (DGr) advocates
                                                                     session the evening before DO Day and a legislative briefing
on your behalf to the u.S. Administration, Congress and other
                                                                     breakfast the morning of the meeting.
federal agencies. In addition, the AOA’s Division of State
Government and International Affairs collaborates with state and
                                                                     DO Day is exhilarating – the AOA hosts many events throughout
specialty organizations in advocating for favorable legislation on
                                                                     the day to educate members of Capitol Hill, including press
a local level.
                                                                     conferences and visits to individual Congressional offices. In
                                                                     addition, the occasion offers an excellent opportunity for you to
The AOA’s legislative priorities are selected by the AOA Bureau
                                                                     network with other osteopathic medical students, DOs and the
of Federal Health Programs every two years to coincide
                                                                     nation’s top health policy makers.
with each two-year congressional term. The DGr prepares
recommendations for the bureau based on policies set by the
                                                                     While it can be intimidating to have an appointment with your
AOA House of Delegates, the current political environment and
                                                                     state’s senator or representative, it is important to facilitate their
the AOA’s mission.
                                                                     understanding of osteopathic medicine and the important issues
                                                                     facing physicians and students. This type of political involvement
The Bureau of Federal Health Programs meets three times a year
                                                                     helps secure the osteopathic medical profession’s future.
to discuss policy and make recommendations on health care
issues before Congress.
                                                                     In 2010, DO Day on Capitol Hill united more than 700 members of
                                                                     the osteopathic family to advocate for the profession. Osteopathic
In addition, state and specialty osteopathic medical associations
                                                                     medical students accounted for 507 of the participants. DO Day
participate in the AOA’s advocacy activities. You can influence
                                                                     participants visited over 245 House of representatives’ offices
change by becoming involved with these organizations.
                                                                     and 84 Senate offices to discuss osteopathic medicine and
Osteopathic medical students offer fresh insight on issues that
                                                                     Medicare reimbursement.
affect the profession and shape the future of health care.

Current hot topics:                                                  The date for 2011’s DO Day on Capitol Hill is April 7. Please plan
• Health System reform                                               on attending; your professional family needs your enthusiasm
• PLI (Personal Liability Insurance) reform                          and passion to continue its proud tradition of advocacy and
• Access to health care for the uninsured                            advancement.
• rural health care
• Medicare and Medicaid                                              Make It Your GOAL to Help the Profession
• Patient safety                                                     The Grassroots Osteopathic Advocacy Link (GOAL) provides
                                                                     DOs, osteopathic medical students and other members of the
Go to the Advocacy page on to read more
                                                                     osteopathic family with information and advocacy tools to help
about AOA’s legislative and regulatory advocacy efforts.
                                                                     them participate in the political process. After arming GOAL
                                                                     members with up-to-date health care policy information, members
DO Day on Capitol Hill – Students and DOs
                                                                     can proactively educate policy makers and help shape the future
Advocate for the Profession
                                                                     of health care.
Each spring, osteopathic physicians and osteopathic medical
                                                                     • For more information on GOAL, go to the Grassroots
students unite in Washington, DC, for DO Day on Capitol Hill.
                                                                        Advocacy page on
During DO Day, DOs and osteopathic medical students educate
members of Congress and their staff on osteopathic medicine and
challenges facing physicians, as well as propose ideas to improve
health care for their patients.

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                                                                                                                                                         I N T E r N AT I O N A L O S T E O PAT H I C M E D I C I N E
International Osteopathic Medicine                                       • Distributing information on international activities of interest to
                                                                           the osteopathic medical profession.
The AOA works with health care providers and networks
throughout the world to establish practice rights and define             • Distributing information about the AOA and American
the u.S. osteopathic medical model versus the international                osteopathic medicine to parties outside of the united States.
osteopath model. Below are some examples of how the AOA                  • Coordinating international activity with osteopathic medical
addresses international osteopathic medicine. Contact the AOA              students, colleges of osteopathic medicine, interested specialty
Division of State Government and International Affairs for more            colleges and DOCArE International.
information at (800) 621-1773, ext. 8196.

                                                                         Osteopathic International Alliance
Osteopathic medicine, as practiced in the united States, continues
                                                                         Founded in 2004, the Osteopathic International Alliance (OIA) is an
to gain recognition throughout the world. American-trained DOs
                                                                         international network of osteopathic organizations. The OIA is the
currently have unlimited practice rights in more than 50 countries,
                                                                         primary international organization entrusted by the osteopathic
with limited practice rights in several more. This list is continually
                                                                         medical profession to work for global osteopathic unity and to
growing and continually updated on Simply log
                                                                         advocate for osteopathic health care. There are several charter
in and select “International Licensure” from the Advocacy tab and
                                                                         members from the united States, including the AOA, AACOM,
then scroll to the bottom to download the “International Licensure
                                                                         AOSED, SOMA and numerous colleges of osteopathic medicine.
Summary” document.
                                                                         The Alliance represents the interests of the osteopathic medical
                                                                         profession around the world and aspires to be the primary
The AOA has assigned responsibility for international activities to
                                                                         source of information on osteopathic medical education and
the Bureau on International Osteopathic Medical Education and
                                                                         research, licensure/registration, and osteopathic association and
Affairs (BIOMEA). The bureau, which was founded in 1996, is a
                                                                         organizational contacts.
representative body created to provide organizational leadership
that unifies osteopathic medical education and practice
                                                                         The OIA also hosts educational forums to increase understanding
throughout the world. In addition, this bureau was created to
                                                                         of the differences within the osteopathic medical profession
advance the recognition of the American model of osteopathic
                                                                         globally. It serves as a communication network for the osteopathic
medicine internationally.
                                                                         medical profession and aims to facilitate outreach programs and
                                                                         joint research projects for the osteopathic family around the world.
BIOMEA provides leadership and programs that focus on
international interests of AOA members. Activities include:              • More about the Osteopathic International Alliance can be found
• Securing and monitoring licensure and registration practices
  in countries outside of the united States for American-trained
                                                                         DOCARE International
                                                                         Since 1961, DOCArE International has brought much-needed
• Hosting an Annual BIOMEA International Seminar and Student             medical care to underserved areas across the globe. DOCArE is
  Poster Competition at OMED, the AOA’s annual osteopathic               a non-profit organization comprised of health care professionals
  medical conference & exposition.                                       representing many disciplines. The all-volunteer membership
• Acting as the liaison to the Canadian Osteopathic Association          includes DOs and MDs, nurses, dentists, veterinarians,
  (COA), Global Health Council (GHC), International Association          pharmacists, optometrists, podiatrists, physician assistants
  of Medical regulatory Authorities (IAMrA), Osteopathic                 and interested non-medically-trained volunteers who contribute
  International Alliance (OIA), Pan American Health Organization         special skills. DOCArE’s primary objective is to bring needed
  (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO), and World                     health care to primitive and isolated people in remote areas of
  Osteopathic Health Organization (WOHO), among other                    Western Hemisphere countries.
  organizations.                                                         • More about DOCArE International and student rotations can
                                                                           be found at or through your COM.

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                                                                                                                                                     O S T E O PAT H I C M E D I C A L S T u D E N T O r G A N I Z AT I O N S
Student Organizations                                                 Council of Osteopathic Government Presidents
Student Osteopathic Medical Association
                                                                      Another way to get involved is through COSGP, which is part
                                                                      of the formal structure of the American Association of Colleges
In addition to your student membership in the AOA, you can also
                                                                      of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM). Your campus’ student
join SOMA. SOMA can help you get acquainted with practicing
                                                                      government president works with each of the other osteopathic
DOs and osteopathic medicine through conventions, scholarship
                                                                      medical schools’ student government presidents to form a
opportunities, forums and conferences, volunteer opportunities,
                                                                      cohesive unit that makes recommendations on how to improve
and more.
                                                                      your education and AOA policies that affect students. COSGP,
                                                                      together with SOMA, embody the voice of the entire osteopathic
Founded in 1970, SOMA’s more than 11,000 members form the
                                                                      medical student population. Both organizations are committed to
largest osteopathic medical student organization in the country.
                                                                      supporting student interests.
Every osteopathic medical student is eligible for membership in
SOMA and each college of osteopathic medicine has its own
                                                                      Founded in 1974, COSGP is a student representative council
SOMA chapter.
                                                                      elected from the student body at each COM. The student leaders
                                                                      in this group represent over 18,000 currently-enrolled osteopathic
SOMA’s mission is to promote osteopathic ideals and unity within
                                                                      medical students across the nation.
the profession; to educate future osteopathic physicians; and to
establish and maintain lines of communication among health care
                                                                      COSGP is recognized and supported by AACOM as its official
professionals to improve the quality of today’s health care.
                                                                      representative body of osteopathic medical students. Its
                                                                      objectives are to relay student concerns or issues to leaders within
While individual chapters at the COMs meet often, the national
                                                                      the profession or organizations that contribute to the profession
SOMA meetings are usually held three times a year: once in
                                                                      like AACOM, the AOA, the National Board of Osteopathic Medical
the spring in conjunction with the AOA’s DO Day on Capitol Hill,
                                                                      Examiners, the Board of Deans, each osteopathic medical school,
once in the fall at OMED, and once in Chicago prior to the AOA
                                                                      and osteopathic medical students.
House of Delegates each July. SOMA also plans a unity Project
in the winter for any of its national members to complete a large
                                                                      Quarterly COSGP conferences are held in conjunction with the
community service project together.
                                                                      AOA House of Delegates, OMED and DO Day on the Hill. There
                                                                      is one winter meeting hosted at an osteopathic medical school.
SOMA is recognized by the AOA as the nation’s professional
society for osteopathic medical students. Accordingly, the
                                                                      In addition to working to resolve student issues on campus,
association has one voting seat within the AOA’s House of
                                                                      COSGP hosts several student events and awards including:
Delegates to provide student representation for AOA policies and
                                                                      The Student Seminar – an annual event held at OMED to update
                                                                      and inform students on issues, helpful tips, and topics specific
While membership in SOMA gives students a voice in shaping
                                                                      to the osteopathic medical student. At the 2009 OMED in New
the future of osteopathic medicine, it also serves as a vehicle for
                                                                      Orleans, the topic was National Health Care reform, and in 2008,
communication among the 26 osteopathic medical schools in 32
                                                                      Nevada State Senator Joe Heck, DO, discussed leadership and
                                                                      political activity as a physician, in Las Vegas.

SOMA member benefits range from discounts on insurance and
                                                                      The National Osteopathic Student Caucus (NOSC) – each year
bookstore items to a free online newsletter, the StudentDO. In
                                                                      before the AOA House of Delegates meeting, COSGP and student
addition, SOMA organizes many local and national projects that
                                                                      leaders from several osteopathic medical student organizations
offer students the opportunity to be involved in their communities
                                                                      meet to decide student opinion on each AOA HOD resolution that
and their profession, as well as scholarships.
                                                                      pertains to students. Student representatives then vote on the
                                                                      resolutions on the House of Delegates’ floor.
• Visit SOMA online at to complete a
  membership application. You may also contact your campus
  SOMA chapter president for more details.

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                                                                                             O S T E O PAT H I C M E D I C A L S T u D E N T O r G A N I Z AT I O N S
The Student DO of the Year Award – an annual award given to
one student at each osteopathic medical school who exemplifies
service to their school, community and the osteopathic medical
profession. In addition to a monetary award, recipients receive a
plaque and recognition in several osteopathic publications.

• COSGP helps your voice be heard by leaders of the osteopathic
  medical profession. For more information on COSGP, visit its
  website at or speak to your student
  government leaders.

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                                                                                                                                                        G E T T I N G S TA r T E D
Getting Started: Your Life in                                          Prevention is the Key to Health – Even for You
Osteopathic Medical School                                             Stress can really pile up once your classes start. Many third- and
                                                                       fourth-year students speak about tough first-year experiences.
Orientation week is exhilarating! You already know that it’s going
                                                                       One way to put the course load, the homework, the student
to be exciting, rewarding and tough. That’s good; it means you’re
                                                                       loans and the competition in perspective is to remember why you
prepared for this incredible undertaking.
                                                                       entered medical school in the first place. Talk with students who
                                                                       share your frame of mind, whether on campus or online.
The environment is fast-paced and fact-oriented, especially
during your first two years. You’ll need to review, understand and
                                                                       Also, try to lead by example. Your goal as an osteopathic
remember a large amount of information in a very short period.
                                                                       physician will be to show your patients preventive medicine to
You may be required to dissect a human cadaver, and be exposed
                                                                       keep their bodies in top form. As an osteopathic medical student,
to death and dying.
                                                                       you know the habits that invite illness. Keep them in mind, and try
                                                                       to remember the basics of staying well:
Your days will be filled with lectures and labs that can, at times,
overwhelm you and make you feel like you’re the only one               • Maintain a healthy lifestyle by getting enough sleep, eating a
who feels totally lost. You might find that forming a mentoring          sensible diet and participating in an exercise program.
relationship with your instructors is challenging. The exams – while   • Meet your responsibilities one at a time. Prioritize as necessary
you may relish the opportunity to prove that you belong in medical       but don’t let the workload overwhelm you.
school – can leave you feeling defeated and frustrated if you don’t
                                                                       • use your time wisely. Try to be flexible and accommodating, but
fare well.
                                                                         give yourself the necessary time to get the job done right.

But don’t give up! An adjustment period is absolutely normal.          • Find a healthy outlet for your stress, like exercise or talking with
A rocky start does not necessarily mean a rocky end. There               a close friend.
are ways to help you prepare. Just read the first section of this
                                                                       • Schedule adequate time to study and avoid situations that will
guide for some simple steps you can take to ease your entry into
                                                                         create unnecessary stress.
osteopathic medical school. refer to Attachment Three for a
complete list of commonly-used acronyms in the osteopathic             • recognize that sometimes you will be tired, stressed,
medical field.                                                           inconvenienced and less than confident about how you’re
                                                                         doing in school. These feelings are completely normal; try to
Osteopathic Medical Education:                                           take breaks when you need them to relax.
Where the Average is Above Average
You’re one of the lucky few students accepted into osteopathic
medical school. You should feel proud of yourself. However,
this sentiment is often fleeting for first-year osteopathic medical
students after many discover that while they excelled as pre-
meds, they are now average.

Keep in mind that the reason there’s fierce competition among your
peers is that most of you have similarly successful backgrounds.
Now the over-achievers are all in one place, trying for above-
average scoring on everything. Furthermore, even good grades
are not totally reassuring. In medical school an “A” on an exam
doesn’t mean much.

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                                                                                                                                                     OMS I
YOur YEArS IN                                                          • review questions from old exams or medical board review
                                                                         books to keep you sharp.
OSTEOPATHIC MEDICAL                                                    • Summarize information to help remember only what is

SCHOOL                                                                   necessary. Expressing the information in your own words
                                                                         makes it easier to understand and remember.

                                                                       • Consolidate notes to a short format to facilitate studying
OMS I: Prepare Yourself for Science                                      during short breaks. rewriting notes will help you remember
Courses                                                                  the material.
Science courses dominate the first year of osteopathic medical         • Create your own study tools like flashcards to make the
school. In fact, the first two years of medical school are largely       material less intimidating.
devoted to the basic sciences. You will learn the basic functions
of the human body and a core set of clinical examination skills.       Introduction to Osteopathic Manipulative
While curricula may vary from school to school, the following          Medicine (OMM)
pages provide a general guide for the first year of medical courses.   During the first year of osteopathic medical school, you will be
                                                                       introduced to osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). As you
Some Goals for Your First Year                                         learn more about the musculoskeletal system, you will learn to
Here are some suggestions to set the mood for your medical             diagnose with your hands. It is important to remember that OMM
education:                                                             is a skill learned over time; it will not come all at once.
• Preserve a balanced schedule that includes work, relaxation,
  rewarding relationships and varied interests.                        OMM is a series of hands-on techniques that relieve pain, restore
                                                                       motion and align the body to facilitate the body’s proper function.
• Be receptive to new concepts without forming definitive
                                                                       Patients may feel a deep sense of relaxation, tingles and the flow
  judgments. remember, answers are not always logical.
                                                                       of fluids as DOs use OMM. In fact, by gently applying pressure to
• Obtain a foundation of knowledge during your clinical years.         certain areas of the body, DOs promote movement of the body’s
  You will build on this foundation throughout graduate medical        fluids; eliminate dysfunction in the motion of tissues; and release
  training.                                                            tightly compressed joints and bones.
• Accept that practicing medicine requires certain personal
  sacrifices in terms of the hours you work, the locations at which    After taking a patient’s history, DOs will ask questions about the
  you train, and stresses on your personal life.                       patient’s lifestyle and may incorporate OMM techniques to arrive at
                                                                       a diagnosis. The osteopathic approach allows DOs to determine
• Maintain an interest in health care and the communities that
                                                                       whether factors like posture and stress contribute to a patient’s
  you intend to serve.
                                                                       poor health. Then, DOs teach their patients proper measures to
• understand that medical education is a continual learning            avoid the same outcome in the future.
  process with constant advancements and changing
  technologies.                                                        The goal of OMM is to allow the body to heal itself. This unique
                                                                       approach has provided an alternative treatment for many
Strategies for Studying and Time Management                            common illnesses. While some MDs are beginning to embrace
Studying the human body is an intense undertaking. Here are            the philosophies of OMM, they lack the training that prepares you
some tips to help you study the basic sciences:                        to use all of the osteopathic tools.

• Start every study session with a list of goals and tactics. For      For a complete glossary of OMM terminology, refer to Attachment
  instance, you may want to convert notes on blood component           Four.
  synthesis into a diagram or you may develop a chart of
  chromosomal abnormalities.

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                                                                                                                                                     OMS I
Your First-Year Classes                                                   Tip: To learn a pathway, try this:
Your first year in osteopathic medical school is geared toward
                                                                          • Learn the energetic level first.
understanding basic sciences, as well as clinical exam skills and
OMM. Specific courses and curricula differ from school to school,         • Learn where energy (ATP) is being used or produced.
but typical subjects of study include:                                    • Learn the key enzymatic reactions.
• OMM will expose you to the principles and practices distinctive         • Learn which steps are reversible and which are irreversible.
  to osteopathic medicine. Instruction may include common
                                                                          • Learn where the substance enters the pathway and where
  techniques like muscle energy; counterstrain; functional, soft
                                                                            the pathway product goes next.
  tissue or myofascial facilitated positional release; Spencer
  lymphatic pump; cranial or facial release; and sinus drainage.        • Physiology teaches mechanisms that allow the body to
                                                                          maintain homeostasis and to adjust to different environments
• Gross anatomy is primarily learned in the lab. You should plan
                                                                          like higher temperatures and higher altitudes.
  to spend time in the lab outside of class to study structures in
  different cadavers. Develop a sense of both unpredictable and           Try these tactics in order to stay on top:
  consistent landmarks within the body. In addition, you should           • understand the big picture. Know how the overall organ
  mimic gross practical exams with classmates and switch roles.             system of the body works.
• Histology focuses on the molecular scale, both practically and          • Master the ways in which variables within that system
  conceptually. You will analyze the structures, functions and              respond to external and internal change.
  mechanisms of molecules.
                                                                          • Know the formulas that represent the interactions.
• Embryology offers students an opportunity to learn about
                                                                          • Test your knowledge with practice questions.
  structures that are rapidly changing in form, composition
  and geographic relationships. To excel in this course, create           • Know where substances like hormones and neurotrans-
  timelines with marginal notes indicating the effects at each              mitters are synthesized and stored; and what triggers or
  interval. In addition, study the characteristics and causes of            inhibits them.
  common defects and syndromes.
                                                                          • Do not skip regulatory mechanisms.
• Neuroanatomy is the most complex anatomy course. Devote
                                                                          • Know what lab tests are used to confirm emphasized
  extra time to preview material before lectures. Then, fill in
  your notes after each lecture by referring to your texts until
  your notes tell a story. Afterward, go through your notes and         • Immunology is a course that teaches terminology for
  separate main ideas into a master by sections. For example,             processes and mechanisms. You’ll need to know the stages
  study the structural relationships first; then learn the functional     of the immune response; the time frame for various responses;
  aspects; then the diseases that disrupt these relationships.            factors that lead to immunosuppressant; and factors that
                                                                          either stimulate or decrease response time. The coursework
• Biochemistry is another tough subject. Look at old exams
                                                                          facilitates flow charts instead of outline-formatted notes to
  to get an idea of the main focuses within biochemistry. Then,
                                                                          capture the information. You may also want to practice with old
  create a study agenda from your leanings. Another helpful tool is
                                                                          exam questions.
  an old syllabi to understand unit objectives. If your school has a
  note-taking list serve, use it to get last year’s notes and preview
  the new vocabulary. This will prevent you from distractions due
  to vocabulary while you’re trying to take notes in class. If you
  were weak in organic chemistry, read the lecture topics related
  to organic chemistry before those lectures. review and refine
  information from each lecture every two to three days until the
  notes start to make sense.

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                                                                                               OMS I
Ask Faculty for Help
Sometimes, the faculty may seem too intimidating to approach
for help. remember, your instructors are dedicated professionals
who want you to succeed – that’s what makes them such great

If you can’t get an instructor’s help directly, ask for them to
recommend another resource. He or she may suggest another
student or an online resource. Take their advice. It’s easy to get
overwhelmed during lectures and labs, so if you don’t seek help
immediately it may delay other learnings in class.

• Don’t forget about iLearn, the AOA’s mentoring program. An
  experienced DO may have the answer you need!

Tutoring and Other Help
Don’t be afraid to ask for help. Many osteopathic medical schools
have a tutoring program available for first- and second-year
students. In addition, there are many study guides online to help

Past students will tell you that old exams are a valuable resource.
So, ask fellow students where to find the exams or try finding
them yourself.

Visit online forums to seek advice from current or former
students. Message boards on and allow osteopathic medical students to
discuss tips on avoiding day-before test stress, the pressures of
studying and more.

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                                                                                                                                                     OMS II
OMS II                                                               The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical
                                                                     Licensing Examination - USA (COMLEX-USA)
Congratulations, you made it to your second year of osteopathic
                                                                     The COMLEX-uSA sequence is an examination series with
medical school! During this year, your course load will grow and
                                                                     three levels that serve as pathways for candidates to obtain their
you’ll be introduced to the osteopathic and allopathic national
                                                                     osteopathic medical license after graduation. It is the osteopathic
board exams.
                                                                     equivalent to the united States Medical Licensing Examination
                                                                     (uSMLE). Created by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical
Your Second-Year Classes
                                                                     Examiners (NBOME), COMLEX-uSA assesses candidates on
Your second year in osteopathic medical school is also geared
                                                                     osteopathic medical knowledge and fundamental clinical skills that
toward understanding basic sciences, as well as clinical exam
                                                                     are essential for the practice of osteopathic medicine. Hundreds
skills and OMM. Specific courses and curricula differ from school
                                                                     of volunteers in the basic sciences joined academic physicians
to school, but typical subjects of study include:
                                                                     and practicing DOs to develop the examination.
• OMM will expose you to even more of the principles and
  practices distinctive to osteopathic medicine.                     COMLEX-USA Level 1
• Microbiology educates osteopathic medical students on              Level 1 of COMLEX-uSA is administered near the end of your
  how organisms invade the body. This course will introduce          second year. You will typically take Level 2-CE and Level 2-PE
  you to organisms’ growth requirements, reproductive cycles,        during your third or fourth year and Level 3 is taken during your
  genetics, drug sensitivity, vectors, etc.                          first year of GME.

  To help understand, you may want to:
                                                                     All students must register, submit payment and schedule their
  • Create charts of subgroups, known as the double-                 COMLEX-uSA examination by using the registration program
    stranded DNA viruses.                                            available on the NBOME Website, If you are
                                                                     unable to register online, contact the Dean’s office of your school
  • Indicate similarities and differences within a group by
                                                                     because eligibility is initiated by your Dean through a secure Web
    highlighting shared features with one color and exceptions
    with a different color.

• Behavioral science is a challenging course that teaches the        Osteopathic medical students are advised to familiarize
  communication, legal and psychological skills as they relate       themselves with the most current content on the NBOME web-
  to epidemiology and biostatistics. Your first step in mastering    site. Furthermore, osteopathic medical students are required to
  behavioral science is learning the vocabulary. Then, learn the     read the information contained in the “Bulletin of Information” as
  basic principles and apply them. Finally, save sample problems     a pre-requisite to registering for the test. The NBOME has strict
  from your lectures and text to practice statistical problems and   regulations regarding confidentiality and irregular conduct prior
  judge study designs.                                               to, during and after the administration of any COMELX-uSA
• General pathology is a course involving concepts and processes,    examination.
  like the stages of wound healing, rather than disease-specific     NBOME recently introduced Biometric ID Management programs
  information. use flow charts to best understand the material.      for all osteopathic medical students entering the testing sequence.
  Test yourself by applying what you know to actual questions.       When you arrive at the test center, you will be fingerprinted for
                                                                     identification purposes. You must bring two pieces of identification,
• Systemic pathology teaches the incidence, etiology,
                                                                     at least one of which is a current and valid form of government-
  morphologic changes, gross and microscopic lab findings,
                                                                     issued, photo-bearing identification. A driver’s license or passport
  prognosis, and initial treatment of specific disorders. To learn
                                                                     will suffice. You will be fingerprint-identified each time you enter
  the material, color-code the different categories of information
                                                                     and leave the test area and again when you return to a test center
  in your notes. To study, follow each color to see how a group
                                                                     for the next level of COMLEX-uSA.
  of diseases vary in each of the categories identified above. You
  may also want to make charts of important disease groups,
  using the categories as column headers and the features of
  the different diseases for each row title. Again, color-code the
  key differences. In addition, look at old exams to identify the
  important categories.

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                                                                                                                                                       OMS II
COMLEX-uSA is a medical problem-solving examination. So,                 Level 1 Scores
you are expected to employ osteopathic principles and practices          The percentage of examinees that pass or fail the COMLEX-uSA
to solve clinical problems. Each level of the exam contains              is not predetermined. The passing score for each level is based on
problems that involve clinical presentations and tasks. The clinical     a candidate’s performance on the total examination, not individual
presentation identifies high-frequency or high-impact health issues      content areas. In addition, scores are not adjusted or based on
that osteopathic primary care physicians commonly encounter              any curve due to the performance of others who tested at or
in practice. The physician task evaluates the steps osteopathic          about the same time.
physicians take in solving medical problems. Osteopathic medical
students are tested on medical concepts and principles necessary         To arrive at each score, the number of items answered correctly
for understanding the mechanisms of medical problems and                 in the cognitive examination of Level 1 is converted to a standard.
disease processes in the first Level.                                    The standard score is also calculated to allow comparisons with
                                                                         other Level 1 exams administered on different dates. Then, the
COMLEX-uSA Level 1 is a one-day, computer delivered,                     score is used to report a pass or fail status.
multiple-choice examination covering the basic medical sciences
of anatomy, behavioral science, biochemistry, microbiology,              The NBOME issues a two-digit and a three-digit score to each
osteopathic principles, pathology, pharmacology, physiology              student. Scores are also forwarded to the Dean of his or her
and other areas relevant to medical problems in an integrated            COM. upon students’ request, NBOME will forward scores to
manner. The examination consists of two four-hour sessions,              Electronic residency Application Service, GME programs, and
containing questions generally presented as case vignettes related       other regulatory agencies. The two-digit score is not a raw score
as clinical presentations across all basic science disciplines. Health   or a percentile ranking of the candidate. Instead, the two-digit
promotion and disease prevention principles are also included in         score is offered to comply with some licensing boards that use
this level, but to a lesser degree than in Levels 2 and 3.               this format. In these cases, osteopathic medical students must
                                                                         receive a score of at least 75 to pass. However, in the three-digit
Each level of the COMLEX-uSA is important because you cannot             format, the standard scores for Level 1 have a mean of 500 and
progress to the next exam until you pass its predecessor; with           osteopathic medical students pass with a score of 400. Therefore,
the exception of Level 2-CE/PE. The two parts of this exam will          a two-digit score of 75 equates to a three-digit score of 400 for
be explained later. All osteopathic medical schools require that         Level 1. COMLEX-uSA score reports also include a graphical
osteopathic medical students pass the first and second levels of         performance profile, summarizing strengths and weaknesses for
COMLEX-uSA to graduate. In addition, GME programs often use              Dimension 2. Students may visit the NBOME website for more
examination results to select students for their residency training.     details on score interpretation.
• For a detailed explanation of COMLEX-uSA Level 1, visit
  the NBOME’s website at The NBOME                        Some test items may be included in COMLEX-uSA solely for
  website also contains information on fee schedules, scores,            research purposes and will not be scored. To assure validity, those
  applications, practice items, practice exams, test dates and           items are not identified as research items. Scores are typically
  ADA procedures.                                                        returned to the student within four to six weeks after taking
                                                                         Level 1.

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                                                                                                                                                      OMS III
OMS III                                                                 By the way, the best way to understand medical journal articles
                                                                        is to read those related to your studies. The premier journal for
Now that you’re halfway through osteopathic medical school,
                                                                        the osteopathic medical profession is the JAOA—The Journal of
you begin a full curriculum of clinical rotations. This year is
                                                                        the American Osteopathic Association (JAOA), available online at
usually comprised of six basic clinical rotations: obstetrics and
                                                               As with most journals, start with the conclusion
gynecology, internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine,
                                                                        and then read from the beginning to see how the study was
surgery, and psychiatry. Your role will vary in each rotation and
                                                                        approached and completed.
setting, from performing physicals and participating in procedures
to listening and observing. In some instances, rotations are held at
                                                                        The Start of Your Transition to Internship/
facilities that require osteopathic medical students to spend time
traveling from one rotation to another.
                                                                        • When you start to consider internship and residency programs,
                                                                          remember your osteopathic family can help. The AOA provides
During your rotations, you may make mistakes. Worse yet, you
                                                                          a searchable database, “Opportunities,” of all AOA-approved
may provide appropriate care and have negative patient outcomes.
                                                                          training programs.
This type of experience during your rotations will prepare you to
respond appropriately if this occurs during your internship or
                                                                        Let’s Connect: Your Introduction to the Match
residency. You’re going to face many tough challenges: a limited
                                                                        The Match is a big deal – it’s the mechanism by which you select
amount of free time; being away from your classmates, family and
                                                                        where you’re going to serve at least your first year of OGME. There
friends; and total exhaustion. You will also begin to use or observe
                                                                        are two different matches: The AOA Intern/resident registration
all your earlier classroom education. This becomes very exciting,
                                                                        Program (“AOA Match”) and the National resident Matching
so try to enjoy it.
                                                                        Program (NrMP). The AOA Match is for osteopathic medical
                                                                        students who plan to enter osteopathic postdoctoral training. The
Clinical Rotations                                                      NrMP matches both osteopathic and allopathic medical students
Clinical rotations are very important to your medical education.
                                                                        into residency training programs accredited by the Accreditation
You can use this time to determine which specialty you will pursue.
                                                                        Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The AOA
Try to keep an open mind. You may think that you have always
                                                                        Match is held typically the second week in February; the NrMP
wanted to be a surgeon, but really enjoy the problem-solving
                                                                        Match is held mid-March.
methods you employed during an internal medicine rotation. Go
into every rotation with the stance that you’ve always wanted to
                                                                        As you enter the Match process, keep in mind that four states
study that specialty.
                                                                        require completion of an AOA-approved internship to be eligible for
                                                                        state licensure as a practicing DO: Florida, Michigan, Oklahoma,
During your rotations, you will be graded on: your clinical skills;
                                                                        and Pennsylvania.
your rapport with the medical staff, interns, residents and
other students; and your enthusiasm. remember to request
                                                                        Students entering the AOA Match will find specialties fall into one
letters of recommendation from members of the medical staff
                                                                        of three categories for their first year of training:
who supervised you during your best rotations, especially the
supervisor for the specialty you want to practice.
                                                                        OPTION 1 is considered OGME 1-residency. Students enter
                                                                        residency training immediately after graduation in OPTION 1
You may be wondering if you need liability coverage while on
                                                                        specialties. These specialties include: Anesthesiology, Emergency
rotation. This is usually not a concern for students rotating at a
                                                                        Medicine, Family Practice, FP/EM, Integrated FP and NMM,
hospital, since they are under the hospital’s watchful eye. The
                                                                        General Surgery, Internal Medicine, IM/Pediatrics, Neurological
hospital is ultimately responsible for the osteopathic medical
                                                                        Surgery, Neurology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Orthopedic
student’s actions. However, it is important to know how you are
                                                                        Surgery, Otolaryngology Facial Plastic Surgery, Pediatrics and
covered, either by the school, hospital or both. When completing
                                                                        urological Surgery, and Psychiatry.
a rotation in a program that interested you, be sure to make formal
presentations during rounds or present articles at journal club
meetings. This will help you later if you interview for an internship
or residency at the same facility.

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                                                                                                                                                          OMS III
OPTION 2 specialties require a preliminary first year of internship      There are two ErAS components, osteopathic and allopathic.
training. Programs will not grant residency credit but indicate          If applying to osteopathic programs, you must register through the
completion of designated preliminary year curricular rotations, as       osteopathic ErAS. If applying to allopathic programs, you must
prerequisites for entry into the first year of residency in the second   register through the allopathic ErAS.
postdoctoral year of training. Matching successfully assures entry
into both the preliminary year and the subsequent second year in         The first step in your transition to residency is to review osteopathic
residency training. Specialties who opted for OPTION 2 include           programs on “Opportunities,” located on
Diagnostic radiology, NMM/OMM, Ophthalmology, Pathology,                 Then, if more information is needed, contact the OGME programs
Physical Medicine and rehabilitation, and radiation Oncology.            that interest you the most.

OPTION 3 specialties (OGME 1-T) represent a traditional rotating         There is a complete overview of ERAS on Osteopathic.
internship that stands alone. Specialties that have chosen this          org. If you have technical questions, contact ErAS’s help line at
option prefer residents in their specialty complete a traditional        (202) 828-0413 or by e-mail at For all other
rotating internship before entering their specialty. In addition,        questions, contact your dean’s office.
this option is available to students who are undecided on future
plans or for students planning on entering programs accredited           During the Match, you rank the GME programs in order of your
by the ACGME, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical             preference. The programs also rank “student profiles” in order
Education. Students completing a traditional rotating internship         of their preference. A computerized cross-reference of the two
and then selecting option 1 or 2 specialties must contact that           submissions creates a ‘match’ for both parties.
specialty college to determine whether advanced standing will
be granted. Specialties who chose OPTION 3 are Dermatology,              There are three steps to the Match: registration, ranking and
Occupational/Preventive Medicine, and Proctology.                        results.

                                                                         1. registration: You can register electronically on the NrMP
Introduction to the Electronic Residency                                    websites. The AOA and the NrMP charge a non-refundable
Application Service (ERAS)                                                  registration fee at the time of registration of $60 and $50,
ErAS is a service created to enhance medical students’
                                                                            respectively, though fees are subject to change from year to
transition to residency by reducing the amount of time spent
on the application process. using the internet, ErAS transmits
a standardized application, letter of recommendation, the                2. ranking: Please note that a program will not rank an applicant
Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE) or dean’s letter,             if the program did not grant the applicant an interview. The
transcripts, and other supporting documentation/credentials from            process proceeds as follows:
applicant and designated dean’s office to program directors.               • An applicant submits a list of the programs at which he or
                                                                             she has interviewed, in order of preference.
The ErAS process starts at your designated dean’s office. They
                                                                           • Every program submits a list of applicants in its order of
will issue you an electronic token which you will use to access and
register at the MyERAS website. After completing registration,
you will complete your MyErAS application, select programs                 • The lists are compared against one another, using a
and assign supporting documents. Your dean’s office will receive             computerized matching algorithm program.
notification of your completed application and begin scanning and        3. results: You will receive an official letter from the AOA or the
transmitting supporting documents. The examining boards will                NrMP informing you of your match results.
receive and process requests for score reports to be sent to your
designated programs. Finally, programs will contact the ErAS
Post Office to download all application materials.

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                                                                                                                                                    OMS III
The AOA Match                                                         February before graduation – The AOA Match results are
The AOA Match allows you to obtain an AOA-approved position in        released. You must follow up with your respective program as
an osteopathic internship or residency. You can learn more about      directed.
the AOA Match on The general timeline below
includes specific information for 2010-2011. Much of the match        Important Match Dates for 2010-2011
process will take place in your fourth year.                          June
                                                                      Beginning in June, 2010, students can download the Agreement
The AOA has restructured the first postdoctoral year of training.     form for participation in the AOA Intern/resident registration
However, students should note that all OGME-1 positions,              Program (AOA “Match”) from the Match website. Alternatively,
whether internship (OPTION 2 and 3) or residency (OPTION 1),          agreement forms can be mailed to students on request. To
will be offered to students through the Match, as described below.    register for The Match, each student must return a signed
                                                                      Applicant Agreement to NMS accompanied by the appropriate
June of your third year – Forms to participate in the AOA Intern/     registration fee.
resident registration Program (“AOA Match”) are distributed
by osteopathic medical schools. In addition, you may obtain           July 2010 - January 2011
instructions and forms from the National Matching Services            Applicants apply and interview with programs separately from the
Inc. (NMS) website.                                                   AOA Match. Applicants should contact programs for deadline
After submitting your application, contact GME programs through
MyERAS online. The AOA’s version of ErAS is available for AOA-        August - September 2010
approved programs in July, a full month earlier than the ACGME’s      Each institution offering osteopathic internship positions must
ErAS. Once you have submitted your forms online, the programs         provide program information to NMS. A List of participating
receive your information and may contact you for an interview.        programs in the AOA Match will be available on the NMS website.

Each GME program receives hundreds of applications. So, set           Nov. 1, 2010 – recommended date by which students should
yourself apart by focusing on your personal statement. There are      register for the AOA Match.
many different options in writing a personal statement. Consult
with your peers and your advisers, and write a statement that         Nov. 26, 2010
reflects what you value and why you want to be an osteopathic         Instructions for submitting rank order lists and obtaining Match
physician in the specialty you have chosen. In addition, make         results will be provided to registered students and programs.
sure that all of the information within your submission is accurate   Jan. 28, 2011
throughout your application.                                          rank order lists are due.

While every program you applied to may not call for an interview,     Feb. 14, 2011
when you are called for an interview, you’ll schedule it with the     results of the Match are released to all Match participants as
individual program, not through ErAS. Interviews occur between        well as to the colleges of osteopathic medicine. Institutions must
July and January of your fourth year. Schedule your interviews        complete an institutional contract for each matched student,
efficiently to allow interviews at multiple programs in the same      and send it to the student for signature within 10 working days
location.                                                             of receipt of the Match results. Each matched student must
                                                                      sign and return the contract to the institution within 30 days of
November before graduation – registered students and                  receiving the contract from the institution.
programs receive instructions for submitting their rank order lists
and obtaining their match results.                                    NRMP Match
                                                                      Also known as the ACGME Match, the National resident Matching
January before graduation – The final chance to submit your rank      Program (NrMP) follows the same basic procedure as the AOA
order. You may submit as many or as few programs within your          Match but occurs approximately one month later. You can register
list as you like.

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                                                                                                                                                    OMS III
for both matches, but if you match in the AOA process, the NrMP       The AOA understands that not all of the military programs give
drops you from its process so that there is no chance of matching     you the chance to complete the AOA’s required rotations, so use
in two concurrent programs. If you do not match into an AOA           your elective time to complete as many of the requirements as
program, you continue seamlessly into the NrMP Match.                 possible.

Military Match                                                        In addition, you may seek AOA approval of your military internship
There’s a GME Match specifically for the military. This program       and subsequent residency training, which allows you to become
is primarily used by students already on active duty in funded        eligible for AOA board certification in your specialty. To do this,
educational programs (rOTC, HPSP, uSuHS and others). DOs              you have to request and submit an application to the AOA Division
and MDs who graduate from accredited schools fill first-year          of Certification and Trainee Services. You can also download the
graduate medical education (FYGME) positions in the military,         application for military internship and/or federal military/
which are equivalent to internships. To apply, you must qualify for   ACGME residency approval forms.
appointment as a commissioned officer in the armed services.

Military programs also use ErAS. In addition to those documents
required through the AOA or NrMP Match, each branch of the
military may require other applications. You will be required to
take a physical exam and fill out military paperwork regarding your
background. Be sure to meet the deadlines in submitting your
paperwork because if you don’t, your medical school scholarship
entitlements might be suspended or even revoked.

Since the military match occurs first and the military doesn’t have
a surplus of FYGME openings, you may still register for the AOA
or the NrMP Match. If you’re seeking training in a specialty that
is in high demand, you may be deferred from obligatory military
programs. It’s your responsibility to tell civilian programs about
your military obligations when you interview. You must inform
them that you will withdraw from their matching program if you are
appointed to a military program. In fact, you will be automatically
withdrawn from the NrMP if you are appointed to a military
program. However, you must personally remove yourself from the
AOA Match through the NMS website.

If you train in an FYGME military program, you can apply for AOA
approval of this program as an osteopathic internship. To obtain
AOA approval, you must maintain AOA membership; register
with the AOA Division of Postdoctoral Training; and meet the
core expectations of an AOA internship. Then, be sure that your
program meets the AOA’s rotational requirements.

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                                                                                                                                                        OMS IV
OMS IV: You’re Almost A DO!                                             The AOA recommends taking the COMLEX-uSA Level 2-PE early.
                                                                        By taking it early, you may have your scores before residency
So this is it – your last year. Congratulations! You are well on your
                                                                        program interviews or the Match; and you have time to retake the
way to becoming a DO. There are only a few things left to deal
                                                                        examination if you do not pass the first time. Students are eligible
with before graduation, like COMLEX-uSA Part 2 and Part 2-PE,
                                                                        upon passing Level 1 and receiving approval from their dean, and
and your completion of the Match process.
                                                                        test sessions are open more than one year in advance. Another
                                                                        consideration is to get the examination out of the way, provided
COMLEX-USA Level 2-CE                                                   that you are ready to test, so that your energy can be focused on
This portion of COMLEX-uSA emphasizes the medical concepts
                                                                        finding a residency position.
and principles necessary for making appropriate medical
diagnoses through patient history and physical examination
                                                                        Each level of the COMLEX-uSA is important because you cannot
                                                                        progress to the next level until you pass its predecessor, with the
                                                                        exception of Level 2-CE/PE. The two parts of the exam can be
Level 2-CE is a one-day, computerized, multiple-choice
                                                                        taken in any order, but both must be completed before Level 3.
examination, covering the clinical disciplines of family medicine,
                                                                        All osteopathic medical schools require that osteopathic medical
emergency medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and
                                                                        students pass the first and second levels of COMLEX-uSA to
gynecology, osteopathic principles, pediatrics, psychiatry, surgery,
                                                                        graduate. In addition, GME programs often use examination
and other areas necessary to solve medical problems in an
                                                                        results to select students for their residency training.
integrated manner. The examination consists of two four-hour test
sessions, containing questions related to clinical presentations
                                                                        COMLEX-USA Part 2-CE/PE Scoring
and clinical disciplines. Basic science, disease prevention, and
                                                                        Level 2 consists of two exams: Level 2-CE, the computerized
health promotion principles are also tested.
                                                                        cognitive evaluation; and Level 2-PE, the performance evaluation.
                                                                        Scoring for Level 2-CE is reported as two- and three-digit standard
COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE                                                   scores. The number of items answered correctly is converted to
COMLEX-uSA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (Level 2-PE) is a
                                                                        a standard score. The standard score is also calculated to allow
clinical skills examination that assesses the fundamental clinical
                                                                        comparisons with other Level 2-CE exams administered on other
skills required for osteopathic medical school graduates.
                                                                        dates. Then, the score is used to report a pass or fail status. There
                                                                        is a mean standard score of 500 for Level-2 CE. Osteopathic
In this evaluation, patient-centered skills are examined in the
                                                                        medical students who receive a standard score of 400 pass. Level
context of clinical encounters with standardized patients.
                                                                        2-CE scores are typically available within four to six weeks.
COMLEX-uSA Level 2-PE is only administered at the NBOME’s
National Center for Clinical Skills Testing in Conshohocken,
                                                                        The COMLEX-uSA Level 2-PE is scored on a pass or fail basis
Pennsylvania (near Philadelphia). The Center has the appearance of
                                                                        within each of two domains:
an outpatient clinic featuring examination rooms that are equipped
with examination/treatment tables, diagnostic equipment and             1. The humanistic domain: doctor-patient           communication,
sinks. In this examination, candidates rotate through a series of          interpersonal skills and professionalism; and
12 standardized patient encounters. In each meeting, students           2. The biomedical or biomechanical domain: history-taking and
have up to 14 minutes to evaluate and treat the patient. This can          physical examination skills, osteopathic principles and OMT
include conducting a case-appropriate history; performing case-            skills, and the written SOAP notes.
appropriate physical examination maneuvers; communicating
with and counseling the patient; and performing osteopathic
manipulative evaluation and osteopathic manipulative treatment
(OMT) as warranted. Following each assessment, students have
up to nine minutes to complete a written SOAP note (Subjective,
Objective, Assessment, Plan).

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                                                                                                                                                        OMS IV
Osteopathic medical students must pass both Level 2-PE                 Program (AOA “Match”) from the Match website. Alternatively,
domains to receive a passing score for the examination. Scores         agreement forms can be mailed to students on request. To
are typically returned to the student within 10 to 12 weeks after      register for the Match, each student must return a signed
taking Level 2-PE. Some test items may be included in COMLEX-          Applicant Agreement to NMS accompanied by the appropriate
uSA solely for research purposes and will not be scored. To            registration fee.
assure validity, those items are not identified as research items.
Further information regarding interpretation of Level 2-PE score       July 2010 - January 2011
reports is available on the National Board of Osteopathic Medical      Applicants apply and interview with programs separately from the
Examiner’s (NBOME) website.                                            AOA Match. Applicants should contact programs for deadline
The third level of COMLEX-uSA is usually taken during your first       August - September 2010
year of GME. Level 3 emphasizes the medical concepts and               Each institution offering osteopathic internship positions must
principles required to make appropriate patient management             provide program information to NMS. A List of participating
decisions.                                                             programs in the AOA Match will be available on the NMS website.

Level 3 is a one-day, computerized, multiple-choice examination,       Nov. 1, 2010 – recommended date by which students should
covering the clinical disciplines of family medicine, emergency        register for the AOA Match.
medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology,
osteopathic principles, pediatrics, psychiatry, surgery, and other     Nov. 26, 2010
areas necessary to solve medical problems in an integrated             Instructions for submitting rank order lists and obtaining Match
fashion. The examination consists of two four-hour test sessions,      results will be provided to registered students and programs.
containing questions related to all clinical presentations and
                                                                       Jan. 28, 2011
                                                                       rank order lists are due.

Osteopathic medical residents must receive a standard score
                                                                       Feb. 14, 2011
of 350 to pass the COMLEX-uSA Level 3 and enter their third
                                                                       results of the Match are released to all Match participants as
year of residency. The percentage of examinees that pass or
                                                                       well as to the colleges of osteopathic medicine. Institutions must
fail the COMLEX-uSA examination is not predetermined. The
                                                                       complete an institutional contract for each matched student, and
passing scores for all COMLEX-uSA levels are based solely on a
                                                                       send it to the student for signature within 10 working days of
candidate’s performance on the total examination.
                                                                       receipt of the Match results. Each matched student must sign and
                                                                       return the contract to the institution within 30 days of receiving the
Your Completion of the Match Process                                   contract from the institution.
As a fourth-year osteopathic medical student, you should have
already taken the initial steps in securing your first year of GME
                                                                       Types of AOA-Approved Internship/Residency
through the Match process. During your fourth year, you will
complete the Match process by interviewing for the internship/
                                                                       All programs offered by the AOA Match provide OGME-1 training.
residency positions that interest you most, submitting your rank
                                                                       However, the programs offered through the AOA Match can be
order list, and obtaining your Match results. Then, it’s off to your
                                                                       classified into two types:
                                                                       • Traditional rotating Internship: These programs involve a one-
Visit the AOA’s Match information page on                year commitment between the student and the institution
anytime for the most updated information about the Match.                for an OGME-1 internship position only, commencing in July
                                                                         2010. These positions will be of interest to students who wish
Important Match Dates for 2010-2011                                      to pursue an Option 3 specialty (dermatology, occupational/
June                                                                     preventive medicine, proctology), who are undecided on future
Beginning in June, 2010, students can download the Agreement             plans or are planning on entering ACGME training after OGME-
form for participation in the AOA Intern/resident registration

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                                                                                                                                                      OMS IV
  1. Institutions have some flexibility in designing the composition     take either/both AOA or ABMS boards after completion of the
  of a traditional rotating internship. When interviewing for            program.
  positions, students should discuss and negotiate directly
                                                                       • Quality programs are widely available at both AOA and ACGME
  with the institution about the curriculum included in a rotating
                                                                         training sites. All programs vary, but both the AOA and ACGME
                                                                         work to develop programs that meet or exceed established
• residency: These programs involve a multi-year commitment              standards.
  between the student and the institution for training in a
                                                                       It’s important to remember that you can still sit for osteopathic
  specialty. These programs combine both an OGME-1 position
                                                                       board certification in your specialty area. Make sure to call the
  commencing in July 2010 followed by continued training in an
                                                                       AOA to find out how. Whatever decision you make, you will always
  OGME-2 residency position in a specialty beginning in July
                                                                       be a doctor of osteopathic medicine.
  2011. (Note: The trainee must successfully complete OGME-1
  training in order to continue into the OGME-2 position.) Both
                                                                       How to Size Up a Program
  Option 1 and Option 2 specialty programs will be offered as
                                                                       Even if you already have a great training program in mind, you
  residency programs in the Match.
                                                                       should be asking questions regarding educational issues like
                                                                       didactic schedules, electives and on-call schedules. Ask questions
Selecting an AOA Internship/Residency                                  about the health care facility sponsoring the program; the number
Program or ACGME Program                                               of active beds; the department size; number of other residents;
Deciding whether to enter an AOA or an ACGME-accredited                the salary and benefits like insurance and vacation. Also, find out
residency is a major decision. Before you decide, consider the         if you are expected to buy meals when on service and pay for your
facts:                                                                 own lab coat.

                                                                       You should be curious about the quality of each training program.
• remember, there are four states that require you to complete
                                                                       When you interview, you should prepare good questions and talk
  an AOA-approved first year of training to obtain licensure:
                                                                       to other residents about their satisfaction with the quality of the
  Florida, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
                                                                       program. You could ask, for example, what percentage of trainees
• Consider if you want to hold a leadership position by teaching       pass COMLEX-uSA Part 3 and what percentage of DOs who
  or training osteopathic medical students, interns and residents      trained in the program become board certified? Is housing difficult
  because you would need to be AOA board certified. The easiest        to find in the area?
  avenue to AOA board certification is through an osteopathic
  residency. However, approval pathways for ACGME programs             As a reminder, the AOA has restructured the first postdoctoral
  also exist.                                                          year of training. Most OGME-1 positions are offered as residency
• Training in OMM and osteopathic principles and practices are         positions; but some internships are still required in certain
  part of your continuum of osteopathic medical education.             specialties. For AOA-approved programs, all this information
                                                                       is located on the “Opportunities” page of,
                                                                       under the Student resources section. For ACGME-accredited
• Every year, the AOA’s Program and Trainee review Council
                                                                       programs, you can look in the “Medical Student Section” of the
  (PTrC) approves new training programs and training slots.
                                                                       American Medical Association’s website. The student affairs office
  The AOA has several initiatives underway to increase training
                                                                       at your osteopathic medical school can also help you locate this
  slots in specialties and locations according to student interests
  and workforce needs to serve patient populations. However,
  the ACGME offers specialties that are not available in AOA
                                                                       Interviewing for Internship/Residency Programs
  programs. If you are interested in one of those specialties, you
                                                                       An interview usually consists of a tour of the institution at which
  should take advantage of ACGME training.
                                                                       you’ll be working. After the tour, you’ll have a one-on-one
• The ACGME offers training programs in locations where there          interview or possibly an interview in a small group. You’ll be asked
  are no osteopathic programs available.                               to answer questions about yourself, your accomplishments and
AOA and ACGME                                                          why you’re interested in the program and specialty.
• The number of AOA/ACGME dually-accredited programs is
  continually growing. A dual program will allow DO trainees to

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                                                                                                                                                        OMS IV
remember to stay personable during this high-stress day. Try              • If you have extenuating circumstances, contact the AOA’s
to make your interviewers feel comfortable with you and be                  Department of Education. The AOA is your professional family,
sure to smile and make eye contact. use all the techniques for              and we will support your osteopathic medical career to the best
interviewing that you would use for a job interview. After all, that is     of our ability.
exactly what this process is. You are interviewing for a job as an
intern or resident in this program.                                       Removal from one of the Match Programs
                                                                          Occurs When:
remember, answers to personal questions, such as “Are you                 • You are appointed to a position in a GME program sponsored
planning to have a baby during residency?” are not mandatory                by the u.S. military or any other matching service.
and you do NOT have to respond. use your best judgment, but
                                                                          • You are participating in both the NrMP and the Canadian
know that you are not required to provide an answer to that type
                                                                            resident Matching Service and you are matched into a
of query.
                                                                            Canadian program. You’ll be expected to accept the Canadian
                                                                            position and NrMP will ask you to withdraw.
refer to Attachment Five, the AOA Style Guide, for details on
the industry standards regarding verbiage and terminology used            • You participate in the AOA Match and the NrMP for concurrent
within the osteopathic medical profession; these tips may come in           positions; this is prohibited. The earlier schedule of the AOA’s
handy during your interviews.                                               Match allows students to compete for openings without
                                                                            entering the NrMP for positions.
Ensure the Best Possible Match                                            You may also be removed from the NRMP for the following
While the AOA cannot guarantee that you’ll get the exact match            reasons:
you want, following these common-sense suggestions can                    • You match through the AOA Match.
improve your chances:
                                                                          • You obtained an advanced position through either the current
• Don’t overestimate your chances of matching with your                     year’s NrMP specialty services or the previous year’s NrMP.
  top choice. Even if you are absolutely positive that you’ll               You will be removed from the current NrMP unless you have a
  match, don’t make it your only choice. If your top choice is              waiver to participate again.
  an osteopathic program, the odds of matching are between
                                                                          • Your medical school cannot confirm your attendance at
  70% and 95%. If your top choice is an allopathic program, the
  odds of matching into your top choice are lower (averaged 69%
  between 2000 and 2005).                                                 • You have not paid fees for services provided by the NrMP.
• Don’t underestimate your chances, either. If you really want to
  Match into a specific program, but consider the competition             A Few Reminders on The Match
  too heavy, go ahead and rank it anyway. Maybe the program’s             Since the AOA Match process begins one month earlier than the
  choices will surprise you. It’s not going to hurt to keep them in       NrMP, the AOA Match results are typically posted one month
  your ranking.                                                           earlier. Therefore, AOA Match results are generally distributed in
                                                                          February, and the NrMP results are issued in March.
• Don’t rank programs you don’t want.

• remember that the order in which you rank programs is crucial           remember, you’re legally bound to complete the process after
  to the process. Take time to carefully consider each program            matching into a program. If you decide not to participate after
  you’ve selected. You may discover reasons you would rank one            being matched, you can be sued for breach of contract and be
  over another. You may have to evaluate whether a program’s              removed from all programs and matches. In addition, during
  academic reputation or its location is more important. The              the interview process, neither you nor any institution may solicit
  match computer is fair, but only to the rank ordered list.              information about rankings in either the AOA or NrMP program.
• Avoid submitting a short list, especially if you’re choosing very       Even if your top choice asks for a guarantee of your selection, you
  popular programs or specialties.                                        must refuse. However, you can say that you are very interested in
                                                                          their program and its one of your top choices.
• Check online or ask your dean to find programs that didn’t fill
  and would interest you if you don’t match. It is not true that
  only “bad” programs don’t fill. It is possible that you will find
  openings in specialties that ranked you as a second choice.

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                                                                                                                                                        OMS IV
You must also maintain your membership in the AOA. Applicants             Accreditation is a credential that shows that a program has
who apply for the pathway during their internship/residency will          substantially complied with the AOA or ACGME’s training
be required to complete all AOA-approved traditional internship           standards. To develop and refine these standards and to review
requirements within the ACGME program or meet the first-                  accredited programs for continued compliance, the AOA and
year curricular requirements of the specialty and participate             ACGME rely on industry professionals, usually physicians, to
in an osteopathic medical education activity. The activity can            review programs. representatives from 18 specialty colleges
be attending an AOA state specialty or national convention,               provide support for this process. These specialty colleges have
participating in an OMM program or conducting research. Finally,          review committees that update standards for residency training
the application is reviewed by members of the AOA’s Program and           in their specialties and review previously accredited programs
Trainee review Council for approval.                                      against those standards.

From Internship to Residency                                              AOA postdoctoral training standards are reviewed and updated
residency programs are designed to provide DOs specialty                  on a continuous basis through the Council on Postdoctoral
training in their chosen field of study. A residency is a formal, full-   Training. The AOA Bureau of Osteopathic Education then reviews
time, concentrated training period in your field of interest.             recommendations and policy before sending them to the AOA
                                                                          Board of Trustees for final approval.
The training might be taken with your intention to get board
certified in a specific osteopathic or allopathic specialty. You’ll
receive a certificate of completion at the end of an AOA-approved         Approval of ACGME Training as an AOA OGME-
program. You can find information about these programs on the             1 Year
“Opportunities” page on
                                                                          During ACGME training or after graduating from ACGME training,
                                                                          an osteopathic physician may be eligible for AOA training approval
Submitting Annual Residency Reports                                       by the “Approval of ACGME Training as an AOA-Approved OGME-
All programs must provide a predetermined number of patients
                                                                          1 Year” policy.
and procedures for a resident to meet accreditation standards.
Most residencies also have electronic medical record tracking             To initiate this process, you must complete and submit the
software to record all of the patients you’ll see and the procedures      appropriate application to the AOA. Visit “Applications” within the
you’ll perform; however, it can’t hurt to have your own back-up of        student section of
this information.

The AOA and the Accreditation Council
for Graduate Medical Education’s
(ACGME) Role in Approving and
Accrediting Residency Programs
The AOA approves internships and residency programs and the
ACGME accredits residency programs. Basically, it is a similar
process for both accrediting organizations.

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                                                                                                                                                       OMS IV
Your Life After Residency                                               Continuing Medical Education (CME)
                                                                        Once you’ve completed your residency, you’ll have to continue
The typical length of a residency depends on your chosen
                                                                        your clinical education, per the AOA’s CME requirement. If you elect
specialty. Since OGME has about 87 specialties or subspecialties,
                                                                        to become AOA Board Certified, you will be required to maintain
this can vary. In addition, there are more opportunities available to
                                                                        membership in the AOA. All members of the AOA are required
you after the residency, like postdoctoral fellowships.
                                                                        to complete 120 CME credits within a specified three-year cycle,
                                                                        with 30 of these credits obtained from an accredited Category 1-A
You can enter fields like oncology, endocrinology, pulmonology
                                                                        sponsor. Category 1-A credit is granted for participation in formal
diseases, rheumatology, hematology, and more if you have
                                                                        face-to-face programs. The remaining 90-credit-hour requirement
completed an internal medicine residency. For those who have
                                                                        can be satisfied from Category 1-A, 1-B, 2-A or 2-B credits. When
finished an OB/GYN residency, opportunities abound in fields
                                                                        you complete your residency training, it will likely be mid-cycle,
such as maternal and fetal medicine, reproductive endocrinology,
                                                                        so your requirement will be pro-rated accordingly. For details on
and gynecologic oncology. Many other specialties and subspe-
                                                                        other CME requirements, contact the AOA Division of Continuing
cialties exist for OGME, including programs like sports medicine,
                                                                        Medical Education.
anesthesiology, neuromusculoskeletal medicine, pediatrics,
radiation oncology and orthopedic surgery.
                                                                        An AOA board-certified physician must complete at least 50
                                                                        Category 1 or 2 credits in their specialty each three-year cycle.
Let’s Get Board Certified
                                                                        Some specialties require additional credits for board certification.
It is never too early to start thinking about board certification.
                                                                        The requirement of CME assures DOs and their patients that
Board certification is often confused with the COMLEX-uSA or
                                                                        osteopathic physicians are knowledgeable about the best
uSMLE exams, which are licensing exams.
                                                                        practices and procedures available. Most states require CME
                                                                        for licensure and some specialties may require additional CME
The board certification process typically begins after or just
                                                                        credits beyond AOA membership requirements. The AOA accepts
prior to completion of your residency program in your chosen
                                                                        CME credit submitted by members from the Accreditation Council
specialty.Depending upon the specialty, AOA certification exams
                                                                        for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and the American
may consist of written, clinical and oral components. To find
                                                                        Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), but it is typically Category
specific requirements for each of the AOA specialty boards, visit
                                                                        2 credit.

                                                                        Osteopathic Continuous Certification (OCC):
On completion of your training program, you are eligible and
                                                                        Your Commitment to Life Long Learning and
qualified to become board certified. AOA Board Eligibility Status
is effective until Dec. 31 of the sixth year following completion
                                                                        As a board-certified osteopathic physician, you are held to a
of your training program. Visit for any specific
                                                                        higher standard that requires a commitment to life long learning
requirements for each specialty certifying board.
                                                                        and assessment. Your commitment is demonstrated through
Please note: The ABMS no longer recognizes the term or process          continuing medical education and through the Osteopathic
of “board eligibility,” but it is still commonly used and recognized    Continuous Certification (OCC) process to maintain your board
in hospitals.                                                           certification.

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                                                                                              OMS IV
OCC is a continuous, life long process that will serve as a way
in which you, as a board certified DO, maintain currency and
demonstrate competency in your specialty area. Beginning on
Jan. 1, 2013, to maintain your certification as a DO, you will be
required to participate in the five components of the OCC process.

• Component 1- unrestricted Licensure

• Component 2- Life Long Learning/Continuing Medical

• Component 3- Cognitive Assessment

• Component 4- Practice Performance Assessment and
• Component 5- Continuous AOA Membership

For answers to frequently asked questions about OCC and
more details on each component, visit the OCC section of

Life long learning and assessment may seem overwhelming right
now, but the fact that you chose to be an osteopathic physician
proves that you are up to the challenge!

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                                                                                                                                                     OTHEr rESOurCES & OPPOrTuNITIES
Other Osteopathic Resources and                                       residents, the Council of New Physicians in Practice, and the
Opportunities                                                         Bureau of Membership. The CSA is Chaired by the Student
As you progress through osteopathic medical school, some of the       representative to the AOA Board of Trustees. The Council
following references may serve as a resource.                         represents students to the AOA and offers suggestions on how to
                                                                      improve services and programs for osteopathic medical students.
Associations and Websites                                             You may comment to the CSA by e-mailing sira@osteopathic.
You’re probably already familiar with the osteopathic websites and    org or calling (800) 621-1773, ext. 8126. Your local SOMA and
resources available to you. A short list of associations with great   student government chapters are a great place to get involved
websites for the osteopathic medical student include:                 at your COM.

• American Osteopathic Association (AOA):
                                                                      Council of Interns and Residents (CIR) –
                                                                      Stay involved as your training continues
• National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc.               The AOA’s CIr allows postdoctoral trainees an opportunity
  (NBOME):                                              to participate in the professional family. The Council has a
• Council of Osteopathic Student Government Presidents                representative on the AOA Board of Trustees, and it encourages
  (COSGP):                                        professional development while representing the best interests
                                                                      of interns, residents and fellows. Any postdoctoral trainee can
• Student Osteopathic Medical Association (SOMA):
                                                                      become a CIr Ambassador to share information on the state,
                                                                      specialty, OPTI or program level, and the CIr will call upon
• Opportunities:                        its Ambassadors to help represent the osteopathic medical
• AOA on Facebook:                                   profession, comment on proposed resolutions, and be involved
                                                                      in the AOA. For more Information, contact the CIr at cirexec@
• AOA on LinkedIn:
                                                             or (800) 621-1773, ext. 8147.
• AOA on YouTube:
  americanosteopathic                                                 Mentors
                                                                      The AOA offers a mentoring program, iLearn, for osteopathic
• The DO magazine:
                                                                      medical students to e-mail, speak or meet with a DO about their
• The DO magazine on Twitter:                     specialty, training facility or any other interest. Visit
  TheDOMagzine                                               for a complete program overview and to find
• AOA’s Department of Government relations’ Activities on             a mentor.
                                                                      State and Specialty Colleges
These websites will allow you to participate in forums, find the      There is a complete listing of all state and specialty colleges on
best study guides, sign up for mentoring relationships, search for featuring updated contact information and a
clinical rotations, explore internships and residencies, and more.    short description about each organization. The list is also provided
remember to network!                                                  as Attachment Six in this guidebook.

Council of Student Affairs (CSA) – Be involved
as a student
The CSA is an official AOA council composed of osteopathic
medical students and liaisons from the Council of Interns and

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                                                                                                                                                         OTHEr rESOurCES & OPPOrTuNITIES
Financial Planning                                                      figures vary from student to student, so check with your financial
On average, medical students will borrow $168,000 to finance            advisor for exact amounts.
their medical education, not including undergraduate loans.
One of the most pressing areas of successful medical school             You’ll need to fill out a Master Promissory Note (MPN) to get a
management is financial planning.                                       Stafford loan. You only fill this out and sign it once, and your loan
                                                                        is renewed each year unless you change lenders. If you make a
The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA):                   change, fill out a new MPN with the new lender’s code on it and
Your First Step                                                         give it to your financial aid office.
If you think you will need financial aid, you need to complete a free
application for federal student aid (FAFSA). The application will       Alternative Loans
help your school assess the amount of money you will need and           In addition to Stafford loans, most medical students have to
your borrowing eligibility. You can get a copy of this form at the      borrow additional money from private lenders like banks. If you
financial aid office of most osteopathic medical schools or online      need to go this route, keep in mind that bank loans usually have a
at You should complete the application at             much higher interest rate and are based on credit.
the beginning of your first year of school.
                                                                        If you are going to apply for an alternative loan, you should fill out
You will indicate within the application which school should            the application and turn it in along with your MPN. If you have
receive a copy of the report. The school you select will process        doubts about taking the alternative loan, fill out the application
your FAFSA and send you a letter explaining your potential loan         and go through the processing to become pre-approved. Then,
total, based on the information you provided and the budget your        you can use your pre-approved status to get the loan later if you
school has set for your expenses.                                       so choose. Notably, unlike the federal loans you have to reapply
                                                                        for the alternative loan every year. You fill out the application and
Once you receive the letter, sign it and send it back to confirm        submit it to your financial aid office for processing.
that you want the aid amount listed. If you intend to borrow less
than the amount indicated, amend the letter to the amount you           Time to Repay
would like, sign it and send it back. Importantly, remember that        Lenders will usually offer a few different repayment plans.
you don’t owe anything until you receive the loan and are well into
your training program.                                                  Standard: The payment remains the same every month for the
                                                                        entire repayment period.
Types of Loans
Stafford Loans                                                          Graduated: The amount of the loan repayment is scheduled
Stafford loans are the most popular form of loan because they are       to change from the start to the finish of the repayment period.
financed by the u.S. government. There are two different types of       Typically, the loan payment begins small and increases as the
Stafford loans: subsidized and unsubsidized.                            period progresses.

The government pays the interest on the subsidized Stafford             Income-based: A lender collects the borrower’s income
loans while the student attends school and for up to three years        information each year and revises the monthly payment amount
during internship and residency training.                               accordingly.

However, if you request unsubsidized Stafford loans, you will           Extended: The borrower can extend standard or graduated
pay the interest. Generally, the interest is capitalized when you       payments over 25 years.
graduate and may be capitalized again as you enter repayment.
Each time it’s capitalized, the last chunk of interest becomes part     Since every situation is unique, you should ask your financial
of the principal sum and then you accrue interest on this new           advisor or lender for advice on your options.
balance—inevitably, paying interest on interest.

Medical students can typically borrow a maximum of $8,500 in
subsidized and $30,000 in unsubsidized loans. Naturally, these

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                                                                                                 FINAL WOrDS
Grants Available
Did you know that if you’re married, your spouse might be entitled
to a cash award? You can also receive money for excellent grades
in your first year of osteopathic medical school. In addition, there
are grant opportunities sponsored by the American Osteopathic
Foundation (AOF) and the AOA Council on research that could
help fund your education. Try to take advantage of them.

For a description of available grants and information on application
deadlines, visit the AOF website and check out the AOA’s
research and grants on

A Few Final Words on Your Future
Always keep in touch with your fellow members of the osteopathic
family. Network and enjoy your education. In addition to the myriad
of websites we’ve listed, give your school’s library a try and attend
some conventions and seminars outside of what’s required of you.
Consider attending the AOA’s annual OMED conference and DO
Day on Capitol Hill. registration is free for osteopathic medical
students, and these are wonderful opportunities to meet the
leaders of the profession, DOs from across the country, and other
osteopathic medical students.

Find something about osteopathic medicine that really inspires
you and concentrate on it. Get involved and stay involved. The
AOA is here to help you every step of the way throughout your
career as a DO. Call the Member Service Center at (800) 621-
1773, option 1, any time to ask for help or if you have a question.

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                                                                                                                                                          AT TA C H M E N T O N E
Attachment One:                                                             Lt. Gen. Ronald R. Blanck, DO, MC, USA (Ret.)—Former
                                                                            Surgeon General of the u.S. Army and Commanding General of
Prominent DOs                                                               Medical Command. While serving as Surgeon General, Dr. Blanck
                                                                            was the highest ranking DO in the commissioned services. A
                                                                            three-star general, he is the first osteopathic physician to serve
OSTEOPATHIC PHYSICIANS SERVING                                              as Surgeon General in any of the u.S. commissioned services.
IN PROMINENT ROLES                                                          Prior to serving as Surgeon General of the u.S. Army, Dr. Blanck
Osteopathic physicians (DOs) have treated presidents and Olympic            was the commander of the Walter reed Army Medical Center in
athletes. They have contributed to the fight against AIDS and the           Washington, D.C. Dr. Blanck also served as the Chief of Health
fight for civil rights. From state-of-the-art health care facilities to a   Policy during the first Gulf War.
clinic in the Mississippi Delta, DOs continue to practice the kind of
medicine that Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, envisioned 100 years             Bradley S. Feuer, DO, JD—Appointed as Chief Surgeon to
ago when he founded the osteopathic medical profession. What                the Florida Highway Patrol and promoted to rank of auxiliary
follows is a list of DOs who have made great contributions to               lieutenant colonel on May 23, 2006. Dr. Feuer was appointed as
society through their service in government, the military, medical          the first troop surgeon in the State of Florida Highway Patrol in
research, athletics, the media and through humanitarian efforts.            2003. While in this position, he created a voluntary medical unit
                                                                            within the State Patrol and has volunteered thousands of hours
Government & Military                                                       in assisting the Florida Highway Patrol in responding to sick or
Rear Admiral Clinton E. Adams, DO, MC, USN—Achieved rank                    injured troopers, assisting with investigations, directing a newly-
of rear Admiral in the united States Navy. upon retirement, he              formed Critical Incident Stress Management Team and serving as
joined Western university of Health Sciences as the Dean of the             medical director of the patrol’s Troop L Tactical response Team.
College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific.
                                                                            Stephen C. Gleason, DO (Deceased)—In April 2003, the late Dr.
Sue M. Bailey, DO—Past administrator for the National Highway               Gleason was appointed Chief of Staff for Iowa’s Governor. Former
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Her first task was handling          Director of the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH), Dr.
the recall of Firestone tires, mostly involving Ford vehicles, blamed       Gleason works to uphold the IDPH mission to protect the health
for more than 100 deaths. She proposed new safety tests for                 of people living in Iowa. He is former senior medical advisor to
tires and legislation that require manufacturers of auto parts              the administrator for the Health Care Financing Administration
to report foreign recalls. Before she was administrator for the             (HCFA). His duties included developing HCFA partnerships with
NHTSA, Dr. Bailey served as assistant secretary of defense for              consumers and providers, acting as physician liaison for fraud
health affairs in the Department of Defense (DoD). In this role, Dr.        and abuse, as well as counseling on the consumer bill of rights,
Bailey was the principal advisor to the Secretary of Defense for all        regulatory review, public health for seniors, Medicare Plus Choice
DoD health policies, programs and activities. Her responsibilities          options, and new prevention benefits. Dr. Gleason also served as
included maintaining the medical readiness of all branches of the           the chairman of the National Health Policy review, chairman of the
u.S. military. She also oversaw the general health care services            presidential candidates’ health policy debate, senior consultant to
provided to current and retired members of the uniformed services,          the assistant secretary for health, and White House health advisor
their family members and other people entitled to medical services          during the Clinton administration.
through the DoD.
                                                                            Murray M. Goldstein, DO—Former member of the National Center
Vincent A. Berkley, DO—Chief Medical Officer of the Phoenix                 for Complementary and Alternative Medicine’s (NCCAM) National
Area Office for the Indian Health Service (IHS). In 2006, Dr.               Advisory Council on Complementary and Alternative Medicine,
Berkley was promoted to the rear Admiral (rADM) rank in the                 retired medical director of the united Cerebral Palsy research
u.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, placing him as               and Education Foundation, former director of the National Institute
the highest ranking DO in the Corps. In October 2009, Dr. Berkley           of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, former Assistant Surgeon
was assigned as the first full-time representative from the u.S.            General and rear admiral of the u.S. Public Health Service;
Department of Health and Human Services to the u.S. Embassy,                former President of AOCOPM and member of the AOBPM. Dr.
Kabul, Afghanistan.                                                         Goldstein wrote “A Challenge to the Profession: Initiate Evidence
                                                                            Based Osteopathic Medicine Now,” an editorial published in

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                                                                                                                                                         AT TA C H M E N T O N E
JAOA – The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association,             Robert S. Muscalus, DO—Former Physician General of
and was selected to serve on a committee developing a National          Pennsylvania.
Center of Excellence of Osteopathic Manipulation research.
He served on the Commission for Alternative Health Care; u.S.           Ray E. Stowers, DO—The first DO to be appointed to the
Olympic Committee on Sports Medicine; and produced “The                 Physician Payment review Commission (PPrC), a group charged
Scientific Status of the Fundamentals of Chiropractic: A report         with advising Congress on Medicare and other health care issues.
to Congress.”                                                           Dr. Stowers also served two three-year terms as a member of
                                                                        the Medicare Payment Advisory Committee, better known as
John T. Hinton, DO—Member of the national Medicare Coverage             MedPAC, the successor to PPrC. He is currently the dean of
Advisory Committee (MCAC). Dr. Hinton was appointed to the              the Lincoln Memorial university-DeBusk College of Osteopathic
committee in 2002 by Thomas Scully, who at the time served              Medicine in Harrogate, Tenn.
as administrator for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services (CMS). MCAC is charged by the federal government               Medical Research & Education
with deciding which medical services and items will be covered          Laurence H. Baker, DO—Chair of the Southwest Oncology Group
for Medicare beneficiaries. Currently Dr. Hinton also serves as         (SWOG), one of the nation’s largest National Cancer Institute-
vice president of clinical information management for Catholic          funded clinical trials networks. With more than 5,000 physician-
Healthcare Partners, the 5th largest non-profit health system in        researchers at institutions throughout the united States, including
the united States. He is a 1973 graduate of the Kirksville College      19 Comprehensive Cancer Centers, SWOG conducts large
of Osteopathic Medicine-A.T. Still university, past president of the    Phase III trials and initial trials that lead to new drugs and new
Indiana Osteopathic Association and a contributor to the End-of-        standards of care to control and prevent cancer. A professor
Life Care National Osteopathic Workshop curriculum.                     of internal medicine at the Michigan State university College of
                                                                        Osteopathic Medicine in East Lansing, Dr. Baker has more than
Rear Adm. Joyce M. Johnson, DO, USPHS (Ret.)—A former                   30 years experience in treating sarcoma—a type of cancer that
u.S. Coast Guard chief medical officer and director of health and       develops from certain tissues, like bone or muscle—as well as
safety. Dr. Johnson retired in November 2003 as rear admiral,           designing clinical trials for new sarcoma therapies.
upper half in the u.S. Public Health Service and the first female
DO to reach flag rank in the u.S. commissioned services. She is         David A. Baron, DO—Former deputy clinical director and director
the first woman ever to wear the Coast Guard’s female flag officer      of education of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),
uniform and the first woman and first osteopathic physician to          a branch of the National Institutes of Health, and chair of the
serve on the board of trustees of the u.S. Coast Guard Academy          department of psychiatry and neuroscience at the Foundation for
in New London, Conn. She currently serves as the vice president         the Advancement of Education in the Sciences at NIH. NIMH’s
of health sciences at Battelle Memorial Institute, Arlington, Va. Dr.   mission is to reduce the burden of mental illness and behavioral
Johnson also was selected as one of the AOA’s “Great Pioneers.”         disorders through research on mind, brain and behavior. Dr.
                                                                        Baron currently serves as professor and chair of the department
Col. Ronald A. Maul, DO, MC, USA—Commander and CEO of                   of psychiatry at Temple university School of Medicine, and
Womack Army Medical Center, a 258-bed, tertiary care center             previously served as the university’s chair of the department of
at Ft. Bragg, NC, providing health care support to the largest          psychiatry from 1998 to 2009. He also serves as psychiatrist-in-
troop population in the u.S. Army and a total population of over        chief at university Hospitals at the university of Southern California
178,000 military beneficiaries in the primary service area. Dr. Maul    and director of the university of Southern California Global Center
is also the former command surgeon for u.S. Central Command,            for Exercise, Psychiatry and Sport. In addition, he serves as the
also known as CENTCOM, and former assistant surgeon general             chair of the section on exercise, psychiatry and sport of the World
for force sustainment at the u.S. Army Medical Command at Ft.           Psychiatric Association and the president of the Group for the
Sam Houston, Texas.                                                     Advancement of Psychiatry.

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                                                                                                                                                        AT TA C H M E N T O N E
Leonard H. Calabrese, DO—An HIV researcher and caregiver                 Athletics
who has a unique vantage point on AIDS and athletes. Long                Carlo J. DiMarco, DO—Team ophthalmologist for the National
before Magic Johnson brought new attention to AIDS issues,               Basketball Association’s Philadelphia 76ers. The 2008-09
Dr. Calabrese was a lone voice urging professional groups to             president of the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), Dr.
adopt sound AIDS policies. He is head of the Section of Clinical         DiMarco is a professor and regional dean of clinical medicine at the
Immunology in the Department of rheumatic and Immunological              Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) in Erie, Pa.,
Disease at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Calabrese is the only dual          and serves as the director of LECOM’s ophthalmology residency
chair holder at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation serving as the           program. Aside from his positions at LECOM, Dr. DiMarco is part of
rJ Fasenmyer Chair of Clinical Immunology and the Theodore F.            Medical Associates of Erie, a network of multi-specialty physicians
Classen, DO, Chair of Osteopathic research and Education.                who practice throughout Erie County and teach in affiliation with
                                                                         LECOM. In addition, he is a former president of the Pennsylvania
Gilbert D’Alonzo, DO—One of the nation’s leading pulmonologists,         Osteopathic Medical Association and the American Osteopathic
Dr. D’Alonzo is a professor of medicine at Temple university’s           Colleges of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Head and Neck
School of Medicine in Philadelphia. In addition, he is editor-in-chief   Surgery.
of JAOA–The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
                                                                         Richard Emerson, DO—Former team surgery physician emeritus
Robin B. McFee, DO—A nationally recognized expert in                     for the National Basketball Association’s Phoenix Suns.
toxicology, bioterrorism and public preparedness. She consults
for medical, government and private organizations on a wide              John H. Finley, Jr., DO—Longest serving physician for the
range of threat reduction issues. Dr. McFee has been an invited          National Hockey League’s Detroit red Wings.
lecturer nationally and internationally, having given hundreds of
presentations on preparedness and other medical/health issues.           Lawrence Lavine, DO— Personal physician to Olympic speed
She continues to be a media resource on a wide range of terrorism        skater Apolo Anton Ohno. Dr. Lavine accompanied Ohno in Salt
and health issues, and has written numerous articles, text book          Lake City during the 2002 winter games and in Torino in 2006.
chapters as well as coauthored two text books on weapons of              D. Matthew Maddox, DO—Team physician for the National
mass destruction and toxico-terrorism. Dr. McFee currently is            Hockey League’s Phoenix Coyotes.
medical director of Threat Science, a faculty member at the Stony
Brook School of Medicine, and a medical toxicologist at the Long         Craig Phelps, DO—Team physician for the National Basketball
Island regional Poison Information Center.                               Association’s Phoenix Suns.

Karen J. Nichols, DO—2010-11 president of the American                   Robert L. Quarles, DO—Coordinator of medical services for World
Osteopathic Association (AOA) and first woman to be elected              Wrestling Entertainment from 2000 through 2005. Dr. Quarles is
president of AOA. Dr. Nichols also serves as dean of the                 also the author of Get Off Your Butt, America!: No-Nonsense
Midwestern university/Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine            Advice on How to Get Us Back to Being the Best We Can Be, a
in Downers Grove Ill.                                                    book tackling America’s obesity problem through suggestions on
                                                                         ways people can incorporate fitness into their daily routine.
Barbara Ross-Lee, DO—The first African-American woman to
serve as dean of a u.S. medical school. Dr. ross-Lee is vice             Paul S. Saenz, DO—Team physician for the National Basketball
president for Health Sciences and Medical Affairs at the New York        Association’s San Antonio Spurs and medical staff member for
Institute of Technology and former dean of the New York College          the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, Greece.
of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology in
Old Westbury and the Ohio university College of Osteopathic              Michael J. Scott, DO— Appointed to the International Olympics
Medicine in Athens. In addition, she serves as executive                 Drug and Substance Abuse Committee in 2000.
director of the National Osteopathic Institute for Health Policy
and Leadership. She also is the first osteopathic physician to           Paul M. Steingard, DO—Team physician emeritus for the National
participate in the robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellowship.         Basketball Association’s Phoenix Suns.
In 2003, she was one of the original women physicians profiled
in Changing the Face of Medicine, a National Library of Medicine

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                                                                                                                                                     AT TA C H M E N T O N E
Mitchel Storey, DO—Team physician for the Seattle Mariners            Humanitarian Efforts
Major League Baseball Team.                                           William G. Anderson, DO—1994-95 president of the AOA and the
                                                                      first African-American to be elected AOA president. In addition, Dr.
Raymond J. Tesner, DO—Team physician for the National Hockey          Anderson was a civil rights activist who worked closely with Martin
League’s Columbus Blue Jackets.                                       Luther King, Jr., and was president of the Albany Movement. In
                                                                      2004, Dr. Anderson and his wife, Norma L. Anderson, published
Media                                                                 Autobiographies of a Black Couple of the Greatest Generation,
Jon W. Fong, DO—Served as a technical advisor for NBC’s               a book that tells the story of how the couple broke through the
nighttime drama “Er.” In this capacity, he orchestrated medical       glass ceiling of prejudice through faith, their involvement with the
procedures on the show and trained the actors to realistically        civil rights movement and leadership in the osteopathic medical
mimic medical procedures and discuss medical topics.                  profession.

William Kirby, DO—Dr. Kirby is at the forefront of dermatology in     Sister Anne Brooks, DO—Catholic nun whose work in
the media. He is one of the featured physicians on E! Entertainment   impoverished rural Mississippi was covered nationally in People
Television’s “Dr. 90210” and he frequently makes appearances as       magazine, and on “Good Morning America” and “60 Minutes.” Dr.
a guest dermatologist on the daytime, syndicated medical talk         Brooks joined ronald reagan and ryan White as a recipient of
show “The Doctors,” originally airing on CBS. Besides his work in     the first Norman Vincent Peale Positive Thinking Award.
television, Dr. Kirby serves on the health advisory board for both
Healthy Aging and Skin & Aging magazines.                             Terrie E. Taylor, DO—Director of the Blantyre Malaria Project
Charles Sophy, DO—Author of Side by Side: The Revolutionary           in Malawi. For more than 20 years, Dr. Taylor has led research
Mother-Daughter Program for Conflict-Free Communication, a            and clinical support into severe malaria at the Queen Elizabeth
book designed to help mothers navigate relationships with their       Hospital in Blantyre. Outside of her work in Africa, Dr. Taylor is
daughters at any age. As a board-certified pediatric psychiatrist,    a professor of internal medicine at the Michigan State university
Dr. Sophy has appeared as a medical expert on national television     College of Osteopathic Medicine in East Lansing.
series including “Larry King Live,” “The Today Show,” and “The
rachel ray Show.”

Lisa M. Valle, DO—Dr. Valle serves as on-camera medical expert
for the Discovery series “I Didn’t Know I was Pregnant,” which airs
on Discovery Health and TLC. She also made an appearance on
the Discovery special “Twins by Surprise.”

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                                                                                                                                        AT TA C H M E N T T W O
                                                                Other Numbers
Attachment Two:
                                                                Member Service Center            (800) 621-1773, option 1
AOA Contact List                                                 Obtain your AOA number
                                                                 Change or update contact
American Osteopathic Association                800-621-1773     information

                                                                 Government relations,           (800) 621-1773, option 3
Division of Student, Intern, Resident
                                                                 Washington, DC
and Member Affairs
                                                                 The DO                         (800) 621-1773, ext. 8160
 Student concerns                   (800) 621-1773, ext. 8126
 Intern and resident concerns       (800) 621-1773, ext. 8147    JAOA—Journal of the American   (800) 621-1773, ext. 8166
 iLearn Mentor Program              (800) 621-1773, ext. 8143    Osteopathic Association

                                                                 Student Osteopathic Medical    (800) 621-1773, ext. 8193
Training Services
                                                                 Association (SOMA)
 Approval of Postdoctoral           (800) 621-1773, ext. 8276
 National Matching Services/        (800) 621-1773, ext. 8068
 The Match

 Osteopathic Internship             (800) 621-1773, ext. 8091

 Allopathic Internship, Military    (800) 621-1773, ext. 8091
 Training, resolution 42

 Osteopathic residency              (800) 621-1773, ext. 8087

 Allopathic residency and           (800) 621-1773, ext. 8087
 Military residency

To find osteopathic medical intern and residency training
programs (including dually-approved programs), visit the
Opportunities page on

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                                                                                                                                                 AT TA C H M E N T T H r E E
Attachment Three: Commonly used                                                          AOSED Association of Osteopathic State
                                                                                         Executive Directors
Acronyms in Osteopathic Medicine                                                         ASO American School of Osteopathy,
                                                                                         Kirksville, Mo.(Consolidated with A.T. Still
You may see many of these acronyms used throughout your osteopathic medical
                                                                                         university in July 1926 to form Kirksville
education and your career. This list is accessible on Log in to the
                                                                                         College of Osteopathic Medicine of A.T.
members-only section, then click on “AOA Basic Documents,” on the left navigation bar,
                                                                                         Still university of Health Sciences.)
and select “Acronym Glossary.”
                                                                                         AVP-Academic Assistant Vice President
AACOM American Association of               Pain Management                              — Academic Affairs
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
                                            AOBEM American Osteopathic Board of          AZCOM Midwestern university/Arizona
AAO American Academy of Osteopathy          Emergency Medicine                           College of OSteoapthic Medicine in
AAOA Advocates for the American             AOBFP American Osteopathic Board of          Glendale
Osteopathic Association                     Family Physicians                            BHFA Bureau of Healthcare Facilities
ACGME Accreditation Council for             AOBNMM American Osteopathic Board            Accreditation
Graduate Medical Education                  of Neuromuskuloskeletal Medicine             BIOMEA Bureau on International
ACHE American College of Healthcare         AOBOS American Osteopathic Board of          Osteopathic Medical Education and
Executives                                  Orthopedic Surgery                           Affairs

ACOEP American College of                   AOBP American Osteopathic Board of           BOT Board of Trustees
Osteopathic Emergency Physicians            Pediatrics                                   CAO Chief Administrative Officer
ACOFP American College of                   AOBPM American Osteopathic Board of          CAQ Certificate of Added Qualification
Osteopathic Family Physicians               Preventive Medicine
                                                                                         CCME Council on Continuing Medical
ACOI American College of                    AOCD American Osteopathic College of         Education
Osteopathic Internists                      Dermatology
                                                                                         CCOM Midwestern university /Chicago
ACOOG American College of                   AOCOOHNS American Osteopathic                College of Osteopathic Medicine
Osteopathic Obstetricians &                 Colleges of Ophthalmology and
                                                                                         CHM Chairman
Gynecologists                               Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
                                                                                         CIR Council of Interns and residents
ACOP American College of                    AOCOPM American Osteopathic College
Osteopathic Pediatricians                   of Occupational and Preventive Medicine      CMD Chief Medical Director

ACOS American College of Osteopathic        AOCP American Osteopathic College of         CME Continuing Medical Education
Surgeons                                    Pathologists
                                                                                         COGMET Consortium for Osteopathic
ACP American College of Physicians          AOCPMR American Osteopathic College          Medical Education and Training
                                            of Physical Medicine and rehabilitation
AOAAM American Osteopathic Academy                                                       COHE College of Osteopathic Healthcare
of Addiction Medicine                       AOCR American Osteopathic College of         Executives
AOAO American Osteopathic Academy of                                                     COHT Council of Hospital Trustees
Orthopedics                                 AODME Association of Osteopathic
                                                                                         COMLEX Comprehensive Osteopathic
                                            Directors and Medical Educators
AOASM American Osteopathic Academy                                                       Medical Licensing Examination
of Sports Medicine                          AOF American Osteopathic Foundation
                                                                                         COPT Council on Postdoctoral Training
AOAPIPM American Osteopathic                AOIA American Osteopathic Information
                                                                                         CORE Centers for Osteopathic regional
Association of Prolotherapy Integrative     Association

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                                                                                                                                             AT TA C H M E N T T H r E E
CORE/Medcon Centers for Osteopathic        FACOS Fellowship of the American           FOHS Foundation for Osteopathic Health
regional Education/Medical Consortium      College of Osteopathic Surgeons            Services

CORE/OUCOM Centers for Osteopathic         FACP Fellow of the American College of     FOSO Federation of Osteopathic
regional Education/Ohio university         Physicians                                 Specialty Organizations
College of Osteopathic Medicine in
                                           FACS Fellow of the American College of     HFAP Healthcare Facilities Accreditation
                                           Surgeons                                   Program
COSGP Council of Osteopathic Student
                                           FAOAAM Fellowship of the American          JAOA—The Journal of the American
Government Presidents
                                           Osteopathic Academy of Addiction           Osteopathic Association
DME Director of Medical Education          Medicine
                                                                                      JD Juris Doctorate
DMU-COM Des Moines (Iowa) university,      FAOAO Fellowship of the American
                                                                                      KCOM Kirksville College of Osteopathic
College of Osteopathic Medicine            Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics
                                                                                      Medicine –A.T. Still university of Health
ED Education Director                      FAOASM Fellowship of the American          Sciences
                                           Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine
FAAO Fellowship of the American                                                       KCUMB-COM Kansas City (Mo.)
Academy of Osteopathy                      FAOCA Fellowship of the American           university of Medicine and Biosciences
                                           Osteopathic College of Anesthesiologists   College of Osteopathic Medicine
FAAP Fellow of the American Academy
of Pediatrics, of Periodontology, of       FAOCAI Fellowship of the American          LECOM Lake Erie College of Osteopathic
Psychoanalysis                             Osteopathic College of Allergy and         Medicine
FACC Fellow of the American College of                                                LECOM-Bradenton Lake Erie College
Cardiology                                 FAOCD Fellowship of the American           of Osteopathic Medicine –Bradenton in
                                           Osteopathic College of Dermatology         Florida
FACEP Fellow of the American College of
Emergency Physicians                       FAOCOPM Fellowship of the American         LMU-DCOM Lincoln Memorial university-
                                           Osteopathic College of Occupational and    DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine
FACGP Fellow of the American College
                                           Preventive Medicine
of General Practitioners in Osteopathic                                               MEDCON Medical Consortium
Medicine & Surgery                         FAOCP Fellowship of the American
                                                                                      MSOPTI Mountain State Osteopathic
                                           Osteopathic College of Pathologists
FACN Fellowship of the American                                                       Postdoctoral Training Institution
College of Osteopathic Neurologists and    FAOCPR Fellowship of the American
                                                                                      MSUCOM Michigan State university
Psychiatrists                              Osteopathic College of Proctology
                                                                                      College of Osteopathic Medicine
FACOEP Fellowship of the American          FAOCR Fellowship of the American
                                                                                      MTN Mountain State OPTI
College of Osteopathic Emergency           Osteopathic College of radiology
Physicians                                                                            MWV/AZCOM Midwestern university/
                                           FAOCRH Fellowship of the American
                                                                                      Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine
FACOFP Fellowship of the American          Osteopathic College of rheumatology
College of Osteopathic Family Physicians                                              NEOMEN Northeastern Osteopathic
                                           FAOCRM Fellowship of the American
                                                                                      Medical Education Network
FACOI Fellowship of the American           Osteopathic College of rehabilitation
College of Osteopathic Internists          Medicine                                   NSU-COM Nova Southeastern university
                                                                                      College of Osteopathic Medicine
FACOOG Fellowship of the American          FAODME Fellow of the Association
College of Osteopathic Obstetricians &     of Osteopathic Directors and Medical       NYCOM New York College of
Gynecologists                              Educators                                  Osteopathic Medicine of New York
                                                                                      Institute of Technology
FACOP Fellowship of the American           FOCOO Fellowship of the American
College of Osteopathic Pediatricians       Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology      OGME Osteopathic Graduate Medical
                                           and Otolaryngology, Head and Neck          Education
FACOPMS Fellowship of the American
College of Osteopathic Pain Management
and Sclerotherapy

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                                                                                                             AT TA C H M E N T S T H r E E
OMM Special proficiency in                VP MedAf Vice President-Medical Affairs
Neuromuscular Medicine and
                                          VP-Acad Vice President-Academic
Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine
OMT Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine
                                          VPME Vice President Medical Education
OPTI Osteopathic Postdoctoral Training
                                          VPMed Vice President Medical Education
                                          WCU-COM William Carey university-
OPTIK Osteopathic Postdoctoral Training
                                          College of Osteopathic Medicine
                                          WesternU/COMP Western university of
OSU-COM Oklahoma State university
                                          Health Sciences College of Osteopathic
College of Osteopathic Medicine
                                          Medicine of the Pacific
OTA Otolaryngology Allergy
                                          WVSOM West Virginia School of
OTL Otolaryngology                        Osteopathic Medicine

OU-COM Ohio university College of
Osteopathic Medicine

PCOM Philadelphia College of
Osteopathic Medicine

PCSOM Pikeville (Ky.) College School of
Osteopathic Medicine

SCOPE Still Consortium for Osteopathic
Graduate Education

SOMA Student Osteopathic Medical

TCOM university of North Texas Health
Science Center at Fort Worth-Texas
College of Osteopathic Medicine

TUCOM-CA Touro university College of
Osteopathic Medicine

TUNCOM Touro university Nevada
College of Osteopathic Medicine

UMDNJ-SOM university of Medicine
and Dentistry of New Jersey-School of
Osteopathic Medicine

UNECOM university of New England
College of Osteopathic Medicine

UNTHSC/TCOM university of North
Texas Health Science Center–Texas
College of Osteopathic Medicine

VCOM Edward Via College of
Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg

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                                                                                                                                                         AT TA C H M E N T F O u r
Attachment Four:                                                         Reason for Applying: Applied to relieve the physical pain of
                                                                         patients suffering from “tender points,” to relieve referred pain
OMT Terminology: Common                                                  from active trigger points and to normalize imbalances in the

OMT Techniques Defined                                                   autonomic nervous system.

                                                                         Effect of Treatment: Identifies tender points and positions the
Visit the online Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology usage Guide
                                                                         patient to eliminate the tenderness.
for a more complete glossary of osteopathic medical terms.
                                                                         Articulation: Physician gently and repeatedly forces the joint
                                                                         against the restrictive barrier, intending to reduce the barrier and
Common OMT Terminology                                                   improve motion.
Thrust: Moving a restricted joint in the direction it is resisting.
                                                                         Example of Technique: Physician moves the affected joint to the
Example of Technique: Physician slowly pulls joint in the direction      limit of all ranges of motion. As the restrictive barrier is reached,
it is resisting. Once at the point of muscle resistance, the physician   slowly, and firmly the physician continues to apply gentle force
continues to slowly pull against the muscle restraint, while applying    against the joint to the limit of tissue motion, or the patient’s
a quick force localized to the area of resistance often resulting in a   tolerance to pain or fatigue. The articulation is slowly repeated
“pop” in the affected joint.                                             several times, each time gaining increased range and improved
                                                                         quality of motion.
Reason for Applying: Treats motion loss and impaired or altered
functions of the body’s framework.                                       Reason for Applying: Most often applied to postoperative
                                                                         patients and elderly patients suffering from arthritis.
Effect of Treatment: Immediate increase in range and freedom
of motion.                                                               Effect of Treatment: Enhances the effect of passive articulating
                                                                         motion by resisting it or permitting increased range of motion.
Muscle Energy: Manipulative treatment in which the patient’s
muscles are actively used on request from a precisely controlled         Myofascial Release: Also referred to as MFr, this procedure to
position, in a specific direction, and against a distinctly executed     designed to stretch and release patterned soft tissue and joint-
counterforce.                                                            related restrictions.

Example of Technique: The patient actively co-operates with the          Example of Technique: Physician twists, shears, and compresses
physician to contract a muscle or muscles, inhale or exhale, or          joints while simultaneously feeling tissue and joints for shifting
move one bone of a joint in a specific direction relative to the         tightness and looseness.
adjacent bone.
                                                                         Reason for Applying: Applied to patients suffering from muscle
Reason for Applying: Applied to strengthen weak muscles,                 tightness.
activate inhibited muscles, and strengthen short, tight muscles.
                                                                         Effect of Treatment: Joint-related movements are assessed
Effect of Treatment: Mobilizes joints in which movement is               and treated simultaneously. Joint and muscle movements are
restricted, stretches tight muscles and fascia, or fibrous tissue        improved and pain is decreased.
that envelops the body beneath the skin, encloses muscles and
groups of muscles, improves local circulation, and balances              Source: Ward, rC, ed. Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine.
neuromuscular relationships to alter muscle tone and improve             Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997
joint movement.

Counterstrain: Technique in which patient is placed in position
of comfort, maintains the position for a period of time, then is
assisted by the physician to slowly return to a neutral position.
Example of Technique: Patient is placed in position of comfort
for 90 seconds, then is slowly returned to a relaxed and neutral
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                                                                                                                                                   AT TA C H M E N T F I V E
Attachment Five: Osteopathic                                            - use the DO designation when referring to an
                                                                          osteopathic physician in the first reference:
Style Guide                                                                     Jane M. Jones, DO

                                                                        - State a DO’s specialty as:
Osteopathic Style Guide
                                                                                Dr. Jane M. Jones, an osteopathic radiologist
• Osteopathic physician (DO) describes a physician who trained
                                                                                Dr. James A. Rodriguez, an osteopathic pediatrician
  in the united States and can prescribe medicine and practice
  in all specialty areas including surgery. Osteopathic physician
                                                                        - Hold more than one professional degree? use:
  should be used in all written and verbal communications over
                                                                               Jane M. Jones, DO, PhD
  osteopath. Osteopath should only be used to describe a health
                                                                               James A. Rodriguez, DO, MPH
  care provider trained outside of the united States.

                                                                        - utilize the terms family practice and family physician over
• Osteopathic medicine is preferred to osteopathy when
                                                                          general practice and general practitioner.
  referring to osteopathic physicians trained in the united
  States. Osteopathy should only be used when referring to
                                                                        - refer to osteopathic medical schools with their
  the occupation of non-physician osteopaths or those trained
                                                                          osteopathic identification:
  outside of the united States.
                                                                                Michigan State University College of Osteopathic
• Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine is the proper name for the                     Medicine
  degree granted by osteopathic medical schools in the united                   Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences
  States and is represented by the acronym DO. Do not use                       College of Osteopathic Medicine
  Doctor of Osteopathy, which is an outdated term for the degree.
  DO also may be used in place of osteopathic physician.                A complete list of osteopathic medical schools is available at

                                                                    For more information on osteopathic medicine, contact
                                                                    the American Osteopathic Association’s Department of
                                                                    Communications at or (800) 621-1773
                                                                    ext. 8291.

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                                                                                                                                                      AT TA C H M E N T S I X
                                                                                             Georgia Osteopathic Medical
Attachment Six: State and                                                                    Association (GOMA)
                                                                                             Phone                       (678) 225-7571
Specialty Osteopathic medical                                                                Fax                         (678) 225-7579
                                                                                             General E-mail
Associations                                                                                 Website          
                                                                                             P.O. Box 986
                                                                                             Braselton, GA 30517
State Osteopathic Medical Associations &                                                     Hawaii Association of Osteopathic
Osteopathic Specialty Societies                                                              Physicians and Surgeons (HAOPS)
For the most current listing of state and specialty affiliates, visit       Phone                     (800) 891-0333
Each state is served by a local osteopathic medical association. Similarly, each specialty   Fax                       (303) 329-6040
is served by a national specialty college. In addition to assisting their members and the
osteopathic medical profession in a variety of ways, the state and specialty associations
can also help you find an osteopathic physician (DO) in your area. The following list        Idaho Osteopathic Physicians
                                                                                             Association (IOPA)
excludes those organizations that are currently inactive.
                                                                                             Phone                        (208) 890-6327
                                                                                             Interim Fax                  (916) 564-5105
Alabama Osteopathic Medical                    Canadian Osteopathic Association
                                                                                             Illinois Osteopathic Medical Society
Association (AOMA)                             (COA)
Phone                       (256) 447-9045     Phone                      (866) 294-2503
                                                                                             Phone                          (312) 202-8174
Fax                         (256) 447-9049     Fax                        (519) 681-1500
                                                                                             Fax                            (312) 202-8224
Website                 General E-mail
                                                                                             General E-mail        
P.O. Box 1857                                  Website   
Winfield, AL 35594-1419                        P.O. Box 24081
                                                                                             142 East Ontario Street, 4th Fl.
                                               London Ontario N6H 5C4,
Alaska Osteopathic Medical                                                                   Chicago, IL 60611
Association (AKOMA)
                                                                                             Indiana Osteopathic Association (IOA)
Phone                        (800) 891-0333    Colorado Society of Osteopathic
                                                                                             Phone                       (800) 942-0501
Fax                          (312) 202-8224    Medicine (CSOM)
                                                                                                                         (317) 926-3009
                                               Phone                     (303) 322-1752
Arizona Osteopathic Medical                                                                  Fax                         (317) 926-3984
                                               Fax                       (303) 322-1956
Association (AOMA)                                                                           Web site        
Phone                         (602) 266-6699                                                 3520 Guion road, Suite 202
Fax                           (602) 266-1393   Connecticut Osteopathic Medical               Indianapolis, IN 46222-1672
Website              Society (COMS)
                                                                                             Iowa Osteopathic Medical
5150 North 16th Street, Suite A-122            Phone                       (800) 648-9777
                                                                                             Association (IOMA)
Phoenix, AZ 85016-3986                         Fax                         (312) 202-8401
                                                                                             Phone                     (515) 283-0002
                                               General E-mail
Arkansas Osteopathic Medical                                                                 Fax                       (515) 283-0355
Association (AOMA)                                                                           Website         
Phone                      (501) 374-8900                                                    950 12th Street
                                               142 East Ontario Street
Fax                        (501) 374-8959                                                    Des Moines, IA 50309-1001
                                               Chicago, IL 60611-2864
                                                                                             Kansas Association of Osteopathic
1400 West Markham Street, Suite 412            Delaware State Osteopathic Medical
                                                                                             Medicine (KAOM)
Little rock, Ar 72201                          Society (DSOMS)
                                                                                             Phone                     (785) 234-5563
                                               Phone                     (302) 999-9464
Osteopathic Physicians and                                                                   Fax                       (785) 234-5564
                                               Fax                       (302) 999-7910
Surgeons of California                                                                       General E-mail
                                               General E-mail
Phone                        (916) 561-0724                                                  Website     
Fax                          (916) 561-0728                                                  1260 SW Topeka Boulevard
General E-mail          Florida Osteopathic Medical                   Topeka, KS 66612-1815
Website                  Association (FOMA)
1900 Point West Way, Ste 188                   Phone                       (850) 878-7364    Kentucky Osteopathic Medical
Sacramento, CA 95815-4783                      Fax                         (850) 942-7538    Association (KOMA)
                                               General E-mail        Phone                   (608) 443-2477 x138
                                               Website                 Fax                           (608) 443-2474
                                               2007 Apalachee Parkway                        Website           
                                               Tallahassee, FL 32301-4867

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                                                                                                                                                        AT TA C H M E N T S I X
Louisiana Osteopathic Medical                    Minnesota Osteopathic Medical Society         New Jersey Association of Osteopathic
Association (LOMA)                               (MOMS)                                        Physicians & Surgeons (NJAOPS)
Phone                       (318) 385-7943       Phone                       (612) 623-3268    Phone                         (732) 940-9000
Fax                         (318) 385-7934       Fax                         (612) 677-3200    Fax                           (732) 940-8899
General E-mail      General E-mail         Website         
Website                Website                 One Distribution Way, Ste 201
P.O. Box 110                                     P.O. Box 314                                  Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
911 Laura Street                                 Lakeland, MN 55043
                                                                                               New Mexico Osteopathic Medical
Bienville, LA 71008-0110
                                                 Mississippi Osteopathic Medical               Association (NMOMA)
Maine Osteopathic Association                    Association (MOMA)                            Phone                    (505) 332-2146
(MOA)                                            Phone                   (601) 366-3105        Fax                      (505) 332-4861
Phone                       (207) 623-1101       Fax                     (601) 366-2868        General E-mail
Fax                         (207) 623-4228       Website             Website      
General E-mail         P.O. Box 16890                                P.O. Box 53098
Website                 Jackson, MS 39236-6890                        Albuquerque, NM 87153
693 Western Ave. #1 Manchester, ME 04351
                                                 Missouri Association of Osteopathic           New York State Osteopathic Medical
Maryland Association of Osteopathic              Physicians & Surgeons (MAOPS)                 Society (NYSOMS)
Physicians (MAOP)                                Phone                        (573) 634-3415   Phone                     (800) 841-4131
Phone                     (410) 683-8100         Fax                          (573) 634-5635   Fax                       (212) 261-1786
Fax                       (410) 683-8200         General E-mail     General E-mail
General E-mail            Website                Website       
Website                   1423 randy Lane                               1855 Broadway
3603 Southside Avenue                            Jefferson City, MO 65101                      New York, NY 10023-7606
Phoenix, MD 21131-1734
                                                 Montana Osteopathic Association               North Carolina Osteopathic Medical
Massachusetts Osteopathic Society                (MOA)                                         Association (NCOMA)
(MOS)                                            Phone                     (701) 852-8798      Phone                      (919) 573-5437
Interim Phone          (800) 621-1773 x8164      Fax                       (701) 837-5410      Website         
Interim Fax            (800) 621-1773 x8464      Website        
                                                                                               North Dakota Osteopathic Medical
General E-mail               Massachusetts@
                                                 Nebraska Association of Osteopathic           Association (NDOMA)
                                                 Physicians & Surgeons (NAOPS)                 Phone                      (701) 852-8798
                                                 Phone                       (800) 617-5310    Fax                        (701) 837-5410
142 East Ontario Street, 4th Fl.
                                                 Fax                         (303) 329-6040    Website        
Chicago, IL 60611-2864
                                                 9006 Harney Street                            1600 2nd Avenue SW, Ste 27
Michigan Osteopathic Association                 Omaha, NE 68114                               Minot, ND 58701-3459
                                                 Nevada Osteopathic Medical                    Ohio Osteopathic Association (OOA)
Phone                     (800) 657-1556
                                                 Association (NOMA)                            Phone                   (614) 299-2107
                          (517) 347-1555
                                                 Phone                     (702) 434-7112      Fax                     (614) 294-0457
Fax                       (517) 347-1566
                                                 Fax                       (702) 434-7110      Website      
General E-mail
                                                 General E-mail     P.O. Box 8130
                                                 Website       53 West Third Avenue
2445 Woodlake Circle
                                                                                               Columbus, OH 43201-0130
Okemos, MI 48864-5941                            New Hampshire Osteopathic
                                                 Association (NHOA)
Association Of Military Osteopathic              Phone                      (603) 224-1909
Physicians & Surgeons (AMOPS)                    Fax                        (603) 226-2432
Phone                        (410) 519-8217      Website    
Fax                          (410) 519-7657      7 North State Street
Website                   Concord, NH 03301-4039
1796 Severn Hills Lane
Severn, MD 21144-1061

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                                                                                                                                                       AT TA C H M E N T S I X
Oklahoma Osteopathic Association               Texas Osteopathic Medical Association          Wyoming Association of Osteopathic
(OOA)                                          (TOMA)                                         Physicians & Surgeons (WAOPS)
Phone                        (405) 528-4848    Phone       (800) 444-8662 or (512) 708-8662   Phone                        (800) 617-5310
Fax                          (405) 528-6102    Fax                           (512) 708-1415   Fax                          (303) 329-6040
General E-mail        General E-mail       E-mail 
Website               Website         
                                                                                              American Academy Of Osteopathy
4848 North Lincoln Boulevard                   1415 Lavaca Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73105-3321                   Austin, TX 78701-1634
                                                                                              Phone                       (317) 879-1881
Osteopathic Physicians & Surgeons of           Utah Osteopathic Medical Association           Fax                         (317) 879-0563
Oregon (OPSO)                                  (UOMA)                                         Website
Phone                        (503) 299-6776    Phone                      (801) 465-9545      3500 DePauw Boulevard, Suite 1080
Fax                          (503) 241-4856    Fax                        (801) 465-9546      Indianapolis, IN 46268-1136
Website                  General E-mail
                                                                                              American Osteopathic Academy of
Pennsylvania Osteopathic Medical                                                              Addiction Medicine (AOAAM)
                                               462 South, 1240 E
Association (POMA)                                                                            Phone                      (708) 338-0760
                                               Payson, uT 84651-8533
Phone                     (800) 544-7662 or                                                   Fax                        (708) 401-0361
                             (717) 939-9318    Vermont State Association of                   General E-mail  
Fax                          (717) 939-7255    Osteopathic Physicians & Surgeons              Website        
General E-mail          (VSAOPS)                                       P.O. Box 280
Website                  Phone                       (802) 229-9418     La Grange, IL 60525-0280
1330 Eisenhower Boulevard                      General E-mail
                                                                                              American Osteopathic College of
Harrisburg, PA 17111-2319                      72 Barre Street
                                                                                              Allergy & Immunology (AOCAI)
                                               Montpelier, VT 05602-3508
Rhode Island Society of Osteopathic                                                           Phone                         (480) 585-1580
Physicians & Surgeons (RISOPS)                 Virginia Osteopathic Medical                   Fax                           (480) 585-1581
Phone                       (312) 202-8205     Association (VOMA)
                                                                                              American Osteopathic College of
Fax                         (312) 202-8224     Phone                        (804) 784-2204
                                                                                              Anesthesiology (AOCA)
General E-mail    Fax                          (866) 784-2231
                                                                                              Phone                        (517) 339-0910
Website                General E-mail 
                                                                                              Fax                          (517) 339-0910
South Carolina Osteopathic Medical                                                            General E-mail
Society (SCOMS)                                Washington Osteopathic Medical                 Website      
Phone                        (312) 202-8162    Association (WOMA)
                                                                                              American Osteopathic College of
Fax                          (312) 202-8424    Phone                        (206) 937-5358
                                                                                              Dermatology (AOCD)
General E-mail                                 Fax                          (206) 937-6529
                                                                                              Phone        (800) 449-2623 or (660) 665-2184
              southcarolina@   General E-mail    
                                                                                              Fax                            (660) 627-2623
Website                 Website           
                                                                                              General E-mail        
142 East Ontario Street, 4th Flr               P.O. Box 16486
Chicago, IL 60611                              Seattle, WA 98116-0486
                                                                                              1501 East Illinois Street
South Dakota Osteopathic                       West Virginia Society of Osteopathic           P. O. Box 7525
Association (SDOA)                             Medicine (WVSOM)                               Kirksville, MO 63501
Phone                        (605) 338-3427    Phone                 (800) 621-1773 x 8281
                                                                                              American College Of Osteopathic
P.O. Box 89302                                 Fax                          (312) 202-8224
                                                                                              Emergency Physicians (ACOEP)
Sioux Falls, SD 57109-9302                     General E-mail
                                                                                              Phone       (800) 521-3709 or (312) 587-3709
Tennessee Osteopathic Medical                                                                 Fax                           (312) 587-9951
                                               142 East Ontario Street
Association (TOMA)                                                                            Website            
                                               Chicago, IL 60611
Phone                        (615) 254-3687                                                   142 E. Ontario Street, Ste 1250
Fax                          (615) 254-7047    Wisconsin Association of Osteopathic           Chicago, IL 60611-2864
General E-mail       Physicians & Surgeons (WAOPS)
Website               Phone                       (262) 619-9901
618 Church Street, Suite 220                   Fax                         (262) 619-9902
Nashville, TN 37219-2453                       Website          

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                                                                                                                                                        AT TA C H M E N T S I X
American College of Osteopathic                 American Osteopathic Colleges of                American Osteopathic College of
Family Physicians (ACOFP)                       Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology Head             Rheumatology (AOCRh) (118365)
Phone       (800) 323-0794 or (847) 952-5108    & Neck Surgery (AOCOO-HNS)                      Phone                       (732) 494-6688
Fax                           (847) 228-9755    Phone      (800) 455-9404 or (937) 233-5653     Fax                         (732) 494-6689
Website                  Fax                          (937) 233-5673     193 Monroe Avenue
330 East Algonquin road                         General E-mail or       Edison, NJ 08820-3755
Arlington Heights, IL 60005                                 
                                                                                                American Osteopathic Association
American College of Osteopathic                                                                 of Prolotherapy Integrative Pain
Internists (ACOI)                               American Osteopathic Academy of                 Management (AOAPIPM)
Phone     (800) 327-5183 or (301) 656-8877      Orthopedics (AOAO)                              Phone      (800) 471-6114 or (302) 376-8080
Fax                           (301) 656-7133    Phone      (800) 741-2626 or (954) 262-1700     Fax                          (302) 376-8081
Website                   Fax                          (954) 262-1748     General E-mail
3 Bethesda Metro Ctr, Ste 508                   Website                   Website       
Bethesda, MD 20814                                                                              303 South Ingram Court
                                                American Osteopathic College of
                                                                                                Middletown, DE 19709
American Osteopathic Academy of                 Pathologists (AOCP)
Medical Informatics (AOAMI)                     Phone                          (312) 202-8197   American Osteopathic Academy of
Phone                          (312) 202-8148   Fax                            (312) 202-8224   Sports Medicine (AOASM)
Fax                            (312) 202-8448   General E-mail     Phone               (608) 443-2477 ext. 138
Website                  Website                 Fax                          (608) 443-2474
142 East Ontario Street, 8th Fl.                142 East Ontario Street, 4th Floor              General E-mail    
Chicago, IL 60611                               Chicago, IL 60611-2864                          Website          

American College of Osteopathic                 American College of Osteopathic                 American College of Osteopathic
Neurologists & Psychiatrists (ACONP)            Pediatricians (ACOP)                            Surgeons (ACOS)
Phone                         (248) 702-0207    Phone                      (804) 565-6333       Phone                       (703) 684-0416
Fax                           (248) 553-0818    Fax                        (804) 282-0090       Fax                         (703) 684-3280
General E-mail       Website                General E-mail     
Website                                                             Website          
                                                American Osteopathic College of
28595 Orchard Lake road,                                                                        123 North Henry Street
                                                Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Suite 200                                                                                       Alexandria, VA 22314
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
                                                Phone                        (908) 329-0270
American College of Osteopathic                 Fax                          (908) 213-8903
Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ACOOG)
                                                American Osteopathic College of
Phone       (800) 875-6360 or (817) 377-0421
                                                Proctology (AOCPr)
Fax                           (817) 377-0439
                                                Phone                        (765) 342-3686
General E-mail      
                                                Fax                          (765) 342-4173
8851 Camp Bowie West, Suite 120
Fort Worth, TX 76116                            American Osteopathic College of
                                                Radiology (AOCR)
American Osteopathic College of
                                                Phone      (800) 258-2627 or (660) 265-4011
Occupational & Preventive Medicine
                                                Fax                          (660) 265-3494
                                                General E-mail    
Phone                      (800) 558-8686
Fax                        (601) 951-8324
                                                119 East Second Street
                                                Milan, MO 63556-1331

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